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Sample records for captive maras dolichotis

  1. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS: Th...

  2. Obsessed with grasses?: The case of mara Dolichotis patagonum(Caviidae: Rodentia ¿Obsesionada con gramíneas?: El caso de mara Dolichotis patagonum (Caviidae: Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOIRA S. SOMBRA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of mara (Dolichotis patagonum, Zimmeraman 1780 within the limits of Sierra de las Quijadas National Park (San Luis, Argentina is described. Other studies regarding mara’s diet showed that mara, feeds on different species of grasses and shrubs. However, there is controversy regarding the proportions of these items in the diet or whether this proportion varies seasonally. Considering mara’s body size, anatomical features and physiology, we suggest that mara feeds on grasses in a greater proportion than shrubs and forbs. Moreover, giving that in this region precipitation varies considerably between seasons; it is also expected to find a correlation between the diet of mara and seasons. Fecal pellets of mara were collected during four periods including two dry, and two wet seasons. Relative frequency of each item in scats was determined by microhistological analysis. Results support the hypothesis that mara shows preference for grasses, despite they are less available than shrubs and forbs and that this preference remains constant through seasons regardless of the precipitation regime. The characteristics of mara’s diet and the ecological implications of these findings are discussedEn este trabajo se describe la dieta de mara (Dolichotis patagonum Zimmeraman 1780 en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas (San Luis, Argentina. Los estudios realizados sobre su dieta indican que se alimenta de varias especies de gramíneas y arbustos. Sin embargo, existe cierta controversia acerca de la proporción en que se presentan estos ítemes, y si las mismas varían estacionalmente. En base al tamaño corporal de mara, y a sus características anatómicas y fisiológicas se propone que, mara consume una mayor proporción de gramíneas que de otras hierbas no graminiformes y dicotiledóneas en general. Además esperamos una variación estacional de la dieta, correlacionada a una posible variación estacional en los recursos alimentarios asociada

  3. Maasai Mara - the Challenges of a World Unique Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report describes the complex challenges of the Maasai Mara in Kenya. The report is based on stakeholder and research inputs from the Maasai Mara Science and Development Summit in April 2015 at the Maasai Mara University, arranged by the Maasai Mara Science and Development Initiative. The emer...

  4. Marañón como modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of his consistent attitude as citizen and doctor and his “liberal spirit”, Marañón has gone down in the history of the twentieth century as an archetype. Marañón was, above all, a moralist in the Kantian sense, an autonomous person not governed by external criteria but by duty; a thinker convinced of the transforming role of the positive sciences, towards a happier and more just society through a deep intellectual reform. Marañón, like Fernando de los Rios, integrated Kraussism, neo-Kantianism and socialism and from this ideological platform sought the necessary moral change in the Spanish people.Marañón ha pasado a la historia del siglo XX como arquetipo, debido a su actitud coherente y a su “talante liberal”. Marañón fue, sobre todo, un moralista en el sentido kantiano. Una persona autónoma que no se rigió por criterios externos, sino por deber; un convencido del papel transformador de las ciencias positivas en pos de una sociedad más feliz y más justa gracias a una profunda reforma intelectual. Marañón, como Fernando de los Ríos, integró krausismo, neokantismo y socialismo y desde esa plataforma ideológica, propugnó el necesario cambio moral del pueblo español.

  5. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  6. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  7. Microsat I: videocámaras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recabarren, P.; Sanchez, J.

    El 28 de agosto de 1996 se lanzó desde el Cosmódromo ruso de Pletzek el primer satélite enteramente construído en el país. El Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba estuvo a cargo del espacializado de las cámaras de video. Se presentan aspectos técnicos del trabajo.

  8. Defining Mara Salvatrucha’s Texas network

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the criminal networks used to penetrate Texas by the Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13) street gang. MS 13’s internal reach is analyzed by examining the existing and potential horizontal integration of the known cliques (gang cells). Additionally, the organizations’ existing reach and potential transnational reach are analyzed by examining the existing and potential vertical integration between its domestic and Central Ameri...

  9. Marañón, historiador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Vega, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marañón’s exile in Paris (1936-1942, as a result of the Spanish Civil War, marked a turning point in his historical production. Whereas before the war his works had been characterised as psychobiographies exploring the human soul in search of the mechanisms underlying the behaviour of historical personalities, after the conflict his historical works were strongly influenced both by his experiences in exile and, methodologically, by the new breath of air brought to historiography by the School of Annales, begun in France during the 1920s. This article is an assessment of Marañón’s historical production as a whole.La obra histórica de Marañón distingue dos etapas claramente diferenciadas, antes y después de su exilio en París con motivo de la Guerra Civil española (1936-1942. Si antes de la guerra su obra estuvo caracterizada por las conocidas como psicobiografías, estudios del alma humana tratando de comprender los resortes del comportamiento de determinados personajes históricos, después, sus trabajos históricos estuvieron marcados por la experiencia de su propio exilio y, en lo metodológico, recogían los nuevos aires que renovaban la historiografía de la mano de la conocida como Escuela de los Annales que había aparecido en Francia al finalizar la década de 1920. Este artículo recoge un balance de la obra histórica de Marañón en su conjunto.

  10. Las maras guatemaltecas : Violencia y marginalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Carrillo, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Maras in Guatemala are gangs of young people, with rules of own con-duct and determined by showed cultural signs in the language, tattoos and clothes. They haven`t to be seen like an isolated phenomenon from the essence of the economic and social system of Guatemala, because they are like bi-products of the exclusion and the poverty. Also, an re-sultate from the asymmetrical globalisation; understanding them like parts of a same process: the forced migration and its counterpart the de-portati...

  11. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  12. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  13. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  14. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  15. The new vacuum-mode recoil separator MARA at JYFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarén, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Leino, M.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.

    2008-10-01

    A new vacuum-mode recoil separator MARA (Mass Analysing Recoil Apparatus) is under design and construction at the Department of Physics in the University of Jyväskylä. The separator is intended to separate reaction products from the primary beam in mass region below A = 150 . The ion-optical configuration of the separator will be QQQDEDM, where a magnetic quadrupole (Q) triplet is followed by an electrostatic deflector (DE) and a magnetic dipole (DM). The total length of MARA will be less than 7.0 m and the first order resolving power more than 250 for a beam spot size of 2 mm. In this contribution the main properties of MARA are given and results from simulations are shown.

  16. Joaquim Mattoso Câmara Jr: um inovador Joaquim Mattoso Câmara Jr: innovator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonne Leite

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto são revistas as diferentes áreas de interesse de Mattoso Câmara - fonologia, morfologia, estilística - e enfatizados seus esforços para a institucionalização dos estudos lingüísticos no Brasil: a criação de uma disciplina em Lingüística Geral na década de 1930; o estabelecimento de um Setor Lingüístico no Museu Nacional, no Rio de Janeiro, em 1958; a fundação da ABRALIN, em 1969. O legado de Mattoso é revisitado do ponto de vista de quem foi sua aluna e testemunhou o percurso que, a partir do mestre, toda uma geração de lingüistas pioneiros percorreu. Entre outros: Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa, Miriam Lemle, Leda Bisol, Jean Pierre Angenot, Paulino Vandresen, Eunice Pontes, Brian Head, Cléa Rameh, Eurico Back e a própria Yonne Leite.In this text we review Mattoso Câmara's different areas of interest - phonology, morphology, stylistics - emphasizing his efforts toward the institutionalization of linguistic studies in Brazil: the creation of the discipline of General Linguistics in the 1930s; the establishment of a Linguistic Sector at the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro, in 1958; the foundation of the Brazilian Linguistics Association, ABRALIN, in 1969. Mattoso's legacy is revisited here from the point of view of someone who was his student and witnessed the path followed by a whole generation of pioneer linguists, inspired by the master. Among others: Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa, Miriam Lemle, Leda Bisol, Jean Pierre Angenot, Paulino Vandresen, Eunice Pontes, Brian Head, Cléa Rameh, Eurico Back and Yonne Leite herself.

  17. Chlamydiosis in captive raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M E; Schulz, T; Ardans, A; Reynolds, B; Behymer, D

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. One hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. C. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. Forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 19% were suspects. The ELISA was repeated on 54 raptors in 1986. Forty-one percent of the birds were considered positive, and 35% were suspect, indicating that C. psittaci is endemic in the population.

  18. The Communicative Ability of Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak's Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sharifah Zakiah Wan; Hakim, Simon Faizal; Rahim, Mahdalela; Noyem, John Francis; Ibrahim, Sueb; Ahmad, Johnny; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sarawak graduating students' oral proficiency, focusing on grammatical accuracy. Oral proficiency in English has always been the benchmark of language proficiency, and in the context of UiTM's language teaching curriculum, efforts to enhance students' oral proficiency are implemented through…

  19. The Development of the Missouri Automated Reinforcer Assessment (MARA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatterott, Madeleine

    A knowledge of an individual's preferences is essential to create an effective reward or reinforcer program for individuals who have either a need to reduce maladaptive behaviors or to increase adaptive behaviors. The goal of the Missouri Automated Reinforcer Assessment (MARA) project is to develop an efficient yet thorough automated reinforcer…

  20. The MASCOT Radiometer MARA for the Hayabusa 2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grott, M.; Knollenberg, J.; Borgs, B.; Hänschke, F.; Kessler, E.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Müller, N.

    2016-08-01

    The MASCOT radiometer MARA is a multi-spectral instrument which measures net radiative flux in six wavelength bands. MARA uses thermopile sensors as sensing elements, and the net flux between the instrument and the surface in the 18° field of view is determined by evaluating the thermoelectric potential between the sensors' absorbing surface and the thermopile's cold-junction. MARA houses 4 bandpass channels in the spectral range of 5.5-7, 8-9.5, 9.5-11.5, and 13.5-15.5 μm, as well as one long-pass channel, which is sensitive in the >3 μm range. In addition, one channel is similar to that used by the Hayabusa 2 orbiter thermal mapper, which uses a wavelength range of 8-12 μm. The primary science objective of the MARA instrument it the determination of the target asteroid's surface brightness temperature, from which surface thermal inertia can be derived. In addition, the spectral bandpass channels will be used to estimate the spectral slope of the surface in the thermal infrared wavelength range. The instrument has been calibrated using a cavity blackbody, and the temperature uncertainty is 1 K in the long pass channel for target temperatures of >173 K. Measurement uncertainty in the spectral bandpasses is 1 K for target temperatures above 273 K.

  1. MARA - methodology to analyze environmental risks; MARA - elaboracao de metodologia para analise dos riscos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Renato F.; Yogui, Regiane [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Minniti, Vivienne [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Lopes, Carlos F. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Operacoes de Emergencia; Milaneli, Joao [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Ubatuba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Ambiental de Ubatuba; Torres, Carlos [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Mariz, Eduardo [Consultoria Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, the environmental impact assessment of an accident is both multi and interdisciplinary and goes through several approaches and depths. Due to the enormous complexity of the environmental analyses issues, mainly for being a science in development and not technological consensus, a macro methodology is presented for the purpose of identify areas that can be impacted by pipeline leakages and recommend improvements are applicable working as a table top response plan. The methodology of the Environmental Risk Mapping-MARA for pipelines rows, describes its concept and justifies the adoption of the environmental mapping during Risk Analyses studies, for PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO new and existing pipelines. The development of this methodology is justified by the fact that it is a practical tool for identification, analysis and categorization of the more vulnerable environmental elements along a pipeline row and vicinities, during simulated occurrence of accidental spills of hydrocarbons in the environment. This methodology is a tool that allows Environmental Agencies and PETROBRAS a better way to manage in advance the Company emergencies. (author)

  2. What captivates the subject?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Kasper

    What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only...... the strong conceptual coherency of Lacan’s theory, but also its fundamental underpinnings in the work of Sigmund Freud. The dissertation thus attempts to pave the way for a renewed engagement between Lacanian theory and social theory in general. This engagement has already proven exceptionally fruitful...... to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation...

  3. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  4. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    basic societal functions (for example, commercial transactions, transportation , or communications) and the rule of law. “citizen security” alludes to... transport are prevented from operating unless they pay off the maras. Whole sections of cities, such as Guatemala city and tegucigalpa, are under the...Governments of the Coun- tries of the Central American Integration System, <http://www.sieca.org.gt/ publico / Reuniones_Presidentes

  5. mara: seguimiento y diagnostico de un monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Más-Guindal Lafarga, Antonio José

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available San Hipólito in Támara, an important example of Spanish 13th century gothic, came to an overall state of deterioration in its main structural, building and artistic elements which reflect the low degree of following, documentation and maintenance of Spanish historical patrimony. A continuous preservation, using the most advanced technologies, and a deep know ledge of the building's past related to its pathology are needed to improve the techniques and innovations neccesary to keep alive the architecture of our past. The "Támara method" has met a great number of specialists in diverse areas, joining efforts and putting side by side the most advanced building technologies and the oldest handicraft traditions to restore the church of San Hipólito its yesterday grandeur.

    San Hipólito de Támara, importante ejemplo de nuestro gótico trecentista, llegó a un estado de deterioro generalizado en sus principales elementos estructurales, constructivos y artísticos que reflejan el bajo nivel de seguimiento, documentación y mantenimiento en que se encuentra nuestro Patrimonio histórico monumental. La conservación permanente, la aportación de las tecnologías más avanzadas y el profundo conocimiento del pasado del edificio en cuanto a sus patologías, son aspectos indispensables para conseguir avanzar en las técnicas e innovaciones necesarias que nos permitan mantener viva la arquitectura de nuestro pasado. "El Método de Támara" ha reunido a un número amplio y variado de especialistas, aunando esfuerzos y compaginando las más avanzadas tecnologías constructivas con las más viejas tradiciones artesanales, para devolver a la iglesia de San Hipólito su esplendor de antaño.

  6. Zentralamerikas Jugendbanden: "Maras" in Honduras, El Salvador und Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "In El Salvador hat das Parlament Ende letzten Jahres ein neues Gesetz verabschiedet, nach dem die Mitgliedschaft in einer mara (Jugendbande, Streetgang) mit zwei bis fünf Jahren Gefängnis bestraft wird. Dem oder der Beschuldigten muss keine konkrete Straftat nachgewiesen werden. Einige Monate zuvor hatte der honduranische Kongress einstimmig eine ähnliche Regelung beschlossen. Mitte Januar 2004 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten von Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras und Nikaragua ein Abkommen, i...

  7. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  8. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... issued the first Captive Nations Proclamation in solidarity with those living without personal or political autonomy behind the Iron Curtain. Since that time, once-captive nations have broken free...

  9. Promoter discrimination at class I MarA regulon promoters mediated by glutamic acid 89 of the MarA transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L

    2011-01-01

    Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate > 40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13.

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #6: PUBLICATION OF FIRST REPORT FROM MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research news edition announces the publication of the first report from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). The report is entitled, *Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region -- A Workshop Report.* MARA is being conducted as part of the USGCRP First Nation...

  11. Hell on Rails. The Continuing Violence in La Mara by Rafael Ramirez Heredia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Camacho Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La Mara (2004 is one of the greatest Latin American novels about the violence plaguing the border between Mexico and Guatemala, where the maras (gangs, drug traffickers and all kinds of mafia organizations operate. Rafael Ramirez Heredia recreates the pitiful pilgrimage of thousands of undocumented immigrants who try to cross Mexico on a train known as the Beast.

  12. La llegada de las maras a Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de las maras era una de las principales amenazas vinculadas con la aparición de las primeras bandas juveniles de origen americano en España, a mediados de la década del 2000. Los niveles de violencia y la actividad delictiva que llevaban a cabo en América Central y del Norte, junto a informaciones acerca de su voluntad de expandirse por Europa, así lo confirmaban. La vistosidad de algunos de sus miembros así como sus niveles de violencia han hecho que los medios de comunicación les prestaran una especial atención, transmitiendo un mensaje, en muchos casos, alarmista y sensacionalista.No obstante, con el paso del tiempo este riesgo no se ha llegado a concretar en toda su extensión. Tanto la Mara Salvatrucha como el Barrio 18 han llegado, sí, pero lejos de apropiarse del territorio, sembrar la violencia y replicar sus prácticas delictivas en el lado europeo del Atlántico, su actividad ha podido ser controlada y no han llegado a suponer el grave problema social o criminal que se podía prever.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 75-102

  13. Expectations Of Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA Stakeholders On The Ulul Albab Curriculum At A MARA Junior Science College (MRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Kalthom Abdul Manaf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulul Albab is an educational programme of integration between the existing programmes in MARA Junior Science College (MRSM with the religious school programme including Tahfiz Al-Quran. MRSM Ulul Albab education programme is designed to produce professional experts, entrepreneurs and technocrats that are well versed in the field of religion-based Al-Quran and Sunnah as Ulul Albab generation. This study aims to explore stakeholders' expectations on the Ulul Albab programme in MRSM Kota Putra, Besut Terengganu towards students' sahsiah. The methodology used was qualitative in nature in the form of semi-structured interviews conducted with the four MARA stakeholders. Validity and reliability of data were done through several techniques employed such as member checking, rich thick description, clarification of researcher biases, peer review and debriefing, and external audit. The findings from this study indicate that inculcation of akhlak is fundamental in human capital development. This is the case because stakeholders believe that the main intention of the programme is to develop an Ulul Albab generation who are not only knowledgeable and skilled but also possess good qualities namely devotion, noble, responsible and committed to religion, nation and state. Aside from that, findings also showed that teaching and learning that is based on love is fundamental in fostering good akhlak.  

  14. Enhancement of geraniol resistance of Escherichia coli by MarA overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asad Ali; Wang, Chonglong; Chung, Young-Ryun; Kim, Jae-Yean; Choi, Eui-Sung; Kim, Seon-Won

    2013-03-01

    Improvement of a microorganism's tolerance against organic solvents is required for a microbial factory producing terpenoid based biofuels. The bacterial genes, marA, imp, cls and cti have been found to increase organic solvent tolerance. Thus, the tolerance against the following terpenoids (isopentenol, geraniol, myrcene, and farnesol) was studied with overexpression of marA, imp, cls and cti genes in Escherichia coli. The marA overexpression significantly enhanced the tolerance of E. coli against geraniol, whereas there was no tolerance improvement against the terpenoids by overexpression of cls and cti genes. The imp overexpression even yielded sensitive phenotype to the tested solvents. The colony forming efficiency of the marA overexpressing E. coli was increased by 10(4)-fold in plate overlay of geraniol compared to that of wild type E. coli and a two-fold decrease of intracellular geraniol accumulation was also observed in liquid culture of geraniol. Single knock-out mutations of marA, or one of the following genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) encoding AcrAB-TolC efflux pump made E. coli hypersensitive to geraniol. The geraniol tolerance conferred by marA overexpression was attributed to the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump that is activated by MarA.

  15. Study the Expression of marA Gene in Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline Resistant Mutants of Esherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad Jaktaji, Razieh; Ebadi, Rayhaneh

    2013-01-01

    MarA activates two membrane dependent mechanisms of resistance to different antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, including promotion of outflux and inhibition of influx of antibiotics. Thus, MarA causes multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype. The activation of these mechanisms needs overexpression of marA. This could happen through mutation in marR. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure marA expression in ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli gyrA mutants and clones with or without marR mutation. For this purpose, real time PCR was used to measure relative expression of marA in above mutants and clones. Results showed that two clones, C14 and C17 overexpressed marA. It is concluded that the level of marA expression is important for activation of above mechanisms.

  16. Envoys, Princesses, Seamen and Captives

    OpenAIRE

    Kemnitz, Eva-Maria von

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing opinion has it that there were no Muslims in Portugal after the expulsion decree of 1496. However, while working on Portuguese–North African diplomatic and commercial relations in the 18th and 19th centuries, quite a contrary picture emerged revealing differentiated categories of Muslims. Apart from the most numerous group constituted by captives as a result of war, the Muslim universe also encompassed envoys, princesses and seamen. Their presence derived from the specific legal ...

  17. High voltage conditioning of the electrostatic deflector of MARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, J.; Johansen, U.; Sarén, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Uusitalo, J.

    2016-06-01

    MARA is a new recoil mass separator in the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL-ACCLAB) with a mass resolving power of 250 and an ion-optical configuration of QQQDEDM . In this paper the construction, control and conditioning of its electrostatic deflector are described. The deflector was designed for voltages up to 500 kV accross the gap, corresponding to a 3.6 MV/m field, to accomodate fusion reactions with inverse kinematics. Titanium electrodes with a beam dump opening in the anode are used. The conditioning procedure, which has been used repeatedly to take the deflector to 450 kV, is described, along with the safety systems and precautions that are in place.

  18. Jugando con la cámara - creado conjutamente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2015-01-01

    Muchos museos contemporáneos tratan de implicar a los usuarios como participantes activos de distintas nuevas maneras. Una forma de involucrar a los jóvenes con la cultura visual es a través de piezas donde los usuarios producen sus propios videos. Dado que las experiencias de los museos son en...... “Media Mixer” y explora lo que sucede durante el proceso creativo que se da delante de una cámara. Basándose en las teorías de la museología, los medios de comunicación, el aprendizaje y la creatividad, el artículo analiza cómo dar sentido a los procesos de producción aparentemente caóticos o banales que...

  19. Control difuso de una cámara de germinación

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Marcelo; Acosta, Nelson; Toloza, Juan Manuel; Kornuta, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta el diseño de un sistema de control difuso para una cámara de germinación de cultivos hidropónicos. El sistema toma mediciones de humedad y temperatura dentro de la cámara y por intermedio de un controlador difuso tipo Sugeno, embebido en una placa Arduino, genera señales de control a un sistema de ventilación forzada y al sistema de control de iluminación artificial. Se realizaron experiencias con una cámara de germinación con este control difuso. Se sembraron semillas de lechuga ...

  20. Murduvad just kõige kõrgemad puud / Mara Kimele ; intervjueerinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kimele, Mara, 1943-

    2011-01-01

    Riia Uue teatri lavastaja Mara Kimelega Läti teatrist, lavastamisest ja tema tööst lavastusega "Hedda Gabler", mille esietendus on Von Krahli teatris 5. veebruaril ja mis on TÜ Viljandi kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti VIII lennu diplomilavastus

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis in a Belgian traveller returning from the Masai Mara area, Kenya, February 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerinx, J; Vlieghe, E; Asselman, V; Van de Casteele, S; Maes, M B; Lejon, V

    2012-03-08

    A Belgian traveller was diagnosed with human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense nine days after visiting the Masai Mara area in Kenya. He presented with an inoculation chancre and was treated with suramin within four days of fever onset. Two weeks earlier, HAT was also reported in a German traveller who had visited the Masai Mara area. Because no cases have occurred in the area for over 12 years, this may indicate a focal cluster of HAT.

  2. MarA and ramA regulate virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Jie; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Wu, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2015-12-31

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is considered as an important porcine pathogen that causes serious systemic infections and exhibits poor response to treatment because of an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR). Among the various regulators of resistance, multiple antibiotic resistance factor A (marA) and regulator of acetate metabolism A (ramA) are the most effective in conferring antibiotic tolerance by activation of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we investigated the regulation of virulence in Salmonella Choleraesuis through these two transcriptional regulators. We showed that marA andramA are important for the survival of Salmonella Choleraesuis in an environment of acid and bile salts, since marA- or ramA-deficient Salmonella Choleraesuis strains failed to increase protective responses, as observed by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). Further, reduced invasion and survival in host cells was observed in the marA and ramA mutant strains. The results from in vitrostudies with marA- and ramA-deficient strains showed attenuated characteristics in comparison to those in the wild-type strain of Salmonella Choleraesuis when it was used to challenge BALB/c mice. The mutant strains had higher LD50 and presented poor clearance efficiency compared to the parental strain. These findings indicate that MarA and RamA not only regulate drug resistance but also play a role in the virulence of SalmonellaCholeraesuis.

  3. Novel homologs of the multiple resistance regulator marA in antibiotic-contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Pomati, Francesco; Miller, Kristin; Burns, Brendan P; Zuccato, Ettore; Calamari, Davide; Neilan, Brett A

    2008-10-01

    Antibiotics are commonly detected in the environment as contaminants. Exposure to antibiotics may induce antimicrobial-resistance, as well as the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in bacterial populations. We selected the resistance gene marA, mediating resistance to multiple antibiotics, and explored its distribution in sediment and water samples from surface and sewage treatment waters. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), sulphamethoxazole (sulphonamide), erythromycin, clarythromycin, and spiramycin (macrolides), lincomycin (lincosamide), and oxytetracycline (tetracycline) were measured in the same samples to determine antibiotic contamination. Bacterial populations from environmental samples were challenged with antibiotics to identify resistant isolates. The gene marA was found in almost all environmental samples and was confirmed by PCR amplification in antibiotic-resistant colonies. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of resistant isolates belonged to the Gram-positive genus Bacillus, not previously known to possess the regulator marA. We assayed the incidence of marA in environmental bacterial populations of Escherichia coli and Bacillus by quantitative real-time PCR in correlation with the levels of antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the possible lateral acquisition of marA by Bacillus from Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae revealing a novel marA homolog in Bacillus. Quantitative PCR assays indicate that the frequency of this gene in antropised environments seems to be related to bacterial exposure to water-borne antibiotics.

  4. Evidence that regulatory protein MarA of Escherichia coli represses rob by steric hindrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-08-01

    The MarA protein of Escherichia coli can both activate and repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the position and orientation of its degenerate 20-bp binding site ("marbox") at the promoter. For all three known repressed genes, the marbox overlaps the promoter. It has been reported that MarA represses the rob promoter via an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA-MarA ternary complex. Under similar conditions, we found a ternary complex for the repressed purA promoter also. These findings, together with the backwards orientation of repressed marboxes, suggested a unique interaction of MarA with RNAP in repression. However, no repression-specific residues of MarA could be found among 38 single-alanine replacement mutations previously shown to retain activation function or among mutants from random mutagenesis. Mutations Thr12Ala, Arg36Ala, Thr95Ile, and Pro106Ala were more damaging for activation than for repression, some up to 10-fold, so these residues may play a specific role in activation. We found that nonspecific binding of RNAP to promoterless regions of DNA was presumably responsible for the ternary complexes seen previously. When RNAP binding was promoter specific, MarA reduced RNAP access to the rob promoter; there was little or no ternary complex. These findings strongly implicate steric hindrance as the mechanism of repression of rob by MarA.

  5. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  6. An assessment of the potential of the microbial assay for risk assessment (MARA) for ecotoxicological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair

    2010-11-01

    Rapid microscale toxicity tests make it possible to screen large numbers of compounds and greatly simplify toxicity identification evaluation and other effect directed chemical analyses of effluents or environmental samples. Tests using Vibrio fischeri (such as Microtox®) detect toxicants that cause non-specific narcosis, but are insensitive to other important classes of contaminants. The microbial assay for risk assessment (MARA) is a 24 h multi-species test that seeks to address this problem by using a battery of ten bacteria and a fungus. But there has been little independent evaluation of this test, and there is no published information on its sensitivity to pesticides. Here, we assess the performance of MARA using a range of toxicants including reference chemicals, fungicides and environmental samples. Mean MARA microbial toxic concentrations and IC(20)s (20% Inhibitory concentrations) indicate the toxicant concentrations affecting the more sensitive micro-organisms, while the mean IC(50) (50% Inhibitory concentration) was found to be the concentration that was toxic to most MARA species. For the two fungicides tested, the yeast (Pichia anomalia) was the most sensitive of the ten MARA species, and was more sensitive than the nine other yeasts tested. The test may be particularly valuable for work with fungicides. Mean MARA IC(50)s were comparable to values for nine other yeast species and the lowest individual IC(50)s for each toxicant were comparable to reported IC(50)s for Daphnia magna, Selenastrum capricornutum and Microtox® bioassays. MARA organisms exhibited more variable sensitivities, with the most sensitive organism being different for different samples, enhancing the likelihood of toxicity detection and giving a toxicity "fingerprint" that may help identify toxicants. The test, therefore, has great potential and would be valuable for ecotoxicological testing of pollutants.

  7. O conceito de vocábulo na obra de Mattoso Câmara The concept of word in Mattoso Câmara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Basílio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda na obra de Mattoso Câmara Júnior a questão do conceito de palavra e sua identificação na estrutura da Língua Portuguesa. Colocamos, de início, um breve histórico do problema da conceituação de palavra no estruturalismo e seus antecedentes; na parte central do artigo, focalizamos as propostas de Mattoso Câmara Júnior em seus principais trabalhos, situadas no contexto do desenvolvimento da Lingüística no Brasil; em seguida, apresentamos a visão do Mestre sobre a questão das composições vocabulares. A parte final do artigo resume as principais contribuições de Câmara Júnior para a conceituação e identificação do vocábulo na Língua Portuguesa.This paper deals with Prof. Mattoso Câmara Júnior's concept of word and its identification in the structure of Brazilian Portuguese. Initiallly, I briefly survey the main problems concerning the concept of word in structuralism and its origin; in the central part of the article, I focus on Mattoso Câmara's proposals in his main works, situating them in the context of the development of Linguistics in Brazil; I then present the author's view of the question of word compounding. The last part of the article summarizes his main contributions towards establishing the concept and defining processes for the identification of the word in Portuguese.

  8. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  9. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  10. Mara Kimele: Tänapäeva teatris ei eksisteeri ainult üks võimalu, ainult üks lahendus / intervjueerinud Laur Kaunissaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kimele, Mara, 1943-

    2011-01-01

    Läti lavastaja Mara Kimele mõtteid teatrist, näitlejaks õppimisest, Lätist ja Eestist. Mara Kimele lavastab Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia kaheksanda lennuga Ibseni "Hedda Gablerit", mis esietendub Von Krahli teatris 5. veebruaril

  11. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates.

  12. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the physica

  13. Wildlife dynamics : an analysis of change in the Masai Mara ecosystem of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the dynamics of large herbivores in the Masai Mara ecosystem in Kenya. The study area is famous for the annual migration of wildebeest and common zebra from and back to the Serengeti in Tanzania. In this study we made a distinction between these two migratory species and the o

  14. Can Inclusion Work? A Conversation with Jim Kauffman and Mara Sapon-Shevin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, John

    1995-01-01

    Mara Sapon-Shevin and Jim Kauffman debate the potential and pitfalls of the inclusion movement. Sapon-Shevin enumerates the benefits of inclusion accompanied by adequate resources, support and commitment, teacher preparation time, restructuring, and staff development. Kauffman insists that alternative settings are necessary for some students and…

  15. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #2: MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of this National Assessment effort mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990, EPA's Global Change Research Program is sponsoring the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). With EPA sponsorship, a multi-disciplinary team of faculty members is leading the first a...

  16. Model of Transcriptional Activation By MarA in Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E.; Markowitz, David A.; Rosner, Judah L.; Martin, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli, and used the model to analyze measurements of MarA-dependent activity of the marRAB, sodA, and micF promoters in mar-rob- cells. The model rationalizes an unexpected poor correlation between the mid-point of in vivo promoter activity profiles and in vitro equilibrium constants for MarA binding to promoter sequences. Analysis of the promoter activity data using the model yielded the following predictions regarding activation mechanisms: (1) MarA activation of the marRAB, sodA, and micF promoters involves a net acceleration of the kinetics of transitions after RNA polymerase binding, up to and including promoter escape and message elongation; (2) RNA polymerase binds to these promoters with nearly unit occupancy in the absence of MarA, making recruitment of polymerase an insignificant factor in activation of these promoters; and (3) instead of recruitment, activation of the micF promoter might involve a repulsion of polymerase combined with a large acceleration of the kinetics of polymerase activity. These predictions are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. A lack of recruitment in transcriptional activation represents an exception to the textbook description of activation of bacterial sigma-70 promoters. However, use of accelerated polymerase kinetics instead of recruitment might confer a competitive advantage to E. coli by decreasing latency in gene regulation.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of patients with chronic diseases about smoking and use of Maras powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2016-03-01

    Material and Methods:A total of 859 patients with a chronic disease admitted to 12 Family Health Centers in Kahramanmaras were included in the study. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, asthma, and heart diseases were among included chronic disease. There were 15 questions used to evaluate knowledge of smoking. Results: Ages of participants ranged between 18 and 86 years, with a mean age of 45.7+/-14.1 years (min.=18, max.=86. Among 859 participants 481 (56.0% were male and 378 (44.0% were female. Two-hundred and nine patients (24.3% were regular smokers, 24 patients (2.8% were occasional smokers, 222 patients (25.8% were ex-smokers and 404 patients (47.0% were never smokers. 81 patients (9.4% were using Maras powder and 18 patients (2.1% were both smoking and using Maras powder. There was not a significant relation between smoking and Maras powder use. Conclusion: Obtained findings revealed that smoking and use of Maras powder were quite common among chronic disease patients who need to be free from tobacco products use. Furthermore, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of these patients were detected to be insufficient. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 121-128

  18. Francisco López de Gómara y la Orden de Alcántara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Martínez, María del Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light new aspects concerning the biography of Francisco López de Gómara. His desire to take the religious habit of the Order of Alcántara, and the information this provides, allows us to clear up many aspects of his affiliation, his degree of bachelor, and the studies he followed during his stay in Bologna. Among the witnesses are his master, Pedro de Rúa, old companions from the Spanish College of San Clemente, and neighbours from the town of Gómara.Este artículo da a conocer aspectos inéditos de la biografía de Francisco López de Gómara. Su solicitud de un hábito de religioso de la Orden de Alcántara y la consiguiente información permite aclarar su filiación, su grado de bachiller y los estudios realizados durante su estancia en Bolonia. Entre los testigos están su maestro Pedro de Rúa, antiguos compañeros del Colegio de San Clemente y algunos vecinos de la villa de Gómara.

  19. The Societal Dimension of Art: On Mara Raţiu’s Art as Social Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Hainic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available REVIEW OF Raţiu, Mara. Arta ca activitate socială: avatarurile discursului filosofic asupra artei contemporane (Art as Social Activity: The Avatars of Philosophical Discourse on Contemporary Art. Cluj-Napoca: Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, 2011.

  20. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosner, Judah L [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH; Martin, Robert G [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH

    2009-01-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  1. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  2. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  3. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  4. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... support the universal rights of freedom of religion, expression, and peaceful assembly; equality for men... course of history when the actions of ordinary people yearning for freedom ignite the desires of people... advancing freedom's cause. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first Captive Nations Week...

  5. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  6. Measurements at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory in Support of MARA and the TIR Imager on the JAXA Hayabusa II Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Grott, M.; Knollenberg, J.; Okada, T.; Kührt, E.

    2012-03-01

    At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR we perform measurements on analog materials to explore the possibility of mineralogical studies with the thermal infrared imager and the radiometer MARA (MAscot RAdiometer) on MASCOT.

  7. Insertional mutation of marA vitiates inducible multiple antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Robert J; Lin, Tsang Long; Wu, Ching Ching

    2005-08-30

    marA has been shown to mediate a multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) phenotype following induction in some members of the Enterobacteriaceae. When Salmonella Choleraesuis was exposed to inducing agents they displayed higher minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to multiple antimicrobial agents and an increase in marA expression as determined by northern hybridization analysis. The objective of the present study was to determine if mutation of marA vitiated multiple antimicrobial resistance inducibility in S. Choleraesuis. A loss-of-function mutation of marA in a single S. Choleraesuis isolate was created by insertion of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene cassette within marA using double homologous recombination. This mutation was complemented with an expression plasmid possessing marA under the control of an IPTG-inducible promoter. Mutation and complementation of marA was verified using polymerase chain reaction, Northern hybridization, and Western blotting assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and rifampin were determined against induced and uninduced wildtype, marA-disrupted and marA-complemented strains using a microbroth dilution assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against induced wildtype and marA-complemented strains increased four- to eight-fold for all antimicrobials tested when compared to the uninduced strains while the MICs of the induced marA-disrupted mutant remained the same. However, this increase was abrogated when the cells were grown in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor compound EPI phe-arg-naphthylamide. The results indicate that a functional marA is solely required for an inducible multiple antimicrobial resistance phenotype in S. Choleraesuis.

  8. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in a German traveller returning from the Masai Mara area, Kenya, January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, T; Wichelhaus, T; Gottig, S; Kleine, C; Brodt, H R; Just-Nuebling, G

    2012-03-08

    In January 2012, a case of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been identified in Germany in a traveller returning from the Masai Mara area in Kenya. The 62-year-old man had travelled to the Masai Mara game park from 18 to 19 January 2012 and developed fever on 28 January. The infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was confirmed by laboratory testing three days hereafter.

  9. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, Philippos; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha

    2016-01-01

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  10. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Philippos; Moore, Iain; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha

    2016-12-01

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  11. Mariano Bellver (1817-1876, escultor de cámara de Isabel II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melendreras Gimeno, José Luis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Hijo de Francisco Bellver y Llop, también escultor como su padre. Nació en Madrid en 1817, estudiando en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, siendo discípulo en esta noble institución del escultor de Cámara José Tomás. Mariano Bellver contribuyó de forma activa al esplendor del Liceo Artístico y Literario de Madrid. Realizó numerosos trabajos, logrando una pública consideración de sus obras. Fue nombrado escultor de Cámara Honorario de Isabel II, jurando su cargo el 3 de mayo de 1860, ante don Buenaventura Carlos Arriban, Comendador de Número de la Real Casa y de la Orden de Carlos III, Jefe Superior de la Administración, Jubilado y Secretario de la Intendencia General de la Real Casa y Patrimonio.…

  12. LA MODERNIZACIÓN DE LA CÁMARA DE DIPUTADOS ¿TAREA FRUSTRADA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ampuero Villagrán

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos veinte años ha habido numerosos proyectos para modernizar la Cámara de Diputados de Chile. Este artículo examina los intentos que han tratado de resolver aisladamente problemas de organización y administración, en vez de enfrentarlos como un proceso general de cambios implícitos en un proceso de modernización. El último intento en curso constituye un desafío político para implementar los cambios necesarios en la organización y administración de la Cámara con el fin de fortalecer sus funciones en un régimen presidencial y su presencia en la ciudadanía.

  13. The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA directly represses transcription of purA and hdeA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Thamarai; Barbosa, Teresa M; McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2004-03-05

    The Escherichia coli MarA protein mediates a response to multiple environmental stresses through the activation or repression in vivo of a large number of chromosomal genes. Transcriptional activation for a number of these genes has been shown to occur via direct interaction of MarA with a 20-bp degenerate asymmetric "marbox" sequence. It was not known whether repression by MarA was also direct. We found that purified MarA was sufficient in vitro to repress transcription of both purA and hdeA. Transcription and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments in vitro using mutant promoters suggested that the marbox involved in the repression overlapped the -35 promoter motif and was in the "backward" orientation. This organization contrasts with that of the class II promoters activated by MarA, in which the marbox also overlaps the -35 motif but is in the "forward" orientation. We conclude that MarA, a member of the AraC/XylS family, can act directly as a repressor or an activator, depending on the position and orientation of the marbox within a promoter.

  14. Mattoso Câmara Jr. e a palavra prosódica Mattoso Câmara Jr. and the prosodic word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Bisol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo que se detém no conceito de palavra fonológica, fundamentando-se na Teoria Prosódica (Booij 1983, (Nespor & Vogel 1986, relembra Mattoso Câmara Jr., o primeiro entre nós a fazer específica diferença entre dois tipos de palavra, a que diz respeito aos morfemas, a que diz respeito à presença de um acento. Discutem-se a interação entre as duas unidades, a dimensão e as funções da palavra fonológica. Nestas simples linhas, nossa homenagem ao grande mestre de quem tivemos a felicidade de ser aluna.The subject of this paper is the phonological word and its interaction with the morphological word. The dimension, the domain and the functions of the phonological word are discussed following the principles of Prosodic Theory (Booij 1983, (Nespor & Vogel 1986. Câmara Jr's statements regarding Brazilian Portuguese are the basis of the considerations.

  15. Assessment of Climate Change and Hydrological Responses of the Mara River Basin, Kenya/Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mara River Basin (MRB) is endowed with diverse cultural heritage and pristine biodiversity. Climate change is predicated to exacerbate land degradation and reduction in the fauna and flora affecting livelihood and the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. We employed past and projected climate scenarios from sixteen Global Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs and historical records to better understand the climate dynamics and its implication on the hydrological system of the MRB. Nine of the sixteen GCMs showed positive correlation (Mara river flow will experience significant changes in all scenarios with extents depending on the choice of GCM and downscaling technique (Figure 2). Findings of the study point to a higher impact of climate change in the basin, hence incorporating the negative and positive aspects in strategic planning may promote sustainable development in MRB. Figure 1. % change of the 2050s and 2080s rainfall from the control period at Bomet, Keekorok GL and Buhemba TC of the MRB for the A1B, A2 and B1 SRES scenarios using the Delata and Direct downscaling mehtods. Figure 2. Annual average runoff based on downscaled rainfall and temperature data for the MRB. The trend of each model hydrograph was plotted with the corresponding R2 Value. Average of the five GCMs was also included.

  16. Evaluation of usefulness of Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) in the cyanobacterial toxicity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroslawska, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the usefulness of the Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) to evaluate toxicity in samples containing cyanobacterial products. Cyanobacterial extracts with different cyanotoxin contents and pure cyanotoxins-microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a-were tested. On the basis of the microbial reaction, MARA indicated only slight or no toxicity in the studied extracts. Similarly, no or low toxicity of pure toxins was detected at the concentrations used (up to 10 μg/ml). Weak relationships between the reactions of individual organisms exposed to cyanotoxin-containing extracts and to the same pure toxins were observed. On the other hand, inhibition of some organisms, such as Pichia anomalia, whose growth was not impacted by pure cyanotoxins, indicated the presence of other biologically active compounds in the studied extracts. In conclusion, MARA assay is not enough sensitive to be used as a good tool for cyanotoxin screening. It may, however, be applied in searching for antimicrobial/antifungal cyanobacteria-derived compounds.

  17. El pensamiento eugénico de Marañón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrándiz, Alejandra

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Athough eugenic ideas were by no means alien to Spanish thought before the 20th century, it is only by the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s that the first steps towards an institutionalization of Eugenics in Spain were actually taken. In this period, Dr. Marañón produced a number of interesting writings, mostly of a minor or occasional nature, on Eugenic subjects. Marañón was by then one of the leading intellectuals of his generation. His great reputation as a physician and as a man of science was only equal to his wide acknowledgement as a writer on general social issues, which makes his contribution to Eugenics particularly significant. In spite of the attention always paid by Marañón to Eugenic issues, he never published a proper treatise on the subject. His views must therefore be gathered from very scattered sources. The aim of this paper is to accomplish such a task, and thus draw an outline of Marañón's eugenic program by emphasizing those aspects (biological, economic, political, educational and moral he mainly dealt with. It is there thereby sought to unearth a key contribution to the development of eugenic ideas in early 20th century.

    A finales de 1920 y comienzos de 1930 tiene lugar uno de los primeros intentos de institucionalización de la Eugenesia en España. Son éstos también los años en que Marañón, por entonces una de las figuras públicas de mayor relieve y prestigio de todo el país, escribe sobre el tema. Su gran reputación no sólo como médico y hombre de ciencia, sino también como escritor y conferenciante sobre asuntos de amplio alcance social, dotó a sus escritos de una eficacia divulgadora incomparable, lo que hace enormemente significativa su defensa del ideal eugénico. A pesar de la importancia que atribuyó siempre a la Eugenesia, Marañón no llegó a escribir nunca un tratado sobre el tema. Pero los escritos dispersos en que se ocupa de él contienen ideas que, a nuestro

  18. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Das; A. Srivastav; Chakraborty, D.; Gupta, S. K.; Nigam, P

    2009-01-01

    Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis) at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4...

  19. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  20. Expurgo de grãos de trigo em câmara de lona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Finck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o menor período de fumigação necessário para promover a mortalidade total de insetos adultos do gênero Sitophilus, em grãos de trigo submetidos à fumigação em câmara de lonas. O experimento foi implantado em uma unidade armazenadora de grãos, em Ponta Grossa - PR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, contendo seis tratamentos e dez repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de diferentes períodos de exposição dos grãos de trigo à fumigação: 0; 12; 36; 60; 84 e 108h, dispostos em caçambas de caminhão envoltas em lonas (formando a câmara de lonas. Empregou-se o produto comercial Fertox(r na forma de pastilhas, atendendo à dosagem de 6g m-3em câmaras de 35m³ cada. As repetições foram representadas por recipientes telados contendo 10 insetos adultos vivos do gêneroSitophilus, inseridos na massa de grãos da caçamba em diversos pontos e profundidades. A equação de regressão ajustada para descrever o comportamento da mortalidade de insetos (M em função do período de fumigação (T foi M=6,6867+93,4694(1-e0,1645T26,9607. A equação demonstra que 58,9h após a aplicação do fumegante a mortalidade dos insetos foi de 100%.

  1. Aceleraciones del terremoto de sámara del 05 de setiembre del 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt D., Víctor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis detallado de los registros de aceleración en el terremoto de Sámara, en la provincia de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Toma en cuenta datos de los acelerógrafos del Laboratorio de Ingeniería Sísmica (LIS de la Universidad de Costa Rica, colocados a nivel nacional. Presenta una relación entre las aceleraciones máximas y su equivalencia en la escala de intensidad Mercalli, siendo la estación de Nosara la que tiene el registro de aceleración más intenso en la historia instrumental del país. Hace una interpretación de al menos cuatro estados de liberación de energía. Muestra una comparación con otros sismos a nivel mundial, con valores de aceleración alta. Analiza los espectros de respuesta en componentes norte-sur y este oeste, la forma en que decae la aceleración pico con la distancia y compara las Intensidades Arias (IA. Expone los daños ocurridos en algunos edificios públicos y hace una comparación de los daños en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, de Puntarenas, por el sismo de Cóbano y el de Sámara It presents a detailed analyses of the acceleration records in the Sámara earthquake, in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. It considers data from the accelerographs from the Seismic Engineering Lab (Laboratorio de Ingeniería Sísmica - LIS from the University of Costa Rica, located nationally. It presents a relation between maximum accelerations and their equivalent on the Mercalli intensity scale. The Nosara station is the one that has the most intense acceleration record in the instrumental history of the country. It interprets at least four stages of energy liberation. It shows a comparison with other earthquakes worldwide with high acceleration values. It analyses response spectrum in components North-South and East-West, the way in which the acceleration peak decreases with the distance and compares the Arias Intensities (IA. It presents the damages in some of the public buildings and compares the damages at the Monse

  2. Traumer og kunst : et psykoanalytisk blikk på Mara Lees Ladies

    OpenAIRE

    Heimen, Birgitte Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Studieobjektet mitt har vært Mara Lees roman Ladies, utgitt på Albert Bonniers forlag i 2007. Min lesning plasserer romanen innenfor sjangeren traumenarrativer. Jeg har valgt å belyse romanen med psykoanalytisk teori, og har benyttet meg av tanker av Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan og Julia Kristeva. Videre ses romanen i lys av nyere teorier om traumer og litteratur, av blant andre Cathy Caruth, Deborah Horvitz og Laurie Vickroy. Mitt fokus har vært konsentrert rundt traumet som l...

  3. Matar para vivir; las maras de El Salvador. Estudio de los principales factores

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano González, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    La violencia es uno de los grandes problemas sociales que afecta a la sociedad latinoamericana. En concreto, en El Salvador, requieren de especial atención las pandillas juveniles o maras al ser producto del fracaso de una sociedad voraz e injusta que crea las condiciones necesarias para empujar hacia ellas a los y las jóvenes. Éstos, a su vez, se destruyen socialmente a sí mismos y a sus comunidades. Por tanto, romper los círculos de la violencia demanda propuestas contrarias al modelo repre...

  4. Investigation of the effects of lymphocyte sub-groups of the use of Maraş powder (Nicotiana rustica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye İsmihan Ece Paköz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was to investigate theeffects of lymphocyte sub-groups of the use ofMaraş powder.Method: This study used healthy volunteers,and no smoking or Maras powder (control groupused healthy volunteers. The blood samples forlymphocyte subsets of the cellular immune systemlymphocyte subsets of antibodies were evaluatedwith Becton Dickinson kits using a flow-cytometrikmethod.Results: Case group averages of CD4+/CD8+ Tcell ratios, CD19+ (B lymphocytes and the meanpercentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes were significantlylower than the control group (p0.05.Conclusions: Maras powder increases thecellular immunity relative in the smoking addictivepeople, while humoral immunity declines.As a result, immune responses that is resultingwith any deviation, predisposing factor for avariety of diseases. Therefore, informing of themaras powder users should be considered for harming their health as smoking as well.

  5. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results.

  6. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  7. Potential of the microbial assay for risk assessment (MARA) for assessing ecotoxicological effects of herbicides to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Patricia Bi Asanga; Mbida, Mpoame; Demefack, Jean Marc; Yamssi, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    Many microbiotests that have been proposed for use in the risk assessment of environmental pollutants have the drawback of lacking relevant published data on various aspects of their test application possibilities and therefore do not receive the regulatory recognition which they may deserve. The MARA bioassay lacks published data for many relevant environmental pollutants, particularly pesticides and this may limit its use in regulatory framework. The present study has assessed the sensitivity of the MARA bioassay relative to other established bioassays (Daphnia magna and Oreochromis niloticus) to two widely used herbicide formulations: Roundup (having glyphosate as active ingredient) and Herbextra (with the active ingredient being 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-2,4-D). Roundup was found to be more toxic than Herbextra in all three bioassays. The D. magna EC50 s obtained for Roundup and Herbextra were respectively 5.55 and 356.61 mg/l while the LC50 s for O. niloticus were 11.30 and 222,28 mg/l respectively. In the case of the MARA bioassay microbial toxic concentrations (MTCs) for individual species ranged from 6.85 to 468 mg/l with an overall mean MTC of 101.82 mg/l for glyphosate and from 74.67 to 13,333 mg/l for 2,4-D giving an overall mean MTC of 2855.88 mg/l. Although the overall MTCs from the MARA bioassay were much higher than the LC50 s and EC50 s from the fish and daphnia bioassays respectively, the most sensitive MARA organism for each of the herbicides had MTCs that were comparable to or lower than the corresponding endpoints from the other bioassays implying that the MARA assay is a potentially useful bioassay for risk assessment of pesticides.

  8. Fixação iriana de lentes de câmara posterior para o tratamento da afacia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Ana Luiza Lise; Paulino,Leonardo Verri; Rehder,Jose Ricardo Carvalho Lima

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar os resultados de uma série de casos de fixação iriana de lentes intra-oculares de câmara posterior para correção de afacia, realizados no setor de catarata da disciplina de Oftalmologia da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC e compará-los a literatura existente. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo de oito pacientes afácicos, que apresentavam ausência de suporte capsular adequado e foram submetidos à cirurgia para implante secundário de LIO de câmara posterior com fixação iriana seguindo a ...

  9. Le Docteur Gregorio Marañón, ou la plume militante de l’endocrinologue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Aline Barrachina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jouissant dès le début des années vingt d’un grand prestige dû à ses travaux sur les glandes endocrines, le Docteur Gregorio Marañón (1887-1960 s’engagea de tout son poids dans le débat social, mettant son autorité de médecin reconnu au service de la lutte contre la misère. Dans cette même perspective, c’est en endocrinologue convaincu de « l’intelligence vitale » du système hormonal, qu’il prit position en faveur de la limitation des naissances et de la reconnaissance de lasexualité féminine, dans un contexte où cette question était au cœur des conflits idéologiques qui traversaient la société espagnole entre 1920 et 1936. Porté par un important courant de juristes, de médecins, d’écrivains libéraux qui militaient en faveur du birth control et d’une sexualité assumée, le prestigieux docteur Marañón apportait sa légitimité scientifique à la démarche. Or, les thèses de Marañón, promises à une longue et faussement paradoxale postérité sous le franquisme, reposent sur un double postulat qui affirme une certaine forme de déterminisme biologique des comportements humains, et qui affirme aussi, à l’instar des théories freudiennes, l’importance décisive de la sexualité dans ces comportements. On tentera de montrer comment les théories de l’endocrinologue libéral ont pu, dans les années 40, être instrumentalisées pour apporter leur caution scientifique à la morale sexuelle imposée par le franquisme. Les théories de Marañón ont en effet fourni aux intellectuels organiques du régime franquiste tant d’arguments pour sa politique nataliste et pour la relégation des femmes dans le domaine privé du foyer que ses écrits sont incontournables pour quiconque se penche sur cet aspect de l’histoire de la dictature.El Doctor Gregorio Marañón (1887-1960, que gozaba en los años veinte de un gran prestigio debido a sus trabajos sobre endocrinología, se comprometió sin reparos en el

  10. Potential Effects on Large Mara Construction Projects Due To Construction Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry continues to be the driving force in the growth of the nation’s socio economic development. One of the major issues in large construction industry is its frequent delay where this delay decelerates the multiplier effects to the economy. This paper presents the study of a survey on significant cause of delay and its effects in large MARA (Majlis Amanah Rakyat construction project in the views of project management consultants (PMC. Respondents of this survey were personnel that work as PMC ranging from the executives, managerial and supporting groups. The result revealed that the five most significant delay causes as seen by PMC were cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor’s poor site management, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers and ineffective planning and scheduling by contractors and its three most significant effects were time overrun, cost overrun and arbitration. Hopefully, the findings of this study will at least shade some lights to the problems faced by Malaysia construction industry particularly MARA large construction project and effort can be taken to improve it.

  11. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  12. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985–2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region’s role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  13. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-25

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region's role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  14. A institucionalização da câmara dos deputados dos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson W. Polsby

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa como se deu a institucionalização da Câmara dos Deputados dos Estados Unidos, desde seu início, no final do século XVIII, até meados do século XX. Esse processo é analisado a partir de três variáveis fundamentais: 1 a delimitação funcional em relação a outras organizações, particularmente políticas; 2 a relativa complexidade da instituição, ou seja, até que ponto suas funções são internamente separadas em alguma base regular e explícita; 3 o universalismo e o automatismo nos procedimentos adotados para conduzir seus diversos assuntos internos. Cada uma dessas variáveis é sucessivamente examinada do ponto de vista histórico ao longo do artigo; a título de conclusão, apresentam-se algumas observações especulativas sobre causas, conseqüências e possíveis lições que se pode tirar da institucionalização da Câmara.

  15. Os presidentes de Câmara italianos: Uma revolução de compromisso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bolgherini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante a década de 1990, em Itália, ocorreram várias reformas radicais: tratou-se da conjugação de transformações políticas, eleitorais, administrativas, institucionais e constitucionais sem precedentes, que vieram alterar a estrutura da política italiana. A eleição directa dos presidentes de Câmara, introduzida em 1993, é considerada a mais bem sucedida destas reformas e desencadeou, sem dúvida, uma verdadeira transição para uma Segunda República. Num balanço global, pode afirmar-se que a reforma municipal conduziu a uma revolução de compromisso: uma verdadeira revolução no tocante a inovações, mas também um compromisso com os aspectos dependentes da cultura política tradicional, de tal forma que o jogo de compensações entre carisma e políticas partidárias, entre pessoalização e papel partidário, domina as políticas locais e influencia as escolhas dos novos presidentes de Câmara.

  16. Câmera e câmara: un caso di variazione lessicale in portoghese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavaliere

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo tratta dell’origine etimologica della doppia câmara e câmera nel lessico del portoghese, con uno studio delle loro varianti semantiche e del loro uso nel testo scritto in prospettiva diacronica. I paronimi in questione sono casi di allotropia, arrivati dall’importazione del lessico delle lingue moderne, oltre a dalle forme ereditarie della tradizione latina. L’articolo riporta, inoltre, un breve studio comparativo con l’obiettivo di analizzare gli aspetti semantici che i termini godono in altre lingue romanze.This paper studies the etymological origin of the pair câmara and câmera in the lexicon of Portuguese language, with a study of their semantic variants and their use in written texts in diachronic perspective. The paronyms at issue are examples of doublets that have arrived from the vocabulary of modern languages  , in addition to hereditary forms of the Latin tradition. The article also offers a short comparative study with the objective of analyzing the semantic aspects that these particular words have in other romance languages.

  17. Differential expression of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS of Salmonella Typhimurium in response to sodium hypochlorite: down-regulation of rob by MarA and SoxS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Polanco, R; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2012-11-01

    To survive, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) must sense signals found in phagocytic cells and modulate gene expression. In the present work, we evaluated the expression and cross-regulation of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS in response to NaOCl. We generated strains ΔsoxS and ΔmarA, which were 20 times more sensitive to NaOCl as compared to the wild-type strain; while Δrob only 5 times. Subsequently, we determined that marA and soxS transcript and protein levels were increased while those of rob decreased in a wild-type strain treated with NaOCl. To assess if changes in S. Typhimurium after exposure to NaOCl were due to a cross-regulation, as in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the expression of marA, soxS, and rob in the different genetic backgrounds. The positive regulation observed in the wild-type strain of marA and soxS was retained in the Δrob strain. As in the wild-type strain, rob was down-regulated in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS treated with NaOCl; however, this effect was decreased. Since rob was down-regulated by both factors, we generated a ΔmarA ΔsoxS strain finding that the negative regulation was abolished, confirming our hypothesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using MarA and SoxS confirmed an interaction with the promoter of rob.

  18. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  19. Afya Jumuishi : towards Interprofessional collaboration between traditional and modern medical practitioners in the Mara Region of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirangi, Musuto Mutaragara

    2013-01-01

    A scientific correlation study on human resource and organisational policy-oriented study, which was conducted in the Mara Region of Tanzania. It specifically investigates major factors, which correlate to interprofessional collaborative behaviours in the context of health service delivery between t

  20. An Interview with Mara Sapon-Shevin: Implications for Students and Teachers of Labeling Students as Learning Disabled/Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther-Thomas, Chriss; Brownell, Mary

    1999-01-01

    This interview with Mara Sapon-Shevin discusses her interest in students with learning disabilities and giftedness, the negative effects of labeling students, what teachers can do to improve the social climate and peer acceptance in heterogeneous classrooms, and the need for teachers to teach all students as if they are gifted. (CR)

  1. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between...

  2. Population trends of large non-migratory herbivores and livestock in the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, between 1977 and 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    The total of all non-migratory wildlife species in the Masai Mara ecosystem has declined by 58% in the last 20 years. This decline ranges from 49% in small brown antelopes to 72% in medium brown antelopes. In individual wildlife species, the decline ranges from 52% in Grant's gazelle to 88% in the w

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards spotted fever group rickettsioses and Q fever in Laikipia and Maasai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ndeereh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many factors contribute to misdiagnosis and underreporting of infectious zoonotic diseases in most sub-Saharan Africa including limited diagnostic capacity and poor knowledge. We assessed the knowledge, practices and attitudes towards spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR and Q fever amongst local residents in Laikipia and Maasai Mara in Kenya. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to a total of 101 respondents including 51 pastoralists, 17 human health providers, 28 wildlife sector personnel and 5 veterinarians. The pastoralists expressed no knowledge about SFGR and Q fever. About 26.7% of the wildlife sector personnel in Laikipia expressed some knowledge about SFGR and none in Maasai Mara. None of these respondents had knowledge about Q fever. About 45.5 and 33.3% of the health providers in Laikipia and Maasai Mara respectively expressed knowledge about SFGR and 9.1% in Laikipia expressed good knowledge on Q fever and none in Maasai Mara. The diseases are not considered amongst potential causes of febrile illnesses in most medical facilities except in one facility in Laikipia. Majority of pastoralists practiced at least one predisposing activity for transmission of the diseases including consumption of raw milk, attending to parturition and sharing living accommodations with livestock. Education efforts to update knowledge on medical personnel and One-Health collaborations should be undertaken for more effective mitigation of zoonotic disease threats. The local communities should be sensitized through a multidisciplinary approach to avoid practices that can predispose them to the diseases.

  4. Population trend and distribution of the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in the Mara Region of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanga, Erustus M.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Olff, Han; Santema, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius can significantly influence the dynamics of ecosystems and engender serious conflicts with people but, in Kenya, one of the species strongholds, it has been little studied or monitored. We surveyed the hippopotamus population in the Masai Mara National

  5. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  6. Gabcikovo dam and Liptovska Mara dam - statistical analysis of measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakac, J.; Sabo, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Water level in the observation wells is measured regularly and one of the reasons is evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. In this paper we are exploring the reliability of the measuring devices that are responsible for evaluation of the safety of the two largest and the most important dams in Slovakia. We test ability of selected statistical methods to detect early inaccuracies of measuring devices and thus improve the evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. As a follow-up study, we used the time series model (Neural network) to predict water levels in the observation wells that were considered to be without defects. Neural Network is also able to show dynamics of the filtration stability of the observational well. Methods: On the Liptovska Mara dam weekly data was used as a monitoring tool. On the Gabcikovo dam five minute time series of the measurements of the water level in observation wells around the right lock chamber were used. Data from the measuring devices of the dams were explored with boxplots, correlations, neural network, etc. The mentioned statistical tools analyze time series and detect the errors that measuring devices make when generating data and can be used to predict errors even in real time. In the second step, agreement between predicted data from neural network and measured data in the real time was evaluated. We used grid search for finding the optimal number of neurons and then predicted errors by using this model. The ability of the neural network in evaluation of the sealing of the dilatation joints on the filtration stability in the years 2009 - 2011 is presented. Results: From the 18 selected measuring devices on the Liptovska Mara dam there are only 3 devices which can be considered as reliable. On the Gabcikovo dam, 8 of 9 measuring devices (observation wells around right lock chamber) were considered as a reliable. There was very good agreement between the predicted and measured data at the

  7. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  8. ompW is cooperatively upregulated by MarA and SoxS in response to menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2013-04-01

    OmpW is a minor porin whose biological function has not been clearly defined. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicates that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium the expression of OmpW is activated by SoxS upon exposure to paraquat and it is required for resistance. SoxS belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, like MarA and Rob. Due to their high structural similarity, the genes under their control have been grouped in the mar/sox/rob regulon, which presents a DNA-binding consensus sequence denominated the marsox box. In this work, we evaluated the role of the transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in regulating ompW expression in response to menadione. We determined the transcript and protein levels of OmpW in different genetic backgrounds; in the wild-type and Δrob strains ompW was upregulated in response to menadione, while in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS strains the induction was abolished. In a double marA soxS mutant, ompW transcript levels were lowered after exposure to menadione, and only complementation in trans with both genes restored the positive regulation. Using transcriptional fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant versions of the promoter region we demonstrated that two of the predicted sites were functional. Additionally, we demonstrated that MarA increases the affinity of SoxS for the ompW promoter region. In conclusion, our study shows that ompW is upregulated in response to menadione in a cooperative manner by MarA and SoxS through a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  9. Efeito do teor inicial de água de sementes de feijão e da câmara no teste de envelhecimento acelerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scappa Neto Angelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura interna das câmaras e o teor de água das sementes podem influenciar os resultados obtidos no teste de envelhecimento acelerado (EA e, consequentemente, sua interpretação. O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes teores iniciais de água de sementes de feijão nos resultados do teste de envelhecimento acelerado e as condições de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar no interior de duas câmaras de envelhecimento e das caixas plásticas (câmaras internas, durante a condução do teste. Utilizaram-se amostras de quatro lotes de sementes de feijão, cujo teor de água inicial foi ajustado para 8, 10 e 12%. As sementes foram submetidas ao envelhecimento em câmaras "jaquetada" de água e de germinação tipo BOD. Durante a realização do teste, foram monitorados, com um registrador de dados, os valores da temperatura e da umidade relativa do ar no interior das câmaras e das caixas plásticas, avaliados a cada 10 minutos, por sensores de cobre-constantan com bulbos seco e úmido, instalados no interior das mesmas. Verificou-se pequena variação de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar nas duas câmaras, sendo, porém, menor na "jaquetada". Em função da umidade relativa do ar na câmara "jaquetada" ter sido mais elevada, as sementes envelhecidas nessa câmara, apresentaram teor de água mais alto do que aquelas envelhecidas na BOD. Ambas as câmaras podem ser utilizadas para a realização do teste de envelhecimento acelerado de sementes de feijão.

  10. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  11. Marae o te Rangi, Temples of the Heavens: Explorations in Polynesian Archaeoastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Patrick V.

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.

  12. A adesão das Câmaras e a figura do Imperador

    OpenAIRE

    Iara Lis Carvalho Souza

    1998-01-01

    Este texto aborda a maneira pela qual as Câmaras de todo país aderiram à figura de D. Pedro I no início da década de 1820, celebrando assim um novo contrato social que fundava o Brasil como um corpo político autônomo. Tal adesão implicava tanto uma cena pública que explicitava a relação entre a localidade e o governante, quanto arregimentava as tropas e conferia uma importância à praça pública.In this article I intend to analyse links between D. Pedro I and the adhesion of the cities councils...

  13. COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION AMONG PART ONE BUSINESS STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM KELANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nuur Fazliza Wan Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Students who face communicative anxiety have either fear or uneasiness about their learning experience. This kind of feelings has hindered and impeded the language learning process and their abilities to perform well in any oral presentation. This present study aims at exploring the factors that lead to communication apprehension among Part One Diploma students from Business and Management Faculty, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM Kelantan, Malaysia from psychological and socio-cultural perspectives. The study which involved 51 ESL students is conducted through a survey method using a set of questionnaire. The data were analysed using the SPSS statistical computer package (Statistical Package for Social Science. The means and percentages of each item in the questionnaire were used to look at the factors which contribute to communicative anxiety among the learners. The study revealed that both psychological and sociocultural factors do affect English learners‟ communication apprehension.

  14. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  15. Numerical interpretation of the MARA 8 experiment simulating a hypothetical core disruptive accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F. E-mail: mfrobbe@cea.fr; Lepareux, M.; Cariou, Y

    2003-03-01

    In the case of a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), it is assumed that the core of the nuclear reactor has melted partially and that the chemical interaction between the molten fuel and the liquid sodium has created a high-pressure gas bubble in the core. The violent expansion of this bubble loads and deforms the reactor vessel, thus endangering the safety of the nuclear plant. The experimental test MARA 8 simulates the explosive phenomenon in a mock-up included in a flexible vessel with a flexible roof. This paper presents a numerical simulation of the test and a comparison of the computed results with the experimental results and previous numerical ones.

  16. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Almagro González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history. 

  17. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history.

  18. Upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in the makers of Maraş pounded ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Upper Extremity Cumulative Trauma Disorders(UE-CTD are among the major health problems affectingthe workers. The aim of this study was to investigateUE-CTD in the makers of Maras pounded ice cream(MMPICMethods: This study was conducted among 50 volunteerswho work as a MMPIC and 50 control in our downtownarea. During face-to-face conversion, the participantsfilled out a survey inquiring about age, duration ofwork (in years in job, daily working time, occupation withanother job, health history, and medication usage. Thesubjects were questioned regarding the musculoskeletalcomplaints within the last six months and upper bodyphysical examination was performed in all participants.Results: The study group was composed of males.The mean age of study group and control group were31.78±6.58 and 30.74±5.99 years (p=0.411, respectively.The mean duration of work in pounded ice creambusiness and the mean duration of work in control were11.64± 6.26 years and 10.68±5.48 years (p=0.417, respectively.The mean daily working time in the studygroup and in control group were 10.64±1.82 hours and11.12±1.62 hours (p= 0.168, respectively. Musculoskeletalcomplaints of the upper extremity were found in 52%of the study group, and 28% of the control group. Musculoskeletaldisease of upper extremity was found in 28% ofthe study group and in 12% of the control group. Upperextremity musculoskeletal system complaints and illnesswere difference statistically between the two groups (p=0.014; p= 0.046, respectively.Conclusion: UE-CTD was seen in the makers of poundedice cream and its prevalence was similar to the otherlaborers work in the areas needing repetitive arm andhand motion.Key words: Makers of Maras pounded ice cream, cumulativetrauma disorders, upper extremity problems

  19. Marañón y la medicina en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaguer Perigüell, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marañón’s work, as a whole, is truly complex. After a preliminary, partial reading, the questions that arise are numerous and varied. The aim of this article is to analyse some of the wealth of the medical facets of these works by following some of the threads which are repeated in the literature on the author. His medical works, within the context of western medicine of the time, are still analysed from a perspective of a series of clichés. Actually from our point of view, his work is the result of a peculiar construction, based on both medical practice and personal theoretical principles which led to a model of medicine similar to that of the great reformers within the framework which Laín Entralgo has termed “present medicine”.La obra de Marañón, en su conjunto, es verdaderamente compleja. Después de una primera lectura parcial la cantidad de interrogantes que plantea son muchos y variados, pero siguiendo unos pocos hilos conductores, que se repiten, podemos analizar su riqueza. Este es el objetivo del presente trabajo limitándonos a su faceta de médico. Su obra médica, en el conjunto de la medicina occidental del momento, sigue valorándose partiendo de una serie de tópicos. A nuestro parecer, es el resultado de una elaboración peculiar desde la clínica, y partiendo de unos supuestos personales; dando lugar a un modelo de medicina coincidente, en gran medida, con el de los grandes reformistas de lo que Laín Entralgo ha llamado “medicina actual”.

  20. Indultos concedidos por la Cámara de Castilla en tiempos de los Austrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis de las HERAS SANTOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Maquiavelo aconsejaba a los príncipes que se reservaran para sí la disposición de las materias de gracia. Este principio nunca fue olvidado por los reyes castellanos que consideraron el derecho de perdonar como una regalía. A lo largo del Antiguo Régimen se concedieron perdones reales por motivos diversos: políticos, religiosos, acontecimientos cortesanos, triunfos militares de la monarquía, o merced especial que el soberano deseó hacer a algún subdito. Por el número de afectados pueden clasificarse en generales, si absuelven a un colectivo de reos, o particulares, cuando el agraciado es uno solo. Los generales se regulaban por cédula específica que el rey despachaba al efecto. Su cumplimiento era vigilado por comisiones formadas por miembros de la Cámara, y los aspirantes a sus beneficios no necesitaban presentar solicitud personal ante ningún consejo regio, sino que siendo el caso de los incluidos en la cédula, las justicias de la causa se encargaban de su ejecución. Por está razón este tipo de indultos no han dejado huella en los archivos centrales, salvo las cédulas de concesión. Por el contrario, los individuales eran despachados por la Cámara en nombre del rey después de estudiar los autos procesales y han dejado en los archivos de la corona miles de testimonios. Estos van a ser el objeto de nuestro estudio.

  1. [Human fasciolosis in Mara municipality, Zulia state. Venezuela: prevalence and asociated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Cecilia; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé; García, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis

    2009-12-01

    In Venezuela, human Fasciolosis shows a low frequency. However, Mara Municipality is a highly endemic region for bovine fasciolosis and there are no reports of this parasite infection in humans. To determine the prevalence and associated factors to human fasciolosis in Mara municipality - Zulia state, a total of 51 blood and stool samples were collected. Serums were tested by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) assays, with excretion-secretion antigens of Fasciola hepatica (AFhES). The serum samples that resulted positive by these assays were tested by ELISA IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii and cysticerosis. Stool samples were concentrated by the Ritchie and rapid sedimentation techniques. Two serum samples were reactive to ELISA AFhES (3.9%) and these did not recognize the specific molecules of WB-AFhES detected by serum from patients with an absolutely demonstrated infection. Both participants were not positive to IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii, cysticerosis, and stool samples of these were negative to intestinal parasites. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 52.9% (27/51), being protozoa more frequent than helminthes. No Fasciola eggs were found. The two positives participants had in common that both had worked as fresh pasture cutters. These results suggest that the population had been in contact with F. hepatica, with no active infection because of the lack of specific molecules recognition and the absence of eggs in stool samples. Human fasciolosis has a low frequency in Venezuela and is underestimated and underrecognized by health workers and the general population.

  2. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  3. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. Monthly morphometric data on captive loggerhead sea turtles 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  8. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable.

  9. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

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    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  10. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  11. Diseño de un soporte para una cámara CCD en la cámara de ultra alto vacío MARES del sincrotrón ALBA

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Villalba, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto final de carrera contiene toda la información necesaria para el diseño, fabricación y montaje de un brazo móvil que sostendrá una cámara CCD. Siendo ésta uno de los detectores para la línea de luz BL-29 del sincrotrón ALBA dedicada a espectroscopía y refractometría. El desarrollo de la fase de diseño se apoya en las especificaciones presentadas por el cliente. En las especificaciones se exige un dispositivo que sea compatible con la cámara de ultra alto vacío existente...

  12. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaz, Paul; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne K; McKenney, David; Jackson, Caroline; Levy, Stuart B; Tanaka, S Ken; Alekshun, Michael N

    2006-12-01

    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family. While these proteins have been associated historically with control of multiple antibiotic resistance, and tolerance to oxidative stress agents and organic solvents, only a paucity of experimental data support a role in regulating virulence. Clinical Escherichia coli isolates, and isogenic strains lacking marA, soxS and rob, were studied in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis, which is a clinically relevant model of urinary tract infection. Organisms lacking all three transcription factors (triple knockouts) were significantly less virulent than parental strains, and complementation studies demonstrated that the addition of marA, soxS and rob individually restored wild-type virulence in the triple-knockout strain. Deletion of soxS or rob alone was more detrimental than the removal of marA. Thus, all three proteins contribute to virulence in vivo.

  13. Gregorio Marañón y Miguel de Unamuno, lectores de un alma abrasada en un diario. Apuntes para una psicología de la timidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ariso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After describing the main lines of the interpretations of Henri-Frédéric Amiel’s diary held by Gregorio Marañón and Miguel de Unamuno, Otto Weininger’s work is brought up in this paper in order to consider both interpretations from a wider perspective that helps to discern which were Marañón’s and Unamuno’s interests when they analyzed Amiel’s life and personality

  14. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  15. El mercado no nace, se hace: la semilla de marañón y las mujeres de COAGRUM

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    Fátima Corea

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE ARTÍCULO SE BASA EN UN ESTUDIO QUE ANALIZÓ EL MODELO DE comercialización de la semilla del marañón. Esta actividad se fundamenta en la autogestión, es ideada y apoyada por el CIPRES y, es realizada por las mujeres de la Cooperativa Agroindustrial Unión de Mujeres Campesinas de Tecuaname, la Paz Centro. Entre los hallazgos principales, se identificó todo el recorrido de la producción de esta empresa, basada en un modelo organizativo que hallevado a las mujeres a asumir lentamente diferentes roles, mediante la construcciòn de relaciones sociales con lazos fuertes entre su organización y un aliado clave que facilita la solidez de la cooperativa en medio de las fluctuaciones del mercado, y ayuda a comercializar la semilla de marañòn desde Tecuaname hasta España.

  16. Difusión transnacional de identidades juveniles en la expansión de las maras centroamericanas

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    Alberto Martín Álvarez

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The maras Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 are two youth violent gangs with widespread presence in Central America and the United States. These gangs are attracting the attention of the scientific community because of their growing transnational links and the unusual levels of violence deployed. This article posits that the transnational expansion of the maras Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 is largely explained by their ability to generate an attractive identity framework of reference that resounds positively with the cultural background of young men of the Central American area. The policy of deportations of the United States government, the use of “iron hand” measures by some governments of the region and themigratory movements facilitated the diffusion of these identities across Central America throughout the last decade.

  17. El derecho penal del enemigo en la legislación relativa a las Maras en EEUU y El Salvador

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    Ramiro Javier Rua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the historical, social, cultural and political factors that allowed the generation of “Maras” in the USA and its expantion in El Salvador, particulary the “Mara Salvatrucha”. It analice from a critic point of view how the criminal laws implemented in both States recognice an afiliation with “Enemies Criminal Law’s” theories and how they didn’t help in the path of achieving a solution of this conflct.  

  18. El derecho penal del enemigo en la legislación relativa a las Maras en EEUU y El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Javier Rua

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the historical, social, cultural and political factors that allowed the generation of “Maras” in the USA and its expantion in El Salvador, particulary the “Mara Salvatrucha”. It analice from a critic point of view how the criminal laws implemented in both States recognice an afiliation with “Enemies Criminal Law’s” theories and how they didn’t help in the path of achieving a solution of this conflct.  

  19. Neotectonic of subsiding basins : case of studies from Marañon and Beni basins, Peru and Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Climatic conditions make the fluvial processes very sensitive in the extended flood plain of subandean basins, giving typical morphostructures. Because of high subsidence rate, these basins are case for the understanding of neotectonics in subsiding basins. Recent anciente fluvial traces are used in combination with sub surface structures, neotectonic and seismotectonic data to study the neotectonic evolution of the Peruvian and Bolivian active foreland basins. These basins, the Marañon Basin...

  20. Lentes fácicas de câmara anterior

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    Walton Nosé

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os implantes em olhos fácicos apresentam-se como uma opção para a correção de altas ametropias. De acordo com sua localização podem ser classificados como de câmara anterior ou posterior, sendo que os primeiros subdividem-se em fixação iriana ou de suporte angular. Além da correção da miopia, as lentes de fixação iriana apresentam modelos para hipermétropes e astigmatas. Várias modificações no desenho das lentes foram propostas nas últimas décadas com a finalidade de reduzir complicações tardias, como a perda endotelial progressiva. Cuidados no intraoperatório devem ser tomados de forma a diminuir a perda endotelial aguda relacionada ao trauma. Avanços nos métodos de triagem pré-operatória também melhoraram a segurança do procedimento. A estimativa do poder dióptrico é baseada nos cálculos de Van der Heijde, sendo dependente da profundidade de câmara anterior, do equivalente esférico da refração e da média ceratométrica. Resultados a longo prazo demonstram a eficácia, previsibilidade e segurança do procedimento. Dependendo do modelo, além da possibilidade de perda endotelial, outras possíveis complicações incluem: irite, dispersão pigmentar, atrofia de íris, ovalização pupilar, rotação, descentração ou deslocamento da lente, hipertensão ocular e bloqueio pupilar. Modelos dobráveis atualmente disponíveis vêm apresentado resultados bastante promissores com redução da taxa de complicações.

  1. Clinical and socio-medical factors related to anemia in pregnant women: prevalence study in Mara Township, Venezuela, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayari Guadalupe Ávila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent finding and can increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and child. This paper aims to identify clinical, social and healthcare-related factors that affect the incidence of anemia in pregnant patients in a primary care prenatal clinic in Mara municipality. This is a descriptive field study that took place between November and December, 2013. Sixty-two patients were selected through non-probability sampling among four primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara. A high prevalence of anemia (76% was found, with normal MCV (mean corpuscular volume, normal MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and normal MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. In only 36% of cases serum iron levels fell below 50 ug/dl. Some clinical factors found to be related to anemia in pregnancy are multiparity (69.9%, infections before or during pregnancy (77.5%, low protein intake (91.8%, less than a year birth interval (63.3%, and gestational age (89.8%. The main socioeconomic factor related to anemia is poverty (89.8%. Prenatal checkup schedule needs to be adjusted in primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara taking into consideration clinical and socioeconomic factors in order to lower the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in this population.

  2. [Clinical and socio-medical factors related to anemia in pregnant women: prevalence study in Mara Township, Venezuela, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Ayari Guadalupe; García, Lenis; Gómez, María; Villanueva, Nixon; Benítez, Betty; Fuentes, Belkis

    2014-07-11

    Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent finding and can increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and child. This paper aims to identify clinical, social and healthcare-related factors that affect the incidence of anemia in pregnant patients in a primary care prenatal clinic in Mara municipality. This is a descriptive field study that took place between November and December, 2013. Sixty-two patients were selected through non-probability sampling among four primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara. A high prevalence of anemia (76%) was found, with normal MCV (mean corpuscular volume), normal MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), and normal MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). In only 36% of cases serum iron levels fell below 50 ug/dl. Some clinical factors found to be related to anemia in pregnancy are multiparity (69.9%), infections before or during pregnancy (77.5%), low protein intake (91.8%), less than a year birth interval (63.3%), and gestational age (89.8%). The main socioeconomic factor related to anemia is poverty (89.8%). Prenatal checkup schedule needs to be adjusted in primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara taking into consideration clinical and socioeconomic factors in order to lower the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in this population.

  3. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  4. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  5. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris oral cavity and cloaca, originating from Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil Microflora bacteriana aeróbica da cavidade oral e cloaca de jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris procedentes do Zoológico de João Pessoa, PB, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.A. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%, Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%, Escherichia coli (13.68% and Shigella sp. (11.58%, and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05% and Salmonella sp. (1.05%.This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis and injuries caused by crocodilians.O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a microflora bacteriana aeróbica presente na mucosa da cavidade oral e da cloaca de exemplares de jacarés-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris nascidos e criados em cativeiro no Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, localizado na cidade de João Pessoa - PB. As bactérias mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus sp. (14,74%, Corynebacterium sp.(13,68%, Escherichia coli (13,68% e Shigella sp. (11,58%, e as menos prevalentes foram Citrobacter sp.(1,05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,05% e Salmonella sp. (1,05%. Ressalta-se a importância da participação desses microrganismos em processos infecciosos (septicemias e em feridas provocadas por crocodilianos.

  6. Factors Affecting Construction Cost in Mara Large Construction Project: Perspective of Project Management Consultant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Project cost is one of the most important criteria of success of project and is of high concern to those who are involved in the construction industry. However, studies show that rarely projects are complete within stipulated budget. This study is focusing on identification of significant causes affecting construction cost in MARA large projects. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted among the personnel of Project Management Consultant (PMC. Data was analyzed with statistical tools to determine the rank of factors affecting construction cost. It is concluded that cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor's poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers, incorrect planning and scheduling by contractors are most severe factors while changes in scope of project and frequent design changes are least affecting factors on construction cost. Spearman correlation analysis showed that incorrect planning and scheduling by contractor has strong positive relationship with contractor’s poor site management and supervision, inadequate experience of contractors has strong positive relationship with incorrect planning and scheduling; and contractor’s poor site management and supervision, changes in scope of project has strong positive relationship with frequent design changes; and vice versa.

  7. A Multi-Model Real Time Forecasting Prototype System in the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Valdes, R.; Demaria, E. M.; Durcik, M.; Maitaria, K.; Roy, T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing data and hydrologic models can respond to monitoring and forecasting needs in Africa and other poorly gauged regions. We present here the progress to date in developing a multi-model platform to provide hydrologic monitoring and forecasting using real time remote sensing observations. Satellite precipitation products such as CMORPH, TMPA (at 0.25° resolution) and PERSIANN-CCS (at 4km resolution) are used to force two models of different structure. One model is physically based and distributed, and the other is conceptual and lumped at the sub-basin level. The performance of both models is evaluated using different metrics, and the uncertainty in their predictions based on the errors incurred during the historical simulations period is computed. The models were compared and the potential increase in performance from using both models versus a single one will be assessed. This work provides insights into the advantages of a multi-model platform over a single model, with respect to different management and decision-making purposes. The methods were applied to the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania), where growing human demands on water and land use are likely to alter significantly the hydrologic balance of the basin and the ecosystems that depend on it. These efforts are part of the Applied Sciences Team of the NASA SERVIR Program in collaboration with its East Africa Hub at the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (Nairobi,Kenya).

  8. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  9. Hydrogeochemical Facies of Hot Springs Water in Jebel Mara Mountain, Darfur, Western Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami H. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical assessment have been carried out to study the concentration ofNa+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-,SO42-, HCO3-, and other parameters like temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC, total hardness(T.H and total dissolved solid (TDS in ten hot springs water samples of some parts of Jebel Mara Mountain, Western Sudan. The results of water analysis revealed the average values of pH,electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness, 9.46, 428 µS/cm, 667.2 mg/l and 102 mg/l respectively. The pH, TDS and EC variations confirmed light-salty nature of groundwater. It is also apparent from the results that, average concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium,magnesium, chloride, sulphate,and bicarbonate ions were 43.6, 16.4, 53.7, 44, 37.5, 26.2, 428.5 mg/l, respectively. Chloride ion concentration ranged from (30 to 46 mg/l, sulphate ion concentration ranged from (10 to 40mg/l and carbonate concentration measured ranged from (215 to 800 mg/l.The results were found to be above the recommended values given by W.H.O., 1984 and warranty further recommended studies for the best improvement and utilization of springs water.

  10. Los estudiantes tras las cámaras: el recurso de la novela para la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Rodrigo Lopez Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se exploran las representaciones colectivas, el escenario familiar, cotidiano y afectivo de los estudiantes de mediados de 1960 en la Universidad Nacional (UN en Bogotá, y de los primeros años de 1970 en la Universidad de Antioquia (UdeA, en Medellín. El objetivo: acercarse a la historia transcurrida tras las cámaras de la historiografía político-social tradicionalmente encargada del sujeto en cuestión, la cual creo un acervo, pero también un objeto desde una mirada particular. Las fuentes: dos novelas, Compañeros de viaje (1991 de Luis Fayad y El dedo índice de Mao (1993 de Juan Diego Mejía. El ejercicio permitió aproximarse a la escena privada y domestica estudiantil, reflexionar sobre el vínculo de esta con la vida pública y social y sobre la injerencia de las razones afectivas en los motivos de la vinculación o la militancia, así como interpretar la manera como significaron y enfrentaron el mundo en que vivieron, a partir de indicios y datos tipificados encontrados en las novelas. Finalmente, el artículo es una forma de demostrar y corroborar la eficacia del uso de la novela como fuente, que parece depender más de las capacidades del investigador que de las cualidades del material.

  11. ECOTOURISM AND THE ECONOMY: CASE STUDY OF MARA & AMBOSELI IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne N. OKECH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kenyan government sees ecotourism as having the potential of becoming a moderately useful tool for locally directed and participatory rural development based on a rational utilization of environmental and cultural resources on which tourism relays on. We therefore need a better understanding of ecotourism’s impacts, and how those impacts are affected by various development and management strategies. Furthermore, ecotourism not only provides revenue and employment, but also causes undesirable environmental and social change. Unfortunately, these costs of ecotourism development are rarely evaluated in detail. If ecotourism is indeed promoting a region’s welfare, it is vital that apart from the economic potential, environmental and social costs that also need to be identified, these costs enter into any decisions about ecotourism development. This paper contributes to a greater understanding of the linkages between ecotourism and the economy from the Kenyan perspective. Research was undertaken in communities adjacent to Masai Mara and Amboseli area in Kenya. The study examined the relationships between ecotourism and economy with a view to understanding how the benefits, if any, are utilized within the communities.

  12. Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: pastoralism, population, or policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homewood, K; Lambin, E F; Coast, E; Kariuki, A; Kikula, I; Kivelia, J; Said, M; Serneels, S; Thompson, M

    2001-10-23

    Declines in habitat and wildlife in semiarid African savannas are widely reported and commonly attributed to agropastoral population growth, livestock impacts, and subsistence cultivation. However, extreme annual and shorter-term variability of rainfall, primary production, vegetation, and populations of grazers make directional trends and causal chains hard to establish in these ecosystems. Here two decades of changes in land cover and wildebeest in the Serengeti-Mara region of East Africa are analyzed in terms of potential drivers (rainfall, human and livestock population growth, socio-economic trends, land tenure, agricultural policies, and markets). The natural experiment research design controls for confounding variables, and our conceptual model and statistical approach integrate natural and social sciences data. The Kenyan part of the ecosystem shows rapid land-cover change and drastic decline for a wide range of wildlife species, but these changes are absent on the Tanzanian side. Temporal climate trends, human population density and growth rates, uptake of small-holder agriculture, and livestock population trends do not differ between the Kenyan and Tanzanian parts of the ecosystem and cannot account for observed changes. Differences in private versus state/communal land tenure, agricultural policy, and market conditions suggest, and spatial correlations confirm, that the major changes in land cover and dominant grazer species numbers are driven primarily by private landowners responding to market opportunities for mechanized agriculture, less by agropastoral population growth, cattle numbers, or small-holder land use.

  13. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  14. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  15. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  16. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  17. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  18. Roles of Lon protease and its substrate MarA during sodium salicylate-mediated growth reduction and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarla, Chetana; Das, Mrinmoy; Verma, Taru; Kumar, Anujith; Mahadevan, S; Nandi, Dipankar

    2016-05-01

    The cellular proteolytic machinery orchestrates protein turnover and regulates several key biological processes. This study addresses the roles of Lon, a major ATP-dependent protease, in modulating the responses of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 to low and high amounts of sodium salicyclate (NaSal), a widely used clinically relevant analgesic. NaSal affects several bacterial responses, including growth and resistance to multiple antibiotics. The loss of lon reduces growth in response to high, but not low, amounts of NaSal. From amongst a panel of Lon substrates, MarA was identified to be the downstream target of Lon. Thus, stabilization of MarA in the absence of lon lowers growth of the strain in the presence of higher amounts of NaSal. The steady-state transcript levels of marA and its target genes, acrA, acrB and tolC, are higher in the Δlon strain compared with the WT strain. Consequently, the resistance to antibiotics, e.g. tetracycline and nalidixic acid, is enhanced in Δlon in a marA-dependent manner. Furthermore, the target genes of MarA, i.e. acrB and tolC, are responsible for NaSal-mediated antibiotic resistance. Studies using atomic force microscopy demonstrated that ciprofloxacin led to greater cell filamentation, which is lower in the Δlon strain due to higher levels of MarA. Overall, this study delineates the roles of Lon protease, its substrate MarA and downstream targets of MarA, e.g. acrB and tolC, during NaSal-mediated growth reduction and antibiotic resistance. The implications of these observations in the adaptation of E. coli under different environmental conditions are discussed.

  19. Role of the multidrug resistance regulator MarA in global regulation of the hdeAB acid resistance operon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristian; McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2008-02-01

    MarA, a transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli, affects functions such as multiple-antibiotic resistance (Mar) and virulence. Usually an activator, MarA is a repressor of hdeAB and other acid resistance genes. We found that, in wild-type cells grown in LB medium at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5, repression of hdeAB by MarA occurred only in stationary phase and was reduced in the absence of H-NS and GadE, the main regulators of hdeAB. Moreover, repression of hdeAB by MarA was greater in the absence of GadX or Lrp in exponential phase at pH 7.0 and in the absence of GadW or RpoS in stationary phase at pH 5.5. In turn, MarA enhanced repression of hdeAB by H-NS and hindered activation by GadE in stationary phase and also reduced the activity of GadX, GadW, RpoS, and Lrp on hdeAB under some conditions. As a result of its direct and indirect effects, overexpression of MarA prevented most of the induction of hdeAB expression as cells entered stationary phase and made the cells sevenfold more sensitive to acid challenge at pH 2.5. These findings show that repression of hdeAB by MarA depends on pH, growth phase, and other regulators of hdeAB and is associated with reduced resistance to acid conditions.

  20. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. 50.4 Section 50.4 Animals and... Indemnity § 50.4 Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  1. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and reduces in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by decreasing type 1 fimbriae expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2012-05-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. In this report the effects of salicylate on biofilm formation and their relationship with MarA were studied. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and salicylate concentration added to the culture medium. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and decreases the expression of fimA and fimB genes in the wild-type strain. In addition, the fimA and fimB expression was decreased in a MarR mutant in which marA was also overexpressed. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 fimbriae in presence of salicylate may be regulated by the level of marA expression through fimB regulator, albeit through neither the ompX nor the tolC genes.

  2. A conexão americana: Mattoso Câmara e o círculo lingüístico de Nova Iorque The American connection: Mattoso Câmara and the New York linguistic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Altman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quando se pensa nas conexões entre as lingüísticas brasileira e norte-americana, a primeira referência que nos vem à mente é o Círculo Lingüístico de Nova Iorque, onde Roman Jakobson (1896-1982 e Claude Lévi-Strauss (n. 1908 - recém chegado do Brasil, onde permanecera entre 1935 e 1939 - se encontraram e discutiram suas idéias. Este encontro excepcional obscureceu outros contatos entre a lingüística brasileira e a norte-americana, entre eles, aquele ocorrido entre Jakobson e o lingüista brasileiro Joaquim Mattoso Câmara Jr. (1904-1980, que teve conseqüências bem maiores, ao menos no que diz respeito à implementação da lingüística estrutural no Brasil e na América do Sul nos anos 50 e 60. O impacto de Jakobson e da lingüística norte-americana no trabalho de Mattoso Câmara e sua subseqüente influência no desenvolvimento da lingüística brasileira são o foco do presente artigo.When mention is made of Brazil in connection with American linguistics, it usually amounts to a reference to the Linguistic Circle of New York, where Roman Jakobson (1896-1982 and Claude Lévi-Strauss (b. 1908 - who had recently come from Brazil where he stayed from 1935 until 1939 - met and exchanged ideas. This singular event has cast a shadow on other contacts between Brazil and American linguistics, among which the one between Jakobson and the Brazilian linguist Joaquim Mattoso Câmara (1904-1970 was much more consequential, at least in what concerns the implementation of structural linguistics in Brazil and in South America during the 1950s and the 1960s. The impact of Jakobson and of American Linguistics on the work of Mattoso Câmara and its subsequent influence on developments of Brazilian linguistics are the focus of the article.

  3. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  4. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  5. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  6. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  7. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  8. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  9. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Service Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2042- PDM, 4401...

  10. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  11. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  12. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin.

  13. Early Cenozoic Shortening and Foreland Basin Sedimentation in the Marañon Fold-thrust Belt, Central Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. J.; Carlotto, V.; Horton, B. K.; Rosell, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Marañon fold-thrust belt in the westernmost Andes of Peru has long been considered a robust signature of early Cenozoic shortening in the Andean orogenic belt. However, the structural details and potential records of coeval synorogenic sedimentation remain elusive. We report results from new geologic mapping (1:50,000), cross-section construction, and U-Pb geochronology for the Matucana-Ticlio region at 11-12°S along the Lima-La Oroya highway. Zircon U-Pb age data from volcanic rocks and clastic basin fill provide a maximum depositional age of ~43 Ma for a middle Eocene syndeformational unit that we identify as the Anta Formation, which overlies the Paleocene Casapalca Formation. Sedimentary lithofacies and unconformable relationships within the volcaniclastic Anta Formation reveal mixed fluvial, alluvial-fan, and volcanic depositional conditions during shortening accommodated by a NE-verging thrust/reverse fault and corresponding backthrust (here named the Chonta fault system). Our cross-section reconstruction and geochronological data indicate that the region is a critical, possibly unique, zone of the broader NE-directed Marañon fold-thrust belt where pre-Neogene synorogenic sediments and their associated structures are preserved. We interpret this combined structural and basin system as an Eocene-age (Incaic) frontal thrust belt and corresponding foredeep to wedge-top depozone in central Peru. As one of the better-constrained segments of the Marañon fold-thrust belt, this zone provides insight into potential linkages with elusive early Cenozoic (Incaic) structures and foreland basin fill of the Western Cordillera and Altiplano farther south in the central Andean plateau.

  14. Agujerear el mundo. Un gran tour dibujado por cabañas, cámaras y trincheras

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Sanchez, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta una serie de dibujos que vienen a traducir un encuentro experiencial y existencial con tres arquitecturas-paisaje apenas estudiadas. Son lecturas gráficas de tres figuras espaciales y ontológicas. Casos concretos de cabañas, cámaras y trincheras, que analizados desde una perspectiva histórica aportan claves a cuestiones nucleares en nuestro tiempo -como son la autoconstrucción, la auto-organización y la emancipación. Nociones que están siendo claves en el seno de los actuales movi...

  15. mara frigorifica com atmosfera controlada para conservação de produtos frutícolas refrigerados

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Daniel Mendes de

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de Mestrado para obtenção do grau de mestre em Engenharia Mecânica Ramo de Energia, Refrigeração e Climatização O trabalho de projeto final de Mestrado, corresponde à conceção de uma câmara frigorífica com atmosfera controlada para conservação de produtos frutícolas refrigerados, em que o fruto escolhido foi o kiwi. Foi feito uma caracterização do fruto e principais propriedades e enquadramento da sub-fileira do kiwi em Portugal. Foram abordado...

  16. mara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  17. Para organizar el desconcierto: Algunos elementos de ubicación social y conceptual de las maras y pandillas centroamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Núñez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo estudia, desde un punto de vista conceptual, a las pandillas y maras en la Centroaméricacontemporánea, quienes han emergido como "sujeto negado". Este fenómeno implica la negación dela condición humana de estos colectivos en los medios de comunicación que los representan como"monstruos". Además, conlleva la negación por parte del público en general de los mecanismos de"violencia estructural" y "violencia simbólica" que constituyen este tipo de colectivos juveniles.

  18. Democracia em discursos : investigação dos pronunciamentos parlamentares da Câmara Legislativa do Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Priscila Assis de

    2007-01-01

    A presente pesquisa estuda o conceito de democracia preponderante nos discursos dos parlamentares da Câmara Legislativa do Distrito Federal. O problema de pesquisa a nos guiar é qual é o conceito de democracia preponderante nos discursos dos parlamentares ? Nossa hipótese é de que o conceito de democracia preponderante é o que foi elaborado por Joseph A. Schumpeter que entende por democracia um método de escolha de representantes. Nosso estudo investigou discursos no período 1991 a 2002. Nós ...

  19. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.; César Jara C.; Antenor Guerra M; Enrique Díaz L

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre ...

  20. Linaje y poder en la Castilla Trastámara. El ejemplo de la Orden de Calatrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Picavea Matilla, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to project the analysis made on the Trastámara´s Castile to the concrete example of the Military Order of Calatrava, one of the most important institutions of Castile in the Middle Ages which, up to now, has not still been studied from this point of view. In order to carry on our research, we have taken advantage both chronicles and literary sources and archivistic records. Therefore, the article analyzes the dominion acquired by the most renowned Calatrava's lineages (Padilla, Guzmán, Girón in the Trastámara's Castile, using the Order resources by means of the control of his highests hierarchs. This power was evidenced through a peculiar behaviour and it was exhibited by devices, iconographic figures and some masterpieces. Shortly, the Calatrava's nobility behaved similarly to the laic one, despite his belonging to a religious institution.

    El objetivo de este artículo es proyectar el análisis en la nobleza de la Castilla Trastámara al ejemplo concreto de la Orden militar de Calatrava, una de las instituciones más importantes de la Castilla medieval y que hasta el momento no había sido estudiada desde esta perspectiva. Para nuestra investigación hemos utilizado fuentes cronísticas y literarias combinadas con documentación archivística. El artículo analiza el poder adquirido por los principales linajes calatravos (Padilla, Guzmán y Girón en la Castilla Trastámara, utilizando para ello los recursos de la Orden de Calatrava mediante el control de sus más altas jerarquías. Este poder se concretó en un determinado comportamiento y se exhibió por medio de símbolos, singulares representaciones iconográficas y ciertas obras artísticas. En definitiva, la nobleza calatrava se comportó de manera muy similar a la laica, a pesar de los condicionantes propios de la pertenencia a una institución religiosa.

  1. Fotometría óptica desde el espacio: la cámara OMC a bordo de INTEGRAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [spa] El trabajo que presentamos en esta tesis tiene como finalidad la operación, calibración y análisis de datos ópticos del instrumento OMC (Optical Monitoring Camera) a bordo del satélite INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory). La cámara OMC ofrece, por primera vez, la oportunidad de realizar observaciones fotométricas de larga duración en el rango óptico, simultáneamente con las de rayos X y rayos gamma. En la primera parte de la tesis describimos el proyecto INTEG...

  2. Intervención de la Enfermería en la cámara hiperbárica

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio Herrero, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    La evolución y desarrollo de la cámara hiperbárica y la oxigenoterapia hiperbárica se ha producido mayoritariamente durante el siglo pasado. En la actualidad, la OTH es empleada como tratamiento preferente en patologías como la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, la gangrena gaseosa, la embolia gaseosa y los disbarismos. No obstante, los diversos efectos terapéuticos han ampliado la utilización de la OTH como terapia complementaria en numerosas y variadas enfermedades. A pesar de lo anterio...

  3. Magritte's Captivity in Robbe-Grillet's "La Belle Captive:" The Subjugation of the Image by the Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortquist, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Offers Alain Robbe-Grillet's novel "La Belle Captive" (which employs 77 paintings by the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte) as playful interchange between word and image. Argues that the novel may be understood to demonstrate a fundamental relationship of inequality between word and image. (RS)

  4. Diseño, construcción y uso de una cámara CCD para observaciones astronómicas

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Molina, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    En este proyecto se presenta la construcción de una cámara CCD (dispositivo de carga acoplada) para su uso posterior en aplicaciones astronómicas siguiendo y adaptando las indicaciones del texto The CCD Camera Cookbook (Berry et al., 1994). Se explica el funcionamiento de una cámara CCD a nivel sencillo particularizada para el chip TC211 de la casa Texas Instuments. Se ha diseñado y construido las placas necesarias y se ha realizado un amplio estudio del funcionamiento de la...

  5. Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunguru Kimaren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of tremendous importance in many societies, including most rural African communities. This knowledge is however, rapidly dwindling due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle, and the influence of modern tourism. In case of the Sekenani Maasai, the recent change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle has not, thus far lead to a dramatic loss of traditional plant knowledge, when compared to other Maasai communities. However, in Sekenani, plants are used much less frequently for manufacturing tools, and for veterinary purposes, than in more remote areas. While the knowledge is still present, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a decline of the plant material available. This paper examines the plant use of the Maasai in the Sekenani Valley, North of the Masaai Mara National Reserve. The Maasai pastoralists of Kenya and Tanzania use a large part of the plants in their environment for many uses in daily life. The plant use and knowledge of the Sekenani Maasai is of particular interest, as their clan, the "Il-Purko", was moved from Central Kenya to this region by the British Colonial Administration in 1904. The results of this study indicate that despite their relocation 100 years ago, the local population has an extensive knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and they ascribe uses to a large percentage of the plants found. One-hundred-fifty-five plant species were collected, identified and their Maa names and traditional uses recorded. Although fifty-one species were reported as of "no use", only eighteen of these had no Maasai name. Thirty-three were recognized by a distinctive Maa name. Thirty-nine species had a medicinal use, and 30 species served as fodder for livestock. Six species could not be identified. Of these plants five were addressed by the Maasai with distinct names. This exemplifies the Sekenani Maasai's in-depth knowledge of the plant resources

  6. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  7. Value of bias-corrected satellite rainfall products in SWAT simulations and comparison with other models in the Mara basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Abitew, T. A.; Roy, T.; van Griensven, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Bauwens, W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrometeorological monitoring networks are often limited for basins located in the developing world such as the transboundary Mara Basin. The advent of earth observing systems have brought satellite rainfall and evapotranspiration products, which can be used to force hydrological models in data scarce basins. The objective of this study is to develop improved hydrologic simulations using distributed satellite rainfall products (CMORPH and TMPA) with a bias-correction, and compare the performance with different input data and models. The bias correction approach for the satellite-products (CMORPH and TMPA) involves the use of a distributed reference dataset (CHIRPS) and historical ground gauge records. We have applied the bias-corrected satellite products to force the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the Mara Basin. Firstly, we calibrate the SWAT parameters related to ET simulation using ET from remote sensing. Then, the SWAT parameters that control surface processes are calibrated using the available limited flow. From the analysis, we noted that not only the bias-corrected satellite rainfall but also augmenting limited flow data with monthly remote sensing ET improves the model simulation skill and reduces the parameter uncertainty to some extent. We have planned to compare these results from a lumped model forced by the same input satellite rainfall. This will shed light on the potential of satellite rainfall and remote sensing ET along with in situ data for hydrological processes modeling and the inherent uncertainty in a data scarce basin.

  8. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  9. Obstrucción y proceso decisorio en la Cámara de los Diputados: Brasil 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio RENNO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica cómo la gestión de la coalición de gobierno y los atributos de la dinámica del conflicto entre e intra-coaliciones, tanto del gobierno como de la oposición, afectan a la incidencia de movimientos de obstrucción en la Cámara de los Diputados brasileña entre 1991 y 2010. Los movimientos de obstrucción son operacionalizados a través del porcentaje de votaciones nominales mensuales relativas a requerimientos procedimentales que de alguna forma retrasan la decisión sobre una propuesta legislativa. Se encuentra que la proporcionalidad en la distribución de cargos en los ministerios es eficiente a la hora de reducir la obstrucción en coaliciones menores. En coaliciones mayores, este tipo de incentivo tiene poco efecto para reducir movimientos obstruccionistas. Coaliciones de gobierno menores, más unidas y mejor administradas, son más eficientes que alianzas hinchadas para aminorar los problemas de toma de decisión en la Cámara de los Diputados.

  10. La infancia en el esquema marañoniano de las edades de la vida del hombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The huge volume of scientific work by Marañón includes a series of contributions on the subject of the ages of human life. From biological approaches to medical/social issues, such as eugenics, the author presents his individual vision of children defined according to a set of criteria grounded largely in his endocrinological theories. The weight of tradition from classical and Renaissance authors such as the Spaniard Huarte de San Juan, is present both as a historical reference framework and as a means of reflecting on current situations.La ingente obra científica de Marañón incluye también una serie de aportaciones sobre el tema de las edades de la vida humana. Desde acercamientos biológicos a los de cariz médico-social, como la eugenesia, el autor presenta su particular visión de la infancia definida de acuerdo a una serie de criterios fundamentados, en gran medida, en su pensamiento endocrinológico. El peso de la tradición de la Antigüedad clásica y de autores renacentistas como el español Huarte de San Juan, está presente como marco de referencia histórico y como una forma de reflexionar sobre situaciones actuales.

  11. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  12. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  13. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  14. Tear production in three captive wild herbivores in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). Mean (+/- standard deviation) STT values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. There were no significant differences in STT values between ibex and oryx, but tear production in both species was significantly lower than in zebras. Knowledge of normal tear production values is important for the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis and keratitis in these species.

  15. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  16. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  17. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  18. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  19. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  20. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce...

  2. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  3. Reproduction of Phylloderma stenops in captivity (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL Esbérard

    Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.

  4. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  5. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  6. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  7. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wayne Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina. The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3 previous litters successfully. These ranged from 2-3 young, with a 100% survival rate. This case presented a difficult labor, with delivery of three (3 healthy female precocious offspring (434g, 378g and 402g, and three (3 perinatal mortalities (285g, 368g and 300g. The female agouti died during delivery and postmortem results indicated that Dystocia resulting in Secondary Uterine Inertia as the cause of death. This abnormally large litter may have been as a result of captive conditions, where an abundance of food and a lack of predators may have dulled the animal’s survival instinct. The agouti’s ability and the time taken to deliver all six (6 young may also have contributed to the animals delivery stress.

  8. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana.

  9. NEPHROPATHIES IN THE EUROPEAN CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.

  10. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  11. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  12. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  13. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  15. Environmental Communication: A Review of Information Sources and Communication Channels for Enhanced Community-Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Mara Region of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongare, David; Macharia, Ayub; Mwakaje, Agnes; Muchane, Muchai; Warui, Charles; Mugoya, Charles; Masiga, Clet; Nikundiwe, Alfeyo; Muiti, Anastacia; Wakibara, James

    2013-01-01

    The Mara-Serengeti is an ecosystem of immense importance to both Kenya and Tanzania, contributing significantly to the economies of both countries and forming a rich biodiversity reservoir. This ecosystem is among the most threatened ecosystems on the African continent. Increasing human population density and changing lifestyles have escalated…

  16. El significado histórico de las aportaciones de Marañón en el campo de la endocrinología internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marco, Carla P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This approach to the early international dissemination of Marañón’s endocrinological work highlights the leading role he played in the emergence of this medical specialty in Spain in the international context. Endocrinology was taking shape in European clinical medicine during Marañon’s generation, that of 1914, contributing to refocusing medical mind-set on the patient, such that endocrinology was initially not conceived of as an autonomous medical specialty.Una aproximación a la temprana difusión internacional de la obra endocrinológica de Marañón permite situar su protagonismo en el nacimiento de la especialidad médica en España en el marco de la endocrinología internacional, que cristalizaba en la medicina clínica europea de la misma generación de Marañón, la de 1914. Lo hacía sirviendo a una corriente renovadora que centraba de nuevo la mentalidad médica en la persona del paciente, por lo que no se concibió inicialmente la posibilidad de su escisión como especialidad médica.

  17. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  18. Presence and distribution of mosquito larvae predators and factors influencing their abundance along the Mara River, Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Abuom, Paul O; Onyuka, Jackson O; Matano, Ally-Said; Adoka, Samson O; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Philip O; Ouma, Collins; Ofulla, Ayub Vo

    2015-01-01

    Among all the malaria controlling measures, biological control of mosquito larvae may be the cheapest and easiest to implement. This study investigated baseline predation of immature mosquitoes by macroinvertebrate predators along the Mara River, determined the diversity of predators and mosquito larvae habitats and the range of their adaptive capacity to water physico-chemical parameters. Between July and August 2011, sampling sites (n=39) along the Mara River were selected and investigated for the presence of macroinvertebrate predators and mosquito larvae. The selected sampling sites were geocoded and each dipped 20 times using standard mosquito larvae dipper to sample mosquito larvae, while a D-frame dip net was used to capture the macroinvertebrate predators. Water physico-chemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity and turbidity) were taken in situ at access points, while hardness and alkalinity were measured titrimetically. The influence of macroinvertebrate predator occurrence was correlated with mosquito larvae and water quality parameters using Generalized Linear Model (GLM). Predators (n=297) belonging to 3 orders of Hemiptera (54.2%), Odonata (22.9%) and Coleoptera (22.9%), and mosquito larvae (n=4001) belonging to 10 species, which included An.gambiae s.l (44.9%), Culex spp. (34.8%) and An. coustani complex (13.8%), An. maculipalpis (3.6%), An. phaorensis (1.2%), An. funestus group (0.5%), An. azaniae (0.4%), An. hamoni (0.3%), An. christyi (0.3%), An. ardensis (0.08%), An. faini (0.07%), An. sergentii (0.05%) and 0.05% of Aedes mosquito larvae which were not identified to species level, due to lack of an appropriate key, were captured from different habitats along the Mara river. It was established that invasion of habitats by the macroinvertebrate predators were partially driven by the presence of mosquito larvae (p < 0.001), and the prevailing water physico-chemical parameters (DO, temperature, and turbidity, p <0

  19. Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the Upper Mara River basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Fidelis; Masese, Frank O.; Van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy; Obando, Joy; Lens, Piet N. L.

    Tropical rivers display profound temporal and spatial heterogeneity in terms of environmental conditions. This aspect needs to be considered when designing a monitoring program for water quality in rivers. Therefore, the physico-chemical composition and the nutrient loading of the Upper Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and Nyangores were monitored. Initial daily, and later a weekly monitoring schedule for 4 months spanning through the wet and dry seasons was adopted. Benthic macro-invertebrates were also collected during the initial sampling to be used as indicators of water quality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the physico-chemical status and biological integrity of the Upper Mara River basin. This was achieved by examining trends in nutrient concentrations and analyzing the structure, diversity and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates in relation to varying land use patterns. Sampling sites were selected based on catchment land use and the level of human disturbance, and using historical records of previous water quality studies. River water pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, and turbidity were determined in situ. All investigated parameters except iron and manganese had concentration values within allowable limits according to Kenyan and international standards for drinking water. The Amala tributary is more mineralized and also shows higher levels of pH and EC than water from the Nyangores tributary. The latter, however, has a higher variability in both the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. The variability in TP and TN concentrations increases downstream for both tributaries and is more pronounced for TN than for TP. Macro-invertebrate assemblages responded to the changes in land use and water quality in terms of community composition and diversity. The study recommends detailed continuous monitoring of the water quality at shorter time intervals and to identify

  20. Intra-laboratory evaluation of Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) for potential application in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhia, Kirit; Dando, Terry; Thompson, K Clive

    2007-09-01

    The Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) is an innovative system based on an array of 11 different microbial species freeze-dried in a 96-well micro-titre plate format. Developed for testing the toxicity of chemicals, mixtures and environmental samples, the assay employs species of a taxonomically diverse range. In addition to ten prokaryotic species, a eukaryote (yeast) is included in the range. The MARA's innate scope of a multi-dimensional test allows determination of toxicity based on a unique assay fingerprint or index, numerically expressed as the mean Microbial Toxic Concentration (MTC). The most significant potential of the test is in the additional inference that can be conveyed to the toxicity evaluation because of the presence of each of the constituent species. In view of the fact that conventional aquatic bioassays, like fish or cladoceran tests, are expensive and impractical, the MARA could provide a cost-effective solution for routine ecotoxicological testing. The performance of the MARA was evaluated to ascertain its capability and potential scope. Sensitivity to toxicants and different environmental samples was assessed. Evaluation included comparison with other tests: namely Microtox, invertebrate (Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus) microbiotests, and respiration-inhibition and nitrification-inhibition tests. The most sensitive invertebrate test was found to be the T. platyurus microbiotest for three of the four metals tested. The LC(50) values for this test for Cd(ii), Cr(vi) and As(iii) were 0.2, 0.018 and 0.3 mg l(-1), respectively; and the corresponding most sensitive MARA species MTC values were 4.4, 2.8 and 17 mg l(-1), respectively.

  1. As Câmaras Municipais no Império Português: o exemplo do Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria Fernanda Bicalho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa analisar o papel representado pelas Câmaras Municipais Ultrama-rinas no interior do Império Colonial Português. Ele centra sua análise sobre a Câmara do Rio de Janeiro ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII, no sentido de ilustrar a composição das municipalidades, suas funções rotineiras, sua ação nos tempos de crise e de guerra, e o tipo de suas demandas dirigidas aos representantes da Coroa nos dois lados do Atlântico. Enquanto centro político-administrativo, de imposição de tributos, de comércio e defesa, o Rio de Janeiro se tornou locus privilegiado do exercício do domínio metropolitano sobre a vasta região do Atlântico-Sul. Este artigo pretende discutir as tensões, negociações e compro-missos entre a política metropo-litana e o papel de uma das mais importantes municipalidades no mundo luso-americano.The present article analises the role played by the overseas municipal councils in Portuguese Colonial Empire. It focus the Municipal Council of Rio de Janeiro during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in order to illustrate the composition of the municipalities, their routine functions, their action in times of crisis and war, and the kind of it's demands to the Crown representatives on both sides of the Atlantic. As the center of political administration, tax collection, commerce, and defense, Rio de Janeiro was the privileged stage for the exercise of metropolian dominance over the vast South-Atlantic world. This article intends to discuss the tensions, negociations, and compromises between metropolitan politics and the role of one of the most important luso-american municipalities.

  2. Compromising polarity and waveform constraints in focal-mechanism solutions; the Mara Rosa 2010 Mw 4 central Brazil earthquake revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradník, J.; Fojtíková, L.; Carvalho, J.; Barros, L. V.; Sokos, E.; Janský, J.

    2015-11-01

    Focal-mechanism determination of weak events recorded in sparse networks is challenging. First-motion polarities are often available at relatively distant stations, and waveforms only at a few near stations can be modeled. A two-step approach of how to combine such data has been suggested recently (Cyclic Scanning of the Polarity Solutions, or CSPS method; Fojtíková and Zahradník, 2014). It starts with creating a suite of first-motion polarity solutions, which is often highly non-unique. The next step consists of repeating full waveform inversion for all polarity solutions. Even few stations may efficiently reduce the non-uniqueness of the polarity solutions. Centroid depth, time, scalar moment and uncertainty estimate of the well-fitting double-couple solutions are obtained. The CSPS method has been extended in this paper by adding a new feature, i.e. repeated inversions using multiple first-motion polarity sets. The polarity sets are created by projecting the stations on focal sphere in several available velocity models, thus accounting for the takeoff angle uncertainty. The multiple polarity sets provide assessment of the CSPS solution stability. These ideas are demonstrated on a comprehensive analysis of a rare event in central Brazil. It is the Mw ˜4 mainshock of the Mara Rosa 2010 earthquake sequence (Barros et al., 2015, Carvalho et al., 2015). We employ polarities at 11 stations (distances Mara Rosa mainshock mechanism deviated from the composite solution of the whole sequence by 38°. The paper also includes a test simulating situations at which just a single waveform is used, and how it negatively affects the solution stability.

  3. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density Levels in Maraş Powder (Smokeless Tobacco Users and Smokers in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are two recognized risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis. Maras powder (MP, a kind of smokeless tobacco, has a lot of addicts in the city of Kahramanmaraş and its surroundings, Turkey. This is the study investigating the effects of MP on BMD and comparing with smoking. Meterial and Methods: A total of 120 healthy male subjects (60 MP users, 60 smoker from Maras City, Turkey were included in the study. All subjects information on demographics, health history, alcohol and tobacco use and medication use were obtained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects who had any pathology that might affect BMD, were excluded from the study. Measurements of bone mineral density were obtained by phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry of the nondominant hand. BMD values (g/cm2 of MP users were compared with those of smokers. Results: The mean duration of MP use and the mean age of MP users were 30.6±14.4 years and 64.4±9.8 years, respectively. The mean duration of smoking and the mean age of smokers were 33.7±11.0 years and 61.6±10.4 years, respectively. The mean phalangeal BMD in MP users (0.31±0.04 g/cm2 was signi cantly lower than that in the smokers (0.33±0.03 g/cm2, p=0.004. Conclusion: In MP user males, BMD is lower compared to the smoker males. If our results are supported by other studies, it may be claimed that MP use is a very strong risk factor for low BMD value compared to cigarette smoking. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 12-6

  4. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  5. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    in captive onagers as a consequence of some degree of purging. Consequently, the risk of inbreeding depression should currently be minimal in the captive breeding program. Therefore, it is recommended to increase the connectivity between the four subgroups of onagers in order to reduce the risk...

  6. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  7. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  8. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  9. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  10. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  12. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  13. Nocturnal Activity of a Captive Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    This report aims to clarify the nocturnal activity of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) under captive conditions to compare it with that under natural conditions. The aye-aye was nocuturnal and showed activity at any time at night. However, from 02:00 hrs until just prior to dawn, it often rested. It frequently returned to the nest throughout this period to take long rests of more than half an hour. The aye-aye's activities were classified into four categories: feeding, moving, resti...

  14. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  15. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  16. Primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, R N

    1975-01-01

    Under natural light in Portland, Oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in Madagascar. A series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. After photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received additional photoperiod changes. Unimpregnated females, on the other hand, showed no significant decline in the incidence of estrous cycles under prolonged exposure to a constant day length regimen (12.OL:12.OD) for over a year.

  17. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vercammen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion.

  18. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  19. Calibración de una cámara de presión hidráulica desarrollada en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymara García López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La cámara de presión es un instrumento que cuantifica el estado hídrico de las plantas a través de medidas de potencial hídrico, y por tanto puede constituir un medio auxiliar para la programación del riego de los cultivos. En el IIRD se desarrolló una cámara de presión hidráulica que tiene como ventajas en comparación a la cámara de presión de vapor, su traslado fácil hacia el área experimental y que no requiere de gas nitrógeno como fuente de presión. El presente trabajo tuvo como principal objetivo realizar la calibración de una cámara de presión hidráulica teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: grosor de la membrana elástica de apoyo del tejido foliar, tipo de líquido hidráulico para el accionamiento del pistón que convierte la energía mecánica en energía hidráulica y tipo de manómetro para medir la presión en el interior de la cámara. Para conocer el funcionamiento de este equipo se hicieron lecturas de potencial hídrico en discos foliares de plantas de pimiento y tomate cultivadas en diferentes regímenes de riego en condiciones de Organopónico. El mejor funcionamiento de la cámara se obtuvo con el uso de la membrana elástica de apoyo al tejido foliar de 3 mm de grosor, líquido de circulación 90 y el manómetro de 40 kgf·cm-2. Se encontró una correlación fuerte y significativa del potencial hídrico foliar con la humedad volumétrica en el sustrato, lo que indica una relación directa entre ambas variables.

  20. Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, L. M.; Melesse, A. M.; McClain, M. E.; Gann, D.; Setegn, S. G.

    2011-07-01

    Some of the most valued natural and cultural landscapes on Earth lie in river basins that are poorly gauged and have incomplete historical climate and runoff records. The Mara River Basin of East Africa is such a basin. It hosts the internationally renowned Mara-Serengeti landscape as well as a rich mixture of indigenous cultures. The Mara River is the sole source of surface water to the landscape during the dry season and periods of drought. During recent years, the flow of the Mara River has become increasingly erratic, especially in the upper reaches, and resource managers are hampered by a lack of understanding of the relative influence of different sources of flow alteration. Uncertainties about the impacts of future climate change compound the challenges. We applied the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the response of the headwater hydrology of the Mara River to scenarios of continued land use change and projected climate change. Under the data-scarce conditions of the basin, model performance was improved using satellite-based estimated rainfall data, which may also improve the usefulness of runoff models in other parts of East Africa. The results of the analysis indicate that any further conversion of forests to agriculture and grassland in the basin headwaters is likely to reduce dry season flows and increase peak flows, leading to greater water scarcity at critical times of the year and exacerbating erosion on hillslopes. Most climate change projections for the region call for modest and seasonally variable increases in precipitation (5-10 %) accompanied by increases in temperature (2.5-3.5 °C). Simulated runoff responses to climate change scenarios were non-linear and suggest the basin is highly vulnerable under low (-3 %) and high (+25 %) extremes of projected precipitation changes, but under median projections (+7 %) there is little impact on annual water yields or mean discharge. Modest increases in precipitation are partitioned

  1. Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Mango

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most valued natural and cultural landscapes on Earth lie in river basins that are poorly gauged and have incomplete historical climate and runoff records. The Mara River Basin of East Africa is such a basin. It hosts the internationally renowned Mara-Serengeti landscape as well as a rich mixture of indigenous cultures. The Mara River is the sole source of surface water to the landscape during the dry season and periods of drought. During recent years, the flow of the Mara River has become increasingly erratic, especially in the upper reaches, and resource managers are hampered by a lack of understanding of the relative influence of different sources of flow alteration. Uncertainties about the impacts of future climate change compound the challenges. We applied the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to investigate the response of the headwater hydrology of the Mara River to scenarios of continued land use change and projected climate change. Under the data-scarce conditions of the basin, model performance was improved using satellite-based estimated rainfall data, which may also improve the usefulness of runoff models in other parts of East Africa. The results of the analysis indicate that any further conversion of forests to agriculture and grassland in the basin headwaters is likely to reduce dry season flows and increase peak flows, leading to greater water scarcity at critical times of the year and exacerbating erosion on hillslopes. Most climate change projections for the region call for modest and seasonally variable increases in precipitation (5–10 % accompanied by increases in temperature (2.5–3.5 °C. Simulated runoff responses to climate change scenarios were non-linear and suggest the basin is highly vulnerable under low (−3 % and high (+25 % extremes of projected precipitation changes, but under median projections (+7 % there is little impact on annual water yields or mean discharge. Modest increases in precipitation

  2. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  3. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  4. Captive Gorillas are Right-Handed for Bimanual Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Calcutt, Sarah E.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Ross, Stephen R.; Hopkins, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Predominance of right-handedness has historically been considered as a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level manual bias remains a controversial topic. Here we investigated the hypothesis that bimanual coordinated activities may be a key-behavior in our ancestors for the emergence and evolution of human population-level right-handedness. To this end, we collected data on hand preferences in 35 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) during simple unimanual reaching and for bimanual coordinated feeding. Unimanual reaching consisted of grasping food on the ground while bimanual feeding consisted of using one hand for holding a food and processing the food item by the opposite hand. No population-level manual bias was found for unimanual actions but, in contrast, gorillas exhibited a significant population-level right-handedness for the bimanual actions. Moreover, the degree of right-handedness for bimanual feeding exceeds any other known reports of hand use in primates, suggesting that lateralization for bimanual feeding is robust in captive gorillas. The collective evidence is discussed in the context of potential continuity of handedness between human and nonhuman primates. PMID:20033918

  5. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay

    2009-12-01

    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  6. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (HO) and mean inbreeding (FIS) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  7. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  8. captive breeding of the four-eyed turtle (sacalia quadriocellata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    in 1998,a study on forty-five four-eyed turtles (sacalia quadriocellata) was initiated to gather preliminary biological data of this species and to investigate the feasibility of its captive reproduction.in the following six years,no courtship behavior was found occurring in males and no oviposition in females.from 2004 to 2007,two successful techniques were applied to initiate reproductive behavior:1) injecting exogenous reproductive hormones; and 2) reducing the stress of living in captivity.as a result of the hormone treatments,courtship behavior and copulation were observed during september and october,2005.however,no courtship displays were seen from the ck males,which were not treated with hormones.ovulation occurred between december and march,and the correlation was not significant between behavior of ovulation and food intake.females laid only one clutch of eggs each year,with 2.47 eggs (n=34,range=l-4) at average,and 84 eggs were totally obtained,of which 13 were damaged,52 were infertile and 19 fertile.of the fertile eggs,nine were hatched with mean incubation period of 105.9 days (n=9,range=89-122 days) at temperature ranging from 24 to 27℃.

  9. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience.

  10. Monarquia e câmaras coloniais: Sobre a comunicação política, 1640-1807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Raminelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo sobre a "comunicação política" entre a monarquia portuguesa e as câmaras do Brasil colonial. Inicialmente aborda o debate historiográfico brasileiro e, em seguida, analisa de forma quantitativa as cartas e representações das câmaras coloniais enviadas à administração metropolitana, entre 1640 e 1807. Por fim, detecta uma alteração da administração da monarquia portuguesa na segunda metade do século XVIII, responsável por diminuir o poder de negociação dos municípios

  11. Consideraciones sobre una cámara de combustión experimental de 400 kW // Considerations on a 400 kW experimental combustor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cabrera Rodríguez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda el diseño térmico y constructivo de la cámara de combustión de un combustor experimental para lasimulación de procesos reales de combustión. Se analizan distintas variantes constructivas y se valora su influencia en elcomportamiento del horno, su estabilidad térmica y los gastos energéticos incurridos durante su funcionamiento.Palabras claves: Cámara de combustión, diseño, combustor.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work approaches the thermal and mechanical design of a combustion chamber of an experimental combustor for thesimulation of real combustion process. Different designs are analyzed and their influence is valued in the behavior of thefurnace, thermal stability and cost incurred during their operation.Key words: Combustor, furnace design, thermical design .

  12. Si Galileo Galilei hubiera tenido una cámara digital: enseñando ciencias a una generación digital

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar como la cámara digital puede ser una herramienta didáctica para transformar la práctica de educación en ciencias en nuestros salones de clase en el nivel de educación básica. Para ello, se presentan tres casos de proyectos de clase que tienen en común el uso de la cámara digital. Estos casos responden a una teoría de la enseñanza de las ciencias basada en la fundamentación de las prácticas de investigación, cuya herramienta principal es la experime...

  13. A modeling approach to determine the impacts of land use and climate change scenarios on the water flux of the upper Mara River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, L. M.; Melesse, A. M.; McClain, M. E.; Gann, D.; Setegn, S. G.

    2010-08-01

    With the flow of the Mara River becoming increasingly erratic especially in the upper reaches, attention has been directed to land use change as the major cause of this problem. The semi-distributed hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Landsat imagery were utilized in the upper Mara River Basin in order to 1) map existing field scale land use practices in order to determine their impact 2) determine the impacts of land use change on water flux; and 3) determine the impacts of rainfall (0%, ±10% and ±20%) and air temperature variations (0% and +5%) based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections on the water flux of the upper Mara River. This study found that the different scenarios impacted on the water balance components differently. Land use changes resulted in a slightly more erratic discharge while rainfall and air temperature changes had a more predictable impact on the discharge and water balance components. These findings demonstrate that the model results show the flow was more sensitive to the rainfall changes than land use changes. It was also shown that land use changes can reduce dry season flow which is the most important problem in the basin. The model shows also deforestation in the Mau Forest increased the peak flows which can also lead to high sediment loading in the Mara River. The effect of the land use and climate change scenarios on the sediment and water quality of the river needs a thorough understanding of the sediment transport processes in addition to observed sediment and water quality data for validation of modeling results.

  14. A modeling approach to determine the impacts of land use and climate change scenarios on the water flux of the upper Mara River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Mango

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With the flow of the Mara River becoming increasingly erratic especially in the upper reaches, attention has been directed to land use change as the major cause of this problem. The semi-distributed hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and Landsat imagery were utilized in the upper Mara River Basin in order to 1 map existing field scale land use practices in order to determine their impact 2 determine the impacts of land use change on water flux; and 3 determine the impacts of rainfall (0%, ±10% and ±20% and air temperature variations (0% and +5% based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections on the water flux of the upper Mara River.

    This study found that the different scenarios impacted on the water balance components differently. Land use changes resulted in a slightly more erratic discharge while rainfall and air temperature changes had a more predictable impact on the discharge and water balance components. These findings demonstrate that the model results show the flow was more sensitive to the rainfall changes than land use changes. It was also shown that land use changes can reduce dry season flow which is the most important problem in the basin. The model shows also deforestation in the Mau Forest increased the peak flows which can also lead to high sediment loading in the Mara River. The effect of the land use and climate change scenarios on the sediment and water quality of the river needs a thorough understanding of the sediment transport processes in addition to observed sediment and water quality data for validation of modeling results.

  15. Effect of anthropogenic activities on the water quality of Amala and Nyangores tributaries of River Mara in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyairo, Wilfrida Nyanduko; Owuor, Philip Okinda; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-11-01

    Mau Forest in the upper reaches of the Mara River basin has recently undergone increased forest destruction followed by human settlement and agricultural activities. These anthropogenic activities may be contributing nutrients and heavy metals, ultimately polluting the river water and eventually Lake Victoria water hence damaging these aquatic ecosystems. This study sought to establish the effect of anthropogenic activities and season on the water quality of the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the River Mara in Kenya. Pristine springs in the Mau Forest were used as reference sites. Water samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, nutrients, selected heavy metals, and selenium. The mean range of the parameters measured from sites along the tributaries was pH 5.44-7.48 and that for conductivity was 20-99 μS/cm while the mean range of nutrient levels (μg/L) was 80-443 (NO3--N), 21.7-82.7 (NH4+-N), 11.9-65.0 (soluble reactive phosphorous), and 51-490 (total phosphorous). The mean range for heavy metals and selenium (in μg/L) from sites along the tributaries were 6.56-37.6 (Cu), 0.26-4.97 (Cd), 13.9-213 (Zn), 0.35-3.14 (Cr), 0.19-5.53 (Mn), 1.90-9.62 (Pb), and 0.21-4.50 (Se). The results indicated a significant difference (p≤0.05) between the reference sites and the different sampling sites, indicating that anthropogenic activities were impacting the quality of water in the two tributaries. Although most of the parameters were within the WHO (2004), USEPA (2014) and NEMA (2006) acceptable limits for surface waters, they were above the permissible levels for domestic use. Moreover, the levels of nutrients, heavy metals, and selenium were significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season, further indicating that anthropogenic activities are causing a disturbance in the aquatic system. Therefore, further anthropogenic activities should be checked and limited so as to conserve the ecosystem.

  16. Determinação de dose absorvida em feixes de elétrons utilizado câmara de ionizacão de placas paralelas

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    Bulla Roseli T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um procedimento para a determinação dos fatores de calibração e de doses absorvidas em feixes de elétrons. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados um irradiador de 60Co e um acelerador linear Varian, modelo Clinac 2100C, com feixes de fótons e de elétrons. Foram estudadas câmaras de ionização do tipo dedal e de placas paralelas. RESULTADOS: Os sistemas de medidas foram submetidos aos testes preliminares (estabilidade de resposta e corrente de fuga, com resultados muito bons. Quatro métodos de calibração de câmaras de ionização para utilização em feixes de elétrons foram testados. Para a determinação da dose absorvida em feixes de elétrons foram aplicadas três metodologias propostas pela Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica, com a obtenção de resultados concordantes em quase todos os casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maior parte das câmaras de ionização estudadas mostrou-se viável, com desempenho dentro dos limites internacionais estabelecidos.

  17. mara de irradiación UV-C económica y sus potenciales aplicaciones en la desinfección de alimentos

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    Ricardo Rodríguez Mijangos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone la utilización en potenciales alimentos, de una cámara portátil de irradiación con luz ultravioleta, en el rango de longitudes de onda de alta energía denominado rango C, que es la parte energética del espectro de luz. La amplia experiencia en varias partes del mundo ha demostrado que es la más eficiente para inhibir el crecimiento de bacterias en un material biológico. Hay métodos químicos para obtener el mismo resultado, pero tiene el inconveniente de la posible contaminación del material, lo cual en nuestro caso no sucede, ya que nos interesa inhibir bacterias en alimentos con irradiación, que no requiere un tratamiento químico. Se presentan resultados preliminares del potencial uso de la cámara germicida para desinfección de posibles alimentos. De interés regional en la zona del yaqui, Sonora, se ha identificado a la moringa y al frijol germinado. En este artículo se dan resultados preliminares de irradiación en frijol germinado. Lo presentado en este escrito da la pauta para posibles investigaciones; incluso dado el bajo costo de la cámara de irradiación, puede ser útil en la enseñanza.

  18. El desempeño de los partidos políticos en las elecciones para la Cámara de Diputados en Brasil

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    Helcimara de SOUZA TELLES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza el desempeño electoral de los partidos políticos brasileños, encuadrados como bloques ideológicos de derecha, centro e izquierda, en las elecciones para la Cámara de Diputados, en el período de 1982-2002. Los resultados demostraron que la izquierda crece en todas las regiones brasileñas y no hay indicios de reducción del apoyo a ésta en las próximas elecciones para la Cámara de Diputados. Se confirma también que la desproporcionalidad del sistema partidista afectó a la representación de los partidos en la Cámara de Diputados, resultando en sobrerrepresentación de los partidos más conservadores y subrepresentación de la izquierda.ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the electoral performance of Brazilian political parties, identifying them as right, center and left ideological blocs, in the elections for the Chamber of Deputies for the period 1982-2002. The results proved that the left grows in all Brazilian regions and there is no evidence of reduction of its support for the next elections. It is confirmed also that the disproportional party system affected party representation in the Chamber of Deputies, over-representing conservative parties and under-representing the left.

  19. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  20. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  2. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species.

  3. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Gray, Patricia L; Brightsmith, Donald; Palculict, Blake; Hoppes, Sharman; Steiner, Jörg M; Tizard, Ian; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2010-12-15

    The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and disease. Only limited data are available about the composition of the intestinal microbiota of captive animals compared to those of wild animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cloacal microbiota of apparently healthy wild and captive parrots. A total of 16 parrots, 8 wild and 8 captive, belonging to 3 different species, were used in this study. Cloacal material was collected via cloacal swabbing. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. A total of 518 clones were analyzed, and 49 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The OTUs were classified in 4 bacterial phyla: Firmicutes (72.9%), Proteobacteria (14.9%), Actinobacteria (12%), and Bacteroidetes (0.2%). Bacterial diversity was significantly lower in wild birds than in captive birds. Principal component analysis based on the Unifrac distance metric indicated that the cloacal microbiota differed between wild and captive parrots. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was significantly more abundant in wild birds, while Escherichia coli was significantly more abundant in captive birds. In conclusion, wild and captive parrots appear to have differences in the composition of their cloacal bacterial microbiota. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined.

  4. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  5. Lineage identification and genealogical relationships among captive Galápagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael; Boyer, Donal; Wiese, Robert J; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Marquez, Lady; Garrick, Ryan; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic tools have become a critical complement to traditional approaches for meeting short- and long-term goals of ex situ conservation programs. The San Diego Zoo (SDZ) harbors a collection of wild-born and captive-born Galápagos giant tortoises (n = 22) of uncertain species designation and unknown genealogical relationships. Here, we used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic data and nuclear microsatellite genotypic data to identify the evolutionary lineage of wild-born and captive-born tortoises of unknown ancestry, to infer levels of relatedness among founders and captive-born tortoises, and assess putative pedigree relationships assigned by the SDZ studbook. Assignment tests revealed that 12 wild-born and five captive-born tortoises represent five different species from Isabela Island and one species from Santa Cruz Island, only five of which were consistent with current studbook designations. Three wild-born and one captive-born tortoise were of mixed ancestry. In addition, kinship analyses revealed two significant first-order relationship pairs between wild-born and captive-born tortoises, four second-order relationships (half-sibling) between wild-born and captive tortoises (full-sibs or parent-offspring), and one second-order relationship between two captive-born tortoises. Of particular note, we also reconstructed a first-order relationship between two wild-born individuals, violating the founder assumption. Overall, our results contribute to a worldwide effort in identifying genetically important Galápagos tortoises currently in captivity while revealing closely related founders, reconstructing genealogical relationships, and providing detailed management recommendations for the SDZ tortoises.

  6. Impossible Neanderthals? Making string, throwing projectiles and catching small game during Marine Isotope Stage 4 (Abri du Maras, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bruce L.; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Daujeard, Camille; Fernandes, Paul; Béarez, Philippe; Desclaux, Emmanuel; Chacon Navarro, Maria Gema; Puaud, Simon; Gallotti, Rosalia

    2013-12-01

    Neanderthal behavior is often described in one of two contradictory ways: 1) Neanderthals were behaviorally inflexible and specialized in large game hunting or 2) Neanderthals exhibited a wide range of behaviors and exploited a wide range of resources including plants and small, fast game. Using stone tool residue analysis with supporting information from zooarchaeology, we provide evidence that at the Abri du Maras, Ardèche, France, Neanderthals were behaviorally flexible at the beginning of MIS 4. Here, Neanderthals exploited a wide range of resources including large mammals, fish, ducks, raptors, rabbits, mushrooms, plants, and wood. Twisted fibers on stone tools provide evidence of making string or cordage. Using a variety of lines of evidence, we show the presence of stone projectile tips, possibly used in complex projectile technology. This evidence shows a level of behavioral variability that is often denied to Neanderthals. Furthermore, it sheds light on perishable materials and resources that are not often recovered which should be considered more fully in reconstructions of Neanderthal behavior.

  7. Transcription analysis of stx1, marA, and eaeA genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7 treated with sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critzer, Faith J; Dsouza, Doris H; Golden, David A

    2008-07-01

    Expression of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon causes increased antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. The activator of this operon, MarA, can alter expression of >60 genes in Escherichia coli K-12. However, data on the expression of virulence and resistance genes when foodborne pathogens are exposed to antimicrobial agents are lacking. This study was conducted to determine transcription of marA (mar activator), stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), and eaeA (intimin) genes of E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 as affected by sodium benzoate. E. coli O157:H7 was grown in Luria-Bertani broth containing 0 (control) and 1% sodium benzoate at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and total RNA was extracted. Primers were designed for hemX (209 bp; housekeeping gene), marA (261 bp), and eaeA (223 bp) genes; previously reported primers were used for stx1. Tenfold dilutions of RNA were used in a real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR to determine transcription levels. All experiments were conducted in triplicate, and product detection was validated by gel electrophoresis. For marA and stx1, real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR products were detected at a 1-log-greater dilution in sodium benzoate-treated cells than in control cells, although cell numbers for each were similar (7.28 and 7.57 log CFU/ml, respectively). This indicates a greater (albeit slight) level of their transcription in treated cells than in control cells. No difference in expression of eaeA was observed. HemX is a putative uroporphyrinogen III methylase. The hemX gene was expressed at the same level in control and treated cells, validating hemX as an appropriate housekeeping marker. These data indicate that stx1 and marA genes could play a role in pathogen virulence and survival when treated with sodium benzoate, whereas eaeA expression is not altered. Understanding adaptations of E. coli O157:H7 during antimicrobial exposure is essential to better understand and implement methods to inhibit or control

  8. INTERACTION STRATEGIES GENERATED BY KIDNAPPER TOWARD THE VICTIM DURING CAPTIVITY

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    LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.

  9. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism of captive wild pigeons at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and  Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-

  10. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

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    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  11. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  12. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  13. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Koeppel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27 between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026, while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363 and post-treatment (P = 0.004 period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  14. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

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    L.S. Koster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 µg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot(R, Novartis, Kempton Park while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001. There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867. Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238.

  15. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  16. Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, S; Stoinski, T S; Bloomsmith, M A; Maple, T L

    2006-08-01

    Postconflict (PC) behaviors, including reconciliation and consolation, have been observed in many primate and several nonprimate species. Using the PC-matched control (MC) method, PC behavior was examined in two groups (n=13) of captive western lowland gorillas, a species for which no conflict resolution data have been published. Analyses of 223 conflicts showed significantly more affiliation between former opponents after a conflict when compared to control periods, indicating reconciliation. Results also showed significantly more affiliation between the victim and a third-party after a conflict, indicating consolation. Both solicited and unsolicited consolation were observed. The majority of the affiliative interactions observed for both reconciliation and consolation were social proximity, which suggests that unlike most nonhuman primates, proximity, rather than physical contact, may be the main mechanism for resolving conflicts in western lowland gorillas. PC behavior was not uniform throughout the groups, but rather varied according to dyad type.

  17. Behavioural Descriptions of Indian Pangolins (Manis crassicaudata in Captivity

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    Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation breeding programmes as an essential tool for conservation of endangered species require a sound knowledge on behaviour of the species. At present time, knowledge of behaviour and biology of Indian pangolins is inadequate and inconsistent. During the present study, an ethogram was developed based on the behavioural observations of seven Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata at Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India, between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 27 behaviours of seven distinct behavioural categories (stationary body positions, locomotory patterns, maintenance behaviours, explorative behaviours, defensive behaviours, reproductive/social behaviours, and others were described and illustrated. The results offer a consistent frame of reference for further studies on behavioural patterns of Indian pangolins. Besides, these preliminary observations could be useful in management and breeding of the species in captivity.

  18. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.

  19. Rôles des populations captives dans la conservation des lémuriens Roles of the captive populations in the conservation of lemurs

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    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les parcs zoologiques Européens abritent de nombreuses espèces de lémuriens. Certains parcs français, très impliqués dans la conservation de ces espèces, sont à l’origine de plusieurs programmes d’élevage. Si les exemples de réintroductions de lémuriens nés en captivité sont rares, les populations captives restent un réservoir potentiel d’individus pour les populations sauvages, en particulier dans les projets de conservation incluant une gestion en métapopulation de populations isolées, conséquence de la fragmentation de leur habitat. Les populations captives de lémuriens constituent de puissants "ambassadeurs" des populations sauvages : elles permettent de sensibiliser un large public à leur disparition et à la situation de Madagascar et de favoriser la récolte de fonds pour les actions in-situ en faveur de la conservation de ces espèces. En effet aujourd’hui, la présence de ces lémuriens en captivité est la seule source de financement pour certains projets de conservation. De plus, la recherche sur les populations captives contribue, de façon complémentaire aux études réalisées sur les populations sauvages, à une meilleure connaissance des espèces, indispensable à la mise en place de stratégies de conservation adaptées.Many species of lemurs can be found in European Zoos. Some French zoos, which are very implicated in the conservation of the lemurs, are the founders of several captive populations of lemurs. If the examples of reintroductions of captive-born lemurs are rare, the captive populations are nevertheless a potential reservoir of individuals for wild populations, particularly in conservation projects including a metapopulation management of isolated populations due to fragmentation of their habitat. The captive populations of lemurs are powerful "ambassadors" of wild populations that allow to alert the public on their disappearance and to the situation of Madagascar and to promote

  20. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  1. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Junginger

    Full Text Available This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%. Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50% with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11, genital (8, lympho-hematopoietic (5 and alimentary organs (4 as well as the mesothelium (3. Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2, thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1, pleural mesotheliomas (3, hemangiosarcomas (2 and glossal papillomas (2. Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively.

  3. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  4. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  5. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  6. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Johannes; Hansmann, Florian; Herder, Vanessa; Lehmbecker, Annika; Peters, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  7. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  8. Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Melissa; Citino, Scott; McNabb, Amanda Hillis; Moffatt, Amy Serino; Gertz, Karen; Kania, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive to type I and/or type II FCoV. From serologic data, infection with a virus antigenically related to FCoV type I occurred most commonly. Serology did not correlate with virus shedding because 13 animals were seronegative to FCoV type I and II but positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Conversely, 20 animals were seropositive but negative using RT/nPCR for FCoV. Some of the populations in which virus was detected had experienced health problems, including feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), necrotizing colitis, and mild enteritis. In addition to its role in FIP, this virus may play a role in gastrointestinal diseases of infected animals. This study demonstrates that FCoV is a significant infectious agent of captive felids because over half of the animals tested were positive by viral genetic detection, serology, or both. Dependence upon one method for detection of infection is unreliable.

  9. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  10. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  11. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  12. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  13. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  14. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar Panthera onca: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majie, Arnab K; Mondal, Parswanath; Ghosh, Swapan K; Banerjee, Dayanarayan

    2014-02-24

    High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  15. Cutaneous Adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar (Panthera onca: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab K. Majie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  16. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  17. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, IA. The exception is that results will be... identification approved by the Administrator; the age, sex, and breed of each captive cervid tested; a record...

  18. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Wang, Y; Ghebremeskel, K; Lendl, C E; Streich, W J

    2003-07-12

    The fatty acid components of the plasma triglycerides and the phospholipid fractions of the red blood cells of a captive group of two African (Loxodonta africana) and four Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants were investigated. All the animals received the same diet of hay, fruits and vegetables, and concentrates. A comparison with data from free-ranging African elephants or Asian work-camp elephants showed that the captive elephants had lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and for several lipid fractions a higher n-6:n-3 ratio, than their counterparts in the wild or under the more natural, in terms of diet, work-camp conditions. The difference in PUFA content was smaller in the African than in the Asian elephants. The captive Asian elephants tended to have lower levels of n-3 and total unsaturated fatty acids in their red blood cells than the captive African elephants.

  19. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin; Wang, Qingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  20. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  1. First Care Area Logs for captive loggerhead and Kemps ridley sea turtles 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.

  2. Monthly morphometric data on captive Kemps ridley sea turtles 1995-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  3. (Forced Walks on the Wild Side: Precarious Borders in American Captivity Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Starre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most readings of American captivity narratives have so far investigated their intercultural, psychological, and theological significances, while disregarding their ecological aspects. Despite its appropriation into US-American national literature, the captivity genre contains at its root a transcultural plot of an individual's confrontation with the environment and the unsettling forces of wilderness and animality. These personal memoirs indeed hold global value by pointing to our collective embeddedness and embodiedness.This essay surveys two early captivity narratives - the classical one by Mary Rowlandson (1682 and a lesser known text by John Gyles (1736 - alongside contemporary examples of the genre that relate the stories of American captives in Iraq and Colombia.

  4. Captive but mobile: Privacy concerns and remedies for the mobile nvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Baruh, Lemi; Mihaela POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    We use the legal framework of captive audience to examine the FTC’s 2012 privacy guidelines as applied to mobile marketing. We define captive audiences as audiences without functional opt-out mechanisms to avoid situations of coercive communication. By analyzing the current mobile marketing ecosystem, we show that the FTC’s privacy guidelines inspired by the Canadian “privacy by design” paradigm fall short of protecting consumers against invasive mobile marketing in at least three respects: (...

  5. Captive Reproduction Of The Neotropical Otter In The Santa Fe Zoological Park In Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcila D.A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding reproduction of Lontra longicaudis is lacking. We present the first experience of Neotropical river otters born in captivity in Colombia. Of three parturitions registered, only one was successful. The gestation period for L. longicaudis was estimated at 86 days, with no evidence of delayed implantation. This kind of pregnancy can be classified as short and variable. We recommend further research efforts regarding behaviour and reproduction of Neotropical otters in captivity.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  7. Czechs and Slovaks in Russian Captivity during World War I (1914-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana E. Dmitrieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.

  8. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  9. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  10. EFFECT OF CAPTIVE SUPPLY ON FARM-TO-WHOLESALE BEEF MARKETING MARGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    Debates about captive supplies have been ongoing for more than a decade. This study investigates the effects captive supplies have on the beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margin. A relative price spread (RPS) model is used to estimate beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margins. Estimates indicate that forward contracts and marketing agreements have a small positive relationship with margins that is marginally significant. Packer fed cattle may or may not be related to margins to depending upon ...

  11. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  12. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  13. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  14. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs.

  15. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  16. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  17. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  18. [Frequency of sickle-cell anemia in the population of "Cuatro Bocas," Parroquia Ricaurte, Mara municipality, Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guerra, E; Torres-Guerra, T; Valbuena, G; Arteaga Vizcaíno, M; Soto, L

    1993-01-01

    Isla de Toas is an island on the north of the Maracaibo Lake, it is known in the scientific community, for the high frequency of sickle cell disease, in a population with caucasoid phenotype. The purpose of the present work was to determine the frequency of sickle cell anemia in the population of Cuatro Bocas, situated 35 km from the southwest of Isla de Toas. The town is the center of confluence of a rural population constituted mainly of farmers. The sample consisted of 870 persons of both sexes, aged from 8 months to 66 years. The presence of the sickling phenomenon was determined in all the individuals, and hemoglobin electrophoresis in agarose was performed in all the positive samples. The following results were obtained: fifty-six cases (6.4%), showed drepanocytic changes, and forty-six of them were haemoglobin A/S, 8 were S/S and 2 were S/C. The higher frequency of hemoglobin S was in adolescents and adults. The family backgrounds suggest an insular origin of the sickle cell gene. About 75% of the affected population was ignorant of this condition. The hemoglobin values were lower in the individuals with the sickle cell disease (p < 0.05), than in the normal persons. Iron deficiency in adolescents was suspected because or their low hemoglobin values. The results indicate that the sickle cell gen is expanding to the nearest communities of the Mara county. It is important to consider that the findings of the present work should serve as an alert to the Public Health authorities, and that education of the population is important in order to prevent the spreading of the disease.

  19. The Mara Rosa 2010 GT-5 earthquake and its possible relationship with the continental-scale transbrasiliano lineament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lucas V.; Assumpção, Marcelo; Chimpliganond, Cristiano; Carvalho, Juraci M.; Von Huelsen, Mônica G.; Caixeta, Daniel; França, George Sand; de Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Ferreira, Vinicius M.; Fontenele, Darlan P.

    2015-07-01

    On October 8th, 2010, a 5.0 mb earthquake with intensity VI (MM) occurred close to Mara Rosa, in the North of Goiás State, central Brazil, in an area where previous low magnitude seismicity had been observed. This earthquake was felt up to 300 km away from the epicenter, and was the biggest event ever detected in Central Brazil Seismic Zone. Despite the difficulty of associating earthquakes in Stable Continental Interior with geological structures, this event is possibly related to the reactivation of a geological fault of the continental-scale Transbrasiliano Lineament (TBL): the aftershock activity observed with an 8-station seismic network, indicates a NW dipping, SW-NE trending reverse fault, parallel to the TBL. The P axis is NW-SE oriented, consistent with expected stress direction in the region. Cross correlation technique was used to synchronize the weak P- and S- wave phases of some of the aftershocks, recorded at regional stations, with the corresponding arrivals of the main shock producing a consistent set of relative arrival times. The use of regional station corrections allowed the mainshock to be located with uncertainties small enough to qualify for a GT5 event, which will help to constrain 3D velocity models in South America. We found that the aftershocks were distributed around a circular area about 1.5-2.0 km across, with no events in the middle. This is interpreted as the mainshock rupture completely releasing all stresses. The rupture area and the mainshock moment correspond to a stress-drop of about 2 MPa.

  20. Modelling the impact of agroforestry on hydrology of Mara River basin in East Africa using a distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Hosea; Julich, Stefan; Patil, Sopan; McDonald, Morag; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is one of the main drivers of change of watershed hydrology. The effect of forestry related land use changes (e.g., afforestation, deforestation, agroforestry) on watershed hydrology depends on climate, watershed characteristics and watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated, validated and used to simulate the impact of agroforestry on the water balance in Mara River Basin (MRB) in East Africa. Model performance was assessed by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). The NSE (and KGE) values for calibration and validation were 0.77 (0.88) and 0.74 (0.85) for the Nyangores sub-watershed and 0.78 (0.89) and 0.79 (0.63) for the entire MRB. It was found that agroforestry in the catchment would generally reduce surface runoff, mainly due to enhanced infiltration. However, it would also increase evapotranspiration and consequently reduce the baseflow and the overall water yield, which was attributed to increased water use by trees. Spatial scale was found to have a significant effect on water balance; the impact of agroforestry was higher at the smaller headwater catchment (Nyangores) than for the larger watershed (entire MRB). However, the rate of change in water yield with increase in area under agroforestry was different for the two and could be attributed to the spatial variability of climate within MRB. Our results suggest that direct extrapolation of the findings from a small sub-catchment to a larger watershed may not always be accurate. These findings could guide watershed managers on the level of trade-offs to make between reduced water yields and other benefits (e.g., soil erosion control, improved soil productivity) offered by agroforestry.

  1. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-10-01

    The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

  2. Costos de producción en explotaciones porcinas de ciclo completo en el Municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rodríguez Medina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los costos de producción en las explotaciones porcinas de ciclo completo en elmunicipioMara, estado Zulia,Venezuela, debido a que es un factor clave para la competitividad del sector, además de ser de gran importancia para la soberanía y seguridad alimentaria de la población. El estudio se sustentó en los enfoques o teorías sobre costos de producción y el conocimiento de las fases de producción del sector, expuestos por los autores Gadd (2005, Guzmán (2007, Sábata (2008, Hansen yMowen (2007, Horngren et al (2007, entre otros. El tipo de investigación fue descriptiva, de diseño no experimental, transeccional y de campo, aplicando un cuestionario a propietarios o administradores de las explotaciones objeto de estudio. Los resultados indican que sólo una granja determina su costo de producción, y todas ellas reconocen el alimento comoel recurso de mayor impacto dentro de los costos directos, pero no conocen la ponderación de los elementos que los integran ni los costos indirectos dentro de la estructura de costo; se concluye que el sector estudiado no realiza una buena gestión de sus costos de producción, lo que restringe el éxito en dichas granjas; por lo que se considera deben asumir recomendaciones para potenciarlo

  3. Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú: VI. Verificación de la enfermedad de Chagas en la cuenca del Marañón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available Se informa de observaciones llevados a cabo tratando de verificar la presencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en las localidades de Yamón, Lonya Grande, Roblepampa y Nueva York, en la cuenca del río Marañón, donde anteriormente se había obtenido triatominos infectados por el Trypanosoma cruzi. Estas observaciones comprenden varias series de xenodiagnósticos, con un total de 338, y 292 gota gruesa de sangre, preparadas de las mismas personas en las que se practicara el xenodiagnóstico. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: 1. Se verifica la presencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en la cuenca del Marañón, al obtener xenodiagnósticos positivos en todas las localidades donde se efectuaron las investigaciones. 2. De 338 xenodiagnósticos realizados en personas de diferentes edades, se obtuvo 22 positivos; y de las 292 láminas de sangre preparadas en las mismas personas, en tres se logró observar al T. cruzi. 3. Las cepa del T. cruzi obtenidas por intermedio de los xenodiagnósticos son de baja virulencia y corta parasitemia en la rata blanca. Estas características, así como la capacidad de infectar ratas tan sólo tiernas, son idénticas a las observadas con las cepas obtenidas a través del Panstrongylus herreri con infección natural procedentes de las mencionadas localidades de la cuenca del Marañón.

  4. Desenvolvimento de dispositivo caseiro para dessalinização de água salobra a partir de sementes de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilma da S. Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to develop a homemade device to desalinate brackish water, using biological material like seeds from different plant species of the semi arid regions. Umbu seeds (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara were found to be the most appropriate material, removing a higher quantity of salt from the water compared to the other tested materials. The salt content in 1 L of brackish water typical of the region can be removed with only 1 g of the material, if the water is heated to 50 °C and it may also lower the water hardness, achieving drinking water standards.

  5. Desenvolvimento de dispositivo caseiro para dessalinização de água salobra a partir de sementes de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara)

    OpenAIRE

    Joilma da S. Menezes; Vânia P. Campos; Costa,Tadeu A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a homemade device to desalinate brackish water, using biological material like seeds from different plant species of the semi arid regions. Umbu seeds (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara) were found to be the most appropriate material, removing a higher quantity of salt from the water compared to the other tested materials. The salt content in 1 L of brackish water typical of the region can be removed with only 1 g of the material, if the water is heated to 5...

  6. Recovering Government Control over Mara Salvatrucha territory: Analysis based on the “Santa Tecla, a Municipality Free of Violence” Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Margriet Antoinette Zoethout

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the first half of a much more extensive investigation over Mara Salvatrucha’s social and territorial control in colonia San José del Pino and theSan Rafael community, both from the Santa Tecla municipality. In a case study conducted within the framework of a Master’s Degree in Latin American Studies at the University of Amsterdam, the effects of preventive public security policies in the area were mapped, with emphasis on the strategy known as “Santa Tecla, a Municipalit...

  7. El ajuar de la cámara funeraria ibérica de Toya (Peal de Becerro, Jaén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrigal, Antonio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian chamber tomb of Toya (Jaén, Spain, was found at the beginning of this century, but its grave goods were divided among several collections. This paper offers a complete study of this important find for the first time.

    La cámara funeraria de Toya (Jaén fué encontrada a principios de siglo, y sus materiales se dispersaron en diversas colecciones. Se presenta aquí por primera vez la reconstrucción y estudio del ajuar completo de esta importante tumba ibérica.

  8. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  9. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E

    1988-07-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  10. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  11. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An extramedullary plasmacytoma case in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu is reported. The animal, a female aging three years old, had a medical history of diffusely distributed skin and mucocutaneous junction lesions, associated with swollen lymph nodes. Clinical examination and complementary exams (complete blood count, biochemical analysis, skin scraping to search mites and fungal culture were performed. Thirty days after examination, the animal died. At necropsy, multiple consistent nodules, aseptic pustules and swollen lymph nodes were found. On histological exams of the skin and oral mucosa, we observed a large number of round cells forming masses organized in nests, sheets, and cords of cells in a well-vascularized fibrovascular tissue. Neoplastic plasma cells infiltrated between the fibers and the lamina propria of smooth muscle. Spaces among the cell masses were filled with some eosinophil and fluid. Most of the cells were well differentiated, presenting a perinuclear clear zone. In some points, the cells were pleomorphic. The plasma cells presented eccentric, basophilic and spherical nuclei, showing a dense to organized chromatin with distinct nucleoli. Binucleate cells were observed, but multinucleated giant cells were rare. Oral mucosa and lymph nodes tested by immunohistochemical analyses were positive for Mb-1, with a multifocal distribution. In regard to Bcl-2, the neoplastic cells were intermittent weakly positive. So, an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed in the collared peccary considering the location, the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  12. Behavioural Study of Captive Sloth Bears Using Environmental Enrichment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural changes were studied in five captive sloth bears kept in confined enclosure at Zoological Park, Chennai, India. Behavioural categories like active, passive, and abnormal behaviours were taken for the study. The activity budget was recorded as a single animal scan. The detailed baseline data of 150 hours, over a period of 30 days, were collected. At baseline, bears exhibited passive and more abnormal behaviours. Similarly, after application of the environmental tools like honey-log, underground food pipes, and wobbling box in the enclosure, the data were collected for 150 hours (30 days. Increased active behaviours and decreased abnormal behaviours were observed and showed highly significant changes in the abnormal behaviour as a whole when compared to the baseline level. During the postenrichment period, the data that were collected for 150 hours (30 days showed no significant differences statistically between the behavioural categories. But certain level of difference was evident from the percentage of abnormal behaviours exhibited by individual bears. Among the enrichment devices, honey-log was the most preferred enrichment tool as revealed by the percentage of time spent by individual animal. The results show that application of enrichment tool continuously may bring long term effect in stereotypic behaviour.

  13. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  14. Embryonic and neonatal mortality from salmonellosis in captive bred raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, A; Di Guardo, G; Agrimi, U; Bozzano, A I

    1998-01-01

    In a captive breeding center near Rome (Italy), cases of embryonic and neonatal death were recorded during the breeding seasons in the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), buzzard (Buteo buteo), and lanner falcon. (Falco biarmicus). Salmonella havana and S. virchow were isolated. Three pulli, clinically infected with S. havana, were successfully treated with enrofloxacin. From two groups of healthy 3- to 4-wk-old eagle owls, Salmonella sp. group 61 (61:r:-) and S. havana were collected. A strain of S. paratyphi B was detected in a pharyngeal swab and a fecal sample from an adult female goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), affected with pharyngeal trichomoniasis. A S. hadar strain was collected from a healthy 1-yr-old female eagle owl and S. livingstone was isolated from a 1-mo-old female peregrine, dead of an acute respiratory syndrome. Lesions of fibrinous polyserositis and multivisceral congestion were observed. From frozen 1-day-old chicks, on which adult and young raptors were fed, S. havana and S. livingstone isolates with similar biochemical and drug susceptibility patterns to those isolated from raptors were identified. A surveillance program on infectious diseases reduced embryonic and neonatal death rates in the following breeding seasons.

  15. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

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    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  16. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.

  17. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  18. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication.

  19. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Oviduct adenocarcinoma in some species of captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Viner, T C

    2008-09-01

    This article reports 5 cases of oviduct adenocarcinoma in adult captive snakes from Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. This neoplasm was found in 1 of each of the following species: emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), Amazonian tree boa (Corallus enydris enydris), Burmese rock python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus), and corn snake (Elaphe guttata). Grossly, tan to red firm masses were found within oviducts in 3 cases. In an additional 2 cases, the primary tumor was detected only histologically. Microscopically, neoplasms were papillary, and often extended transmurally. The neoplastic cells were polygonal and organized in acini or cords, with often abundant fibrovascular stroma. Hemorrhages and necrosis were present in all cases. Inflammation, myxomatous material, desmoplasia, and bacteria were often observed. Histologic evidence of metastasis was present in all cases. Solid metastases were seen in all animals except the Northern pine snake and involved several organs including the liver, lung, and heart. Emboli of neoplastic cells were observed in all animals but the Burmese rock python and corn snake.

  1. THE IMPACT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SUBVENTION ON THE CAPTIVE CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the European Union policy in the energy field on promoting the development of new and renewable energy forms, the Community legislation on the promotion of renewable sources had a significant development in the recent years. Thus, alternative fossil fuels (geothermal energy, ocean energy, hydropower energy, solar energy, wind energy, biomass and biofuels contribute to the diversification of the supply on energy to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels markets. Moreover, in accordance with the specifications of the Directive 2009/28/EC on energy from renewable sources there has been set as compulsory target the fact that an amount of 20% of the energy consumption of the European Union by 2020, to be derived from the renewable energy sources. In turn, this objective is detailed in the secondary national compulsory targets given the different starting points of Member States. Based on these aspects, in our country, the unsubsidized renewable energy (hydroelectric, together with the photovoltaic, wind and biomass energy represented in the past three years a contribution well above the target assumed by Romania for the year 2020 of total of the produced energy. In this context, this study aims, on the one hand, to emphasize that the subsidized renewable energy to the captive consumers, by increasing the share of green certificates, results in narrowing the market of the classic manufacturers, on the other hand, to account for these securities as due to the existence of subsidies for the operating activities.

  2. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  3. Optical factors in the rapid analysis of captive bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoojinian, Hamed; Goodarzi, Jim P; Hall, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    Bubbles and droplets offer multiple advantages over Langmuir troughs for compressing interfacial films. Experiments, however, that manipulate films to maintain constant surface tension (γ) present problems because they require feedback. Measurements of bubbles and droplets calculate γ from the shape of the interface, and calculations in real time based on finding the Laplacian shape that best fits the interface can be difficult. Faster methods obtain γ from only the height and diameter, but the bubbles and droplets rest against a solid support, which obscures one section of the interface and complicates measurements of the height. The experiments here investigated a series of optical variables that affect the visualized location of the different surfaces for captive bubbles. The pitch of the support and camera as well as the collimation of illuminating light affected the accuracy of the measured dimensions. The wavelength of illumination altered the opacity of turbid subphases and hydrated gel used to form the solid support. The width of all visualized edges depended on the spectral width and collimation of the illuminating light. The intensity of illumination had little effect on the images as long as the grayscale remained within the dynamic range of the camera. With optimization of these optical factors, the width of all edges narrowed significantly. The surfaces away from the solid support approached the infinite sharpness of the physical interface. With these changes, the grayscale at the upper interface provided the basis for locating all surfaces, which improved real-time measurements based on the height and diameter.

  4. SOME BEHAVIORAL TRAITS OF RED NECK OSTRICH UNDER CAPTIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. MOHAMMED AHMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.. The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.. The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

  5. Alopecia: possible causes and treatments, particularly in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-02-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress.

  6. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  7. Fixação iriana de lentes de câmara posterior para o tratamento da afacia Iris fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses for the treatment of aphakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Lise Ferreira; Leonardo Verri Paulino; Jose Ricardo Carvalho Lima Rehder

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar os resultados de uma série de casos de fixação iriana de lentes intra-oculares de câmara posterior para correção de afacia, realizados no setor de catarata da disciplina de Oftalmologia da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC e compará-los a literatura existente. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo de oito pacientes afácicos, que apresentavam ausência de suporte capsular adequado e foram submetidos à cirurgia para implante secundário de LIO de câmara posterior com fixação iriana seguindo a ...

  8. FROM NEEDS ANALYSIS TO DESIGNING ACADEMIC WRITING MATERIALS FOR DIPLOMA STUDENTS OF MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (UITM, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chiuh @ Noemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When students begin their undergraduate studies, they will need to adjust to the demands of the undergraduate studies with regard to academic English at university level. Dudley-Evans & St. John (1998, p.37 maintain that “their English tuition up to the tertiary level will generally have been in the area of General English, and is unlikely to have included specific preparation for study at university level…” Barker (2000, p.8, in his study on first year students’ perception of writing difficulties, found that the students “come to realise during first semester that they are not adequately prepared for the writing demands required at university”. Pecorari (as cited in Phakiti & Li, 2011 found that Asian ESL students had problems in academic writing; “the students begin their aca-demic writing from ‘copying’ which implies a lack of training in academic writing and arouses accusations of plagiarism in their writing” (p.232. Being an English-medium public university in Malaysia, MARA University of Technology (UiTM poses challenges to both its students and instructors, as a good command of English is essential. In its attempt to equip its undergraduate students with language skills, UiTM has introduced credit-bearing English courses. This paper presents the findings from a research project to identify the academic writing needs of first-year Diploma in Public Administration students in UiTM Sabah. A total of 110 Diploma in Public Administration students and six instructors responded to the questionnaires. The research examined the students’ and instructors’ perceptions of the importance of academic writing skills the students need in order to complete their undergraduate programmes, assessment of the students’ academic writing skills, and the difficulty of academic writing skills. The findings indicated that there was consistency of response between the students and instructors. The follow-up interviews and focus groups with

  9. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  10. Female newts (Taricha granulosa) produce tetrodotoxin laden eggs after long term captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Brian G; Stokes, Amber N; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the eggs of wild-caught newts (Taricha granulosa) at capture and again after one, two, and three years in captivity. Females initially produced eggs that contained quantities of TTX similar to previous descriptions of eggs from wild-caught adults. After the first year in captivity, the egg toxicity from each female declined, ultimately remaining constant during each of the successive years in captivity. Despite declining, all females continued to produce eggs containing substantial quantities of TTX during captivity. The decline in toxicity can not be attributed to declining egg mass but may be the result of the abbreviated reproductive cycle to which the captive newts were subjected in the lab. Finally, an estimate of the amount of TTX provisioned in the entire clutch from each female is similar to the quantity of TTX regenerated in the skin after electrical stimulation. These results, coupled with other long-term studies on the maintenance and regeneration of TTX in the skin, suggests an endogenous origin of TTX in newts.

  11. Rapid loss of antipredatory behaviour in captive-bred birds is linked to current avian invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of behaviour in conservation biology, there have been few studies that address behaviour in areas such as invasion ecology. There is an urgent need to identify specific traits that facilitate the establishment and spread of alien species to prevent biological invasions and their impact on biodiversity. Changes in antipredatory behaviour in captivity have been proposed to explain the higher invasiveness of wild-caught exotic species. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by assessing the response of wild-caught and captive-bred cage birds facing an approaching predator and their ability to escape from human capture, using species available in the Spanish pet market. Results showed the loss of antipredatory responses and escape abilities in captive-bred birds compared with wild-caught ones. An intraspecific comparison between wild-caught and the first generation of captive-bred birds pointed to a rapid behavioural loss in captivity (individual lifetime) rather than to differences among species (evolutionary exposure). In the context of current avian invasions, the proportion of individuals showing antipredatory responses within a species was positively related to the likelihood of the species being found escaped and breeding in the wild. These results offer a link between behaviour, fitness, and the invasion syndrome in birds.

  12. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter; Hinchcliff, Ken; Demma, Nick; Callahan, Margaret; Dale, B.W.; Fox, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Wack, Ray; Kramer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P<0.05) lower sodium, chloride, and creatine concentrations and significantly higher potassium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations; BUN to creatine ratios; and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities relative to captive wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  14. Observation of a tropopause fold by MARA VHF wind-profiler radar and ozonesonde at Wasa, Antarctica: comparison with ECMWF analysis and a WRF model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalikova, M.; Kirkwood, S.; Arnault, J.; Mikhaylova, D.

    2012-09-01

    Tropopause folds are one of the mechanisms of stratosphere-troposphere exchange, which can bring ozone rich stratospheric air to low altitudes in the extra-tropical regions. They have been widely studied at northern mid- or high latitudes, but so far almost no studies have been made at mid- or high southern latitudes. The Moveable Atmospheric Radar for Antarctica (MARA), a 54.5 MHz wind-profiler radar, has operated at the Swedish summer station Wasa, Antarctica (73° S, 13.5° W) during austral summer seasons from 2007 to 2011 and has observed on several occasions signatures similar to those caused by tropopause folds at comparable Arctic latitudes. Here a case study is presented of one of these events when an ozonesonde successfully sampled the fold. Analysis from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) is used to study the circumstances surrounding the event, and as boundary conditions for a mesoscale simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The fold is well resolved by the WRF simulation, and occurs on the poleward side of the polar jet stream. However, MARA resolves fine-scale layering associated with the fold better than the WRF simulation.

  15. Observation of a tropopause fold by MARA VHF wind-profiler radar and ozonesonde at Wasa, Antarctica: comparison with ECMWF analysis and a WRF model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihalikova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropopause folds are one of the mechanisms of stratosphere–troposphere exchange, which can bring ozone rich stratospheric air to low altitudes in the extra-tropical regions. They have been widely studied at northern mid- or high latitudes, but so far almost no studies have been made at mid- or high southern latitudes. The Moveable Atmospheric Radar for Antarctica (MARA, a 54.5 MHz wind-profiler radar, has operated at the Swedish summer station Wasa, Antarctica (73° S, 13.5° W during austral summer seasons from 2007 to 2011 and has observed on several occasions signatures similar to those caused by tropopause folds at comparable Arctic latitudes. Here a case study is presented of one of these events when an ozonesonde successfully sampled the fold. Analysis from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF is used to study the circumstances surrounding the event, and as boundary conditions for a mesoscale simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The fold is well resolved by the WRF simulation, and occurs on the poleward side of the polar jet stream. However, MARA resolves fine-scale layering associated with the fold better than the WRF simulation.

  16. Sobre la promoción regia de la orden franciscana en la Corona de Castilla durante el primer reinado Trastámara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Prieto, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to cast a general view of an outstanding moment in the display of the protection the Castilian crown offered the Franciscans in the reign of the first Trastámara monarch. A parallel is sought to be established between the royal policy of protection over the Mendicants of Alfonso X and that of Enrique II. Special attention is paid to the role of feminine members of the royal entourage as significant participants in this policy, as well as to some paticular cases involving the Clares communities of Palencia and Alcocer.Pretende este artículo fijar el marco general en el que se produce un momento importante en la protección dada a los Franciscanos por la Corona de Castilla, durante el reinado del primer Trastámara. Trata de mostrar el paralelismo entre Alfonso X y Enrique II en su política de protección de los Mendicantes. Se atiende especialmente al papel especial de las mujeres del entorno del Rey como actores significados de esta política, en el caso de las comunidades clarisas de Palencia y Alcocer.

  17. Los ‘cabezas’ de la cámara de diputados de Brasil: una carrera política homogénea y elitista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riberti Almeida Felisbino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es identificar y analizar las características sociopolíticas de los „cabezas‟ de la élite parlamentaria de la Cámara de Diputados de Brasil para conocer las bases de reclutamiento parlamentar. Estos miembros ocupan los principales puestos, desempeñan importantes actividades y ejercen influencia en las principales decisiones de la Cámara de Diputados. Los resultados indican a una homogeneidad de las características sociopolíticas y b un reclutamiento parlamentar elitista. El análisis se quedó en el período de 1995-2002 y la técnica de obtención de los datos fue basada en el método biográfico. Abstract This article analyzes, for the period of 1995-2002, the federal deputies‟ members of the élite of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil. The members of this select group occupy the main key-positions, carry out important activities and have influence on the main decisions of the Chamber of Deputies. The main objective of this article was to identify and to analyze the sociopolitical characteristics as source of the recruitment of the members of these élite. The results were: a the uniformity of the characteristics sociopolitical and b the elitist parliamentary recruitment. The methodological procedure used involved the analysis of biographical data.

  18. Si la videovigilancia es la respuesta, ¿cuál era la pregunta? Cámaras, seguridad y políticas urbanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Galdon-Clavell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cámaras de videovigilancia llevan años proliferando en casi todo el mundo. Sin embargo, ni las evaluaciones existentes dan motivos que justifiquen este entusiasmo por las cámaras en la lucha contra la delincuencia, ni las imágenes grabadas han servido de forma determinante en la prevención o resolución de grandes delitos recientes. La pregunta que emerge, pues, es: ¿cómo es posible que la videovigilancia haya conseguido no solo imponerse sino seguir una trayectoria de expansión, mantener cifras de apoyo popular considerables y generar un consenso favorable inquebrantable entre los responsables políticos, las autoridades policiales y la población en general? A través del repaso a las propuestas académicas realizadas hasta ahora que vinculan la videovigilancia con procesos económicos, sociológicos y políticos más amplios, y con base en los trabajos existentes sobre la evolución de la proliferación de la videovigilancia en España, este artículo pone sobre la mesa, desde una perspectiva sociológica y politológica, la pregunta que nadie parece tener deseos de plantear: ¿por qué la videovigilancia?

  19. Tuberculosis in wild birds: implications for captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, K. A.; Dein, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of avian tuberculosis is widespread but the lack of visible epizootics makes assessment of its impact on wild birds difficult. Generally a low prevalence, widely-scattered, individual animal disease, avian tuberculosis is caused by the same agent in wild and domestic birds. Thus there exists the potential for disease transfer between these two groups in situations that result in direct contact such as wild animals newly captured or transferred from rehabilitation centers, and wild and captive animals intermingling in exhibit areas. During the past 7 yr, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, was diagnosed in 64 birds submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 16 states; avian tuberculosis was the primary diagnosis in 52 of the 64 birds, while the remaining 12 isolates were incidental findings. Twenty-eight of these birds were picked up during epizootics caused by other disease agents including avian cholera, botulism type C, and lead, organophosphorus compound, and cyanide poisoning. Twelve birds were found incidental to birds collected during disease monitoring programs and research projects, and 10 birds were collected by hunters or found sick and euthanatized. Tuberculosis lesions occurred (in order of decreasing frequency) in the liver, intestine, spleen, lung, and air sacs. Several unusual morphological presentations were observed in the gizzard, shoulder joint, jugular vein, face, nares and bill, ureter and bone marrow. Infected birds were collected during all 12 mo of the yr from a variety of species in the Anseriformes, Podicipediformes, Gruiformes, and Falconiformes. Nine of the 46 known age birds were immature indicating that lesions can develop during the first year.

  20. Health assessment of captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ferreira Júnior, Francisco Carlos; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) of species Crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), Crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), Crypturellus tataupa (Tataupa tinamou), Crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), Rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and Tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the Brazilian Poultry Health Program (PNSA). Antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (SAT) in 4 birds for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in 27 birds for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). However, by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), sera were negative to MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Bacteriology was negative for SP and SG. No antibody was detected by HI to avian paramyxovirus type 1. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were detected in 9.4% (9/95) by ELISA. Fecal parasitology and necropsy revealed Capillaria spp. in 44.2% (42/95), Eimeria rhynchoti in 42.1% (40/95), Strongyloides spp. in 100% (20/20), Ascaridia spp., and unknown sporozoa in small-billed tinamou. Ectoparasites were detected in 42.1% (40/95) by inspection, and collected for identification. The louse Strongylocotes lipogonus (Insecta: Phthiraptera) was found on all Rhynchotus rufescens. An additional four lice species were found on 14 individuals. Traumatic lesions included four individual R. rufescens (4/40, 10%) with rhinotheca fracture, one with mandible fracture and three with posttraumatic ocular lesions (3/40, 7.5%). One C. parvirostris had phalangeal loss, another had tibiotarsal joint ankylosis and another had an open wound on the foot. Results suggest that major poultry infections/ diseases may not be relevant in tinamids, and that this group of birds, as maintained within distances for biosecurity purposes, may not represent a risk to commercial poultry. Ecto- and endoparasites were common, disseminated, and varied; regular monitoring of flocks is recommended

  1. Stress, captivity, and reproduction in a wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J; Bentley, George E

    2014-09-01

    In seasonal species, glucocorticoid concentrations are often highest during the breeding season. However, the role of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in the regulation of reproduction remains poorly understood. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to document reproductive consequences of a non-pharmacological hindrance to seasonal HPA fluctuations. Using wild-caught male and female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) housed in an outdoor, semi-natural environment, we divided birds into two mixed-sex groups. One group remained in the outdoor aviary, where starlings breed at the appropriate time of year. The other group was transferred into an indoor flight aviary, where we predicted reproductive suppression to occur. We measured changes in corticosterone (CORT) at baseline and stress-induced concentrations prior to group separation and at the experiment's conclusion. After ten days, the birds showed remarkable differences in breeding behavior and HPA activity. Outdoor birds exhibited increases in baseline and stress-induced CORT and progressed into active breeding (pairing, nest building, egg laying, etc.). In contrast, indoor birds displayed no change in baseline or stress-induced CORT and few signs of active breeding. We found significant sex and treatment effects on expression of HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis elements, suggesting sex-specific regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest a novel, facilitating role for the HPA axis in the transition between early breeding and active breeding in a wild, seasonal avian species. In addition, understanding how changes in housing condition affect seasonal HPA fluctuations may help alleviate barriers to breeding wild animals in captivity.

  2. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  3. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) If reproduction is sexual, the specimen was born to parents that either mated or transferred gametes in a controlled environment. (2) If reproduction is asexual, the parent was in a controlled... means an ensemble of captive wildlife used for reproduction. (c) Bred-in-captivity criteria. For...

  4. Extrinsic factors significantly affect patterns of disease in free-ranging and captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A; Worley, Michael; Jago, Mark; Bagot-Smith, Arthur; Marker, Laurie

    2005-07-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm for disease vulnerability due to loss of genetic diversity. This species monomorphism has been suspected to be the basis for their general poor health and dwindling populations in captivity. North American and South African captive populations have high prevalences of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, gastritis, and systemic amyloidosis, diseases that are rare in other species. Unusually severe inflammatory reactions to common infectious agents have also been documented in captive cheetahs. The current study compared disease prevalences in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs with those in two captive populations of similar ages. The occurrence of diseases in the free-ranging population was determined from 49 necropsies and 27 gastric biopsies obtained between 1986 and 2003 and compared with prevalences in 147 North American and 80 South African captive cheetahs. Except for two cheetahs, the free-ranging population was in robust health with only mild lesions present, in contrast with significantly higher prevalences in the captive populations. Despite widespread heavy Helicobacter colonization in wild cheetahs, only 3% of the free-ranging population had moderate to severe gastritis, in contrast with 64% of captive cheetahs. No severe inflammatory reactions to viral infections were detected in the free-ranging animals. Because free-ranging Namibian cheetahs are as genetically impoverished as captive cheetahs, these findings caution against attributing loss of fitness solely to genetic factors and attest to the fundamental importance of extrinsic factors in wildlife health.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of reproductive status and stress in captive Asian elephants in three south Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Palugulla Reddy, Vivekananda; Kokkiligadda, Adiseshu; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2014-05-15

    Asian elephants in captivity need immediate attention to be bred so as to meet the increasing demand for captive elephants and to overcome the dependence on supplementing the captive stock with wild animals. Unfortunately, captive breeding programs across the globe have met with limited success and therefore more effort is needed to improve breeding in captivity. Endocrine profiling of reproductive hormones (progestagens and androgens) and the stress hormone (glucocorticoids) could facilitate better management and breeding strategies. In the present study, we investigated reproductive and stress physiology of 12 captive Asian elephants for 10-27 months using a non-invasive method based on steroid analysis of 1700 elephant dung samples. Most of the elephants were cycling regularly. Males during musth showed increased fecal androgen metabolite concentrations and exhibited a slight increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Elephants used in public festivals and processions showed significantly increased in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. The results indicate that captive elephants require periodic health care, better husbandry practices and scientific management for sustainable captive population.

  6. Effects of captivity and artificial breeding on microbiota in feces of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuwei; Xia, Pu; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Yimin; Mora, Miguel A.; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. Although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. The study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. The gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The gut microbiotas were dominated by three phyla: Firmicutes (62.9%), Proteobacteria (29.9%) and Fusobacteria (9.6%). Bacilli dominated the ‘core’ community consisting of 198 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both captivity and artificial breeding influenced the structures and diversities microbiota of the gut. Especially, wild cranes had distinct compositions of gut microbiota from captive and artificially bred cranes. The greatest alpha diversity was found in captive cranes, while wild cranes had the least. According to the results of ordination analysis, influences of captivity and artificial breeding were greater than that of life stage. Overall, captivity and artificial breeding influenced the gut microbiota, potentially due to changes in diet, vaccination, antibiotics and living conditions. Metagenomics can serve as a supplementary non-invasive screening tool for disease control. PMID:27628212

  7. Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species.

  8. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being.

  9. Diagnosis-based treatment of helminths in captive and wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mény, Marie; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to identify endoparasites in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) living in a seminatural captive environment in north-central Namibia. Results were used to assess the need for anthelmintic treatment and for the selection of an appropriate drug. The study assessed fecal parasite excretion qualitatively and quantitatively using a fecal flotation method during the winter of 2009. Four different species of parasites (two nematodes and two coccidias) were identified. Parasite excretion rates were found to be significantly lower than that of wild cheetahs living in the same area. Samples of the wild cheetahs were obtained at the time of anesthesia or were attributed to the wild individuals using genetic profiling. Captive cheetahs were dewormed with fenbendazole, whereas wild cheetahs were treated using ivermectin. Efficacy of these treatments was demonstrated at the end of the study.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  11. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides. The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids.

  12. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  13. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)).

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  15. Analysis of nutrient components of food for Asian Elephants in the wild and in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lihong; LIN Liu; HE Qian; ZHANG Jinguo; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven wild plants as food for Asian elephants in the field in Simao,Yunnan province,China and five cultivated plants as food for captive elephants in the Beijing Zoo were collected and analyzed for their main nutrient components.Protein,fat,fiber,dry material,ash as well as major microelements:calcium,kalium,zincum,sodium in the food were analyzed by standard methodology.No significant differences were found between the wild plants taken in the field and forage provided in captivity.However,the calcium content in the forage is significantly less than the average of those in the wild plants.It is suggested that the increase in calcium intake may contribute to the relief of low plasma calcium diseases of elephants in captivity.

  16. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired.

  17. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant.

  18. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  19. Effect of captivity on genetic variance for five traits in the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Clark, K M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the changes in genetic variance which may occur as populations move from nature into captivity has been considered important when populations in captivity are used as models of wild ones. However, the inherent significance of these changes has not previously been appreciated in a conservation context: are the methods aimed at founding captive populations with gene diversity representative of natural populations likely also to capture representative quantitative genetic variation? Here, I investigate changes in heritability and a less traditional measure, evolvability, between nature and captivity for the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, to address this question. Founders were collected from a 100-km transect across the north-eastern US, and five traits (wing colour, pronotum colour, wing length, early fecundity and later fecundity) were recorded for founders and for their offspring during two generations in captivity. Analyses reveal significant heritable variation for some life history and morphological traits in both environments, with comparable absolute levels of evolvability across all traits (0-30%). Randomization tests show that while changes in heritability and total phenotypic variance were highly variable, additive genetic variance and evolvability remained stable across the environmental transition in the three morphological traits (changing 1-2% or less), while they declined significantly in the two life-history traits (5-8%). Although it is unclear whether the declines were due to selection or gene-by-environment interactions (or both), such declines do not appear inevitable: captive populations with small numbers of founders may contain substantial amounts of the evolvability found in nature, at least for some traits.

  20. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  2. Maintenance and breeding of aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J B; Haring, D M

    1994-01-01

    The husbandry practices of the 3 institutions currently holding captive aye-ayes outside Madagascar (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Duke University Primate Center and Paris Zoo) are reviewed. Information on housing, diet, oestrous cycles and infant rearing is included. Aye-ayes are active, nocturnal animals that are mainly solitary in the wild. They need large cages that are well furnished with arboreal substrates. Captive diet consists of fruit, nuts, insects and a pellet- or cereal-based gruel. Breeding of aye-ayes occurs either within stable pairs of animals or in pairs that are mixed only during the peri-ovulatory period.

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  4. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; ,; ,; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  5. Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyear, K M; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L; MacDonald, S E

    2009-05-01

    The critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been subject to a strictly managed captive breeding program for three decades. A retrospective demographic analysis of the captive population was performed based on data from the red wolf studbook. Data analyses revealed a decrease in the effective population size relative to the total population size, and changes in age structure and inbreeding coefficients over time. To varying degrees, the probability of successful breeding and litter sizes declined in association with increasing dam age and sire inbreeding coefficients. Neonate survival also declined with increasing dam age. Recent changes in strategies regarding breed-pair recommendations have resulted in moderate increases in reproductive success.

  6. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry M; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  7. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  8. The 216-bp marB gene of the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli encodes a periplasmic protein which reduces the transcription rate of marA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinué, Laura; McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2013-08-01

    The marRAB operon is conserved in seven genera of enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Cronobacter, and Citrobacter). MarA is a transcriptional regulator affecting many genes involved in resistance to stresses, and MarR is an autorepressor of the operon, but a role for the marB gene has been unclear. A recent work reported that deletion of marB causes resistance to certain stresses and increases the amount of marA transcript. We show here that the small (216 bp) marB gene encodes a protein, not an sRNA, because two different stop codons within the predicted open reading frame of marB prevented plasmid-borne marB from complementing ΔmarB::Kan. The ΔmarB::Kan mutation did not increase the stability of the marA transcript, suggesting that MarB does not destabilize the marA transcript but rather reduces its rate of transcription. Placing the putative signal sequence of MarB upstream of signal-sequence-less alkaline phosphatase guided the phosphatase to its normal periplasmic location. We conclude that MarB is a small periplasmic protein that represses the marRAB promoter by an indirect mechanism, possibly involving a signal to one of the cytoplasmic regulators of that promoter.

  9. Efecto de la temperatura de industralización de de la nuez de marañón en la actividad antimicrobiana en Streptococcus mutans del líquido de la cáscara (LCNM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gaitán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del calentamiento del líquido de la cascara de la nuez del marañón (LCNM sobre su composición química y actividad antibacteriana en S. mutans, principal microorganismo responsable de la caries dental.

  10. Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

    2013-03-01

    A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes.

  11. As "Disquisitiones" do naturalista Arruda da Câmara (1752-1811 e as relações entre a Química e a Fisiologia no final do Século das Luzes The "Disquisitiones" of the naturalist Arruda da Câmara (1752-1811 and the relationship between Chemistry and Physiology by the end of the "Century of Lights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to rescue the field of validity of the "Disquisitiones" by the naturalist Arruda da Câmara placing them in the scientific and historical context of the end of the "Century of Light". Thus, a tentative is made here to reconstruct the debate established among the several theories that served as background of the relationships between Chemistry and Physiology of that time. In the present work is presented by the first time an integral translation of the "Disquisitiones" and a biographical resume of the naturalist in the historical context of his epoch in Northeast Brazil, especially in Pernambuco.

  12. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  13. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  14. Bacterial populations and metabolites in the feces of free roaming and captive grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Gänzle, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Gut physiology, host phylogeny, and diet determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) belong to the Order Carnivora, yet feed on an omnivorous diet. The role of intestinal microflora in grizzly bear digestion has not been investigated. Microbiota and microbial activity were analysed from the feces of wild and captive grizzly bears. Bacterial composition was determined using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The feces of wild and captive grizzly bears contained log 9.1 +/- 0.5 and log 9.2 +/- 0.3 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. Facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were dominant in wild bear feces. Among the strict anaerobes, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group was most prominent. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in the feces of captive grizzly bears, at log 8.9 +/- 0.5 gene copies x g(-1). Strict anaerobes of the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group and the Clostridium coccoides cluster were present at log 6.7 +/- 0.9 and log 6.8 +/- 0.8 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. The presence of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) verified microbial activity. Total SCFA content and composition was affected by diet. SCFA composition in the feces of captive grizzly bears resembled the SCFA composition of prey-consuming wild animals. A consistent data set was obtained that associated fecal microbiota and metabolites with the distinctive gut physiology and diet of grizzly bears.

  15. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  16. A Case Study in Jewish Moral Education: (Non-)Rape of the Beautiful Captive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of teaching classic religious texts with flawed moral messages from a contemporary point of view is examined in the case of the Beautiful Captive of War (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). A moral dilemma is generated by contradictory ethical stands within the Jewish tradition, between which students have to choose. This dilemma is explored in…

  17. Suspected macular degeneration in a captive Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Andrea; Bernhard, Andreas; Sahr, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    The case of a 31-year-old captive female Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with decreased near vision but good distance vision is presented. Examination of the fundus revealed drusen-like bodies in the macula presumably because of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

  18. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may f

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  20. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  1. Captive insurance: is it the right choice for your insurance exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Potential benefits of a captive insurance company include: Broader coverage Improved cash flow and stability. Direct access to reinsurance markets. Tax advantages. Better handling and control of risk management and claims. Potential drawbacks and challenges include: Startup capitalization. Underwriting losses. Administration and commitment.

  2. Diseases of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa: a 20-year retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, L; Nesbit, J W; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L P; Bolton, L; Kriek, N P

    1999-09-01

    As part of an ongoing study to determine the basis for high prevalences of veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, and chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cheetahs, a retrospective pathology survey of captive cheetahs in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) was conducted. The RSA population was selected because its genetic composition and captive management were similar to those of the cheetah population in U.S. zoos, in which these diseases are common. For this study, archived pathology materials at the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Sciences in Onderstepoort and the Faculty of Veterinary Science, MEDUNSA, from 69 cheetahs that died between 1975 and 1995 were reviewed, and prevalences of common lesions were compared with those in the U.S. population. Gastritis associated with Helicobacter-like organisms was the most prevalent disease, accounting for close to 40% of the mortalities, including several cheetahs cheetahs. RSA cheetahs also had adrenal cortical hyperplasia, cardiac fibrosis, lymphocytic depletion of the spleen, systemic amyloidosis, and splenic myelolipomas. The presence in the captive RSA cheetah population of the same unusual diseases that are common in U.S. cheetahs suggests a species predilection to develop these diseases in captivity.

  3. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided di

  4. Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Werther, Karin; Godoy, Guilherme Sellera; Borges, Vivian Palmeira; Alessi, Antonio Carlos

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A captive black jaguar was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumor similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anesthesia for a routine dental treatment.

  5. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  6. Short-term digestible energy intake in captive moose (Alces alces) on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Kohlschein, Gina-Marie; Peemöller, Andreas; Hummel, Jürgen; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are regularly described as problematic animals in captivity, mainly because of their particular digestive physiology and resulting feeding demands. According to the literature, moose regularly reject non-browse forages offered in captivity, which may indirectly lead to an overproportional ingestion of easily digestible feeds and thus chronic acidosis, which may in turn be the cause of their low life expectancy in captivity. By feeding experiments in four animals, this study aimed at testing whether maintaining moose on roughage-only diets appears feasible. The diets used consisted of the typical zoo ration with mixed feeds (including alfalfa hay), and exclusive diets of alfalfa hay, combinations of alfalfa hay and grass hay, alfalfa hay and grass hay and dried browse leaves, and dried browse leaves only. Whereas results confirmed that moose do not ingest grass hay in relevant amounts, digestible energy (DE) intake on alfalfa hay was, at 0.67 ± 0.15 DE MJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), above the estimated maintenance requirement of 0.6, and higher on the browse diets. At least for short-time periods, results contradict previous reports in the literature that alfalfa hay only is not a suitable maintenance diet for moose. At the same time the results promote feeding moose in captivity forage-based diets.

  7. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  9. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  10. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  11. Tuberculosis surveillance of elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal at the captive-wild interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive elephant tuberculosis (TB) survey using culture and four serological screening tests was conducted in Nepal. Private and government-owned male and female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were included in the study. The mean reported age was 38 years (range 5-60 years). A tot...

  12. Atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in a captive, adult red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrubsole-Cockwill, Alana; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Parker, Dennilyn

    2008-09-01

    An adult, male, captive red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) of at least 19 years of age presented in dorsal recumbency. The hawk was nonresponsive, and despite initial supportive care, died shortly after presentation. Gross postmortem revealed no abnormal findings. Histologic examination demonstrated atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy. This is the first reported case of atherosclerosis in a red-tailed hawk.

  13. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate grou

  14. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  15. Surviving the "School of Slavery": Acculturation in Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" and Joyce Hansen's "The Captive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Karen Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although children's literature has long alluded to cultural connections between Africans and African Americans, very few texts establish clear lines of influence between particular African ethnic groups and African American characters and communities. Joyce Hansen's "The Captive" (1994) and Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" (2006)…

  16. Circadian Rhythms of Locomotor Activity in Captive Birds and Mammals : Their Variations with Season and Latitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Aschoff, Jürgen

    1975-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in time of daily onset and end of locomotor activity are described for 3 species of mammals and 5 species of birds kept in captivity at the arctic circle and at lower latitude. These variations are most pronounced at high latitude. 2. The duration of daily activity plotted

  17. Parasitic zoonoses at the rodent-captive primate-human health interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Clayton, Samantha J; Morsy, Tosson A; Yon, Lisa K

    2009-08-01

    Parasitic diseases at the wildlife/primate/human interface are of particular importance in zoological gardens. Better understanding of the types of wildlife parasites that do persist in zoological gardens, and drives that lead to increases in prevalence or impacts, can point to new strategies for limiting the risk of human and captive primates' exposure in zoo centres. Also, it improves our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that influence the emergence of parasitic diseases. As wild animals and humans come into greater contact with each other, the risk posed by multi-host parasites for humans, captive primates, and wildlife populations increases. Despite strong public awareness of the fact that wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir of most emerging infectious diseases, animal-human interaction has not been addressed. Herein, the potential for cross-species parasite transmission between the wild rodents, captive primates and humans is considered using the current literature and medical records. Additionally, some aspects of the interface among wildlife, captive primates and humans and its impacts on human health are discussed. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, including identifying those parasites for which multi-host interaction is likely to have the greatest impact.

  18. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...

  19. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. MAIA

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%, infectious diseases, (9% and digestive system disorders (5%. The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18% and disorders of the genitourinary (10% and digestive systems (8%. Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%, infectious diseases (10%, and lesions or accidents (10%. The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4 were parental incompetence (38%, infectious diseases (9%, and digestive system disorders (7%.

  20. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M G

    2002-02-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%), infectious diseases, (9%) and digestive system disorders (5%). The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18%) and disorders of the genitourinary (10%) and digestive systems (8%). Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%), infectious diseases (10%), and lesions or accidents (10%). The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4) were parental incompetence (38%), infectious diseases (9%), and digestive system disorders (7%).

  1. Ranking Network of a Captive Rhesus Macaque Society: A Sophisticated Corporative Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, F.; McAssey, M.P.; Beisner, B.; McCowan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our compu

  2. Tetanus as cause of mass die-off of captive Japanese macaques, Japan, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomomi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide; Une, Yumi

    2012-10-01

    In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani-contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys.

  3. Marañón y la psicología social histórica. Algunas consideraciones epistemológicas y metodológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo tiene por objeto realizar un breve bosquejo para una psicología social histórica así como ubicar la obra marañoniana en el cuerpo de saber de la psicología social. Para esto se lleva a cabo una revisión crítica de la historia de la disciplina y de la controversia surgida a partir de los años sesenta del pasado siglo acerca de la naturaleza de su objeto de estudio. En contra de la noción de individuo construida por buena parte de la moderna psicología social –ahistórico, atempora...

  4. Luz Gabriela Arango y Mara Viveros (Eds.. El género: una categoría útil para las ciencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Jaramillo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el libro El género: una categoría útil para las ciencias sociales,las profesoras Luz Gabriela Arango y Mara Viveros reúnen una serie de artículos de autores varios en torno al asunto del uso de la categoría de género para la comprensión y la acción. En particular, a través de los artículos, el libro propone un examen del lugar de las mujeres en la construcción del conocimiento en varias disciplinas dentro de las ciencias sociales y las ciencias naturales. [...

  5. El sherlock holmes 2.0. la noticia policial entre expedientes judiciales, redes sociales y cámaras de seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Celina Calzado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios tecnológicos producen una nueva forma de producir ciertos contenidos de la información en torno de la inseguridad. Redes sociales y cámaras de videovigilancia modificaron modos de contar las noticias policiales. Para ubicar este análisis el artículo trabaja en torno del caso de una adolescente asesinada en 2013 en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Através de un corpus de noticias de medios gráficos, audiovisuales, publicaciones en redes sociales y testimonios de algunos protagonistas del armado de la noticia, se reflexiona sobre el modo actual de narrar la inseguridad y de conformar los perfiles de víctimas y victimarios.

  6. Diseño de un túnel de viento subsónico abierto con cámara de ensayo abierta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Antonio Jesús

    2015-01-01

    En el presente Trabajo Fin de Grado se establece el estudio y desarrollo de un túnel de viento abierto con cámara de ensayos abierta. Se abordarán distintos aspectos necesarios en el diseño como son los análisis computacionales para la optimización del diseño, estudios estructurales, elaboración de las piezas CAD y de sus planos, descripción del montaje, planes de fabricación, así como el aspecto económico. También se definirán prácticas para asignaturas de carácter aerodinámico que se podrán...

  7. Mujeres detrás de las cámaras en la industria española de televisión

    OpenAIRE

    Simelio i Solà, Núria

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la tarea de las mujeres que trabajan detrás de las cámaras en las series de ficción de producción española emitidas en horario de máxima audiencia durante la temporada 2013-2014. Esta investigación es especialmente novedosa ya que no existen estudios previos que hayan realizado este diagnóstico en el ámbito de la ficción televisiva española. Se parte de la base de que la equidad y la participación de las mujeres en las industrias creativas suponen una mayor diversi...

  8. Comportamiento legislativo en México: Una aproximación al enfoque de Representación en la Cámara de Diputados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio González Tule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es identificar el tipo de representación en la Cámara de Diputados y proponer explicaciones al enfoque que presentan sus integrantes en los proyectos de ley que impulsan. Se parte de la hipótesis que los legisladores defienden intereses agregados a nivel nacional y no local porque la dirigencia partidista cuenta con los instrumentos necesarios para mantener el control de la agenda legislativa. Dentro de éstos destacan 1 el sistema de representación proporcional de listas cerradas y el monopolio en la nominación de los candidatos, 2 la no reelección consecutiva y 3 las reglas que regulan la dinámica interna del Congreso.

  9. Effect of Captive Environment on Plasma Cortisol Level and Behavioral Pattern of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajjad, U. Farooq1*, M. Anwar, A. Khurshid2 and S.A. Bukhari1

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive environment in zoological parks often do not provide optimum conditions for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. These factors elicit stereotypic behavior in tigers such as pacing, head bobbing and aimless repetition of some movements, and are considered to be an indication of stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of captivity on the plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern in Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Tigers kept in captivity at the Lahore zoo (n=4 and in semi natural environment at the Lahore Wildlife Park (n=6 were used for this study, and standard protocols of housing and sampling were observed. The mean plasma cortisol values for the captive animals and those kept in a semi natural environment were 34.48±1.33 and 39.22±3.16µg/dl, respectively; and were statistically non significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the plasma cortisol levels was observed among the individuals within each form of captivity. From the behavioral survey it was observed that the time spent in pacing and resting was much longer for captive animals than animals confined to the semi natural environment. Thus, Technically monitored “Environmental Enrichment’ plans need to be devised which are as close as possible to the natural environment of the captive animals in order to achieve their utmost performance.

  10. Characteristics of reproductive biology and proximate factors regulating seasonal breeding in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable.

  11. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  12. Were Upper Pleistocene human/non-human predator occupations at the Témara caves (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra, Morocco) influenced by climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmas, Emilie; Michel, Patrick; Costamagno, Sandrine; Amani, Fethi; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil

    2015-01-01

    The influence of climate change on human settlements in coastal areas is a central question for archaeologists. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the Témara region in Morocco. The study area was selected for two main reasons. First, it contains numerous caves with Upper Pleistocene deposits, which have yielded remains of anatomically modern humans in association with Aterian and Iberomaurusian artifacts. Second, these caves are currently located on the shore, thus this region is particularly sensitive to major climate change and sea level fluctuations. Diachronic taphonomic study of faunal remains from two sites in the region, El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, shows alternating human/non-human predator occupations. The lower layers of El Mnasra Cave dating to Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 have yielded diverse ungulate remains with significant anthropogenic impact marks, together with numerous mollusk shells, Nassarius shell beads, hearths, lithics, some bone tools and used pigments. Faunal remains from the upper layers dating to OIS 4, 3 and 2 of El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, largely dominated by gazelles, provide evidence of carnivore activities, such as tooth marks, numerous semi-digested bones and coprolites alongside some anthropogenic signatures (cut marks and burnt bones). Non-human predators appear to be the main agents responsible for faunal modifications and accumulations. The 'non-intensive' nature of human occupation is confirmed by analyses of the lithic industry at El Harhoura 2. The 'intensive' human occupations date to OIS 5 and could have taken place during wet periods in connection with high sea levels, which allowed the exploitation of shellfish in this area. 'Non-intensive' human occupations generally correspond to arid periods and lower sea levels, during which the Témara area was further inland and may have been less attractive to humans.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  14. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  15. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2012-03-27

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  16. Evidence for chronic stress in captive but not free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) based on adrenal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda

    2004-04-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is highly endangered because of loss of habitat in the wild and failure to thrive in captivity. Cheetahs in zoos reproduce poorly and have high prevalences of unusual diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. These diseases are rarely observed in free-ranging cheetahs but have been documented in cheetahs that have been captured and held in captive settings either temporarily or permanently. Because captivity may be stressful for this species and stress is suspected as contributing to poor health and reproduction, this study aimed to measure chronic stress by comparing baseline concentrations of fecal corticoid metabolites and adrenal gland morphology between captive and free-ranging cheetahs. Additionally, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone metabolites were quantified to determine whether concentrations of gonadal steroids correlated with corticoid concentration and to assure that corticosteroids in the free-ranging samples were not altered by environmental conditions. Concetntrations of fecal corticoids, estradiol, and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay in 20 free-ranging and 20 captive cheetahs from samples collected between 1994 and 1999. Concentrations of baseline fecal corticoids were significantly higher (p = 0.005) in captive cheetahs (196.08 +/- 36.20 ng/g dry feces) than free-ranging cheetahs (71.40 +/- 14.35 ng/g dry feces). Testosterone concentrations were lower in captive male cheetahs (9.09 +/- 2.84 ng/g dry feces) than in free-ranging cheetahs (34.52 +/- 12.11 ng/g dry feces), which suggests suppression by elevated corticoids in the captive males. Evidence for similar sulppression of estradiol concentrations in females was not present. Adrenal corticomedullary ratios were determined on midsagittal sections of adrenal glands from 13 free-ranging and 13 captive cheetahs obtained between 1991 and 2002. The degree of vacuolation of cortical cells in the zona fasciculata was graded for each animal

  17. Ciento cincuenta años de pensamiento coevolutivo: la vida es una maraña de interacciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Enrique

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La supervivencia y reproducción de la inmensa mayoría de organismos multicelulares  dependen de interacciones ecologicas, frecuentemente especializadas, con organismos de otras especies. La coevolución, entendida como el conjunto de cambios evolutivos recíprocos entre especies que ejercen estas interacciones, se reconoce como un proceso continuo que organiza la variabilidad darviniana en complejas redes biológicas. Esta visión dinámica suaviza el conflicto entre la naturaleza armónica de Humboldt y la naturaleza en guerra de Darwin y otros naturalistas del siglo 19. Los cimientos conceptuales de la biología coevolutiva incluyen el papel causal de los microorganismos en las enfermedades, la ubicuidad de las simbiosis, su frecuente caracter especialista y la determinación mendeliana de los desenlaces de tales interacciones. En tanto que son el resultado de la selección natural, los cambios coevolutivos afectan los rasgos hereditarios involucrados en las respectivas interacciones. Como las especies están constituidas por poblaciones genéticamente diversas y estructuradas espacialmente, la coevolución entre dos o más especies dadas puede hacer que estos cambios coevolutivos sean cualitativa o cuantitativamente diferenciales según la localidad, originando mosaicos geográficos. La biología coevolutiva busca construir una atalaya conceptual que amarre la selección natural darviniana con la ecología. Esta nueva perspectiva permite avizorar la compleja maraña de la vida, y comprender que para conservar las especies es necesario conservar sus interacciones. En este artículo se examina la coevolución desde sus raíces darvinianas, pasando por la identificación de los elementos teóricos indispensables para su formulación, hasta llegar a su interpretaci

  18. Marañón y la identidad sexual: biología, sexualidad y género en la España de la década de 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón Bolea, Ramón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines three works by Gregorio Marañón, published for the first time in 1926 under the epigraph Tres ensayos sobre la vida sexual [Three essays on sexual life]. These essays had a huge impact and they were republished several times. The aim of this paper is to help situate Marañon’s medical and scientific views, as expressed in these essays, in the political, scientific and socio-cultural context of 1920s Spain. Marañón’s theory of sexual differentiation and his defence of women’s maternal mission is discussed at a time when many feminists accepted a sexualised view of the world in which women’s identity was articulated around motherhood. The analysis of these essays is framed in the contemporary historiography on sexuality and women’s history.En este artículo se examinan tres trabajos de Gregorio Marañón, publicados por primera vez en 1926 y agrupados bajo el epígrafe de Tres ensayos sobre la vida sexual. Estos ensayos tuvieron una gran resonancia y fueron objeto de numerosas ediciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir a situar las posiciones científicas y médicas, expresadas por Marañón en estos ensayos, en el contexto socio-cultural, científico y político de la España de la década de 1920. Se discute la teoría de la diferenciación sexual de Marañón y su defensa de la misión maternal de las mujeres en una época en la que muchas feministas asumieron una visión sexualizada del mundo y en la que la identidad femenina se articulaba en torno a la maternidad. El análisis de estos ensayos es enmarcado en la historiografía contemporánea sobre la historia de la sexualidad y la historia de las mujeres.

  19. Integrating microsatellite and pedigree analyses to facilitate the captive management of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth L; Hereford, Scott G; Savoie, Megan L; Leibo, S P; Howard, Jerome J

    2012-01-01

    The minimization of kinship in captive populations is usually achieved through the use of pedigree information. However, pedigree knowledge alone is not sufficient if pedigree information is missing, questionable, or when the founders of the captive population are related to one another. If this is the case, higher levels of inbreeding and lower levels of genetic diversity may be present in a captive population than those calculated by pedigree analyses alone. In this study, the genetic status of the critically endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (MSC) (Grus canadensis pulla) was analyzed using studbook data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managed captive breeding program as well as microsatellite DNA data. These analyses provided information on shared founder genotypes, allowing for refined analysis of genetic variation in the population, and the development of a new DNA-based studbook pedigree that will assist in the genetic management of the MSC population.

  20. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  2. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  3. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) with the use of environmental enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Reisfeld; Mayla Barbirato; Laura Ippolito; Ricardo Cesar Cardoso; Marcílio Nichi; Sgai, Manuela G. F. G.; Pizzutto,Cristiane S.

    2013-01-01

    Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot) lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use...

  4. A mathematical approach to study stress-related behaviors in captive golden-bellied capuchins (Sapajus xanthosthernos)

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Jamielniak; Garcia, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of stress-related behaviors can be used as a criterion to evaluate the welfare of captive animals. Monitoring animal welfare is important because of ethical and conservation issues. Ethical issues are involved in maintaining animals in an environment similar to nature and conservation issues are related to scientific research and environmental education in zoos. One of the most common captive primates found in Brazilian zoos is the golden-bellied capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos), r...

  5. Comparative Study of Reproductive Development in Wild and Captive-Reared Greater Amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupa, Rosa; Rodríguez, Covadonga; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Fakriadis, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria; Pérez, José A.; Pousis, Chrysovalentinos; Basilone, Gualtiero

    2017-01-01

    The greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is a large teleost fish with rapid growth and excellent flesh quality, whose domestication represents an ambitious challenge for aquaculture. The occurrence of reproductive dysfunctions in greater amberjack reared in captivity was investigated by comparing reproductive development of wild and captive-reared individuals. Wild and captive-reared breeders were sampled in the Mediterranean Sea during three different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY, late April-early May), advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED, late May-early June) and spawning (SPAWNING, late June-July). Fish reproductive state was evaluated using the gonado-somatic index (GSI), histological analysis of the gonads and determination of sex steroid levels in the plasma, and correlated with leptin expression in the liver and gonad biochemical composition. The GSI and sex steroid levels were lower in captive-reared than in wild fish. During the ADVANCED period, when the wild greater amberjack breeders were already in spawning condition, ovaries of captive-reared breeders showed extensive atresia of late vitellogenic oocytes and spermatogenic activity ceased in the testes of half of the examined males. During the SPAWNING period, all captive-reared fish had regressed gonads, while wild breeders still displayed reproductive activity. Liver leptin expression and gonad proximate composition of wild and captive greater amberjack were similar. However, the gonads of captive-reared fish showed different total polar lipid contents, as well as specific lipid classes and fatty acid profiles with respect to wild individuals. This study underlines the need for an improvement in rearing technology for this species, which should include minimum handling during the reproductive season and the formulation of a specific diet to overcome the observed gonadal decrements of phospholipids, DHA (22:6n-3) and ARA (20:4n-6), compared to wild breeders. PMID:28056063

  6. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in captivity, Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeja, V.; A. Bijukumar

    2013-01-01

    Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki), collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal l...

  7. Rapid genetic and morphologic divergence between captive and wild populations of the endangered Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew N; Seears, Heidi A; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Samollow, Paul B

    2017-01-30

    The Leon Springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) is an endangered species currently restricted to a single desert spring and a separate captive habitat in southwestern North America. Following establishment of the captive population from wild stock in 1976, the wild population has undergone natural population size fluctuations, intentional culling to purge genetic contamination from an invasive congener (Cyprinodon variegatus) and augmentation/replacement of wild fish from the captive stock. A severe population decline following the most recent introduction of captive fish prompted us to examine whether the captive and wild populations have differentiated during the short time they have been isolated from one another. If so, the development of divergent genetic and/or morphologic traits between populations could contribute to a diminished ability of fish from one location to thrive in the other. Examination of genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms and morphologic variation revealed no evidence of residual C. variegatus characteristics in contemporary C. bovinus samples. However, significant genetic and morphologic differentiation was detected between the wild and captive populations, some of which might reflect local adaptation. Our results indicate that genetic and physical characteristics can diverge rapidly between isolated subdivisions of managed populations, potentially compromising the value of captive stock for future supplementation efforts. In the case of C. bovinus, our findings underscore the need to periodically inoculate the captive population with wild genetic material to help mitigate genetic, and potentially morphologic, divergence between them and also highlight the utility of parallel morphologic and genomic evaluation to inform conservation management planning.

  8. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Cox, Elizabeth Canty; Buzzard, Vanessa; Wiese, Christiane; Hillard, L Scott; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26) potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  9. Genetic Assessments and Parentage Analysis of Captive Bolson Tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) Inform Their “Rewilding” in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Cox, Elizabeth Canty; Buzzard, Vanessa; Wiese, Christiane; Hillard, L. Scott; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26) potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events. PMID:25029369

  10. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Edwards

    Full Text Available The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28. Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26 potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  11. Effects of inbreeding on reproductive success, performance, litter size, and survival in captive red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabon, David R; Waddell, William

    2010-01-01

    Captive-breeding programs have been widely used in the conservation of imperiled species, but the effects of inbreeding, frequently expressed in traits related to fitness, are nearly unavoidable in small populations with few founders. Following its planned extirpation in the wild, the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) was preserved in captivity with just 14 founders. In this study, we evaluated the captive red wolf population for relationships between inbreeding and reproductive performance and fitness. Over 30 years of managed breeding, the level of inbreeding in the captive population has increased, and litter size has declined. Inbreeding levels were lower in sire and dam wolves that reproduced than in those that did not reproduce. However, there was no difference in the inbreeding level of actual litters and predicted litters. Litter size was negatively affected by offspring and paternal levels of inbreeding, but the effect of inbreeding on offspring survival was restricted to a positive influence. There was no apparent relationship between inbreeding and method of rearing offspring. The observable effects of inbreeding in the captive red wolf population currently do not appear to be a limiting factor in the conservation of the red wolf population. Additional studies exploring the extent of the effects of inbreeding will be required as inbreeding levels increase in the captive population.

  12. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians.

  13. The effects of automated scatter feeders on captive grizzly bear activity budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nathan L P; Ha, James C

    2014-01-01

    Although captive bears are popular zoo attractions, they are known to exhibit high levels of repetitive behaviors (RBs). These behaviors have also made them particularly popular subjects for welfare research. To date, most research on ursid welfare has focused on various feeding methods that seek to increase time spent searching for, extracting, or consuming food. Prior research indicates an average of a 50% reduction in RBs when attempts are successful and, roughly, a 50% success rate across studies. This research focused on decreasing time spent in an RB while increasing the time spent active by increasing time spent searching for, extracting, and consuming food. The utility of timed, automated scatter feeders was examined for use with captive grizzly bears (Ursis arctos horribilis). Findings include a significant decrease in time spent in RB and a significant increase in time spent active while the feeders were in use. Further, the bears exhibited a wider range of behaviors and a greater use of their enclosure.

  14. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a German captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Hoffmann, Christine; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Müller, Matthias; Baumgartner, Katrin; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic cats (Felis catus) and captive wild members of the family Felidae. In this report we describe a case of FSE in a captive cheetah from the zoological garden of Nuremberg. The biochemical examination revealed a BSE-like pattern. Disease-associated scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the lymphoreticular system and in other tissues of the affected animal, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Moreover, we report for the first time the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for highly sensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the family Felidae. The widespread PrP(Sc) deposition suggests a simultaneous lymphatic and neural spread of the FSE agent. The detection of PrP(Sc) in the spleen indicates a potential for prion infectivity of cheetah blood.

  15. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  16. The captive husbandry and reproduction of the pink-eared turtle (Emydura victoriae) at Perth Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikhorst, G S; Clarke, B R; McPharlin, M; Larkin, B; McLaughlin, J; Mayes, J

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, Perth Zoo acquired six pink-eared turtles (Emydura victoriae) from the wild for display in the reptile facility. There is very little documented information on pink-eared turtles in captivity. This article looks at the reproductive biology, ecology, behavior, diet, and captive husbandry of the species. Eight clutches of eggs were documented over a 2-year period with an average clutch size of 10 eggs. Egg size was recorded with three clutches incubated to hatching. Ten hatchlings were maintained for a growth and development study. Measurements of weight, carapace length, width, height, and plastron length were recorded weekly for about 12 months, and then monthly for approximately 2 years. The data were analyzed and showed positive growth curves in all animals. Sexual dimorphism was observed after 20 weeks and sexual maturity in males observed after 2 years.

  17. Feline herpesvirus infection in a group of semi-captive cheetahs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by feline herpesvirus type-1 in wild felid species is similar to that in domestic cats. Herpesviruses are endemic in free-ranging lions in South Africa but actual clinical disease due to them has not been reported in free-ranging felids. The first reports of feline herpesvirus infection associated with clinical disease in wild felids came fromAustralia and the USA in 1970. Subsequent reports of clinical disease in cheetahs and other wild felid species were limited to captive animals. This report deals with clinical disease in a group of semi-captive cheetahs in which 18 animals were affected, and included 12 adult males, 4 adult females and 2 subadults. No mortalities occurred in this group, the most common clinical signs being sneezing, nasal discharge and loss of appetite.

  18. Wasted efforts: why captivity is not the best way to conserve species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pedrono

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation strategies of Malagasy turtles and tortoises are based principally on the captive-breeding of these species, with the ultimate aim of their possible reintroduction in the wild. Given the current precarious conservation status of endemic Malagasy turtle and tortoise species, it is clear that approach has been a failure. Instead of being used to complement in situ approaches, for a number of years captive-breeding efforts have been used as an alternative. It is essential to develop conservation strategies for these species based on empirical data, and not only on the subjective vision of NGOs with a strong interest in ex situ conservation approaches. It is only by fighting the causes of decline of Malagasy chelonian species in the wild that they will be able to be saved.

  19. Postmortal radiographic diagnosis of laminitis in a captive European moose (Alces alces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Keller, A; Peemöller, A; Nygrén, K; Hatt, J-M; Nuss, K

    2009-11-01

    A five year-old bull moose (Alces alces) was culled due to chronic hoof overgrowth that required frequent intervention. Radiographic examination revealed changes in phalangeal bone structure usually considered indicative for laminitis in domestic cattle; similar changes were absent in the hooves of a free-ranging moose of similar age. The captive animal had been maintained in exhibits whose flooring were much harder than the soil in natural moose habitat, and on a diet with a high proportion of easily fermentable carbohydrates. These findings indicate that chronic laminitis should be considered as a potential underlying factor for hoof overgrowth, and that measures aimed at reducing the incidence of laminitis in domestic cattle, such as the use of softer flooring and diets with a higher proportion of fibre, might have prophylactic potential in captive wild ruminants.

  20. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... of yolk and oil absorption, the larvae undertook significant changes in head and body morphology. At the completion of yolk sac absorption, the largely transparent larvae had a set of protruding teeth, pigmented eyes and tail, and a simple alimentary tract. Larvae appeared capable of feeding at ~12 days......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  1. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions.

  2. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  3. Cutaneous sarcoids in captive African lions associated with feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, G M B; Young, S; Munday, J S

    2011-11-01

    Solitary and multiple cutaneous and mucocutaneous masses were identified in 5 of 24 captive African lions (Panthera leo) over a 6-month-period. All masses were surgically excised, and all were histologically similar to equine and feline sarcoids. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA sequences that had been previously detected in feline sarcoids and clinically normal bovine skin. All lions had been fed a diet that included bovine carcasses that had not been skinned. Since the cessation of feeding bovine carcasses with cutaneous lesions, no additional skin lesions have been observed within any of the lions. Herein is described the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of sarcoids in 5 captive lions. As the causative papillomavirus most likely has a bovine definitive host, it is hypothesized that the lions were exposed to the virus by feeding on bovine carcasses with skin still attached.

  4. Comparison of sessile drop and captive bubble methods on rough homogeneous surfaces: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Marmur, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2011-08-02

    Quasi-static experiments using sessile drops and captive bubbles are the most employed methods for measuring advancing and receding contact angles on real surfaces. These observable contact angles are the most easily accessible and reproducible. However, some properties of practical surfaces induce certain phenomena that cause a built-in uncertainty in the estimation of advancing and receding contact angles. These phenomena are well known in surface thermodynamics as stick-slip phenomena. Following the work of Marmur (Marmur, A. Colloids Surf., A 1998, 136, 209-215), where the stick-slip effects were studied with regard to sessile drops and captive bubbles on heterogeneous surfaces, we developed a novel extension of this study by adding the effects of roughness to both methods for contact angle measurement. We found that the symmetry between the surface roughness problem and the chemical heterogeneity problem breaks down for drops and bubbles subjected to stick-slip effects.

  5. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  6. Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; Yeager, Justin; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations.

  7. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in captivity, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sreeja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki, collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal locomotion were also observed. As a defence behaviour, A. marginatus used aquarium rocks to protect the soft underside of their bodies. A. marginatus demonstrated tool use of coconut shells to make protective shelters, carrying the shells for future use. A female specimen also selected a coconut shell for egg laying and performed parental care by continuously cleaning and aerating her eggs with her arms and by squirting jets of water over the eggs.

  8. Species differences in hematological values of captive cranes, geese, raptors, and quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Hematological and serum chemical constituents of blood were determined for 12 species, including 7 endangered species, of cranes, geese, raptors, and quail in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Means, standard deviations, analysis of variance by species and sex, and a series of multiple comparisons of means were derived for each parameter investigated. Differences among some species means were observed in all blood parameters except gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Although sampled during the reproductively quiescent period, an influence of sex was noted in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Ca, and P. Our data and values reported in literature indicate that most hematological parameters vary among species and, in some cases, according to methods used to determine them. Therefore, baseline data for captive and wild birds should be established by using standard methods, and should be made available to aid others for use in assessing physiological and pathological conditions of these species.

  9. O TRADUTOR DOS ABOMINÁVEIS PRINCÍPIOS: José Pedro de Azevedo Sousa da Câmara e a circulação dos escritos de Voltaire em Portugal e no Brasil (1790-1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo MAGALHÃES IGLESIAS

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente artigo investiga a vida e a obra do desembargador José Pedro de Azevedo Sousa da Câmara, o mais importante tradutor dos textos de Voltaire para a língua portuguesa, entre os séculos XVIII e XIX. Sob anonimato, ludibriando o aparato da censura portuguesa, o desembargador publicou as tragédias políticas do filósofo francês, que circularam ultracopiadas ou por meio de impressões clandestinas, a exemplo de Bruto (1806. Sousa da Câmara viveu oito anos na Capitania da Bahia, onde atuou no Tribunal da Relação ao tempo em que os abomináveis princípios franceses influenciaram os eventos da Conjuração Baiana de 1798.

  10. Trace element geochemistry and petrogenesis of the granitoids and high-K andesite hosting gold mineralisation in the Archean Musoma-Mara Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimoto, Emmanuel Owden; Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern and ancient active continental margins are well known for their potential for hosting important gold deposits. The Neoarchean Musoma-Mara Greenstone Belt of the Tanzania Craton is also known for hosting several important gold deposits. Previous geochemical studies of the belt demonstrated that the rocks formed along Neoarchean convergent margins. The host rocks of the three important deposits in this belt had not yet been geochemically investigated. Therefore, we studied the host rocks of the Gokona, Nyabigena and Nyabirama gold deposits in the Neoarchean Musoma-Mara Greenstone Belt of the Tanzania Craton to determine the tectonic setting of their formation and constrain their petrogenesis. The host rocks of the Gokona and Nyabigena deposits are classified as high-K andesite, whereas the host rocks of the Nyabirama deposit are classified primarily as trondhjemite and granite and minor granodiorite (TGG). The high-K andesite and TGG were formed in an active continental margin similar to that of other Neoarchean volcanic rocks found in the Musoma-Mara Greenstone Belt. The host rocks contain low Ni and Cr concentrations and are characterised by negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.67-0.72 and 0.17-0.6). The chondrite-normalised rare earth element (REE) patterns of the rocks display strong enrichment in light REEs over heavy REEs (high-K andesite (La/Yb)N = 21.7-35.6, and TGG (La/Yb)N = 2.4-94.4). Moreover, the primitive normalised diagrams show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (Ba, Rb, Th and K), negative Nb and Ta anomalies and depletion in heavy rare earth elements and high field-strength elements (Y and Ti). The high-K andesite has a Nb/Ta value close to that of depleted mantle (mean = 15.0), lower Zr/Sm values (19.4-30.6) and higher concentrations of REEs, large ion lithophile elements, Sr (607 ppm) and Y than in the TGG. The TGG has a low mean Nb/Ta value (13.2) and Sr concentration (283 ppm) and a lower amount of HREEs and higher values of Zr

  11. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  12. Serum biochemical study of major elements of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Jani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The serum biochemistry of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica in India has not been studied in depths. We report here the results of an analysis of a large number of individuals with the aim of providing reference ranges for major serological parameters in male and female Asiatic lions in health and diseases. This information will be of use to zoo veterinarians and pathologists.

  13. Dietary estrogens--a probable cause of infertility and liver disease in captive cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, K D; Gosselin, S J; Welsh, M B; Johnston, J O; Balistreri, W F; Kramer, L W; Dresser, B L; Tarr, M J

    1987-08-01

    The cheetah in the wild is "racing towards extinction" mostly due to habitat destruction. Its survival will probably depend on accelerated captive breeding. At this time, however, reproductive failure and liver disease threaten the future of the captive cheetah population. Histopathological evaluation of more than 100 cheetah livers identified venocclusive disease as the main hepatic lesion responsible for liver disease in this species. Analysis of the commercial feline diet by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed large amounts of two phytoestrogens identified as daidzein and genistein. These compounds were found to be derived from a soybean product that was a component of the cheetah diet, and their concentrations both ranged from 18 to 35 micrograms/g diet. The adult cheetah consequently consumes approximately 50 mg/day of these weak estrogens. When extracts of the diet were tested for estrogenicity using a bioassay, a dose-related increase in uterine weight was observed. In 4 cheetahs studied, withdrawal of this feline diet by substitution with a chicken diet resulted in an improvement in conventional liver function tests and a normalization in the appearance of hepatic mitochondria. We conclude that the relatively high concentrations of phytoestrogens from soybean protein present in the commercial diet fed to captive cheetahs in North American zoos may be one of the major factors in the decline of fertility and in the etiology of liver disease in this species. The survival of the captive cheetah population could depend upon a simple change of diet by excluding exogenous estrogen.

  14. Social influences on the estrous cycle of the captive sun bear (Helarctos Malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Hunt, Kathleen; Kyes, Randall; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Ha, James; Wasser, Samuel K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential influences of existing social housing arrangements on captive sun bear female reproductive cycling. Three social conditions were studied: 1.2, 1.1, and 0.2. Fecal hormone metabolites of total estrogens, progestins and glucocorticoids were compared between the three social conditions and were analyzed along with vaginal cytology data in individuals that experienced a change in social condition. Behavioral data were collected on females in each of the social conditions and summarized into agonistic, affiliative and sexual categories. Results indicated that sun bears are spontaneous ovulators, but that the presence of a male does influence hormone metabolite concentrations and cytological profiles. Male presence was also associated with a greater proportion of females cycling. In most female pairs, only one female cycled, typically the younger, subordinate female. The presence of a second female appeared to have a suppressive influence on both cycling and mating behavior. Agonistic behavior and associated stress may be a mechanism for lowering progesterone. In contrast, high estrogen levels were associated with low levels of agonistic interactions; thus, reproductive cycle monitoring could facilitate social introductions with either sex. Females in 1.2 social groupings had significantly higher GC metabolite concentrations and agonistic behavior, suggesting that 1.2 social groupings may not be advisable for captive breeding programs. Data from the North American historical captive population indicate that at most 32% of all sun bear pairs and only 18.5% of females have successfully reproduced. Implications of these social and reproductive patterns for captive management are discussed.

  15. A bumblefoot outbreak and fatal septicemia in captive aquatic birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Marcus Vinícius Romero; Resende,José Sérgio de; Donatti,Rogério Venâncio; Vilela,Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Ecco, Roselene; Martins,Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    A bumblefoot outbreak with different prognosis according to host species was studied in captive aquatic avian species. Six wood ducks (Aix sponsa), three scarlet-ibis (Eudocimus ruber), two black-swans (Cygnus atratus), five white-faced ducks (Dendrocygna viduata) and two roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja) were kept in a common pen with abrasive pavement pond margin, predisposing to podal skin wear. Incoordination and mortality occurred in the two roseate spoonbils and one black swan. Coagul...

  16. Gammaretrovirus-Specific Antibodies in Free-Ranging and Captive Namibian Cheetahs

    OpenAIRE

    Krengel, Annika; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L.; Wachter, Bettina; Böni, Jürg; Leslie R Bisset; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Jago, Mark; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The cheetah population in Namibia is the largest free-ranging population in the world and a key population for research regarding the health status of this species. We used serological methods and quantitative real-time PCR to test free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus that can be highly aggressive in populations with low genetic diversity, such as cheetahs. We also assessed the presence of antibodies to other gammaretro...

  17. Migratory restlessness in captive individuals predicts actual departure in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Szostek, K. Lesley; Bairlein, Franz

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, migratory birds show increased activity during the time that they would normally migrate. The phenology and intensity of such ‘migratory restlessness’ has been shown to mirror species- and population-specific migration patterns observed in the wild and has consequently been used as a proxy for the motivation to migrate. Many studies doing so, however, were aiming to explain among-individual variation in migratory behaviour or traits, and not species- or population-specific trait...

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  20. Factors affecting aggression among females in captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Isbell, Lynne A

    2011-11-01

    Captive groups of primates often exhibit higher rates of aggression than wild, free-ranging groups. It is important to determine which factors influence aggression in captivity because aggression, particularly intense aggression, can be harmful to animal health and well-being. In this study, we investigated the effect of ground substrate as well as season, rank, age, and group size on rates of agonistic interactions per female in seven captive groups of rhesus macaques (n = 70 females, 1,723 focal samples) at the California National Primate Research Center. Agonistic interactions were divided into three categories: displacements, mild aggression, and intense aggression. Females living in enclosures with gravel substrate were 1.7 times more likely to be involved in intense aggression (e.g. chases and physical contact) than females living in enclosures with grass (Poisson regression model: P females were at least 1.3 times more likely to be involved in mild (e.g. threats and lunges) aggression than lower-ranking females (low rank: P = 0.03; mid rank: P = 0.001). Females of all ranks were 1.5-1.9 times more likely to be involved in both intense and mild aggression during the breeding season than other seasons. Age and group size did not affect rates of mild or intense aggression. These findings indicate that although some aggression appears to be natural and unavoidable, i.e. aggression during the breeding season, the well-being of captive macaques can be improved by developing grass substrate in outdoor enclosures.

  1. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eulalia; Pérez-González, Javier; Carranza, Juan; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population). Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a) inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b) fitness (survival) increased, and c) the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many other effects

  2. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  3. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eulalia; Pérez-González, Javier; Carranza, Juan; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population). Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a) inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b) fitness (survival) increased, and c) the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many other effects

  4. The Vietnam POW Veteran: Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Hysterical personality 10 Depressive Neurosis 10 Anxiety Neurosis 8 Alcoholism 8 Adjustment Reaction 8 Schizoid Personality 6 Schizophrenia 2 *Data from...STRESS DISORDERS AMONG VIETNAMVETERANS, edited by Charles R. Figley, Brunner/ Mazel, Inc., New York, 1978. THE VIETNAM POW VETERANS 189 physical stresses...foutth year of a comprehensive longitudinal study of the residuals of captivity and family separation for the 241 Army, Navy, S I 190 STR-:ss DISORDERS

  5. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  6. Building secure wireless access point based on certificate authentication and firewall captive portal

    OpenAIRE

    Soewito B.; Hirzi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless local area network or WLAN more vulnerability than wired network even though WLAN has many advantages over wired. Wireless networks use radio transmissions to carry data between end users and access point. Therefore, it is possible for someone to sit in your office building's lobby or parking lot or parking lot to eavesdrop on the wireless network communication. This paper discussed securing wires local area network used WPA2 Enterprise based PEAP MS-CHAP and Captive portal firewall....

  7. Francisco López de Gómara y Hernán Cortés: nuevos testimonios de la relación del cronista con los marqueses del Valle de Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Martínez, M.ª del Carmen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The chronicler Francisco López de Gómara shows on two lawsuits some aspects of his own relationship between Hernán Cortés and Hernán Cortés heir, Martín Cortés. These statements were made in 1549 when he had already been entrusted with the writing about the conqueror, as well as in 1551, little time before his Historia de las Indias y conquista de México was published. Gómara s link with Cortés in Spain are highly relevant to understand the sources of his writings and these statements give a very important information on some period of his life.

    Las declaraciones del cronista Francisco López de Gómara en dos pleitos permiten esclarecer algunos aspectos de su relación con Hernán Cortés y su heredero Martín Cortés. Estos testimonios tuvieron lugar en 1549, cuando ya se ocupaba de escribir sobre el conquistador, y en 1551, poco antes de la publicación de la Historia de las Indias y conquista de México. Los vínculos que revela Gómara con el entorno de Cortés en España son claves para entender las fuentes de su obra e iluminan algunos años de su vida.

  8. Study of the umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara osmotic dehydration processEstudio del processo de deshidratación osmótica de umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiana Freitas Pinto de Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara is a fruit native of Northeastern semi-arid with large productive capacity and excellent nutritional characteristics that have been underused in the family farming of the region. Aiming to minimize post-harvest losses and add value to the fruit, this research has the objective of studying the osmotic dehydration process of umbu through a 2² factorial design, with independent variables: time of immersion (1-3 hours and osmotic solution concentration (35-45 °Brix. The dependent variables were: acidity (A, vitamin C (Vc, weight loss (PP, moisture loss (PU, solid gain (GS and dehydration efficiency index (IED. The highest values for vitamin C, PU and FDI and lower GS were observed under conditions of higher immersion time (3 h and lower concentration of the solution (35 °Brix, associated with the fact that the process had been performed at room temperature. El umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara es un fruto nativo del semiárido Nordestino que tiene elevada capacidad productiva y excelentes características nutricionales que no son aprovechadas en la agricultura familiar de esa región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del proceso de deshidratación osmótica de umbu a través de un diseño experimental factorial 2². Los efectos de las variables independientes tiempo de inmersión (1 a 3 h y concentración de la solución osmótica (35 a 45 °Brix fueron analizados sobre las respuestas acidez (A, contenido de vitamina C (Vc, pérdida de peso (PP, pérdida de humedad (PU, ganancia de sólidos (GS e índice de eficiencia de la deshidratación (IED. Los mejores resultados correspondientes a mayores contenidos de vitamina C, PU e IED y menor GS fueron observados en las condiciones de mayor tiempo de inmersión (3 h y menor concentración de la solución (35°Brix en condiciones de temperatura ambiente.

  9. El Alcázar de Madrid. Del castillo Trastámara al palacio de los Austrias (Ss. XV-1543

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    Alonso Ruiz, Begoña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medieval Alcázar (fortress of Madrid was transformed into the residential palace of the Austrian dynasty in Spain from the reign of Charles I through that of Charles II. On Christmas Eve 1734, during the reign of the Bourbon king Philip V, the palace suffered a devastating fire, resulting in the construction of a new Royal palace, already baroque, on the same site. This research reconstructs the history – until now fragmented – of this lost medieval castle, contributing new source materials concerning the successive interventions carried out on the building. Specifically, this investigation focuses on the improvements realized during the period of the Catholic Monarchs and the first works commissioned by Charles V, prior to the definitive royal bond of 1536. This document marks the beginning of a new chapter in the constructive history of the building, when the old castle was transformed definitively into a residential palace, while highlighting the symbolic value of the Sala Rica and the rooms of protocol constructed during the Trastámara period.El alcázar medieval de Madrid se convirtió en la gran residencia de los Austrias desde la llegada de Carlos I al reinado de Carlos II. En la Nochebuena de 1734, reinando ya Felipe V de Borbón, el palacio sufrió un devastador incendio, resultado del cual se inicia la construcción del nuevo Palacio Real, ya barroco, sobre su solar. En esta investigación nos ocupamos de reconstruir la historia –hasta ahora fragmentada– de ese castillo medieval, aportando nuevos datos documentales acerca de las sucesivas intervenciones sufridas en el edificio. Nos centramos de forma especial en las obras realizadas en el período de los Reyes Católicos y en las primeras encargadas por Carlos V, antes de la definitiva real cédula de 1536 que marca el comienzo de un nuevo capítulo en la historia constructiva del edificio al transformarse de manera definitiva el viejo castillo en un palacio residencial

  10. Kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Andrea S; Ivy, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Zoo-based captive breeding programs typically rely on accurate pedigrees to maintain long-term population genetic diversity and prevent close inbreeding. For many mixed-sex captive populations, it is difficult to assign parentage of offspring with certainty without conducting DNA-based parentage analyses. Using the demographic parameters of a North American captive population of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in handling pedigrees with varying degrees of parentage uncertainty. We also compared these strategies with 2 nonkinship-based methods. Pedigrees simulated under different management strategies were compared for their long-term ability to maintain gene diversity (GD) and avoid inbreeding. For the Arabian oryx, results indicate that recording multiple possible parents instead of removing the unknown genomic portion of the pedigree can more efficiently utilize all animals available for breeding without compromising GD and inbreeding avoidance. Both kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies significantly outperformed the nonkinship-based strategies.

  11. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  12. Social life of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: implications for elephant welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, Varadharajan; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Asian elephants in the wild live in complex social societies; in captivity, however, management often occurs in solitary conditions, especially at the temples and private places of India. To investigate the effect of social isolation, this study assessed the social group sizes and the presence of stereotypies among 140 captive Asian elephants managed in 3 captive systems (private, temple, and forest department) in Tamil Nadu, India, between 2003 and 2005. The majority of the facilities in the private (82%) and temple (95%) systems held a single elephant without opportunity for social interaction. The forest department managed the elephants in significantly larger groups than the private and temple systems. Among the 3 systems, the proportion of elephants with stereotypies was the highest in temple (49%) followed by private system (26%) and the forest department facility (6%); this correlates with the social isolation trend observed in the 3 systems and suggests a possible link between social isolation and abnormal elephant behavior separate from other environmental factors. The results of this study indicate it would be of greater benefit to elephant well being to keep the patchily distributed solitary temple and private elephants who are socially compatible and free from contagious diseases in small social groups at "common elephant houses" for socialization.

  13. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  14. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

    2008-08-01

    The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  15. Retrospective Serology Study of Respiratory Virus Infections in Captive Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Buitendijk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orang-utans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.

  16. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  17. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  19. Species identification and chromosome variation of captive two-toed sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A

    2011-01-01

    Two-toed sloth species, Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's, are frequent residents of zoo collections in North America. However, species identification has always been problematic because of their large overlap in external morphology, which represents an obstacle to the captive breeding program. We describe here a PCR-based technique that allows species identification of two-toed sloths without requiring sequencing, by using a mitochondrial marker (COI gene) and restriction enzyme assay. We also report intra- and inter-specific patterns of chromosome variation in captive two-toed sloths. Molecularly, we identified 22 samples of Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's two-toed sloths corresponding to 14 and 8 individuals, respectively. One animal was identified as a hybrid using the nuclear gene Enam having alleles derived from both species. The chromosome number in Hoffman's two-toed sloths showed low variation ranging only between 50 and 51. In contrast, Linnaeus's two-toed sloths appeared to vary widely, with diploid numbers ranging from 53 to 67, suggesting distinct geographic groups. The species identification method presented here represents a low-cost easy-to-use tool that will help to improve management of the captive population of two-toed sloths.

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles of urinary organic acids in healthy captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian Stephen Wolferstan; van Reenen, Mari; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk Jacobus

    2017-04-01

    In captivity, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) frequently suffer from several unusual chronic diseases that rarely occur in their free-ranging counterparts. In order to develop a better understanding of their metabolism and health we documented the urine organic acids of 41 apparently healthy captive cheetahs, in an untargeted metabolomic study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 339 organic acids were detected and annotated. Phenolic compounds, thought to be produced by the anaerobic fermentation of aromatic amino acids in the distal colon, as well as their corresponding glycine conjugates, were present in high concentrations. The most abundant organic acids in the cheetahs' urine were an as yet unidentified compound and a novel cadaverine metabolite, tentatively identified as N(1),N(5)-dimethylpentane-1,5-diamine. Pantothenic acid and citramalic acid concentrations correlated negatively with age, while glutaric acid concentrations correlated positively with age, suggesting possible dysregulation of coenzyme A metabolism in older cheetahs. This study provides a baseline of urine organic acid reference values in captive cheetahs and suggests important avenues for future research in this species.