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Sample records for captive fat-tailed jird

  1. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-ove...

  2. Fat Tails, Thin Tails, and Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy is complicated by the considerable uncertainties concerning the benefits and costs of abatement. We do not even know the probability distributions for future temperatures and impacts, making benefit–cost analysis based on expected values challenging to say the least. There are good reasons to believe that those probability distributions are fat-tailed, which implies that if social welfare is based on the expectation of a constant relative risk aversion utility function, then we...

  3. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a jird urine metabolome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globisch, Daniel; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Eubanks, Lisa M; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2015-12-15

    The neglected tropical disease onchocerciasis affects more than 35 million people worldwide with over 95% in Africa. Disease infection initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious L3 larvae. New treatments and diagnostics are required to eradicate this parasitic disease. Herein, we describe that a previously discovered biomarker for onchocerciasis, N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) is also present in urine samples of jirds infected with the onchocerciasis model nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. Increased NATOG values paralleled a progressing infection and demonstrated that quantification of NATOG in this rodent model can be utilized to track its infectivity. Moreover, our findings suggest how NATOG monitoring may be used for evaluating potential drug candidates. PMID:26573416

  4. On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

    2014-09-01

    Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

  5. Option Valuation with Volatility Components, Fat Tails, and Nonlinear Pricing Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaoglu, Kadir Gokhan; Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven; Jacobs, Kris

    We nest multiple volatility components, fat tails and a U-shaped pricing kernel in a single option model and compare their contribution to describing returns and option data. All three features lead to statistically significant model improvements. A second volatility factor is economically most i...

  6. Chemotherapy of Babesia microti infections in Mongolian Jirds.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruebush, T. K.; Contacos, P G; Steck, E A

    1980-01-01

    For identifying drugs which might be effective in the treatment of human Babesia microti infections, 20 selected antiprotozoal agents or combinations of agents were tested for activity against B. microti in Mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus). 4-Methyl-primaquine and aromatic diamidines, including diminazene and pentamidine, were the most effective compounds tested.

  7. Fat tails, long memory, maturity and ageing in open-source software projects

    OpenAIRE

    Challet, Damien; Valverde, Sergi

    2008-01-01

    We report activity data analysis on several open source software projects, focusing on time between modifications and on the number of files modified at once. Both have fat-tailed distributions, long-term memory, and display systematic non-trivial cross-correlations, suggesting that quiet periods are followed by cascading modifications. In addition the maturity of a software project can be measured from the exponent of the distribution of inter-modification time. Finally, the dynamics of a si...

  8. Self-similar solutions with fat tails for Smoluchowski's coagulation equation with locally bounded kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Niethammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The existence of self-similar solutions with fat tails for Smoluchowski's coagulation equation has so far only been established for the solvable and the diagonal kernel. In this paper we prove the existence of such self-similar solutions for continuous kernels $K$ that are homogeneous of degree $\\gamma \\in (-\\infty,1)$ and satisfy $K(x,y) \\leq C (x^{\\gamma} + y^{\\gamma})$. More precisely, for any $\\rho \\in (\\gamma,1)$ we establish the existence of a continuous weak self-similar profile with decay $x^{-(1{+}\\rho)}$ as $x \\to \\infty$.

  9. Endocarditis associated with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a fat-tailed ram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, M. R; Ebrahimi Kahrisangi, A; Baghban, F; Kazemi, A; Heidari, M; Salehi, N

    2015-01-01

    Endocarditis is rarely reported in sheep and information presented for ovine endocarditis is based mostly on comparative findings in the cattle. Infective vegetative endocarditis of the right heart was diagnosed in a 3-year-old fat-tailed ram. Clinical findings included tachycardia, marked brisket edema, jugular veins distention and pulsation and pale mucous membranes. Hematologic abnormality included neutrophilic leukocytosis. Necropsy confirmed severe right atrioventricular and pulmonary valves vegetative endocarditis with evidence of right heart failure. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from those vegetative lisions.

  10. Identification of Bmpr-1b and Bmp15 gene mutations in fat tail sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Maskur .; Chairussyuhur Arman

    2012-01-01

    Fat tail sheep (FTS) is regarded as highly prolific local sheep and have been well adapted under tropical climate of Lombok island. BMPR-1B and BMP15 genes that controll reproductive traits such as ovulation rate and litter size in different type of sheep will be studied as candidate genes for prolific traits in FTS. These genes  have been reported by various investigators have different prolificacy mechanism between several breeds of sheep, and it is very likely will occur in FTS. This study...

  11. Dynamic Multi-Factor Credit Risk Model with Fat-Tailed Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gapko, Petr; Šmíd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-140. ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : credit risk * probability of default * loss given default * credit loss * credit loss distribution * Basel II Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/smid-dynamic multi-factor credit risk model with fat-tailed factors .pdf

  12. Fat Tail Model for Simulating Test Systems in Multiperiod Unit Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Chambers-Mallows-Stuck method for simulating stable random variables in the generation of test systems for economic analysis in power systems. A study that focused on generating test electrical systems through fat tail model for unit commitment problem in electrical power systems is presented. Usually, the instances of test systems in Unit Commitment are generated using normal distribution, but in this work, simulations data are based on a new method. For simulating, we used three original systems to obtain the demand behavior and thermal production costs. The estimation of stable parameters for the simulation of stable random variables was based on three generally accepted methods: (a regression, (b quantiles, and (c maximum likelihood, choosing one that has the best fit of the tails of the distribution. Numerical results illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by solving several unit commitment problems.

  13. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from colored fat-tailed fluctuations: An electronic analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Peña Rosselló

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to optimize piezoelectric energy harvesting from strongly col-ored fat-tailed fluctuations, we have recently studied the performance ofa monostable inertial device under a noise whose statistics depends on aparameter q (bounded for q 1.We have studied the interplay between the potential shape (interpolatingbetween square-well and harmonic-like behaviors and the noise’s statis-tics and spectrum, and showed that its output power grows as q increasesabove 1. We now report a real experiment on an electronic analog of theproposed system, which sheds light on its operating principle. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 7 September 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070014 Cite as: J I Peña Rosselló, R Deza, J . Deza, H S Wio, Papers in Physics 7, 070014 (2015

  14. Non-Gaussian Nature of Fracture and the Survival of Fat-Tail Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Toussaint, Renaud; Santucci, Stephane; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-04-01

    We study the fluctuations of the global velocity Vl(t), computed at various length scales l, during the intermittent mode-I propagation of a crack front. The statistics converge to a non-Gaussian distribution, with an asymmetric shape and a fat tail. This breakdown of the central limit theorem (CLT) is due to the diverging variance of the underlying local crack front velocity distribution, displaying a power law tail. Indeed, by the application of a generalized CLT, the full shape of our experimental velocity distribution at large scale is shown to follow the stable Levy distribution, which preserves the power law tail exponent under upscaling. This study aims to demonstrate in general for crackling noise systems how one can infer the complete scale dependence of the activity—and extreme event distributions—by measuring only at a global scale.

  15. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  16. Fat-tailed fluctuations in the size of organizations: the role of social influence

    CERN Document Server

    Mondani, Hernan; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Organizational growth processes have consistently been shown to exhibit a fatter-than-Gaussian growth-rate distribution in a variety of settings. Long periods of relatively small changes are interrupted by sudden changes in all size scales. This kind of extreme events can have important consequences for the development of biological and socio-economic systems. Existing models do not derive this aggregated pattern from agent actions at the micro level. We develop an agent-based simulation model on a social network. We take our departure in a model by a Schwarzkopf et al. on a scale-free network. We reproduce the fat-tailed pattern out of internal dynamics alone, and also find that it is robust with respect to network topology. Thus, the social network and the local interactions are a prerequisite for generating the pattern, but not the network topology itself. We further extend the model with a parameter $\\delta$ that weights the relative fraction of an individual's neighbours belonging to a given organization...

  17. Value-at-risk estimations of energy commodities via long-memory, asymmetry and fat-tailed GARCH models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we evaluate the value-at-risk (VaR) and the expected shortfalls for some major crude oil and gas commodities for both short and long trading positions. Classical VaR estimations as well as RiskMetrics and other extensions to cases considering for long-range memory, asymmetry and fat-tail in energy markets volatility were conducted. We computed the VaR for three ARCH/GARCH-type models including FIGARCH, FIAPARCH and HYGARCH. These models were estimated in the presence of three alternative innovation's distributions: normal, Student and skewed Student. Our results show that considering for long-range memory, fat-tails and asymmetry performs better in predicting a one-day-ahead VaR for both short and long trading positions. Moreover, the FIAPARCH model outperforms the other models in the VaR's prediction. These results present several potential implications for energy markets risk quantifications and hedging strategies.

  18. Value-at-risk estimations of energy commodities via long-memory, asymmetry and fat-tailed GARCH models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we evaluate the value-at-risk (VaR) and the expected shortfalls for some major crude oil and gas commodities for both short and long trading positions. Classical VaR estimations as well as RiskMetrics and other extensions to cases considering for long-range memory, asymmetry and fat-tail in energy markets volatility were conducted. We computed the VaR for three ARCH/GARCH-type models including FIGARCH, FIAPARCH and HYGARCH. These models were estimated in the presence of three alternative innovation's distributions: normal, Student and skewed Student. Our results show that considering for long-range memory, fat-tails and asymmetry performs better in predicting a one-day-ahead VaR for both short and long trading positions. Moreover, the FIAPARCH model outperforms the other models in the VaR's prediction. These results present several potential implications for energy markets risk quantifications and hedging strategies. (author)

  19. Effects of Adding Adenosine Triphosphate to Semen Diluter on Quality of Spermatozoa of Fat-Tailed Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    E Pramono; TR Tagama

    2008-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effects of adding different levels of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to semen diluter on quality of sperms of fat-tailed sheep. Treatments consisted of 5, 10 and 15 mg of ATP addition into semen diluter (Egg Yolk Sodium Citric). Results showed that treatments have no significant effects on spermatozoa motility, significant effects on spermatozoa viability, and high significant effects on spermatozoa mortality. On average, sperm motility for control was 79....

  20. Genomic scan of selective sweeps in thin and fat tail sheep breeds for identifying of candidate regions associated with fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Mohammad Hossein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. Results Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. Conclusions In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.

  1. Effect of single dose dexamethasone administration on metabolism related parameters in lactating fat tailed sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citil M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of a single dose glucocorticoid administration on the parameters related to energy metabolism in sheep. Forty healthy lactating fat tailed ewes, 2-3 years old, were obtained from the Farm of the University of Kafkas. The animals were divided into control (n=20 and treated group (n=20. Ewes in the treatment group (n=20 was parenterally given a single dose of 0.025 mg/kg dexamethasone (Deksavet %0.4 enj.®, Interhas, Istanbul-Turkey at the beginning of the study. Ewes in the control group (n=20 were parenterally given the same dose of placebo at the beginning of the study. All animals were blood sampled before the drug administration and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th day of injection. Sera samples were analyzed for the determination of concentrations of insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB, non esterified fatty acid (NEFA, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, total protein, albumin, globulin and phosphorus. Cholesterol, glucose (P<0.001 and insulin (P<0.05 concentration obtained on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 were significantly higher than the baseline values on day 0. Concentrations of cholesterol and glucose peaked on day 7 and 3, respectively. NEFA concentration was significantly lower during the experiment except for day 7 when it peaked (P<0.05. Other examined parameters did not significantly change when compared to the baseline values. Comparison of the control and the treated group revealed a statistically significant increase in the concentrations of glucose on day 2, 3, and 4, cholesterol on day 3, 4, 5, and 7, insulin on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 while concentrations of NEFA decreased on day 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 and phosphorus concentrations decreased on day 4. The results obtained suggest that a single dose of glucocorticoids may help improving energy metabolism through enhancement of gluconeogenesis during lactation.

  2. The effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for lumbosacral epidural analgesia in fat-tailed sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomised experimental study was designed to compare the analgesic effects of lumbosacral epidural administration of lidocaine-epinephrine or lidocaine-xylazine combinations in fat-tailed sheep. Nine healthy fat-tailed male lambs (mean ± s.d. age, 4.6 ± 0.4 months; weight, 24.6 kg ± 2.5 kg were randomly allocated into four groups of six sheep: lidocaine 2% (LID, lidocaine-epinephrine 5 µg/mL (LIDEP, lidocaine-xylazine 0.05 mg/kg (LIDXY or bupivacaine 0.5% (BUP. The onset and duration of flank, perineum and hindlimb anaesthesia and the onset and duration of hindlimb paralysis were recorded. Epidural administration of LID, LIDEP, LIDXY or BUP produced anaesthesia within 6.6 min, 7.6 min, 3.4 min and 8.4 min, respectively. The mean onset of anaesthesia in the LIDXY group was significantly shorter compared with the BUP group (p = 0.02. The mean duration of anaesthesia was 107.9 min, 190.4 min, 147.6 min and 169.7 min for LID, LIDEP, LIDXY and BUP, respectively. The onset of hindlimb paralysis was faster in the LIDXY group than in the BUP group; however, the duration of hindlimb paralysis was shorter in LIDXY compared with LIDEP. Epidural administration of LIDEP or LIDXY provides a comparable duration of local anaesthesia without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep. Epidural LIDXY did not appear to be advantageous over epidural LIDEP.

  3. Brugia malayi: vaccination of jirds with /sup 60/cobalt-attenuated infective stage larvae protects against homologous challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, J.A.; Higashi, G.I.

    1985-11-01

    Vaccination of inbred jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) with /sup 60/cobalt radiation-attenuated Brugia malayi infective stage larvae (L3) protected against homologous challenge given either subcutaneously (sc) or by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. Groups of jirds vaccinated once sc with 75, 15 Krad L3 showed from 69% to 91% reduction in recovered worms after ip challenge infection compared to infection in non-vaccinated control jirds, while 75% reduction in mean worm burden was seen in jirds receiving sc challenge infection. A single sc vaccination with 75, 10 or 20 Krad L3 produced no protection (10 Krad) and 64% reduction in recovered worms (20 Krad). Therefore the 15 Krad dose appeared to be best. A marked increase in anti-B. malayi antibody in vaccinated jirds was seen (by ELISA) immediately after challenge infection and an immunofluorescence assay showed that L3 incubated in serum from vaccinated jirds were completely and uniformly covered with specific antibody. Eosinophil-rich granulomas containing dead and moribund L3 were recovered from vaccinated jirds. This model of protective immunity in a Brugia-susceptible small rodent may provide a useful system for identification of molecularly defined filarial-protective immunogens.

  4. Safety and efficacy of reduced doses of Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 vaccine in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 106, 106, 5 × 105. Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 106 Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 106 or 5 × 105 bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 106 or 5 × 105 live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.

  5. Effect of cyclophosphamide on the immune responsiveness of jirds infected with Brugia pahangi.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, S P; Lammie, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro immune responsiveness of lymphocytes from Brugia pahangi-infected jirds was examined after serial administration of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg). Cyclophosphamide had no effect on parasite burdens, anti-B. pahangi antibody titers, or suppressed spleen cell reactivity to B. pahangi antigens. Cyclophosphamide restored cellular responsiveness to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen.

  6. Captive insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosová, Simona

    2011-01-01

    This thesis has as its main goal the objective analysis of the potential for captive insurance risk management in specific situations and market analysis of captive insurance. It uses a description of the history and development of this sector, addressing the advantages and disadvantages, which helps to reflect on the usefulness of this tool. Furthermore, the analysis of that market, location options of captive insurance companies and types of captives are described here as well. A large part...

  7. Why are public health authorities not concerned about Ebola in the US? Part I. Fat tailed distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2014-01-01

    US public health authorities claim imposing quarantines on healthcare workers returning from West Africa is incorrect according to science. Their positions rely upon a set of studies and experience about outbreaks and transmission mechanisms in Africa as well as assumptions about what those studies imply about outbreaks in the US. According to this view the probability of a single infection is low and that of a major outbreak is non-existent. In a series of brief reports we will provide insight into why properties of networks of contagion that are not considered in traditional statistics suggest that risks are higher than those assumptions suggest. We begin with the difference between thin and fat tailed distributions applied to the number of infected individuals that can arise from a single one. Traditional epidemiological models consider the contagion process as described by $R_0$, the average number of new infected individuals arising from a single case. However, in a complex interdependent society it is p...

  8. Does the fat tailed Damara ovine breed have a distinct lipid metabolism leading to a high concentration of branched chain fatty acids in tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B; Quaresma, Mário A G; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Oldham, Chris; Milton, John; Greeff, Johan; Almeida, André M

    2013-01-01

    Fat tailed sheep breeds are known for their adaptation to nutritional stress, among other harsh production conditions. Damara sheep, native to Southern Africa, have recently been exported to other areas of the world, particularly Australia, aiming to produce lamb in semi-arid regions. Damaras have a unique hanging fat tail, a fat depot able to be mobilized under nutritional stress. In this article we perform an in-depth characterization of the fatty acid profiles of the fat tail in underfed and control Damara rams. Profiles were very similar between experimental groups, with the exception of palmitic acid (16:0) that was lower (P = 0.014) in underfed animals. However, the most striking result was the very high proportions of non-terminal branched chain fatty acids found in the fat tail adipose tissue, as well as the gastrocnemius muscle of Damara rams. The muscle of Dorper and Merino rams used in the same experiment did not present non-terminal branched chain fatty acids, suggesting that Damara rams have a unique lipid metabolism. Herein, we interpret this trait relating it to a higher ability of Damara sheep to digest fibrous fodder and to putative differences in the propionate metabolism by comparison to other sheep breeds. PMID:24204803

  9. Market memory and fat tail consequences in option pricing on the expOU stochastic volatility model

    CERN Document Server

    Perello, J

    2006-01-01

    The expOU stochastic volatility model is capable of reproducing fairly well most important statistical properties of financial markets daily data. Among them, the presence of multiple time scales in the volatility autocorrelation is perhaps the most relevant which makes appear fat tails in the return distributions. This paper wants to go further on with the expOU model we have studied in Ref. 1 by exploring an aspect of practical interest. Having as a benchmark the parameters estimated from the Dow Jones daily data, we want to compute the price for the European option. This is actually done by Monte Carlo, running a large number of simulations. Our main interest is to "see" the effects of a long-range market memory from our expOU model in its subsequent European call option. We pay attention to the effects of the existence of a broad range of time scales in the volatility. We find that a richer set of time scales brings to a higher price of the option. This appears in clear contrast to the presence of memory ...

  10. Innocuousness of conjunctival vaccination with Brucella melitensis strain Rev.1 in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Alamian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis strain Rev.1 is the most effective vaccine against brucellosis in sheep and goats. In Iran, mass vaccination is carried out all over the country in which adult animals are immunized by subcutaneous injection of reduced doses of the vaccine. However, due to antibody responses elicited by vaccination, concomitant implementation of test-andslaughter is impossible. To overcome the problem, vaccination through conjunctival route is recommended. In this study, serological responses of six pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes to conjunctival vaccination with standard doses of the vaccine were evaluated using modified Rose Bengal test, serum agglutination test and indirect ELISA. Besides, vaccine strain excretion in milk and vaginal discharges was also examined by microbiological culture of milk and vaginal swab samples taken one day post-parturition. Animals were vaccinated during the second half of gestation. As the results, antibody titers of five (83.3% ewes decreased to the levels not detectable by the tests within three months after vaccination. No vaccine-induced abortions occurred and vaccinated ewes delivered healthy lambs 50.33±15.56 (mean ± standard deviation days post-vaccination. Vaccine strain was not isolated from milk and vaginal swab samples. Generally, our study shows full doses of B. melitensis strain Rev.1 can be used conjunctively to vaccinate pregnant Iranian sheep during late pregnancy without abortifacient effects, prolonged antibody responses and vaccine strain excretion in milk and vaginal discharges. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in field conditions.

  11. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis), Tristram's jird (Meriones tristrami) and Wagner's gerbil (Gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute neosporosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková-Hofmannová, L.; Václavek, P.; Škorič, M.; Fictum, P.; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2007), s. 377-381. ISSN 0034-5288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neosporosis * Apicomplexa * rodents * multimammate rat * jird * gerbil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.274, year: 2007

  12. Effect of adaptation and heat stress on reproductive performances of fat-tail Awassi rams in eastern mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Awassi fat-tail sheep is desired in the Middle East and Sahara for its hardiness and resistance. In this region, the adaptability of Awassi rams to elevated heat stress is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ambient or testicular 43 deg C heat on semen characteristics. 12 Awassi rams of 1.2 to 2 years were allowed an initial adaptation period (P0), followed by two experimental phases (P1 and P2), each including a period of heat stress (HS1 and HS2) followed by a period of recovery from heat stress (R1and R2). Heat stress conditions were considered when ambient temperature (Group 2) or testicular environment (Group 3) reached 42 to 44 deg C. Control animals (Group 1) were exposed to ambient environmental conditions. Temperature-humidity index (THI) as a relationship of ambient temperature, wet and dry humidity effect along with respiration and pulse rate, body temperature and live body weight (BW) were measured weekly as adaptation parameters. Reproductive parameters assessed included scrotum circumference and testicular volume measured twice per heat stress period, whereas semen volume density,concentration and motility were measured twice weekly. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS under a time series analysis model, with treatment and time nested within period as main effects, and treatment by time within period as interaction terms. Treatment means were separated using Fisher protected LSD. Results showed a THI of 25.7 during therest periods (R1 and R2), 30 during HS1 and 28 during HS2. BW decreased with ambient stress, whereas respiration rate increased during heat stress periods (HS1 and HS2). Testes volume decreased with both ambient and testicular heat stress, whereas testicular circumference was not affected by these conditions. Semen concentration decreased whereas semen volume increased with ambient but not testicular heat stress. Spermatozoa abnormalities increased in R1 following heat stress (HS1

  13. Single-site transcription rates through fitting of ensemble-averaged data from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: A fat-tailed distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Liat; Kepten, Eldad; Yunger, Sharon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Garini, Yuval

    2015-09-01

    The stochastic process of gene expression is commonly controlled at the level of RNA transcription. The synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) is a multistep process, performed by RNA polymerase II and controlled by many transcription factors. Although mRNA transcription is intensively studied, real-time in vivo dynamic rates of a single transcribing polymerase are still not available. A popular method for examining transcription kinetics is the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) approach followed by kinetic modeling. Such analysis has yielded a surprisingly broad range of transcription rates. As transcription depends on many variables such as the chromatin state, binding and unbinding of transcription factors, and cell phase, transcription rates are stochastic variables. Thus, the distribution of rates is expected to follow Poissonian statistics, which does not coincide with the wide range of transcription rate results. Here we present an approach for analyzing FRAP data for single-gene transcription. We find that the transcription dynamics of a single gene can be described with a constant rate for all transcribing polymerases, while cell population transcription rates follow a fat-tailed distribution. This distribution suggests a larger probability for extreme rates than would be implied by normal distribution. Our analysis supports experimental results of transcription from two different promoters, and it explains the puzzling observation of extreme average rate values of transcription.

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals and As in liver, hair, femur, and lung of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Manoochehr; Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Ashrafi, Sohrab; Mirjalili, Seyyed Ali Ashghar; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2016-02-01

    Rodents frequently serve as bioindicator to monitor the quality of the environment. Concentrations of 11 elements (Cd, Co, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Sr, Ni, and Cr) were investigated and compared in liver, hair, femur, and lung of the Persian jird (Meriones persicus) from Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran. Metals were determined in different tissues of 39 individuals of Persian jird, collected by snap trap in 2014 from five areas of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method, and the contents of elements were analyzed with ICP-OES (VARIAN, 725-ES) instrument. Cadmium, Sb, and Co were below the limit of detection, and Mn and As were found only in hair and liver tissues. We detected the highest concentration of Cu, As, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni in hair in comparison with other tissues. Significant higher levels of Ti in femur and hair; Fe in liver and hair; Mn in liver; As in hair; Sr in lung; Cr in lung, hair, femur, and liver; Cu in femur; and Ni in liver and lung tissues were observed in females. Nearly all element concentrations in the tissues of Persian jird from flotation site, Darreh Zereshk and Hasan Abad villages and leaching site (mining areas) were higher than those from tailing dump site (reference site). We found the highest concentrations of As in liver and hair; Ni and Cr in liver, hair, and lung; and Sr in lung and hair tissues of Persian jird in leaching site. We tried to specify the status of elements before fully exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine by using bioindicator species. Based on our achievements, initial activities did not strongly pollute the surrounded environment of the mine. The high abundance of Persian jird as well as their several proper features makes them a suitable species for biomonitoring programs especially for further studies will be performed after full exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. PMID:26498968

  15. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  16. Reproductive response of fat-tailed Barbarine ewes subjected to short-term nutritional treatments including spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakly, C; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, I; Lassoued, N; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ben Salem, H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (≥6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. PMID:23301658

  17. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  18. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  19. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  20. Analysis on Stock Market Volatility by Using Stochastic Volatility Models with Fat-tailed Distributions and Jumps%基于跳跃厚尾随机波动模型的股市波动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潭秋; 刘再明

    2012-01-01

    通过对4个不同SV模型对比分析,试图了解股市收益序列中具有较大波动幅度的极端实现值能够被解释为一个非高斯分布的尾部行为,还是高斯扩散中一个跳跃组分的叠加,抑或是这两种设定同时起作用.采用两种具有不同波动程度的上证综指日收益数据进行的实证研究发现,我国股市日收益序列不仅存在显著的尖峰(厚尾)特征,而且波动持续性较低,以及受政府政策影响较多.此外,两组收益数据所对应模型的实证比较发现,跳跃设定有助于SV模型描述波动剧烈的收益序列,但却不适合波动平缓的收益序列.%By comparing four different stochastic volatility models, this paper attempted to find out whether the extreme realizations out of a stock market return time series can be interpreted as a tail behavior of a non-Gaussian distribution, or as the superimposition of a jump component on a Gaussian diffusion, or as a phenomenon in which both forces are at work within the same data generating process. An empirical study of Shanghai stock composition index daily returns data shows that China's Shanghai stock market volatility is characterized by obvious leptokurtic (fat-tail) and lower persistence. In addition, the jump parameters can be estimated precisely due to enough excess returns, which means the stock market is heavily affected by various related government policies. And model comparisons between the two return series show that SV models with a jump component can sufficiently describe a return time series with dramatic moves, not one with mild volatility.

  1. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.

  2. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  3. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and wrap-up…

  4. Rotary peening with captive shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building

  5. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  6. Avian Predation by Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Green R.

    2000-01-01

    During fifteen years of keeping otters, no predation on birds was observed until the winter of 1999-2000. Freshly killed birds offered to otters had not apparently been recognised as food. In the winter of 1999, a sub-adult captive otter stalked and killed a variety of birds - two pheasants, two gulls, a thrush and a goose. Otters in the adjacent pen caught and ate a heron.

  7. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  8. Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Mason C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive OttersPage 18 - 19 (Report)Chris MasonAssays for DDE, Dieldrin and PCBs were carried out on captive otters to provide a baseline of presumed uncontaminated animals for comparison with results from surveys in the wild. Results for captive animals were much lower than those from upland Wales, which has a thriving population of wild otters.

  9. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program. PMID:26598960

  10. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-17984 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... issued the first Captive Nations Proclamation in solidarity with those living without personal...

  11. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Comm...

  12. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. PMID:27092548

  13. REITs as Captive-Financing Affiliates: Impact on Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Ho Hsieh; C.F. Sirmans

    1991-01-01

    Some real estate investment trusts are created as "captive-financing" affiliates by their sponsors. This creates conflicts of interest between the sponsor/manager and shareholders. Such conflicts could affect the financial performance of the firm. Using data on a sample of REITs, results show that captive-financing REITs' financial performance is on average inferior to that of non-captive REITs.

  14. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in...

  16. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  17. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-17948 Filed 7-19...--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... States of America A Proclamation When President Dwight D. Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive...

  18. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  19. Utilização de fenbendazole e da associação febantel, pamoato de pirantel e praziquantel no controle de oxiurídeos em gerbis Use of fenbendazole and the febantel, pamoato of pirantel and praziquantel association in the control of oxiurids in jirds

    OpenAIRE

    H.H.S. Machado; F.F. Gomes; V.R.S. Fiuza; R.S. Toledo; F.C.R Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen jirds were equally distributed in two treated and one control groups. The commercial products to the fenbendazole base (10mg) and the association of febantel (1.5mg), pirantel (1.44mg) and praziquantel (0.5mg) were orally administred in the concentration of 0.1ml in each group. The effectiveness of febendazole against oxiurids was 81.8%, 65.0 and 38.7% and for the association of febantel, pirantel and praziquantel was 72.7%, 73.8% and 51.0% on days 7, 14 and 21, respectively. Three a...

  20. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  1. Fat tailed distributions for deaths in conflicts and disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of human deaths from wars, conflicts, similar man-made conflicts as well as natural disasters. The probability distribution of number of people killed in natural disasters as well as man made situations show power law decay for the largest sizes, with similar exponent values. Comparisons with natural disasters, when event sizes are measured in terms of physical quantities (e.g., energy released in earthquake, volume of rainfall, land area affected in forest fires, etc.) also show striking resemblances. The universal patterns in their statistics suggest that some subtle similarities in their mechanisms and dynamics might be responsible.

  2. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  3. Observational Learning in Wild and Captive Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Yeater, Deirdre B.; Kuczaj II, Stan A.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-human species imitate the behavior of others, and dolphins seem particularly adept at this form of observational learning. Evidence for observational learning in wild dolphins is rare, given the difficulty of observing individual wild animals in sufficient detail to eliminate other possible explanations of purported imitation. Consequently, much of the evidence supporting observational learning in dolphins has involved animals in captive settings. This research suggests that dolphins...

  4. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  5. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  6. The Three-Dimensional Morphological Effects of Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R.; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evalua...

  7. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

    OpenAIRE

    GONO SEMIADI; R. TAUFIQ PURNA NUGRAHA

    2006-01-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The...

  8. Captive Insurance Tax Policy: Resolving a Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    M Moshe Porat; Michael R. Powers

    1995-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the global captive insurance movement has established itself as a significant alternative to traditional insurance. During this period, the controversy surrounding the tax-deductibility of both premiums paid to captives and reserves held by captives has never abated. In the United States, the controversy derives from a fundamental conflict within a federal tax policy that attempts to respect the legal separate-ness of corporate entities, while at the same time que...

  9. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  10. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  11. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  12. Self-hypnosis training and captivity survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D P; Sexton, J L

    1997-01-01

    In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school. PMID:9037797

  13. Wild Tigers in Captivity: A Study of the Effects of the Captive Environment on Tiger Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsko, Leigh Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Humans maintain wild animals in zoological parks for the purposes of education,conservation, research, and recreation. However, abnormal behaviors may develop in animals housed in human-made environments, if those environments do not allow them to carry out their natural behaviors (such as swimming, climbing, stalking, and predation). Captive environments in zoological parks often do not provide for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. Tigers (Panthera ...

  14. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals...

  15. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities. PMID:23525178

  16. Utilização de fenbendazole e da associação febantel, pamoato de pirantel e praziquantel no controle de oxiurídeos em gerbis Use of fenbendazole and the febantel, pamoato of pirantel and praziquantel association in the control of oxiurids in jirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H.S. Machado

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen jirds were equally distributed in two treated and one control groups. The commercial products to the fenbendazole base (10mg and the association of febantel (1.5mg, pirantel (1.44mg and praziquantel (0.5mg were orally administred in the concentration of 0.1ml in each group. The effectiveness of febendazole against oxiurids was 81.8%, 65.0 and 38.7% and for the association of febantel, pirantel and praziquantel was 72.7%, 73.8% and 51.0% on days 7, 14 and 21, respectively. Three applications of that dose of the tested medications, within intervals of 10 days, associated to hygiene, are recommended.

  17. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  18. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  19. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  20. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  1. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS...

  2. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  3. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  4. Have somatic parameters of wild Equidae in captivity been changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes commonly occurred to animals under domestication distinguish domestic animals from their wild ancestors. Similar changes on some wild animals kept in captivity (zoological gardens) can also be observed. This diploma thesis concerns these morphological changes on a skeleton of Equidae. For several species and subspecies of this family some osteometric data received from those kept in captivity are compared to those from the wild. A more deta...

  5. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina)

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Wayne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3) previou...

  6. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  7. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anna M.; Elizabeth A Hobson; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of p...

  8. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  9. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  10. The transaction costs driving captive power generation: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2003 Indian Electricity Act incentivizes captive power production through open access in an attempt to harness all sources of generation. Yet, we observe that only some firms self-generate while others do not. In this paper we give a transaction cost explanation for such divergent behavior. Using a primary survey of 107 firms from India, we construct a distinct variable to measure the transaction-specificity of electricity use. The ‘make or buy’ decision is then econometrically tested using probit model. Results are highly responsive to transaction-specificity and the likelihood of captive power generation is positively related to it. At the industrial level, this explains why food and chemical firms are more likely to make their own electricity. Since the burden of poor grid supply is highest on smaller sized and high transaction-specific firms, the grid access policies need to account for firm-level characteristics if government wants to incentivize captive power generation. - Highlights: • We analyze why some firms opt for captive power generation while others do not. • We examine the role of transaction costs in this decision making using probit model. • Unique data from a primary survey of manufacturing firms in Andhra Pradesh, India. • Transaction-specificity significantly determines who installs captive power plant (CPP). • Firm-level characteristics crucial in policies incentivizing captive generation

  11. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare. PMID:26403665

  12. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs. PMID:11021439

  13. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences. PMID:16604276

  14. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shangying YU; Jiang, Zhigang; Hui ZHU; Li, Chunwang; Enquan ZHANG; Zhang, Jinguo; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among ...

  15. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  16. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  17. Captive rearing initiative for Salmon River chinook salmon; Report period: January 1998-January 1999; Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective

  18. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  19. IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group: Otters in Captivity Task Force (OCT – Supporting Quality Captive Otter Care Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Work on creating the Otters in Captivity Task Force was begun in earnest in 2007 after OSG chair Jim Conroy reiterated Claus Reuther’s earlier request that the OSG look at how we could best interface with our colleagues working with otters in captive settings. I am pleased to report that this task force, known as OCT, has made some valuable progress in establishing our goals, identifying objectives, meeting some targets, and solidifying positive working relationships with otter professionals worldwide.

  20. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  1. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Sterenborg, Marlijn; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress—or, more appropriately, “allostatic overload”—may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine i

  2. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  3. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...

  5. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...

  6. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.

  7. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  8. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  9. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife com

  10. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Brett W; Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans.

  11. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  12. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  13. A note on reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Dezonne Motta

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Conditions leading to successful reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity are described. A trial involving four mating pairs which had been maintained at least four months in the laboratory resulted in three litters and one false pregnancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first record of successful breeding of this species in captivity.As condições utilizadas para o sucesso da reprodução de D. marsupialis em cativeiro são descritas. Esta tentativa envolveu quatro casais, os quais haviam sido mantidos no mínimo por quatro meses em laboratório e resultou em três ninhadas e uma falsa prenhez. Julgamos ser este o primeiro registro da reprodução desta espécie em cativeiro.

  14. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  15. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes bel...

  17. Temperature discrimination by captive free-swimming tuna, Euthynnus affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Captive kawakawa, Euthynnus affinis, were instrumentally conditioned to respond to an increase in temperature to determine discrimination abilities. Two fish yielded a discrimination threshold of 0.10 to 0.150C. Thermal sensitivity of this high-seas pelagic fish is thus no more acute than that of inshore fishes and appears inadequate for direct sensing of weak horizontal temperature gradients at sea

  18. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo; Simone Akemi Uenaka; Maitê Bette Motta; Cristina Harumi Adania; Letícia Yamasaki; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Heli...

  19. Sarcocystosis among Wild Captive and Zoo Animals in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Baha; Vellayan, Subramaniam; Omar, Effat; Abdullah, Suliman; Mat Desa, Noryatimah

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. infection was investigated in 20 necropsied captive wild mammals and 20 birds in 2 petting zoos in Malaysia. The gross post-mortem lesions in mammals showed marbling of the liver with uniform congestion of the intestine, and for birds, there was atrophy of the sternal muscles with hemorrhage and edema of the lungs in 2 birds. Naked eye examination was used for detection of macroscopic sarcocysts, and muscle squash for microscopic type. Only microscopically visible cysts were d...

  20. Comparative mortality levels among selected species of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel H. Preston; Laurie Bingaman Lackey; Iliana Kohler

    2006-01-01

    We present life tables by single year of age and sex for groups of animals and for 42 individual mostly mammalian species. Data are derived from the International Species Information System. The survivorship of most of these species has never been mapped systematically. We demonstrate that, in most of the groups, female survivorship significantly exceeds that of males above age five. Wild-born animals do not have mortality that differs significantly from captive-born animals. While most speci...

  1. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes bel...

  2. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    OpenAIRE

    Vercammen, F.; J. Brandt; Van Brantegem, L; L. Bosseler; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, th...

  3. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) in Captive, Group-Housed, Female Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C.; Provenzale, James M.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R.; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-01-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival P...

  4. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals. PMID:9678505

  5. Rapid compressions in a captive bubble apparatus are isothermal

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wenfei; Hall, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    Captive bubbles are commonly used to determine how interfacial films of pulmonary surfactant respond to changes in surface area, achieved by varying hydrostatic pressure. Although assumed to be isothermal, the gas phase temperature (Tg) would increase by >100°C during compression from 1 to 3 atm if the process were adiabatic. To determine the actual change in temperature, we monitored pressure (P) and volume (V) during compressions lasting 10 min after the compression when the two phases shou...

  6. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    OpenAIRE

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M.; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo.METHODS:The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to...

  7. Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpan...

  8. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  9. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana. PMID:26565681

  10. Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, U; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G; Wittig, M; Franke, A; Griffith, S C; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

    2015-04-01

    Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression-namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the genome that is IBD (propIBD), and we apply this method to a wild and a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In each of 948 wild and 1057 captive individuals we analyzed available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (260 SNPs) spread over four different genomic regions in each population. This allowed us to determine whether any of these four regions was completely homozygous within an individual, which indicates IBD with high confidence. In the highly nomadic wild population, we did not find a single case of IBD, implying that inbreeding must be extremely rare (propIBD=0-0.00094, 95% CI). In the captive population, a five-generation pedigree strongly underestimated the average amount of realized inbreeding (FPed=0.013capture inbreeding loops that reach back up to a few hundred generations. PMID:25585923

  11. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  12. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  13. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  14. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  15. Application of synthetic pheromones on animals in captivity: A possibility on wild ungulates?

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Urgell, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster There is an increasing evidence proving the existence of diverse abnormal behaviours due to stress on captive animals. The growing awareness for animal welfare, specifically for those captive in zoos or similar centres accommodating wild animals, has triggered that numerous measures of environmental enrichment are being implemented all over the globe. A recent practice of environmental enrichment to reduce the stress of wild animals in captivity is the employment of different odours...

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in a Captive Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. ...

  17. Being Attractive Brings Advantages: The Case of Parrot Species in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Frynta; Silvie Lisková; Sebastian Bültmann; Hynek Burda

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the ...

  18. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Kumar Thawait; Maiti, S. K.; Aditi A. Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zoological gardens exhibit wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases constitute one of the major problems causing morbidity and even mortality in captive wild animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals belonging to Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 faecal samples were screened from apparently normal/healthy captiv...

  19. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  20. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  1. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  2. Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock rearing and research, 1994. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species

  3. Bruk av captive forsikringsselskap i internasjonal olje- og energiforsikring : Belyst ved Statoil Forsikring a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven tar for seg bruken av captive forsikringsselskaper, herunder særskilt Statoil Forsikring a.s. I tillegg behandles den gjensidige mekanismen for energiforsikring - O.I.L., behovet for captive-fronting i fremmede jurisdiksjoner, samt forsikringsordningen for SDØE på norsk kontinentalsokkel.

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Patrick W.; Barnhart, Kirstin F.; Christian R. Abee; Lambeth, Susan P.; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  5. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF HUMAN-DIRECTED UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR EXHIBITED BY A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Allison L; BLOOMSMITH, MOLLIE A.; Kelley, Michael E; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further demonstrate the utility of function-based approaches to assess and treat behavior problems exhibited by captive animals.

  6. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  7. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  8. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL)

  9. Food preference of the amazonian manatee in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Pinto Colares; Ioni Gonçalves Colares

    2011-01-01

    Studies on one endangered species´ feeding contribute to the more complex knowledge about its ecology, as also its preservation and/or management. By this means, aiming to obtain one better development and food supply for the animals kept in captivity in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, one experiment was conducted to verify their food preferences. Aiming to observe the Amazonian manatee´s feeding behavior, eight animals were used kept inside one pool with 28,26 m2 and 1,0 m de...

  10. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  11. Cranial growth of captive bred bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiauskienė, Laima

    2007-01-01

    The cranial growth of C. glareolus was investigated using 444 captive bred individuals, aged from 5 to 680 days. Three growth patterns of skull characters were found: (1) rapid growth in the first decade of age, followed by a very slow change or stabilisation (width of molar M1 and length of maxillary tooth row), (2) long period of flat growth (length of mandibular tooth row and length of mandibular diastema), and (3) long period of initial growth followed by the plateau phase (length of nasa...

  12. Comparing Object Play in Captive and Wild Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Whitney E.; Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Dudzinski, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the role of play as related to individual and group social development is important to understanding a species. The purpose of our study was to examine whether there is a difference in the frequency of object play exhibited by dolphins from two groups – one captive and one wild. Data were collected with underwater video, with resulting videos event sampled for bouts of play involving various objects used by dolphins. From 159 hr of video data, roughly 102 min featured object play: 7...

  13. Maximum price paid in captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Thernström, Taina

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate what animals in captivity   might need is to conduct preference and motivational tests. These types of   tests can help facilitate the animals to express different priorities. The   motivation can be assessed by having the animals “pay an entry cost” (e.g.   push a weighted door) that increases with time to get access to a resource.   The highest price that the animals are willing to pay for this resource is   called “the maximum price paid”. This study intends to test ...

  14. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  15. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  16. Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[11C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[11C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min)

  17. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    David McLennan

    2012-01-01

    Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW). The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of wa...

  18. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella species in captive psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, M C; Lima-Rosa, C A V; Weimer, T A; Rodenbusch, C R; Pereira, R A; Streck, A F; Oliveira, S D; Canal, C W

    2008-06-21

    Cloacal swabs were collected from 280 captive psittacine birds belonging to 13 species. Samples of dna were tested by PCR using a pair of primers that amplify a 284 base pair fragment of the Salmonella genus invA gene, and the PCR-positive samples were tested by standard microbiological techniques. Thirteen per cent of the samples were positive by PCR, but negative by microbiological techniques. The infection rates were significantly different among the 13 species, the most commonly infected being Amazona amazonica (28 per cent) and Amazona pretrei (20 per cent). Specific tests for Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum did not produce positive results. PMID:18567929

  19. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  20. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... finding that an animal is bred in captivity? 23.63 Section 23.63 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... Findings § 23.63 What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity? (a... wildlife that was bred in captivity (see §§ 23.41 and 23.46). (b) Definitions. The following terms...

  1. DNA fingerprinting in captive population of the endangered Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarskaya, O N; Petrosyan, V G; Kashentseva, T; Panchenko, V G; Ryskov, A P

    1995-09-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate genetic diversity within the endangered Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) captive population consisting of several dozens of founders originating from the two wild populations of eastern and western Siberia. Similarity and difference among captive individuals were demonstrated by the unweighted pair-group (UPGMA) clustering procedure. Quantitative characteristics of the eastern and western captive population groups such as average percentage differences (APD) and heterozygosity showed a high extent of genetic variability of 77.9-79.3% and heterozygosity of 0.85-0.72 within each group. Genetic heterogeneity of the captive population structure observed here provides guidelines for management of the species gene pool in captivity. These data also indicate that monitoring of genetic diversity through DNA fingerprinting can facilitate the efforts of Siberian crane management and restoration. PMID:8582369

  2. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment. PMID:21905060

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  4. Perinatal mortality and season of birth in captive wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, J K; Gaskin, C D; Markham, J

    1987-04-18

    The magnitude of perinatal mortality in 50 species of captive wild ungulates born at the Zoological Society of London's collections at Regent's Park and Whipsnade between 1975 and 1985 is reviewed. Thirty-five per cent of 2471 ungulates born during this 11 year period died before six months old and most deaths occurred in the first week after birth. Similar findings have been reported at other zoos and in the wild. The seasonal distribution of births is described in 43 species. Significantly higher perinatal mortality was found in species which breed throughout the year (notably axis deer and sitatunga) than in seasonal breeders, and differences associated with system of management were apparent in some species (eg, mouflon and scimitar-horned oryx) kept at Regent's Park and Whipsnade. Considerable advances have been made in the management of captive wild ungulates in recent years but it is likely that perinatal mortality rates could be further reduced by improved management and veterinary care of the dams and neonates. PMID:3590601

  5. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach.

  6. Oral tool use by captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R C; McGrew, W C

    2000-01-01

    Eight captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were given wooden blocks embedded with raisins and bamboo as raw material for tool making in a study of manual laterality. In about three quarters of the raisin extraction bouts, the orangutans held the tool in the lips or teeth rather than in their hands. Three adult males and 2 adult females showed extreme (> or =92%) preference for oral tool use, a subadult male and an adult female used oral tools about half the time, and 1 adult female preferred manual tool use. Most oral tool users made short tools (approx. 4-10 cm long) that were held in the lips and (probably) supported by the tongue. Preference for oral tool use does not correlate with body weight, age or sex, but it may be related to hand size or individual preference. This is the first report of customary oral tool use as the norm in captive orangutans; it resembles the behavioral patterns reported by van Schaik et al. and Fox et al. in nature. PMID:11093037

  7. Some aspects of radiocesium retention in naturally contaminated captive snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two captive snakes from contaminated natural habitats on or near the Savannah River Plant showed single-phase 137Cs bioelimination curves suggesting that, in the wild state, they were near equilibrium with respect to this radionuclide at the time of capture. Radiocesium biological half-lives in the snakes averaged 131.3 +- 15.7 (SE) days with extreme values of 430.0 and 23.7 days. There was no correlation between radiocesium loss rate and initial body burden. Radiocesium loss rate showed a positive linear correlation with caloric intake and a negative exponential correlation with body weight. Less than 1 percent of radiocesium excretion could be accounted for in shed skins, the remainder being lost mainly through the feces. Two females which laid eggs in captivity transferred 6.37 and 6.43 percent of their total body burden to their eggs. Radiocesium showed a greater concentration in skeletal muscle than in kidney or liver, while fat bodies contained the lowest concentrations. Radiocesium concentrations of feces and stomach contents were generally low and were not correlated with total body burdens. (U.S.)

  8. Immunomagnetic cell separation, imaging, and analysis using Captivate ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laurie; Beechem, Joseph M.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed applications of CaptivateTM ferrofluids, paramagnetic particles (approximately 200 nm diameter), for isolating and analyzing cell populations in combination with fluorescence-based techniques. Using a microscope-mounted magnetic yoke and sample insertion chamber, fluorescent images of magnetically captured cells were obtained in culture media, buffer, or whole blood, while non-magnetically labeled cells sedimented to the bottom of the chamber. We combined this immunomagnetic cell separation and imaging technique with fluorescent staining, spectroscopy, and analysis to evaluate cell surface receptor-containing subpopulations, live/dead cell ratios, apoptotic/dead cell ratios, etc. The acquired images were analyzed using multi-color parameters, as produced by nucleic acid staining, esterase activity, or antibody labeling. In addition, the immunomagnetically separated cell fractions were assessed through microplate analysis using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay. These methods should provide an inexpensive alternative to some flow cytometric measurements. The binding capacities of the streptavidin- labled Captivate ferrofluid (SA-FF) particles were determined to be 8.8 nmol biotin/mg SA-FF, using biotin-4- fluorescein, and > 106 cells/mg SA-FF, using several cell types labeled with biotinylated probes. For goat anti- mouse IgG-labeled ferrofluids (GAM-FF), binding capacities were established to be approximately 0.2 - 7.5 nmol protein/mg GAM-FF using fluorescent conjugates of antibodies, protein G, and protein A.

  9. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  11. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  12. Admixture between historically isolated mitochondrial lineages in captive Western gorillas: recommendations for future management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Bergl, Richard A; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Anthony, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    Although captive populations of western gorilla have been maintained in the United States for over a century, little is known about the geographic origins and genetic composition of the current zoo population. Furthermore, although previous mitochondrial analyses have shown that free-range gorilla populations exhibit substantial regional differentiation, nothing is known of the extent to which this variation has been preserved in captive populations. To address these questions, we combined 379 pedigree records with data from 52 mitochondrial sequences to infer individual haplogroup affiliations, geographical origin of wild founders and instances of inter-breeding between haplogroups in the United States captive gorilla population. We show that the current captive population contains all major mitochondrial lineages found within wild western lowland gorillas. Levels of haplotype diversity are also comparable to those found in wild populations. However, the majority of captive gorilla matings have occurred between individuals with different haplogroup affiliations. Although restricting crosses to individuals within the same haplogroup would preserve the phylogeographic structure present in the wild, careful management of captive populations is required to minimize the risk of drift and inbreeding. However, when captive animals are released back into the wild, we recommend that efforts should be made to preserve natural phylogeographic structure. PMID:25790828

  13. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species. PMID:23403930

  14. Lineage identification and genealogical relationships among captive Galápagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael; Boyer, Donal; Wiese, Robert J; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Marquez, Lady; Garrick, Ryan; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic tools have become a critical complement to traditional approaches for meeting short- and long-term goals of ex situ conservation programs. The San Diego Zoo (SDZ) harbors a collection of wild-born and captive-born Galápagos giant tortoises (n = 22) of uncertain species designation and unknown genealogical relationships. Here, we used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic data and nuclear microsatellite genotypic data to identify the evolutionary lineage of wild-born and captive-born tortoises of unknown ancestry, to infer levels of relatedness among founders and captive-born tortoises, and assess putative pedigree relationships assigned by the SDZ studbook. Assignment tests revealed that 12 wild-born and five captive-born tortoises represent five different species from Isabela Island and one species from Santa Cruz Island, only five of which were consistent with current studbook designations. Three wild-born and one captive-born tortoise were of mixed ancestry. In addition, kinship analyses revealed two significant first-order relationship pairs between wild-born and captive-born tortoises, four second-order relationships (half-sibling) between wild-born and captive tortoises (full-sibs or parent-offspring), and one second-order relationship between two captive-born tortoises. Of particular note, we also reconstructed a first-order relationship between two wild-born individuals, violating the founder assumption. Overall, our results contribute to a worldwide effort in identifying genetically important Galápagos tortoises currently in captivity while revealing closely related founders, reconstructing genealogical relationships, and providing detailed management recommendations for the SDZ tortoises. PMID:21674601

  15. Causes of Mississippi sandhill crane mortality in captivity 1984-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    During 1984-95, 111 deaths were documented in the captive flock of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) housed at the Paluxent Wildlife Research Center. Trauma was the leading cause of death (37%), followed by infectious/parasitic diseases (25%), anatomic abnormalities (15%), and miscellaneous (8%). No positive diagnosis of cause of death was found in 19% of the necropsies. Chicks cause of deaths of captive juveniles anti adults, is likely Iimited to collisions in the wild. lnfectious/parasitic diseases and anatomic abnormalities could affect wild chick survival at similar rates to those of captive chicks.

  16. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  17. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  18. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179

  19. Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

    2006-05-27

    This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

  20. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Pparasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  1. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  2. El precio de la cautividad (The price of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de las fundamentales causas y consecuencias que pueden afectar la salud de aves de vida libre una vez sometidas a la cautividad. Trabajo realizado gracias a la experiencia acumulada durante años en la consulta Veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba. Patologías muchas de ellas que no aparecen en aves ya nacidas bajo este régimen o en otras aves ornamentales que se reproducen de forma comercial desde hace muchos años. Pensamos que si se conoce con mayor profundidad el daño que ocasiona la captura a nuestra Avifauna y esto es divulgado pudiera incidir en la toma de conciencia de personas que hoy se dedican a esta labor y promovería por parte de nuestras instituciones nacionales protectoras de esta patrimonio a instaurar nuevos y más eficaces planes para su protección. Abstract This study analyses the causes and health consequences of captivity on wild birds. The study has been possible thanks to the long experience accumulated at the veterinary surgery of the Asociacion Nacional Ornitologica de Cuba. Many of the pathologies shown on wild birds are found neither in birds born under this system nor in ornamental ones which have been reproduced for many years for commercial purpose. We believe that understanding the strong damage that captivity causes on our wild birds can have a direct influence on people working on this type of trade and will promote our protecting institutions to set up new efficient protection plans.

  3. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan. PMID:26044884

  4. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  5. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  6. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  7. Behaviour of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus at two temperatures in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.G. Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies with cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus in captivity are scarce. Due to the need for appropriate management of these animals, this study was performed to examine the behaviour of cockatiels kept in captivity at two temperatures. Sixteen cockatiels were individually housed in cages (62cm high x 43cm long x 27cm wide and fed with a commercial ration and seed mixture for psittacids. Water was provided ad libitum. The eight-day experiment was divided into two stages of four days each. In the first stage, the birds were kept at room temperature (25°C with 70% relative humidity during 24 hours. In the next stage, they were kept at 35°C from 06:00 to 18:00h and 25°C from 18:00 to 06:00h, also at 70% relative humidity. The behaviour of the birds was assessed by the analysis of video recordings taken from 6:00 to 18:00h. Lateral displacement on the perch, walking on the wire net, resting on the abdomen, stopping on the wire net, standing on the drinker or feeder, seed intake, cleaning the wings and shaking the plumage were not influenced (P>0.08 by temperature. Undesirable activities such as gnawing the perch or the wire net also showed no influence of temperature (P>0.15. At 35°C, the birds remained on the cage floor less often (P<0.02 and more often on the perch. Flapping or gnawing the feeder increased as did the consumption of ration (P<0.01. Increase in temperature from 25 to 35°C changed the behaviour of the cockatiels, although these behaviours were not characterised as responses to temperature stress.

  8. Tooth wear in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Brasch, Juliane; Castell, Johanna C; Kaiser, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) mostly do not attain the longevity possible for this species and frequently have problems associated with low energy intake and fat storage mobilization. Abnormal tooth wear has been among the causes suggested as an underlying problem. This study utilizes a tooth wear scoring method ("mesowear") primarily used in paleobiology. This scoring method was applied to museum specimens of free-ranging (n=20) and captive (n=41) giraffes. The scoring system allows for the differentiation between attrition--(typical for browsers, as browse contains little abrasive silica) and abrasion--(typical for grazers, as grass contains abrasive silica) dominated tooth wear. The dental wear pattern of the free-ranging population is dominated by attrition, resembles that previously published for free-ranging giraffe, and clusters within browsing herbivores in comparative analysis. In contrast, the wear pattern of the captive population is dominated by abrasion and clusters among grazing herbivores in comparative analyses. A potential explanation for this difference in tooth wear is likely related to the content of abrasive elements in zoo diets. Silica content (measured as acid insoluble ash) is low in browse and alfalfa. However, grass hay and the majority of pelleted compound feeds contain higher amounts of silica. It can be speculated that the abnormal wear pattern in captivity compromises tooth function in captive giraffe, with deleterious long-term consequences. PMID:17939353

  9. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  10. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  11. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  12. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  13. Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved within captive groups of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, A; Gilbert, T; Woodfine, T; Knowles, J M; Diniz, F M; Brenneman, R A; Louis, E E; Maclean, N

    2007-06-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx, now considered extinct in the wild, persists in large numbers in captivity. In this first molecular genetic study on this species, we explore the patterns of genetic diversity across European, North American, and a few other captive groups using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequencing. Strong population structure was not evident from microsatellite data but we discovered deep divergence within the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from a network analysis where three disconnected networks were obtained, with estimated divergence times of c. 2.1-2.7 million years. Mismatch distribution analyses suggest population expansions c. 1.2 and 0.5 million years ago. We discuss our findings in the context of historical climatic changes in North Africa and use information obtained on current patterns of genetic diversity within captive groups to make recommendations for future captive management and reintroduction strategies. PMID:17561904

  14. First Care Area Logs for captive loggerhead and Kemps ridley sea turtles 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.

  15. Monthly morphometric data on captive Kemps ridley sea turtles 1995-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip,...

  16. Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challender, Daniel W S; Thai, Nguyen Van; Jones, Martin; May, Les

    2012-01-01

    This is the first assessment of Manis javanica behavior in captivity. The aim of the investigation was to assess behavior in order to suggest ways of improving captive care and management of the species. This was undertaken by constructing time-budgets and activity patterns and identifying any abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) exhibited. Scan and focal animal sampling were implemented in observations of seven subjects. Analyses detailed idiosyncrasies in how subjects partitioned their active time. Peak activity occurred between 18:00 and 21:00 hr. Two ARBs, clawing and pacing, were identified and the cessation of clawing in one subject was possible by modifying its enclosure. Stress-related behavior, understood to be related to several factors, means maintaining this species in captivity remains problematic. Recommendations are made pertaining to husbandry, captive management, and future research. PMID:21360581

  17. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  18. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  19. The Distribution and Development of Handedness for Manual Gestures in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie; Freeman, Hani; Buehler, Nicole; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and development of handedness for manual gestures in captive chimpanzees. Data on handedness for unimanual gestures were collected in a sample of 227 captive chimpanzees. Handedness for these gestures was compared with handedness for three other measures of hand use: tool use, reaching, and coordinated bimanual actions. Chimpanzees were significantly more right-handed for gestures than for all other measures of hand use. Hand use for simple reaching at ...

  20. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  1. Captive but mobile: Privacy concerns and remedies for the mobile nvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Baruh, Lemi; Popescu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    We use the legal framework of captive audience to examine the FTC’s 2012 privacy guidelines as applied to mobile marketing. We define captive audiences as audiences without functional opt-out mechanisms to avoid situations of coercive communication. By analyzing the current mobile marketing ecosystem, we show that the FTC’s privacy guidelines inspired by the Canadian “privacy by design” paradigm fall short of protecting consumers against invasive mobile marketing in at least three respects: (...

  2. The influence of roughage intake on the occurrence of oral disturbances in captive giraffids

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J; Clauss, M; Baxter, E; Flach, E J; Johanson, K.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of giraffe and okapi in captivity can differ significantly from the state in the wild. Duration and complexity of feeding and ruminating behaviour, and total amount of food ingested, are often reduced, while the energy content of the diet is increased compared to the wild. As known from domestic cattle in intensive keeping systems, oral disturbances like tongue-playing or licking of objects are reported to occur in captive giraffe and okapi. Oral disturbances are considered ...

  3. Excessive iron storage in captive omnivores? The case of the coati (Nasua spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, M; Hänichen, T.; Hummel, J.; Ricker, U; Block, K; Grest, P; Hatt, J M

    2006-01-01

    We collated necropsy reports for 13 coatis (Nasua spp.), revealing four cases of moderate and six cases of massive iron deposition in liver tissue. This survey corroborates an earlier report that noted a high frequency of iron deposits in coatis at necropsy. A comparison of the reported natural diet of coatis and the usually fed captive diets revealed that whereas vertebrate products (dog/cat food, prey items) represent the staple diet items for captive individuals, free-ranging coatis only r...

  4. Supplementing the diet of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with linseed extraction chips

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, M; Flach, E J; Ghebremeskel, K.; Tack, C; Hatt, J M

    2000-01-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) are reported to have low linolenic acid concentrations in body tissues in comparison with free-ranging individuals. However, it is not known whether this merely reflects a different diet, or whether it impairs body functions. As linseed contains significant amounts of linolenic acid, the feeding of linseed extraction chips might be a practical way of supplementation. Captive giraffe with low linolenic acid status in their blood lipids (compared to d...

  5. Screen for Footprints of Selection during Domestication/Captive Breeding of Atlantic Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Anti Vasemägi; Jan Nilsson; Philip McGinnity; Tom Cross; Patrick O’Reilly; Brian Glebe; Bo Peng; Paul Ragnar Berg; Craig Robert Primmer

    2012-01-01

    Domesticated animals provide a unique opportunity to identify genomic targets of artificial selection to the captive environment. Here, we screened three independent domesticated/captive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) strains and their wild progenitor populations in an effort to detect potential signals of domestication selection by typing of 261 SNPs and 70 microsatellite loci. By combining information from four different neutrality tests, in total ten genomic regions showed signs of...

  6. Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J.; Fritz, J.; Kienzle, E.; Medici, E P; Lang, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Streich, W J; Clauss, M

    2008-01-01

    Data from captive animals indicated that browsing (BR) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (GR). To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (MPS) in a GR and a BR ruminant (aurox Bos primigenius taurus, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a GR and a BR hindgut fermenter (Przewalski's...

  7. Irregular tooth wear and longevity in captive wild ruminants : a pilot survey of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Jurado, O; Clauss, M; Hatt, J M

    2008-01-01

    Tooth wear is often suggested as an important factor limiting the lifespan of free-ranging wildlife. Given the frequent occurrence of poor dental health in captive animals reported in the literature, one would expect tooth health to be a limiting factor in captivity as well. Additionally, it could be assumed that brachydont (browsing) animals are more susceptible to dental health problems than hypsodont (grazing) animals, given current indications for systematic increased tooth wear in some b...

  8. Effects of Captivity on Response to a Novel Environment in the Oldfield Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus subgriseus)

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, M. Elsbeth

    2003-01-01

    Long-term maintenance of captive populations and release of these animals into the wild is one approach to endangered species conservation. In this study, I used a traditional ethological technique, the open-field test, to assess captivity's effects on exploratory behavior, level of activity, and enclosure use in oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus subgriseus) upon introduction to a novel environment. The animals tested were from four populations collected from Ocala National Forest, Florida...

  9. Personality and well-­being in felids : assessment and applications to captive management and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia

    2014-01-01

    Research in animal personality has been increasing over the last decade, as scientists realise its importance to a variety of health outcomes. In particular, personality has been shown to have an effect on immune function, stress, infant survival, overall well-being, morbidity, and mortality. Because of this, personality can play an important role in captive management, especially as stress is often a problem for captive animals. Research has already shown that personality affe...

  10. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Craig A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L.; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S.; Fair, Patricia A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D. Ann; Rowles, Teri K.; Lori H Schwacke; Townsend, Forrest I.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood ($n = 95$ live animals) and tissues ($n = 15$ freshly dea...

  11. Captive-Versicherung im deutschen und US-amerikanischen Körperschaftssteuerrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Karl H.; Grillet, Luc L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a positive framework for studying the deductibility of premiums paid to captive insurers as business expenses in German and American tax law. A systematic analysis of the legal rules and judicial Standards that have evolved during many years of corporate litigation and quarelling with the Internal Revenue Service is compared with the economic viability of captive insurance as a risk-transfer instrument. The analysis concludes that sound public policy requires tax deduction...

  12. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris) kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ) (n=4) and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP) (n=6), Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P

  13. Ultrasonographic assessment of reproductive diseases in gorillas and other captive great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Júlia Braga

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária The present work focused on the analysis of ultrasound examinations from 29 male and female captive great apes performed since 1995 by the Leibniz-Institut für Zoo-und Wildtierforschung, IZW (Berlin, Germany), reproduction management group. The ultrasonographic appearance of the normal and abnormal reproductive tract was described. Out of 22 female captive subjects, 18 were detected to have reproductive tract lesions. The altered ul...

  14. Use of video system and its effects on abnormal behaviour in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates have highly developed visual cognitive abilities, they have few opportunities to exert such abilities in captivity. Video presentation can reproduce multiple features of the complex, real, visual world. Therefore, video presentation can be expected to act as environmental enrichment for captive primates. The present study evaluated the enriching effects of novelty and content of videos as well as control over videos using newly developed technology including network...

  15. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia S. Resende; Gabriella L. Remy; Valdir de Almeida Ramos Jr; Artur Andriolo

    2009-01-01

    Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I) period prior to the enrichment, II) per...

  16. The partial captivity condition for U(1) extensions of expanding maps on the circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yushi; Tsujii, Masato; Wittsten, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns the compact group extension f:T2→T2,f(x,s)=(E(x),s+τ(x) mod 1) of an expanding map E:{{{S}}1}\\to {{{S}}1} . The dynamics of f and its stochastic perturbations have previously been studied under the so-called partial captivity condition. Here we prove a supplementary result that shows that partial captivity is a \\mathscr{C}r generic condition on τ, once we fix E.

  17. Habituation towards environmental enrichment in captive bears and its effect on stereotypic behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claes

    2008-01-01

    The benefits gained by the presentation of environmental enrichment (EE) to captive animals are widely recognized. Few studies have, however, studied how to maximize the effect of EE. Repeated presentations of EE may cause a reduced interest towards the EE device, called habituation. To study the effect of habituation towards EE, behavioural data from 14 captive Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) were collected during two different EE treatments. In treatment one, honey logs were presented for fi...

  18. Do captive waterfowl alter their behaviour patterns during their flightless period of moult?

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Steven J.; Isaac, Rhian; Quinton, Kate L.; Reynolds, S. James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Many different behavioural changes have been observed in wild waterfowl during the flightless stage of wing moult with birds frequently becoming inactive and reducing time spent foraging. Increased predation risk, elevated energetic demands of feather re-growth and restriction of foraging opportunities are thought to underlie these changes. By studying captive populations of both a dabbling and a diving duck species at the same site, we determined whether captive birds wou...

  19. Captive Reproduction Of The Neotropical Otter In The Santa Fe Zoological Park In Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcila D.A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding reproduction of Lontra longicaudis is lacking. We present the first experience of Neotropical river otters born in captivity in Colombia. Of three parturitions registered, only one was successful. The gestation period for L. longicaudis was estimated at 86 days, with no evidence of delayed implantation. This kind of pregnancy can be classified as short and variable. We recommend further research efforts regarding behaviour and reproduction of Neotropical otters in captivity.

  20. Circadian Variations of Thyroid Hormone Levels of Nonpregnant Uniparous Fat-tailed Iranian Ewes in Summer

    OpenAIRE

    Nazifi, Saeed; Saeb, Mahdi; HASANKHANI, Mahdi; ANSARI-LARI, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Circadian variations in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were investigated in Iranian ewes. For that purpose, blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of 15 adult clinically healthy Iranian nonpregnant uniparous ewes every 6 h (0600, 1200, 1800, and 0000) during 6 days in summer with a mean ambient temperature of 40 °C. Serum T3, T4, fT3, and fT4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. There were statistically sign...

  1. Uniform Estimates for Distributions of Sums of i.i.d. Random Variables with Fat Tail

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    報告番号: 甲27191 ; 学位授与年月日: 2011-03-24 ; 学位の種別: 課程博士 ; 学位の種類: 博士(数理科学) ; 学位記番号: 博数理第372号 ; 研究科・専攻: 数理科学研究科数理科学専攻

  2. A two-Factor Asset Pricing Model and the Fat Tail Distribution of Firm Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Malevergne, Y

    2007-01-01

    In the standard equilibrium and/or arbitrage pricing framework, the value of any asset is uniquely specified from the belief that only the systematic risks need to be remunerated by the market. Here, we show that, even for arbitrary large economies when the distribution of the capitalization of firms is sufficiently heavy-tailed as is the case of real economies, there may exist a new source of significant systematic risk, which has been totally neglected up to now but must be priced by the market. This new source of risk can readily explain several asset pricing anomalies on the sole basis of the internal-consistency of the market model. For this, we derive a theoretical two-factor model for asset pricing which has empirically a similar explanatory power as the Fama-French three-factor model. In addition to the usual market risk, our model accounts for a diversification risk, proxied by the equally-weighted portfolio, and which results from an ``internal consistency factor'' appearing for arbitrary large econ...

  3. Tall tales and fat tails: the science and economics of extreme warming

    OpenAIRE

    Calel, Raphael; Stainforth, David A.; Dietz, Simon

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been highlighted that the economic value of climate change mitigation depends sensitively on the slim possibility of extreme warming. This insight has been obtained through a focus on the fat upper tail of the climate sensitivity probability distribution. However, while climate sensitivity is undoubtedly important, what ultimately matters is transient temperature change. A focus on transient temperature change stresses the interplay of climate sensitivity with other physical u...

  4. A queueing theory description of fat-tailed price returns in imperfect financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, H.

    2010-09-01

    In a financial market, for agents with long investment horizons or at times of severe market stress, it is often changes in the asset price that act as the trigger for transactions or shifts in investment position. This suggests the use of price thresholds to simulate agent behavior over much longer timescales than are currently used in models of order-books. We show that many phenomena, routinely ignored in efficient market theory, can be systematically introduced into an otherwise efficient market, resulting in models that robustly replicate the most important stylized facts. We then demonstrate a close link between such threshold models and queueing theory, with large price changes corresponding to the busy periods of a single-server queue. The distribution of the busy periods is known to have excess kurtosis and non-exponential decay under various assumptions on the queue parameters. Such an approach may prove useful in the development of mathematical models for rapid deleveraging and panics in financial markets, and the stress-testing of financial institutions.

  5. Self-similar solutions with fat tails for a coagulation equation with diagonal kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Niethammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We consider self-similar solutions of Smoluchowski's coagulation equation with a diagonal kernel of homogeneity $\\gamma < 1$. We show that there exists a family of second-kind self-similar solutions with power-law behavior $x^{-(1+\\rho)}$ as $x \\to \\infty$ with $\\rho \\in (\\gamma,1)$. To our knowledge this is the first example of a non-solvable kernel for which the existence of such a family has been established.

  6. A two-Factor Asset Pricing Model and the Fat Tail Distribution of Firm Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the standard equilibrium and/or arbitrage pricing framework, the value of any asset is uniquely specified from the belief that only the systematic risks need to be remunerated by the market. Here, we show that, even for arbitrary large economies when the distribution of the capitalization of firms is sufficiently heavy-tailed as is the case of real economies, there may exist a new source of significant systematic risk, which has been totally neglected up to now but must be priced by the ma...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione derivative, in male Naeini (Iranian fat-tailed) sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Rajaian, H.; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2012-01-01

    route. The bioavailability of PGT was obtained to be approximately 62%. After IV injection of PGT, the elimination half-life (t 1/2ß), the volume of distribution at steady-state (V ss) and the elimination rate constant (k el) were obtained to be 4.04±0.88 h, 0.30±0.06 L/kg and 0.47±0.09 h-1...

  8. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild. PMID:21719832

  9. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  10. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  11. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  12. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  13. Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animals in captive or laboratory settings may outperform wild animals of the same species in both frequency and diversity of tool use, a phenomenon here termed ‘captivity bias’. Although speculative at this stage, a logical conclusion from this concept is that animals whose tool-use behaviour is observed solely under natural conditions may be judged cognitively or physically inferior than if they had also been tested or observed under controlled captive conditions. In turn, this situation cre...

  14. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Taylor; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E; Clauss, M

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a similar effect is evident in captive rhinoceros species. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of museum specimens of captive black (Diceros bicornis; browser), greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicorn...

  15. Comparative analysis of male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in wild and captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zupa, R.; FAUVEL, Christian; Mylonas, C. C.; Santamaria, N.; Valentini, L.; Pousis, C.; Papadaki, M.; Suquet, Marc; De La Gandara, F.; Bello, G; G De Metrio; A. CORRIERO

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly observed reproductive dysfunction in male fishes reared in captivity is reduction in sperm volume and quality. The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) is one of the few large pelagic and migratory marine fishes maintained in captivity with the purpose of establishing breeding populations to support an aquaculture industry. The objectives of the present study were to compare male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis between wild and captive indiv...

  16. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild

    OpenAIRE

    HOPKINS, W. D.; Russell, J. L.; SCHAEFFER, J. A.; Gardner, M.; Schapiro, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level ha...

  17. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R.A.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  18. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Shank, K L; Kaneene, J B

    1997-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in Michigan. This is the first description of cervid farming in the United States. Data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from March 3 through June 28, 1993. Completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. Study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 766 (12.5%) elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 284 (4.6%) fallow deer (Dama dama), 114 (1.9%) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6 (0.1%) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 (treatment of injuries (27.7% [44/159]), anthelmintic administration (25.2% [40/159]), issuance of health certificates (19.5% [31/159]), diagnosis and treatment of illnesses (17.6% [28/159]), vaccination (13.8% [22/159]), disease diagnosis (treatment provided by farmer) (8.8% [14/159]), foot care (3.8% [6/159]), and other purposes (ie, necropsy, dystocia, antler removal) (11.3% [18/159]). PMID:9208449

  20. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE GAZELLE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Garner, Michael; Stedman, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Capturing disease trends among different species has indisputable value to both veterinary clinicians and zoo managers for improving the welfare and management of zoo species. The causes of mortality for eight species of gazelle (addra gazelle, Nanger dama; dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas; Grant's gazelle, Nanger granti; sand gazelle, Gazella leptoceros; Saudi goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa; Soemmerring's gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii; Thomson's gazelle, Eudorcas thomsonii; and Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei) are presented from an 18-yr period (1996 2014). The leading cause of mortality for all species was trauma, followed by bronchopneumonia, and failure to thrive/maternal neglect. Nephritis and rumenitis/abomasitis/enteritis were common ancillary lesions across all species. On average, female gazelle lived twice as long as male gazelle, with an average overall adult survival time of 9.3 yr. Dorcas, Thomson's and addra gazelle females had the longest average survival time (10-13 yr). Calves up to 6 mo of age died most frequently from failure of passive transfer or maternal neglect. Thyroid carcinoma was frequently identified in Thomson's gazelle. Sand and Speke's gazelle frequently died from systemic amyloidosis, and Saudi goitered gazelle were more likely to have renal amyloidosis. Hematuria syndrome was the second most common cause of death in Grant's gazelle. The majority of lesions identified in this study that cause or contribute to mortality are preventable with appropriate management. Knowledge of disease trends in captive gazelle populations can help guide veterinary care, management decisions, and collection management planning. PMID:27010271

  1. SOME BEHAVIORAL TRAITS OF RED NECK OSTRICH UNDER CAPTIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. MOHAMMED AHMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.. The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.. The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

  2. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds. PMID:24758135

  3. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McLennan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW. The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of war. If passing fighters or bombers (of either side did not "get" you the dysentry invariably did. The heat, lack of water and lack of compassion shown by Axis non-frontline troops towards South African prisoners of war are all documented by Leigh. He also highlights the differences South Africans experienced in the treatment meted out by Italians on the one hand and Germans on the other. Ironically this relationship was to change later in the war, when many South Africans were moved north into Germany after the collapse of Italy in mid-1943. The conditions in POW camps in Germany were much tougher than those experienced in Italy. 

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S

    2001-12-13

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  5. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  6. Spontaneous Reproductive Tract Lesions in Aged Captive Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, B K; Beck, A P; Owston, M A; Kumar, S; Baze, W B; Magden, E R; Dick, E J; Lammey, M; Abee, C R

    2016-03-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have served as an important model for studies of reproductive diseases and aging-related disorders in humans. However, limited information is available about spontaneously occurring reproductive tract lesions in aging chimpanzees. In this article, the authors present histopathologic descriptions of lesions identified in the reproductive tract, including the mammary gland, of 33 female and 34 male aged chimpanzees from 3 captive populations. The most common findings in female chimpanzees were ovarian atrophy, uterine leiomyoma, adenomyosis, and endometrial atrophy. The most common findings in male chimpanzees were seminiferous tubule degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrates in the prostate gland. Other less common lesions included an ovarian granulosa cell tumor, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, an endometrial polyp, uterine artery hypertrophy and mineralization, atrophic vaginitis, mammary gland inflammation, prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, dilated seminal vesicles, a sperm granuloma, and lymphocytic infiltrates in the epididymis. The findings in this study closely mimic changes described in the reproductive tract of aged humans, with the exception of a lack of malignant changes observed in the mammary gland and prostate gland. PMID:26823448

  7. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  8. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  9. Comparison of Helicobacter spp. genetic sequences in wild and captive seals, and gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Andrew P A; McKay, David B

    2005-06-01

    Helicobacter species are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal system of humans and many animal taxa. Investigations of natural infections are essential to elucidating their role within the host. The feces of fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and sea lions Neophoca cinerea from 3 separate captive populations, as well as a wild colony from Kangaroo Island, Australia, were examined for the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. The feces from several wild silver gulls Larus novahollandiae were also investigated. As detected by PCR, 18 of 21 samples from captive and 12 of 16 samples from wild seals were positive for Helicobacter spp. Three species were identified in these animals. Whilst one possibly novel type was identified from wild fur seals, the majority of wild and captive individuals had the same species. This species also occurred in more than 1 seal type and in silver gulls, and shared a 98.1 to 100% identity to other Helicobacter spp. from harp seals and sea otters. A similar sequence type to species identified from cetaceans was also detected in several captive seals. This study reports for the first time the presence of Helicobacter spp. in wild and captive seals and demonstrates the diversity and broad-host range of these organisms in the marine host. PMID:16060262

  10. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  11. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  12. Responses of captive and free-ranging coyotes to simulated oral rabies vaccine baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farry, S C; Henke, S E; Anderson, A M; Fearneyhough, M G

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a bait for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in southern Texas. Captive trials were conducted from January to April, 1994, to determine bait preferences and behavioral responses of coyotes (n = 42) to selected baits and attractants. Baits were hollow rectangular cubes made of polymer dog food or fish meal. Attractants had sweet (watermelon), fruity (raspberry), sulfurous (synthetic WU), and lard (beef lard) fragrances. Captive coyotes did not exhibit a preference for either bait bases or attractants; however, coyotes chewed dog food baits 1.6 times more than fish meal baits. Average proximity of coyotes eliciting a response to baits was 2.2 +/- 1.3 m (mean +/- SE). Captive coyotes readily accepted dog food baits containing 2 ml of liquid rhodamine B, a biological marker. Rhodamine B staining of the oropharyngeal region was evident in each captive coyote. Results from the field evaluation of baits and attractants were consistent with that of the captive trials. Of 2,070 bait station-nights conducted from February to April, 1994, coyotes comprised the greatest single species visitation and uptake rates with 31% and 28%, respectively. Bait uptake rates of free-ranging coyotes did not differ among bait-attractant combinations. Coyotes took baits 93% of the time they encountered a bait, regardless of bait type. PMID:9476221

  13. HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED CAPTIVE TASMANIAN DEVILS (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Katharine L; Peck, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population has decreased by estimates of 80% in the past 20 yr due to the effects of devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the process of creating a DFTD-free insurance population, the captive population and the number of institutions housing devils worldwide has increased tremendously. In order to provide the best husbandry and veterinary care for these captive animals, it is essential to know normal hematology and biochemistry values for the species. Baseline reference intervals (RIs) were determined for hematology and biochemistry variables for 170 healthy anesthetized captive Tasmanian devils and significant sex and age differences were determined. Higher relative neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and cholesterol were seen in males compared to females, whereas higher white cell counts (WBC) and lymphocyte counts (absolute and relative) were seen in females. Subadults have higher red blood cell counts, WBC, lymphocytes (absolute and relative), calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose, and albumin than adults; whereas, adults have higher relative neutrophils, relative eosinophils, mean corpuscular volume, MCH, platelets, total solids, total plasma proteins, globulins, and chloride than subadults. This study provides a comprehensive report of hematology and serum biochemistry RIs for healthy captive anesthetized Tasmanian devils and offers invaluable diagnostic information to care for the growing captive population of this endangered marsupial. PMID:27468030

  14. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Herrmann, Esther; Kaminski, Juliane; Krupenye, Christopher; Melis, Alicia P; Schroepfer, Kara; Tan, Jingzhi; Warneken, Felix; Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    As many studies of cognition and behavior involve captive animals, assessing any psychological impact of captive conditions is an important goal for comparative researchers. Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011) sought to address whether captive chimpanzees show elevated signs of psychopathology relative to wild apes. They modified a checklist of diagnostic criteria for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in humans, and applied these criteria to various captive and wild chimpanzee populations. We argue that measures derived from human diagnostic criteria are not a powerful tool for assessing the psychological health of nonverbal animals. In addition, we highlight certain methodological drawbacks of the specific approach used by Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011). We propose that research should (1) focus on objective behavioral criteria that account for species-typical behaviors and can be reliably identified across populations; (2) account for population differences in rearing history when comparing how current environment impacts psychological health in animals; and (3) focus on how changes in current human practices can improve the well-being of both captive and wild animals. PMID:22889365

  15. Behavioral recovery from tetraparesis in a captive chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Misato; Sakuraba, Yoko; Watanabe, Shohei; Kaneko, Akihisa; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    An adult male chimpanzee living in a captive social group at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University developed acute tetraparesis. He was paralyzed and received intensive care and veterinary treatment as previously reported in Miyabe-Nishiwaki et al. (J Med Primatol 39:336-346, 2010). The behavioral recovery of the chimpanzee was longitudinally monitored using an index of upright posture between 0 and 41 months after the onset of tetraparesis. Four phases were identified during the course of behavioral recovery. During Phase 0 (0-13 months), the chimpanzee remained lying on his back during the absence of human caretakers. An increase in upright posture occurred in Phase I (14-17 months), then remained at a stable level of around 50-70 % in Phase II (18-29 months). During Phases I and II, the subject's small treatment cage represented a spatial limitation. Thus, behavioral recovery was mainly mediated by arm muscle strengthening caused by raising the body trunk with the aid of materials attached to the cage walls as environmental enrichment. When the chimpanzee was moved to a larger rehabilitation room in Phase III (30-41 months), the percentage of upright posture constantly exceeded 80 %, except in the 40th month when he injured his ankle and was inactive for several days. The enlargement of the living space had a positive effect on behavioral recovery by increasing the types of locomotion exhibited by the subject, including the use of legs during walking. Rehabilitation works were applied in face-to-face situations which enabled the use of rehabilitation methods used in humans. The process of behavioral recovery reported in this study provides a basic data set for planning future rehabilitation programs and for comparisons with further cases of physical disability in non-human primates. PMID:23673560

  16. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    HB Braz; MMT Rocha; MFD Furtado

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the mortality and average survival rates of captive female Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis snakes maintained for venom production. Also, two factors likely to reduce captive survival were studied - body condition at admission and seasonality. Mortality peaks occurred during the second month in captivity. More than half the individuals were dead at the end of the third month. This suggests that the first three months in captivity are the most critical in t...

  17. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline;

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-br...

  18. Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species. PMID:20853415

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  20. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides. The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids.

  1. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program: hatchery element: annual progress report, 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report

  2. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Dennis F; Evans, Richard H; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Smith, Gail K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids. PMID:23277118

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  4. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Davis, Barbara; Tseng, Flo

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis. Based on submissions to a private diagnostic institution over a 16-yr period, ESRD was the most commonly diagnosed cause of death or euthanasia in captive polar bears in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of over 20%. Further research is needed to discern the etiology of this apparently common disease of captive polar bears. PMID:24712164

  5. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  6. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. PMID:25130685

  7. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired. PMID:20205263

  8. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  9. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27468041

  10. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  11. Cold stress in captive great apes recorded in incremental lines of dental cementum

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    Incremental lines in dental cementum of museum specimens of 11 free-ranging great apes were compared to the respective structures in 5 captive specimens of known age-at-death, and with many known life-history parameters. While the dental cementum of the free-ranging apes was regularly structured into alternating dark and light bands, 4 out of 5 captive animals showed marked irregularities in terms of hypomineralized bands which could all be dated to the year 1963. Cementum preservation was in...

  12. DISSEMINATED OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA INFECTION IN A CAPTIVE EASTERN MASSASAUGA (SISTRURUS CATENATUS CATENATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jessica; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Woodburn, Daniel B; Adkesson, Michael J; Landolfi, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    An adult, captive-born eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) was examined for a subcutaneous abscess and fistula cranial to the vent. The wound improved initially with lavage and systemic antibiotic therapy, but multiple, scattered, small subcutaneous nodules later developed over the ventrum and lateral aspects of the body. Examination of fine needle aspirates from these nodules revealed granulomatous inflammation and fungal elements morphologically consistent with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. The animal died before antifungal therapy could be implemented. At necropsy, fungal granulomas were also present in the kidneys, liver, lung, air sac, ovary, and spleen. This case report describes an atypical presentation of systemic ophidiomycosis in a captive-born snake. PMID:27010298

  13. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    OpenAIRE

    MAIA O. B.; A.T.A. Jácomo; B.A. Bringel; C.K. Kashivakura; de Oliveira, C A; L.O.F. Teodoro; Silveira, L; M.E.L. Teixeira da Costa; M.C.C. Malta; M.M. Furtado; N.M. Torres; P.S.R. Mattos; .P Viau; T.F.G. Lima; R.G. Morato

    2008-01-01

    Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P < 0.05) across seasons for 16 captive males, being higher in autumn (2184.7 ± 355.1 pg/mL) than in summer (1...

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  16. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  17. The North American model and captive cervid facilities—What is the threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John; Decker, Thomas A.; Lama, Tanya M.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation represents the key principles that in combination resulted in a distinct form of wildlife conservation in the United States and Canada. How and to what extent captive cervid facilities comport with or conflict with these principles has implications for wildlife conservation. Greatest threats appear to be toward principles of public ownership of wildlife, allocation of wildlife by law, and in policy decisions based on science. Captive cervid facilities have potential to contribute to erosion of the underlying principles of the Model and could undermine public support for conservation initiatives.

  18. Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyear, K M; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L; MacDonald, S E

    2009-05-01

    The critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been subject to a strictly managed captive breeding program for three decades. A retrospective demographic analysis of the captive population was performed based on data from the red wolf studbook. Data analyses revealed a decrease in the effective population size relative to the total population size, and changes in age structure and inbreeding coefficients over time. To varying degrees, the probability of successful breeding and litter sizes declined in association with increasing dam age and sire inbreeding coefficients. Neonate survival also declined with increasing dam age. Recent changes in strategies regarding breed-pair recommendations have resulted in moderate increases in reproductive success. PMID:19504595

  19. Suppurative peritonitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive gold-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria F L; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ribeiro, Vanessa L; Cunha, Marcos P V; Oliveira, Maria G X; Davies, Yamê M; Silva, Ketrin C; Silva, Ana P S; Lincopan, Nilton; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2016-02-01

    This report describes an outbreak of suppurative peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in an adult female of captive golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas). Two virulent and multidrug-resistant strains were isolated and classified through MLST as ST60 and ST1263. The microbiological diagnosis works as a support tool for preventive measures. PMID:26620445

  20. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) captive propagation to promote recovery of declining populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is endemic to the eastern United States with local distributions restricted to rocky habitats within deciduous forests. Over the last 40 years, woodrats have declined precipitously due to an array of human-mediated pressures. There is growing interest in the captive propagation of woodrats as a tool to promote in situ conservation, but their solitary social structure, territorial behavior, and low fecundity present challenges for the attainment of levels of ex situ reproduction sufficient to support reintroduction programs. In 2009 we established a captive breeding program with 12 wild-caught individuals (4.8) collected from Indiana and Pennsylvania. Restricting breeding to wild-caught individuals, over 26 months we produced 19 litters comprised of 43 pups (26.17), of which 40 (24.16) survived to weaning. In sum, wild-caught individuals readily habituated to the captive environment and the low fecundity of woodrats was offset by high survival rates for both adults and juveniles. Therefore, when managed appropriately, captive Allegheny woodrat populations should be capable of supporting the release of surplus individuals to augment in situ conservation measures. PMID:24391017

  1. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  2. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van der Kuyl (Antoinette); R. van den Burg (Remco); M.J. Hoyer (Mark); R.A. Gruters (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Berkhout (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and we

  3. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  4. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  5. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  7. Ichthyodinium identified in the eggs of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) spawned in captivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    A presumed parasitic protozoan was found in the eggs of European eel obtained from an experiment on captive breeding of eel, Anguilla anguilla, based on silver eels from a freshwater lake in the northern part of Denmark. Gross morphology of the organism was comparable to that of early stages of...

  8. Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Jakubas, Walter J; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Among captive lynx, juvenile and castrated males had lower concentrations of fecal androgens (fA) than intact males, thereby demonstrating that the assay detects biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity. We found that captive males in general had much higher fA levels than wild males. All males showed strong seasonal variation in fA concentrations, with significantly higher levels being expressed during the breeding season (February and March) than during the non-breeding season. Among captive males, variation in seasonal fA levels did not correlate with latitude. Finally, males housed with intact cage-mates (either male or female) had significantly higher fA levels than males housed alone or with a neutered cage-mate. PMID:20828574

  9. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  10. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.

  11. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may f

  12. Tetanus as cause of mass die-off of captive Japanese macaques, Japan, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomomi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide; Une, Yumi

    2012-10-01

    In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani-contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys. PMID:23017658

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors. PMID:25563613

  14. Risk factors for development of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Adriana M.W.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; King, Catherine E.;

    2012-01-01

    different types of foot lesions (hyperkeratosis, nodular lesions, papillomatous growths, and fissures) in captive flamingos. The study was based on photos of 445 pairs of flamingo foot soles. Data originating from 337 birds in 10 different zoos were included. The odds of birds having hyperkeratosis...

  15. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals removed by APHIS from a herd for testing, will be appraised by an APHIS official appraiser and a State... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of...

  16. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided di

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  18. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyathilakan, N.; Raman, M.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs.

  19. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Raman, M; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2015-03-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs. PMID:25698874

  20. Captive insurance: is it the right choice for your insurance exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Potential benefits of a captive insurance company include: Broader coverage Improved cash flow and stability. Direct access to reinsurance markets. Tax advantages. Better handling and control of risk management and claims. Potential drawbacks and challenges include: Startup capitalization. Underwriting losses. Administration and commitment. PMID:26793945

  1. The long-term implications of war captivity for mortality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Greene, Talya; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Zerach, Gadi; Benyamini, Yael; Ohry, Avi

    2014-10-01

    The current study aims to (1) assess the long-term impact of war captivity on mortality and various health aspects and (2) evaluate the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) (N = 154) and a matched control group of combat veterans (N = 161) were assessed on health conditions and self-rated health 18 years post-war (1991: T1). The whole population of ex-POWs, and the T1 sample of controls were then contacted 35 years after the war (2008: T2), and invited to participate in a second wave of measurement (ex-POWs: N = 171; controls: N = 116) Captivity was implicated in premature mortality, more health-related conditions and worse self-rated health. PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between war captivity and self-rated health, and partially mediated the relationship between war captivity and health conditions, and these effects were amplified with age. Aging ex-POWs who develop psychiatric symptomatology should be considered a high-risk group entering a high-risk period in the life cycle. It is important to monitor ex-POWs and provide them with appropriate medical and psychological treatment as they age. PMID:24165831

  2. Use of enclosure space by captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapur, Avanti; Waran, Natalie; Sinha, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    Captive nonhuman animals use enclosure space differentially. Enclosure features strongly influence this. This study recorded both the enclosure space used by 47 captive lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India and the behavior of the macaques. The exhibition of abnormal behaviors, food-related behaviors, and social interactions correlated significantly with the use of the edge zone (the part of the enclosure closest to the visitor area). Animals housed in barren enclosures used the edge zone to a significantly greater percentage than did those housed in complex exhibits. Percentages of autogrooming, social interactions, and food-related behaviors significantly correlated with the use of the enrich zone. Space use studies assist in recognizing areas within the enclosure, which captive animals actively use. Conversely, the studies can identify areas infrequently used and show how to make maximum use of these enclosure areas. Further studies targeting both the increase in percentages of natural behaviors exhibited and use of the enrich zone used the current study on captive lion-tailed macaques for their design. PMID:16468946

  3. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program. PMID:23426800

  4. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 Section 77.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... tests, the testing veterinarian must submit a report to cooperating State and Federal animal...

  5. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  6. CAUSALITY AMONG FED CATTLE MARKET VARIABLES: DIRECTED ACYCLIC GRAPHS ANALYSIS OF CAPTIVE SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Andrew C.; Kim, Man-Keun

    2004-01-01

    In quantitative research, direction of causality among the variables is often assumed without a rigorous test. In this study, the directed acyclic graph (DAG) method was used to illuminate causal relationships among fed cattle industry variables, in particular, it was shown that captive supply causes spot market price to change.

  7. Breeding facilities for polar bears, Thalarctos maritimus (Phipps, 1774), in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, E.F.

    1968-01-01

    The breeding results of Polar Bears in captivity are in general very disappointing. Unsuitable maternity dens are the main cause. These should be completely closed, very quiet without outside disturbances and should have connection with a run and thus with an outside enclosure. The female should be

  8. Encephalitozoon hellem Infection in a Captive Juvenile Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; Slocombe, R F; Crameri, S; Hair, S

    2015-11-01

    Microsporidiosis is reported rarely in reptiles and has never been reported in any species of crocodilian. Microsporidiosis was diagnosed histologically in a juvenile captive freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) that was found suddenly dead in its enclosure. Ultrastructural and molecular testing revealed infection to be due to Encephalitozoon hellem. This is the first report of E. hellem infection in any species of reptile. PMID:26386870

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  10. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Self-Injury in a Captive Olive Baboon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R.; Rosales-Ruiz, Jesoes; Smith, Richard; Lovelace, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB), such as self-biting and head banging, has been reported to occur in approximately 10% of captive, individually housed nonhuman primates. Accounts of the etiology of SIB in primates range from ecological to physiological. However, to date, no research has examined the possible influence of social consequences…

  11. Suspected macular degeneration in a captive Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Andrea; Bernhard, Andreas; Sahr, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    The case of a 31-year-old captive female Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with decreased near vision but good distance vision is presented. Examination of the fundus revealed drusen-like bodies in the macula presumably because of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PMID:22702721

  12. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M G

    2002-02-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%), infectious diseases, (9%) and digestive system disorders (5%). The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18%) and disorders of the genitourinary (10%) and digestive systems (8%). Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%), infectious diseases (10%), and lesions or accidents (10%). The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4) were parental incompetence (38%), infectious diseases (9%), and digestive system disorders (7%). PMID:12185920

  13. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias the interpretat......During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias the...... interpretation of the results obtained from analyses based on such data. In this investigation, 12 microsatellite loci were investigated to evaluate the studbook information of the critically endangered Persian wild ass, Equus hemionus onager. Relatedness and inbreeding coefficients were calculated in order to...... onager population into four subgroups that indicate departure from random mating, and thus minor rotation of animals between zoos. Lastly, analyses for inferring past demographic changes revealed a gradual population decline and inbreeding over several generations. This may indicate a low genetic load in...

  14. Surviving the "School of Slavery": Acculturation in Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" and Joyce Hansen's "The Captive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Karen Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although children's literature has long alluded to cultural connections between Africans and African Americans, very few texts establish clear lines of influence between particular African ethnic groups and African American characters and communities. Joyce Hansen's "The Captive" (1994) and Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" (2006)…

  15. Neotropical River Otter, Lutra longicaudis, Breeding under Captive Conditions in Buenos Aires Zoo, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Parera

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports on captive breeding of this species were published by CUBAS et al. (1993 and BLACHER (1994. The later author reports three offsprings for the same female in a period of eleven months in the Curitiba Zoological Park, Brazil. In that case delayed implantation had apparently not occurred, as it was presumed by several authors (DAVIS, 1978.

  16. Effect of Captive Environment on Plasma Cortisol Level and Behavioral Pattern of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajjad, U. Farooq1*, M. Anwar, A. Khurshid2 and S.A. Bukhari1

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive environment in zoological parks often do not provide optimum conditions for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. These factors elicit stereotypic behavior in tigers such as pacing, head bobbing and aimless repetition of some movements, and are considered to be an indication of stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of captivity on the plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern in Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Tigers kept in captivity at the Lahore zoo (n=4 and in semi natural environment at the Lahore Wildlife Park (n=6 were used for this study, and standard protocols of housing and sampling were observed. The mean plasma cortisol values for the captive animals and those kept in a semi natural environment were 34.48±1.33 and 39.22±3.16µg/dl, respectively; and were statistically non significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the plasma cortisol levels was observed among the individuals within each form of captivity. From the behavioral survey it was observed that the time spent in pacing and resting was much longer for captive animals than animals confined to the semi natural environment. Thus, Technically monitored “Environmental Enrichment’ plans need to be devised which are as close as possible to the natural environment of the captive animals in order to achieve their utmost performance.

  17. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2012-03-27

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  18. Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus mice in response to a captive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Lacy

    Full Text Available Many wildlife species are propagated in captivity as models for behavioral, physiological, and genetic research or to provide assurance populations to protect threatened species. However, very little is known about how animals evolve in the novel environment of captivity. The histories of most laboratory strains are poorly documented, and protected populations of wildlife species are usually too small and too short-term to allow robust statistical analysis. To document the evolutionary change in captive breeding programs, we monitored reproduction and behavior across 18 generations in six experimental populations of Peromyscusleucopus mice started from a common set of 20 wild-caught founders. The mice were propagated under three breeding protocols: a strategy to retain maximal genetic diversity, artificial selection against stereotypic behaviors that were hypothesized to reflect poor adaptation to captivity, and random bred controls. Two replicates were maintained with each protocol, and inter-replicate crosses at generations 19 and 20 were used to reverse accumulated inbreeding. We found that one of the stereotypic behaviors (repetitive flipping was positively associated with reproductive fitness, while the other (gnawing was relatively invariant. Selection to reduce these stereotypic behaviors caused marked reduction in reproduction, and populations not under artificial selection to reduce these behaviors responded with large increases in flipping. In non-selected populations, there was rapid evolution toward much higher proportion of pairs breeding and more rapid conception. Litter size, pup survival, and weaning mass all declined slowly, to the extent that would be predicted based on inbreeding depression. Inter-crossing between replicate populations reversed these declines in fitness components but did not reverse the changes in behavior or the accelerated breeding. These findings indicate that adaptation to captivity can be rapid

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  20. Feeding practices for captive greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in UK collections as compared to diets of free-ranging specimens

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Taylor; Schwitzer, C.; Owen-Smith, Norman; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related disorders occur frequently in captive browsing ruminants. To assess current feeding practices, diets of 15 captive greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from three zoological collec-tions were compared to that of free-ranging conspecifics and current feeding recommendations. Dry matter intake (DMI) varied considerably in captivity from 49.2 to 75.7 g dry matter kg BM-0.75 d-1. Roughage intake determined DMI; with a low DMI associated with low body condition scores (BCS). Compa...

  1. The Emergence of Captive Finance Companies and Risk Segmentation of the Consumer Loan Market:Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Staten; John M. Barron; Andrew B. Chong

    2004-01-01

    A parental seller with market power to some degree in its product market can earn rents. In this context, there is a gain to granting credit for the purchase of the product and thus the establishment of captive finance company for expanding the sales by offering loans to consumers who need financing for purchase of durable good. This paper examines the optimal behavior of such a durable good seller and its captive finance company when the consumer loan market is segmented into captive and ind...

  2. Integrating microsatellite and pedigree analyses to facilitate the captive management of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth L; Hereford, Scott G; Savoie, Megan L; Leibo, S P; Howard, Jerome J

    2012-01-01

    The minimization of kinship in captive populations is usually achieved through the use of pedigree information. However, pedigree knowledge alone is not sufficient if pedigree information is missing, questionable, or when the founders of the captive population are related to one another. If this is the case, higher levels of inbreeding and lower levels of genetic diversity may be present in a captive population than those calculated by pedigree analyses alone. In this study, the genetic status of the critically endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (MSC) (Grus canadensis pulla) was analyzed using studbook data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managed captive breeding program as well as microsatellite DNA data. These analyses provided information on shared founder genotypes, allowing for refined analysis of genetic variation in the population, and the development of a new DNA-based studbook pedigree that will assist in the genetic management of the MSC population. PMID:21604289

  3. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  4. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  5. One orphaned marine manatee calf´s feeding, breeding and behavior in captivity (Trichechus manataus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Grubel da Silva; Ricardo José Soavinski; Eunice Maria Almeida de Oliveira; Maria Claudia Mibielli Kohler

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although there are records of marine manatee in captivity, few information report the management of this species. As a way of reducing this gap, this work aims to report the obtained results through the feeding control, the behavior observation and the monitoring of a female orphaned Trichechus manatus and compare with similar studies conducted on animals in captivity of the same species, populations Florida (USA). The specimen of manatee, female, was captured in a fishing corral a...

  6. Genetic Assessments and Parentage Analysis of Captive Bolson Tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) Inform Their “Rewilding” in New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Edwards; Elizabeth Canty Cox; Vanessa Buzzard; Christiane Wiese; Scott Hillard, L; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both popul...

  7. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    A. Q. Mir; Dua, K; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiac...

  8. Upper respiratory tract diseases in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus): prevalence in 20 European zoos and possible predisposing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic upper respiratory tract diseases are severe problems in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, P. pygmaeus), but the etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This study recorded the prevalence of such diseases in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and investigated possible predisposing factors. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs (13.8% of all animals) significantly more often than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and male animals more often (15.8%) t...

  9. Recent Studies on Captive Cetaceans in Japan: Working in Tandem with Studies on Cetaceans in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    MORISAKA, Tadamichi; Kohshima, Shiro; Yoshioka, Motoi; SUZUKI, Miwa; Nakahara, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advances have allowed researchers to acquire a vast amount of information on wild cetaceans, much of which had previously been inaccessible. However, despite these new technologies, existing studies on cetaceans in captivity remain valuable. In this article, we review the recent research conducted on captive cetaceans in Japan to show their importance. We indexed the existing studies regarding behavior (resting behavior, vocal development, social behavior, and behavior di...

  10. Effect of Captive Environment on Plasma Cortisol Level and Behavioral Pattern of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sajjad, U. Farooq1*, M. Anwar, A. Khurshid2 and S.A. Bukhari1

    2011-01-01

    Captive environment in zoological parks often do not provide optimum conditions for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. These factors elicit stereotypic behavior in tigers such as pacing, head bobbing and aimless repetition of some movements, and are considered to be an indication of stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of captivity on the plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern in Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris). Tige...

  11. Molecular Sex Determination of Captive Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Gembira Loka Zoo, Surabaya Zoo, and Ragunan Zoo, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SRI SULANDARI; MOCH SAMSUL ARIFIN ZEIN; EVY AYU ARIDA; AMIR HAMIDY

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species is often difficult, and may be hampered by many factors. Sexual monomorphism, in which males and females are not easily distinguishable, is one such factor and is a common problem in captive breeding of many avian and reptile species. Species-specific nuclear DNA markers, recently developed to identify portions of sex chromosomes, were employed in this study for sex determination of Komodo dragons (Varanus Komodoensis). Each animal was uniquely tagged us...

  12. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) with the use of environmental enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Reisfeld; Mayla Barbirato; Laura Ippolito; Ricardo Cesar Cardoso; Marcílio Nichi; Manuela G.F.G. Sgai; Cristiane S. Pizzutto

    2013-01-01

    Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot) lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use...

  13. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Edwards

    Full Text Available The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28. Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26 potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  14. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. PMID:20186725

  15. Wasted efforts: why captivity is not the best way to conserve species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pedrono

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation strategies of Malagasy turtles and tortoises are based principally on the captive-breeding of these species, with the ultimate aim of their possible reintroduction in the wild. Given the current precarious conservation status of endemic Malagasy turtle and tortoise species, it is clear that approach has been a failure. Instead of being used to complement in situ approaches, for a number of years captive-breeding efforts have been used as an alternative. It is essential to develop conservation strategies for these species based on empirical data, and not only on the subjective vision of NGOs with a strong interest in ex situ conservation approaches. It is only by fighting the causes of decline of Malagasy chelonian species in the wild that they will be able to be saved.

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  17. BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTION OF Sapajus nigritus (GOLDFUSS, 1809 RAISED IN CAPTIVITY AT IPATINGA, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santana Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of animals in captivity is one of the many ways of species preservation and allows studies that are often unattainable under natural conditions. Primate’s behavior and ecology studies supply tools for the development of conservation and management strategies. Consequently, the current research aimed to describe the patterns of behavior of a capuchin monkey, Sapajus nigritus, group raised in captivity at the Biodiversity Center of Associação Esportiva e Recreativa at Ipatinga, MG, Brazil. The Scan Sample was used with five minutes intervals. Ad libitum and Focal Animal were the complementary sampling. Twenty-three behavioral categories were recorded; this is considered average when compared to other ethograms. The behavioral class with greater prominence was foraging, however the different categories of behavior suggest a complex capacity of intra-specific interaction. The information serves as basic tools for the formulation of conservation strategies, management and to the comprehension of ecological interactions.

  18. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented. PMID:27057585

  19. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. PMID:26875762

  20. Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; Yeager, Justin; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations. PMID:24151130

  1. Research on captive broodstock programs for pacific salmon: annual report, 2000-2001; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid

  2. Feline herpesvirus infection in a group of semi-captive cheetahs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by feline herpesvirus type-1 in wild felid species is similar to that in domestic cats. Herpesviruses are endemic in free-ranging lions in South Africa but actual clinical disease due to them has not been reported in free-ranging felids. The first reports of feline herpesvirus infection associated with clinical disease in wild felids came fromAustralia and the USA in 1970. Subsequent reports of clinical disease in cheetahs and other wild felid species were limited to captive animals. This report deals with clinical disease in a group of semi-captive cheetahs in which 18 animals were affected, and included 12 adult males, 4 adult females and 2 subadults. No mortalities occurred in this group, the most common clinical signs being sneezing, nasal discharge and loss of appetite.

  3. Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive coatis (Nasua nasua Storr, 1780 (Carnivora: Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Langoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide infection that affects many species, including wild animals. The present study aimed to detect Leptospira spp. antibodies in 17 captive coatis (Nasua nasua by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Nine (52.94% animals tested positive and the following serovars were identified: Copenhageni (22.22%, Shermani (22.22%, Andamana (11.11%, Wolfii (11.11% and Pyrogenes (11.11%. Two samples presented coagglutination, one (11.11% for Hebdomadis and Wolfii, and another (11.11% for Hebdomadis, Hardjo and Wolfii. The current study revealed the presence of the infection even in animals without any clinical signs, reinforcing the possibility that wild animals in captivity may be infected by leptospire serovars, thus enabling reservoirs.

  4. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  5. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats. PMID:22044295

  6. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions. PMID:22448519

  7. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:25575878

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the maintenance water of Antillean manatees (Trichechusmanatus) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeane Kury Nobre Gomes; Maria Aparecida da Gloria Faustino; Leucio Câmara Alves; João Carlos Gomes Borges; Régis Pinto de Lima

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the water consumption and supply of pools used by Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) in captivity. Six samples were collected from the pool's supply system (at the beach), water used for manatee consumption, mineral water used in the preparation of artificial milk formulas offered to orphan manatee calves, also used in permanent maintenance pools in the visitation area, and water utilized in the reha...

  10. Socialization Strategies and Disease Transmission in Captive Colonies of Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Schapiro, Steven J.; Bernacky, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In captive research environments for nonhuman primates (NHP), social housing strategies are often in conflict with protocols designed to minimize disease transmission. This is particularly true in breeding colonies, and is especially relevant when attempting to eliminate specific pathogens from a population of primates. Numerous strategies have been used to establish such specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colonies (primarily of macaques), ranging from nursery rearing of neonates to single...

  11. Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. S. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS can be life-threatening in humans and its presence in animals is a cause for public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRS in captive and free-ranging wallabies over a 16-month period in South Australia, Australia. Materials and methods: Eighty-nine purified staphylococcal isolates recovered from 98 captive and free-ranging wallabies' anterior nasal swabs were used in this study. All isolates were tested for the presence of the mecA, mecA1, and mecC genes. Multiplex PCR-directed SCCmec-typing, ccrB-typing, and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of oxacillin were performed on mec-positive isolates. Results and discussion: In total, 11 non-Staphylococcus aureus MRS were isolated from 7 out of 98 animals, corresponding to a 7.1% carriage rate. The SCCmec types I, III, and V were identified by multiplex PCR and sequencing of the ccrB gene. This is the first report of MRS carriage in both captive and free-ranging wallabies in Australia. These data demonstrate a low prevalence of MRS and no association between wallaby captivity status and MRS carriage could be assigned. These animals may act as a reservoir for the exchange of genetic elements between staphylococci. Furthermore, the mecA genes of animal isolates were identical to that found in human MRS strains and thus the possibility of zoonotic transfer must be considered.

  12. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  13. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  14. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  17. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was o...

  18. Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, B; Collins, M; Stoddard, G; Appleton, A; Livingood, R; Sobcynski, H; Vogel, K D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the "head-only" method-application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun ( = 45). The second group ( = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the "head/heart" method-initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). Stunning efficacy was the indicator of animal welfare used in this study. All calves were instantly rendered insensible by the initial stun and did not display common indicators of return to consciousness. For meat quality evaluation, all samples were collected from the 12th rib region of the longissimus thoracis. Meat samples were evaluated for color, drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The L* values (measure of meat color lightness) were darker ( 0.05) observed in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values between treatments. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed in drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The blood yield from the CONTROL group (7,217.9 ± 143.5 g) was greater ( veal calves. PMID:26440354

  19. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    OpenAIRE

    Ippei Suzuki; Katsufumi Sato; Andreas Fahlman; Yasuhiko Naito; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Andrew W Trites

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumet...

  20. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (panimal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (panimal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  1. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  2. BASELINE LEVELS OF TRACE METALS IN BLOOD OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedner, Ellen B.; Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Isaza, Ramiro; Barber, David

    2011-01-01

    Whole blood from 33 healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) was analyzed for 12 trace elements: aluminum, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, mercury, and lead for the purpose of estimating preliminary baseline population parameters for these minerals. Metals were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Baseline ranges for all animals and for all trace elements were comparable to normal concentrations reported in other s...

  3. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus Albert DME; Gruters Rob A; Hoyer Mark J; van den Burg Remco; van der Kuyl Antoinette C; Berkhout Ben

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and were unlikely to be hybrids. Their mitochondrial haplotype suggested that they descended from founder animals in Cameroon or northern Gabon, close to the habitat of the drill. SIVdrl has once before bee...

  4. Effects of classical music as part of environmental enrichment in captive Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae)

    OpenAIRE

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz; Débora Delwing Dal Magro; Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2010-01-01

    In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the cues it offers the animals housed within. In a bid to remedy this, and promote better welfare, mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to two conditions: no auditory stimulation, and stimulation with classical music. In all experiments, a battery of behavior tests was used. The results demonstrated significantly decreased immobility ...

  5. Mortality in Captive Baboons with Seizures: A New Model for SUDEP?

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Knape, Koyle D.; Leland, M. Michelle; Feldman, Jake; McCoy, Karin J. M.; HUBBARD Gene B.; Williams, Jeff T.

    2009-01-01

    As the baboon is a model of primary generalized epilepsy, we were interested in mortality of captive animals with a history of witnessed seizures. Causes of natural death were investigated in 46 seizure baboons (SZ) and 78 nonepileptic controls (CTL), all of which underwent a complete pathological examination at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) in San Antonio. SZ animals died at a younger age than the control baboons (p

  6. An outbreak of cowpox in captive cheetahs: virological and epidemiological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Baxby, D; Ashton, D. G.; Jones, D M; Thomsett, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes virological and epidemiological features of an infection which killed two of three affected cheetahs at Whipsnade Park in 1977. Two animals had profuse skin lesions and the third had an acute haemorrhagic pneumonia. The outbreak was shown to be caused by cowpox virus. Cowpox virus is believed to circulate in small wild animals, but the source of infection was not traced despite virological and serological tests on 93 captive and 102 wild animals. Sub-clinical infections d...

  7. An approach to the statistics of wild lagomorph captive rearing for releasing purposes in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sánchez García-Abad; Marta Elena Alonso de la Varga; Carlos Díez Valle; Vicente Ramiro Gaudioso Lacasa; de Pablos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of rearing wild lagomorphs in captivity for hunting and predator conservation in Spain, little is known about this production sector.  Taking official data into account, in this work the number and distribution of farms in Spain and the possible number of animals produced were analysed during the period 2005-2010.  In 2010, 114 wild rabbit farms were widely distributed throughout the country (especially Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia and Castile-La Mancha regions), while...

  8. Mucinous Cystadenoma in the Lung of a Captive-born Moustached Tamarin (Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, C. R.; Ragland, D. R.; St Claire, M. C.; Elkins, W R; Gozalo, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old captive-born male moustached tamarin was subjected to necropsy examination after a fatal head trauma. A solitary, circumscribed, subpleural mass (0.6 cm diameter) was found in the right caudal lung lobe. The mass was diagnosed as a mucinous cystadenoma. Histochemical and immunohistochemical tests were performed to further characterize the tumour. Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were not found in the neoplastic cells, suggesting that the tumour arose from a non-surfactant produc...

  9. Variables influencing survival in four generations of captive-born muskoxen

    OpenAIRE

    Lent, P.C.; Davis, W J

    1993-01-01

    Since 1967, four generations of muskoxen have been born in captivity in Alaska (399 live births, 18 abortions and 47 stillbirths), all derived from 20 females and 8 males captured on Nunivak Island. Analysis of juvenile survival was accomplished by dividing individuals into 7 classes (not born live, born live but not surviving 48 hours, survived 48 hours but < 1 week, survived 1 week but < 1 month, survived 1 month but < 6 months, survived 6 months but < 2 years, survived 2 years)...

  10. The Incidence of Spontaneous Neoplasia in Two Populations of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Heather A.; Mattison, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are genetically similar to humans and share many characteristics of aging and age-related diseases. They age at approximately three times the rate of humans and develop spontaneous cancers. In both humans and rhesus macaques, cancer incidence increases with age with the greatest incidence in those over 60 years of age and 20 years, respectively. The current survey reports on the incidence of spontaneous neoplasia in two colonies of captive rhesus macaques: the...

  11. Infectious Agent and Immune Response Characteristics of Chronic Enterocolitis in Captive Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Sestak, Karol; Merritt, Christopher K.; Borda, Juan; Saylor, Elizabeth; Schwamberger, Shelle R.; Cogswell, Frank; Didier, Elizabeth S; Didier, Peter J.; Plauche, Gail; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Aye, Pyone P.; Alexa, Pavel; Ward, Richard L.; Lackner, Andrew A

    2003-01-01

    Chronic enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity in colonies of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). This study's aim was to identify the common enteric pathogens frequently associated with chronic enterocolitis in normal, immunocompetent rhesus monkeys and to elucidate the influence of this clinical syndrome on the host immune system. We analyzed the fecal specimens from 100 rhesus macaques with or without clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhea. Retrospective analysis revealed an ...

  12. Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle M. S.; Boardman, Wayne S. J.; Brown, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) can be life-threatening in humans and its presence in animals is a cause for public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRS in captive and free-ranging wallabies over a 16-month period in South Australia, Australia. Materials and methods Eighty-nine purified staphylococcal isolates recovered from 98 captive and free-ranging wallabies' anterior nasal swabs were used in this study. All isolates were tested for the presence of the mecA, mecA1, and mecC genes. Multiplex PCR-directed SCCmec-typing, ccrB-typing, and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of oxacillin were performed on mec-positive isolates. Results and discussion In total, 11 non-Staphylococcus aureus MRS were isolated from 7 out of 98 animals, corresponding to a 7.1% carriage rate. The SCCmec types I, III, and V were identified by multiplex PCR and sequencing of the ccrB gene. This is the first report of MRS carriage in both captive and free-ranging wallabies in Australia. These data demonstrate a low prevalence of MRS and no association between wallaby captivity status and MRS carriage could be assigned. These animals may act as a reservoir for the exchange of genetic elements between staphylococci. Furthermore, the mecA genes of animal isolates were identical to that found in human MRS strains and thus the possibility of zoonotic transfer must be considered. PMID:27193419

  13. Morphometric Variables Related to Metabolic Profile in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Marcia CR; Higgins, Paul B.; Mattern, Vicki L; Garza, Melissa A De La; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, trig...

  14. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391

  15. Praziquantel treatment of captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) infested with monogean trematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Janse, M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) were infested with Clemacotyle australis (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) on the skin and with a species of the Hexabothriinae on the gills. Different behavioural changes have been described caused by these infections. Oral treatment with 10-40 mg praziquantel per kg bodyweight had no effect. Bath treatment with 20 mg praziquantel per litre for 45-90 minutes showed good results against both parasite species. The presence of cleaner wrasse (Labro...

  16. Evaluation of Four Environmental Enrichment Procedures for Coatis (Nasua nasua) in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Pereira; L. B. C. Ferreira; T. A. R. Paula; A.K. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Wild Animal Sorting Centers (WASC) keeps animals that were captured from their natural habitat. These animals often suffer stress and may show atypical behavior due the difficulty encountered by them to adapt to captivity. In order to improve the quality of life of these animals was developed this work, in order to study the behavior of coatis subjected to different procedures of environmental enrichment. The study was conducted in WASC of Federal University of Visa, Visa-MG. Data were collec...

  17. Detection and Experimental Transmission of a Novel Babesia Isolate in Captive Olive Baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis)

    OpenAIRE

    Reichard, Mason V; Gray, Kristene M; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; d'Offay, Jean M; White, Gary L.; Simecka, Christine M; Wolf, Roman F.

    2011-01-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasites that infect mammalian red blood cells. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of Babesia infection in a colony of captive baboons and to evaluate potential experimental routes of the transmission of the hemoparasite. DNA was extracted from the blood of baboons and tested for infection with Babesia by PCR and primers that amplify the 18s rRNA gene of the parasite. The overall prevalence of infection of Babesia in the baboon popu...

  18. Serological monitoring of antibodies for an early diagnosis ofaspergillosis in captive penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela L. Cabana; Xavier, Melissa O.; Vanice Poester; Gabriel B. Klafke; Pedro L. B.Filho; Aryse Martins; Rodolfo P. S.Filho; Meireles, Mário C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of detection of anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies in captive penguins by double radial agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for the aspergillosis diagnosis. We included 134 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in rehabilitation at the Center for Recovery of Marine Animals (CRAM / FURG). All of them were monitored by AGID weekly until its final destination (death or release), totalizing 660 serum samples studied. All animals were clin...

  19. Modelling of a captive unmanned aerial system teledetecting oil pollution on sea surface

    OpenAIRE

    Muttin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Recent major oil-spills were tracked using observations with sufficient altitudes over the sea surface, to detect oil slick locations. For oil-spill responders, we propose a captive Unmanned Aerial System, UAS acting like a periscope over a ship or supply vessel. The system is composed of an umbilical deployed from ship deck, and there are few studies that have examined elasticity within cable dynamic during take-off or landing (TOL) and normal flight phases. Therefore, the safest approach fo...

  20. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Dennis W. H.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W. Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals...

  1. Syndication in private equity industry: comparing the strategies of independent and captive venture capitalists

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Dominique; Nasica, Eric; Torre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to connect two strands of the venture capital literature: the inter-relationships among venture capitalists (VCs) on the one hand, and between VCs and their funds providers on the other hand. It examines the existence of a relationship between type of fund provider and skill characteristics of the VCs partners in a syndication deal. In other words, it examines whether captive/independent VCs privilege partnerships with firms with specific skills? We develop a theoretical analy...

  2. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North Ame...

  3. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eulalia; Pérez-González, Javier; Carranza, Juan; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population). Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a) inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b) fitness (survival) increased, and c) the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many other effects

  4. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eulalia; Pérez-González, Javier; Carranza, Juan; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population). Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a) inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b) fitness (survival) increased, and c) the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many other effects

  5. Unitary Joint Standoff Captive Air Training Missile avionics design through operational concepts and functional requirements analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dennis J., III

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. To accurately simulate the Unitary Joint Standoff (JSOW) weapon functions and provide pilots with the most realistic training, the captive air training missile (CATM) avionics design will fully implement well defined operational concepts and functional requirements in terms of flight simulation characteristics, operational functions, pilot feedback, and electronic interfaces. This would provide the Navy, Marines, and Air Force with a ...

  6. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR; Muthusamy THANGARAJ; Thathiredypalli R. BARATHKUMAR; Jayachandran SUBBURAJ; Kaliyan MUTHAZHAGAN

    2012-01-01

    Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai) and one captive (Mutukadu) population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and const...

  7. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  8. [Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Aldeima T T

    2008-03-01

    Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m2 of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m3 in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I), the other was totally covered (tank II). Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001). Mean growth (103.0 +/- 6.81 cm) and weight (3 987 +/- 0.98 g) were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 +/- 7.58 cm; 2 705 +/- 0.69 g). The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes. PMID:18624249

  9. Survival of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) following surgical liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Esler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We measured intra- and postoperative mortality rates of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) undergoing surgical liver biopsy sampling for determination of the induction of cytochrome P4501A, a biomarker of oil exposure. Liver biopsies were taken from and radio transmitters were implanted into 157 free-ranging Harlequin Ducks over three winters (55 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 47 in 2002). No birds died during surgery, but seven (4.5%) died during recovery from anesthesia (three in 2001 and four in 2002). None of the deaths could be attributed directly to the liver biopsy. Four of the 150 (2.7%) birds that were released died in the 2 wk period after surgery. All post-release deaths occurred in 2001; no birds died after release in 2000 or 2002. No mortalities of 36 captive birds occurred during surgery or recovery or in the 2 wk period following surgery. Hemorrhage was a minor problem with one captive bird. Surgical liver biopsies appear to be a safe procedure, but anesthetic complications may occur with overwintering ducks. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2010.

  10. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs. PMID:26882002

  11. Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Tessa H; Heistermann, Michael; Hankison, Shala J; Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity is widely dependent on the natural psychological, physical, and behavioral needs of the animals and how adequately these needs are met. Inability to engage in natural behaviors can lead to chronic stress and expression of stereotypic behavior. The majority of research on decreasing stereotypic behavior in captivity addresses problems at the group level and does not account for individual variability in each animal's needs, history, and preferences. This study combined physiological and behavioral measures of well being to comprehensively assess the unique needs of individually housed captive macaques (Macaca spp.) with the aim of developing tailored welfare strategies. Behavioral and hormonal data were collected under 2 conditions: baseline and individualized enrichment. The results showed a significant decrease in stereotypic behavior under the enrichment condition. Additionally, 7 out of 9 individuals showed a decrease in fecal glucocorticoid (stress hormone) levels, indicating a reduction in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Addressing welfare on an individual, rather than group, level allows for a better overall characterization of well being and maximizes the probability of improving the welfare of each animal. PMID:26882225

  12. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  13. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily P; Brettschneider, Helene; Caldwell, Peter; Oosthuizen, Almero; Dalton, Desiré L; du Plessis, Liza; Steyl, Johan; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research. PMID:27380652

  14. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  15. Being attractive brings advantages: the case of parrot species in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the perceived beauty of individual parrot species assessed by human observers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the purpose of data collection, we defined four sets of species (40 parrots, 367 parrots, 34 amazons, 17 macaws. Then, we asked 776 human respondents to evaluate parrot pictures of the selected species according to perceived beauty and we analyzed its association with color and morphological characters. Irrespective of the species set, we found a good agreement among the respondents. The preferred species tended to be large, colorful, and long-tailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We repeatedly confirmed significant, positive association between the perceived beauty and the size of worldwide zoo population. Moreover, the range size and body size appeared to be significant predictors of zoo population size. In contrast, the effects of other explanatory variables, including the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature listing, appeared insignificant. Our results may suggest that zoos preferentially keep beautiful parrots and pay less attention to conservation needs.

  16. Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2005-09-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in wild and captive Japanese serows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, T; Minamoto, N; Sugiyama, M; Sugiyama, Y

    1992-10-01

    The fecal Escherichia coli isolated from wild Japanese serows living in mountainous areas away from humans and those from captive serows kept in human areas were examined for antimicrobial resistance and the possession of transferable R plasmids. Of 874 E. coli strains isolated from 283 wild serows in 1980-1981, only 11 (1.3%) were resistant to at least one of 6 antimicrobial drugs; ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and sulfadimethoxin. Seven (2.5%) individuals were found to carry resistant E. coli. To heighten the isolation frequency of drug-resistant strains, fecal samples of 244 wild serows in 1983-1984 were cultured directly onto drug-supplemented media. Only 12 (4.9%) serows were shown to have drug-resistant E. coli. No transferable R plasmid was detected among a total of 87 resistant strains from wild serows. In contrast, all 33 captive serows except one which was kept only one day after capture, showed resistant E. coli and 20 (60.6%) serows were excreting R plasmid-carrying E. coli. Of 161 drug-resistant strains from captive serows, 50 (31.1%) were found to carry R plasmids. Wild serows seemed to readily change to harbor resistant E. coli almost as soon they were reared in human areas without direct exposure to drugs. These results lead to the conclusion that drug-resistant E. coli can probably be used as microbial indicator for natural environmental pollution. PMID:1420561

  18. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

    1990-01-01

    Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

  19. Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Pellegrini, N; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Hummel, J; Flach, E J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M

    2006-08-01

    In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested. PMID:16901277

  20. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J. L.; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L.; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  1. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil. PMID:27468012

  2. Genetic variability in captive populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Leandro R; Francisco, Flávio O; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Arias, Maria C

    2016-08-01

    Low genetic variability has normally been considered a consequence of animal husbandry and a major contributing factor to declining bee populations. Here, we performed a molecular analysis of captive and wild populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, one of the most commonly kept species across South America. Microsatellite analyses showed similar genetic variability between wild and captive populations However, captive populations showed lower mitochondrial genetic variability. Male-mediated gene flow, transport and division of nests are suggested as the most probable explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structure. We conclude that increasing the number of colonies kept through nest divisions does not negatively affect nuclear genetic variability, which seems to be maintained by small-scale male dispersal and human-mediated nest transport. However, the transport of nests from distant localities should be practiced with caution given the high genetic differentiation observed between samples from western and eastern areas. The high genetic structure verified is the result of a long-term evolutionary process, and bees from distant localities may represent unique evolutionary lineages. PMID:27305916

  3. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai and one captive (Mutukadu population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and construction of the dendrogram. A total of 589 scorable bands were obtained, 93.12% of them were polymorphic. The Nei�s gene diversity (H of two wild populations were more (0.0504 � 0.0670 and 0.0519 � 0.0953 than the captive population (0.0489 � 0.0850. The clustering pattern obtained by UPGMA method emphasized the wild populations were clustered in one clade and captive population was deviated into another clade. This study proved that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate L. calcarifer populations. Further molecular studies, comprising a higher number of molecular tools are still required to precisely evaluate the genetic structure of all seabass populations along the Indian coast.

  4. Comparison of infection by Brucella spp. in free-ranging and captive wild animals from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    JMAP Antunes; GP Machado; LF Costa; F Fornazari; JRB Cipriano; CM Appolinário; SD Allendorf; E Bagagli; CR Teixeira; J. Megid

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the infection rate by Brucella spp. in wild and in captive animals. Serum samples from 121 animals (94 free-ranging and 27 captive) of different mammal species were evaluated. Sera were submitted to rose Bengal test (RBT) for screening and serum agglutination tests (SAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) for confirmatory results. Nine animals (five free-ranging and four captive) tested positive in RBT, but negative in the confirmatory tests. Severa...

  5. The release of a captive-raised female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Kate Evans; Moore, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Managing captive elephants poses a significant challenge because of their complex social behaviour. While wild female elephants live in close-knit family groups of related individuals, captive herds often consist of unrelated animals. Some of the elephants in captive groups may be excluded by their companions and experience increased aggression, so that their welfare is compromised. There is no easy solution to this problem and novel approaches are required since slaughter of c...

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  8. B-52/Pegasus with X-43A departing on first captive flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA X-43A hypersonic research vehicle and its Pegasus booster rocket, mounted beneath the wing of their B-52 mothership, had a successful first captive-carry flight on April 28, 2001, Basically a dress rehearsal for a subsequent free flight, the captive-carry flight kept the X-43A-and-Pegasus combination attached to the B-52's wing pylon throughout the almost two-hour mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., over the Pacific Missile Test Range, and back to Dryden. The NASA X-43A hypersonic research vehicle and its Pegasus booster rocket, mounted beneath the wing of their B-52 mothership, had a successful first captive-carry flight on April 28, 2001, Basically a dress rehearsal for a subsequent free flight, the captive-carry flight kept the X-43A-and-Pegasus combination attached to the B-52's wing pylon throughout the almost two-hour mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., over the Pacific Missile Test Range, and back to Dryden. After taking off from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., at 12:33 p.m. PDT, the B-52 soared off the California coast on the predetermined flight path, and returned to Dryden for a 2:19 p.m. PDT landing. Pending thorough evaluation of all flight data, this captive-carry test could lead to the first flight of the X-43A 'stack' as early as mid-May. The first free flight will be air-launched by NASA's B-52 at about 24,000 feet altitude. The booster will accelerate the X-43A to Mach 7 to approximately 95,000 feet altitude. At booster burnout, the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power on a preprogrammed flight path. The hydrogen-fueled aircraft has a wingspan of approximately 5 feet, measures 12 feet long and weighs about 2,800 pounds.

  9. Lead contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, D J; Carter, I; Sainsbury, A W; Shore, R F; Eden, P; Taggart, M A; Konstantinos, S; Walker, L A; Meharg, A A; Raab, A

    2007-04-15

    Since 1989, a red kite Milvus milvus reintroduction programme has been underway in the United Kingdom, with 4-6 week old nestlings brought into captivity and held for 6-8 weeks before reintroduction. As scavengers, red kites may consume unretrieved game, and ingest shot or lead (Pb) fragments in their prey's flesh. We evaluated exposure to Pb in captive and wild red kites by taking blood samples from 125 captive young red kites prior to release, through analysing 264 pellets (regurgitated by wild birds) collected from under a roost site, and analysing Pb concentrations in livers and/or bones of 87 red kites found dead between 1995 and 2003. Lead isotope analyses of livers were also conducted in an effort to identify Pb exposure routes. Forty-six (36.8%) kites sampled prior to release had elevated blood Pb concentrations (201-3340 microg l(-1)). The source of this Pb was probably small fragments of lead ammunition in the carcasses of birds or mammals either fed to the nestlings by their parents or, more likely, subsequently whilst in captivity. Once released, kites were also exposed to lead shot in their food, and a minimum of 1.5-2.3% of regurgitated pellets contained Pb gunshot. Seven of 44 red kites found dead or that were captured sick and died within a few days had elevated (>6 mg kg(-1) dry weight [d.w.]) liver Pb concentrations, and six of these (14%) had concentrations of >15 mg kg(-1) d.w., compatible with fatal Pb poisoning. Post-mortem analyses indicated that two of these birds had died of other causes (poisoning by rodenticide and a banned agricultural pesticide); the remaining four (9%) probably died of Pb poisoning. Bone samples from 86 red kites showed a skewed distribution of Pb concentration, and 18 samples (21%) had Pb concentrations >20 mg kg(-1) d.w., indicating elevated exposure to Pb at some stage in the birds' life. Lead isotopic signatures (Pb (208/206); Pb (206/207)) in liver samples of the majority of kites were compatible with those found

  10. Lead contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989, a red kite Milvus milvus reintroduction programme has been underway in the United Kingdom, with 4-6 week old nestlings brought into captivity and held for 6-8 weeks before reintroduction. As scavengers, red kites may consume unretrieved game, and ingest shot or lead (Pb) fragments in their prey's flesh. We evaluated exposure to Pb in captive and wild red kites by taking blood samples from 125 captive young red kites prior to release, through analysing 264 pellets (regurgitated by wild birds) collected from under a roost site, and analysing Pb concentrations in livers and/or bones of 87 red kites found dead between 1995 and 2003. Lead isotope analyses of livers were also conducted in an effort to identify Pb exposure routes. Forty-six (36.8%) kites sampled prior to release had elevated blood Pb concentrations (201-3340 μg l-1). The source of this Pb was probably small fragments of lead ammunition in the carcasses of birds or mammals either fed to the nestlings by their parents or, more likely, subsequently whilst in captivity. Once released, kites were also exposed to lead shot in their food, and a minimum of 1.5-2.3% of regurgitated pellets contained Pb gunshot. Seven of 44 red kites found dead or that were captured sick and died within a few days had elevated (> 6 mg kg-1 dry weight [d.w.]) liver Pb concentrations, and six of these (14%) had concentrations of > 15 mg kg-1 d.w., compatible with fatal Pb poisoning. Post-mortem analyses indicated that two of these birds had died of other causes (poisoning by rodenticide and a banned agricultural pesticide); the remaining four (9%) probably died of Pb poisoning. Bone samples from 86 red kites showed a skewed distribution of Pb concentration, and 18 samples (21%) had Pb concentrations > 20 mg kg-1 d.w., indicating elevated exposure to Pb at some stage in the birds' life. Lead isotopic signatures (Pb 208/206; Pb 206/207) in liver samples of the majority of kites were compatible with those found in lead shot

  11. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangying YU; Zhigang JIANG; Hui ZHU; Chunwang LI; Enquan ZHANG; Jinguo ZHANG; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space,unchanging habitat,lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity,abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment,as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals,has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques,olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden.These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator,prey,and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards,we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans,feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigrisaltaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment,eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors,cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration,followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more play behavior in presence of nutmeg

  12. Characteristics of reproductive biology and proximate factors regulating seasonal breeding in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable. PMID:12910464

  13. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W D; Russell, J L; Schaeffer, J A; Gardner, M; Schapiro, S J

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level handedness was found for this task; however, significant sex differences in preference and performance were found, with males showing greater left handedness and poorer performance compared to females. We also found that the hand preferences of offspring were significantly positively correlated with the hand preferences of their mothers. Lastly, older females performed more slowly on the task compared to younger individuals. The overall results neither confirm nor reject previous hypotheses claiming that raising chimpanzees in captivity induces right-handedness, but rather suggest that other factors may account for differences in hand preferences for tool use seen in wild and captive chimpanzees. PMID:20221316

  14. A comparison of reproductive parameters of female Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the wild and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Guo, Yurong; Stott, Philip; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-01-01

    A healthy population of captive Amur tigers might assist recovery of the wild population in Northeast China if individuals were properly prepared and considered suitable for release in the wild. We analyzed the breeding records of 68 female Amur tigers from 1995 to 2010 in the Hengdaohezi Felid Breeding Center of China and compared the reproductive parameters of this population to wild female Amur tigers. We found that the reproductive parameters of the captive population (the age of first parturition, length of gestation and litter survival rate) were not significantly different from those of wild Amur tigers. Differences in birth date and litter size between wild and captive populations may be caused by management protocols for the captive population or insufficient field data from the wild population. Reproductive parameters of females giving birth after losing a litter were similar to parameters of females that did not lose a litter, except for birth date. These results provide no indication of major problems in using captive females for a breeding program for release of cubs into the wild, but additional information is still needed to assess their suitability. PMID:26663661

  15. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors. PMID:27278778

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  17. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  18. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  19. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, Stefanie B; Myburgh, Jan G; Cameron, Elissa Z; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of stress-inducing factors in captive crocodilians is a concern, since chronic stress can negatively affect animal health and reproduction, and hence production. Monitoring stress in wild crocodiles could also be beneficial for assessing the state of health in populations which are potentially threatened by environmental pollution. In both cases, a non-invasive approach to assess adrenocortical function as a measure of stress would be preferable, as animals are not disturbed during sample collection, and therefore sampling is feedback-free. So far, however, such a non-invasive method has not been established for any crocodilian species. As an initial step, we therefore examined the suitability of two enzyme-immunoassays, detecting faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) with a 11β,21-diol-20-one and 5β-3α-ol-11-one structure, respectively, for monitoring stress-related physiological responses in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was performed on 10 sub-adult crocodiles, resulting in an overall increase in serum corticosterone levels of 272% above the pre-injection levels 5h post-injection. Saline-treated control animals (n=8) showed an overall increase of 156% in serum corticosterone levels 5h post-administration. Faecal samples pre- and post-injection could be obtained from three of the six individually housed crocodiles, resulting in FGM concentrations 136-380% above pre-injection levels, always detected in the first sample collected post-treatment (7-15 days post-injection). FGM concentrations seem comparatively stable at ambient temperatures for up to 72 h post-defaecation. In conclusion, non-invasive hormone monitoring can be used for assessing adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles based on FGM analysis. PMID:25066028

  20. Applying SNP-Derived Molecular Coancestry Estimates to Captive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jamie A; Putnam, Andrea S; Navarro, Asako Y; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A

    2016-09-01

    Captive breeding programs for wildlife species typically rely on pedigrees to inform genetic management. Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs. We generated SNP data for a zoo-based population of addax (Addax nasomasculatus) using both the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and double digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing. Our results demonstrated that estimates of allele sharing (AS) between pairs of individuals exhibited low variances. Average AS variances were highest when using 50 loci (SNPchipall = 0.00159; ddRADall = 0.0249), but fell below 0.0003 for the SNP chip dataset when sampling ≥250 loci and below 0.0025 for the ddRAD dataset when sampling ≥500 loci. Furthermore, the correlation between the SNPchipall and ddRADall AS datasets was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.84-0.91) when subsampling 500 loci. Collectively, our results indicated that both SNP genotyping methods produced sufficient data for accurately estimating relationships, even within an extremely bottlenecked population. Our results also suggested that analytic assumptions historically integrated into the addax pedigree are not adversely impacting long-term pedigree-based management; kinships calculated from the analytic pedigree were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with AS estimates. Overall, our conclusions are intended to serve as both a proof of concept and a model for applying molecular data to the genetic management of captive breeding programs. PMID:27208150

  1. The influence of dietary tannin supplementation on digestive performance in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Behlert, O; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M

    2007-12-01

    Free-ranging browsers such as the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) consume a diet that contains tannins, whereas the diets offered to them in captivity consist mostly of items known to contain hardly any such secondary plant compounds. Tannins could have potentially beneficial effects, including the chelation of dietary iron (iron storage disease is a common problem in black rhinos). Here, we tested the acceptance, and the consequences on digestion variables, of a low-dose tannin supplementation in captive animals. Eight black rhinoceroses from three zoological institutions were used. Faecal output was quantified by total faecal collection. Diets fed were regular zoo diets supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins); overall tannin source intake increased at 5-15 g/kg dry matter (DM) in relation to regular zoo diets. Adaptation periods to the new diets were >2 months. Additional data were taken from one hitherto unpublished study. Data were compared to measurements in the same animals on their regular zoo diets. All animals accepted the new diets without hesitation. There was no influence of tannin supplementation on digestion coefficients of DM and its constituents, or faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids or lactate. Water intake did not increase during tannin supplementation. Should the inclusion of dietary tannin sources be an objective in the development of diets for captive rhinoceroses, moderate doses such as used in this study are unlikely to cause relevant depressions of digestive efficiency and will not interfere with bacterial fermentation in a relevant way. PMID:17988348

  2. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  3. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  4. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  5. Linking Inbreeding Effects in Captive Populations with Fitness in the Wild: Release of Replicated Drosophila melanogaster Lines under Different Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2008-01-01

    conditions and involve traits not easily measured under laboratory conditions. More generally, inbreeding effects measured in captive populations may not necessarily predict their field performance, and programs to purge captive populations of deleterious alleles may not necessarily lead to fitness benefits...

  6. Effects of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Levels in Seawater from Juvenile Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas kept in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chuen-Im

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a major cause of high mortality in juvenile sea turtles at the Sea Turtle Conservation Centre, Chonburi Province, Thailand.The attempt is to identify sources of bacterial accumulation and contamination in order to reduce the number of infections. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the effects of live rocks and captivity parameters on microbiological water quality. Microbiological results indicated that the presence of live rocks in juvenile green turtle containers resulted in a reduction of haemolytic bacteria in seawater. Additionally, thehigh stock density of animals in the captivity has influence on the increased bacterial levels in the water, while temperature of the water was found to have an influence on bacterial growth. The results of this study implied that the environments of captivity have great impact on thebacterial levels in the water, which should be considered for the management of sea turtles as well as other aquatic animals.

  7. Ichthyodinium identified in the eggs of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) spawned in captivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgaard, A.

    A presumed parasitic protozoan was found in the eggs of European eel obtained from an experiment on captive breeding of eel, Anguilla anguilla, based on silver eels from a freshwater lake in the northern part of Denmark. Gross morphology of the organism was comparable to that of early stages of...... genotypes: one occurring in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent coastal waters and one in the Pacific Ocean area. The inclusion of several GenBank-derived environmental gene sequences, from the Caribbean Sea, revealed to represent Ichthyodinium, suggesting that this parasite genus is ubiquitous in the World...

  8. Fiber digestibility in juvenile Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) and implications for the development of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, J M; M Clauss; Gisler, R; Liesegang, A.; Wanner, M

    2005-01-01

    Digestive strategies have been recognized to be a key factor for healthy growth in juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra). The aim of present study was to investigate digestive coefficients with special regard to fiber fractions. Four captive bred Galapagos giant tortoises 4-5 years of age were fed a controlled diet for 32 days. The diet consisted of 77% hay, 15% tortoise pellets, and 8% apples on a dry matter basis. On a dry matter basis diet analysis showed: 95.7% organic mat...

  9. Environmental enrichment for neotropical primates in captivity Enriquecimento ambiental para primatas neotropicais em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner Boere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Captivity is an extreme non-natural environment for primates. The success of a breeding colony depends of management and veterinarian procedures which must rely on the knowledge of primates' behavioral needs. Environmental enrichment consists of a series of procedures that improve the quality of life of captive animals by meeting their ethological needs. Enrichment can reduce stress, while increasing animal well being in captivity. Suitable ethical conditions, incidences of behavioral disorders, minimal clinical interventions, low mortality, higher reproduction rates and cost/benefit relationship, reflect directly on the quality of captive breeding colonies. Anthropoids like Neotropical primates possess complex neural structures and relate, in a sophisticated manner, to the environment. This review reports important experiences on enrichment procedures for Neotropical primates and the physiological events which could explain improvement of animal well-being.Cativeiro é um ambiente de extremos não naturais para primatas. O sucesso de uma criação de primatas depende do manejo e de procedimentos veterinários que devem considerar as necessidades etológicas dos animais cativos. Enriquecimento ambiental é um conjunto de técnicas que modificam o ambiente, resultando em uma melhora na qualidade de vida dos animais, ao satisfazer as suas necessidades comportamentais. O enriquecimento pode diminuir o estresse e melhorar o bem-estar. Primatas neotropicais se caracterizam por complexas estruturas neurais e se relacionam de maneira sofisticada com o ambiente. O enriquecimento ambiental pode aumentar a qualidade de uma criação ao adequar o manejo a padrões éticos aceitáveis, estimular o repertório normal do comportamento, diminuir a casuística clínica, diminuir a mortalidade, incrementar a taxa reprodutiva e maximizar a relação custo/benefício em uma criação. Esta revisão relata experiências relevantes nos procedimentos de

  10. [Life and death of captive eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) (1923-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillard, Violette

    2015-12-01

    The evolving channels through which zoos acquire animals is an important-albeit often ignored-part of the history of these institutions, allowing a better understanding of human-animal relationships. Following current developments in animal history, this essay focuses on animals themselves, their experience of capture, and of captivity. A micro-historical approach based on the case of Eastern gorillas'capture highlights human practices and policies, their effects on gorillas and the evolution towards a decrease of captures. PMID:26746645

  11. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  12. Captives of Sarracins. Girona Bishops’ Licenses for Begging (1376-1415

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Valenti, Eduard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows Pilar Pueyo’s article (1999 about the permits given in Zaragoza, and tries to examine the litterae accaptandi (permits to ask for charity and more specifically the permits to ask forcharity from the bishops of Girona in order to redeem the christian captives in muslim North Africa (Barbaria. From 9th to 19th centuries, the coast of Girona’s Bishopric (now Costa Brava was attacked by muslim berbers, which are recorded. This article tries to offer a better knowledge of these interestig notices until 15th century. We hope to continue this research sometime.

    No disponible

  13. Spontaneous proliferative lesions and tumors of the uterus of captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, Igor; Reavill, Drury R; Practice, Avian

    2004-06-01

    Fifteen captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), 3- to 5-yr-old, were diagnosed with proliferative uterine lesions (n = 28). Lesions were associated with vaginal bleeding in all cases, hematuria in 11 of 13 cases, and weight loss in 7 of 12 cases. Lesions were multiple in eight cases and single in seven cases. The lesions identified were 13 adenosarcomas, 7 endometrial stromal sarcomas, 6 endometrial polyps, 1 adenoleiomyosarcoma, and 1 adenoleiomyoma. In one animal with adenosarcoma, peritoneal seeding was detected at the time of hysterectomy. Mean survival time was 303 days (n = 10). Ovariohysterectomy allows prolonged survival of hedgehogs with uterine tumors. PMID:15305518

  14. Use of tiletamine and zolazepam to immobilize captive Iberian wolves (Canis lupus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Carles; Castroviejo, Javier

    1994-01-01

    A mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil) was used to immobilize 29 captive born Iberian wolves. Based on their excitability during handling procedures the animals were categorized as excited (n = 15) and unexcited (n = 14). We observed differences in the responses of these groups to the drugs. Although immobilized with higher doses (mean +/- SD of 6.94 +/- 2.13 versus 5.04 +/- 1.74 mg/kg for the unexcited) the excited individuals had an irregular and less predictable response, with fiv...

  15. Longitudinal Characterization of Escherichia coli in Healthy Captive Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Jonathan B.; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Trent, Ava M.; Murphy, Tami; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of non-human primates (NHPs) are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of human beings and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract as well as the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfa...

  16. Retrospective Serology Study of Respiratory Virus Infections in Captive Great Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Hester Buitendijk; Zahra Fagrouch; Henk Niphuis; Bogers, Willy M.; Warren, Kristin S.; Verschoor, Ernst J.

    2014-01-01

    Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera) were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus), H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV...

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  18. Quantitative assessment of pair formation behavior in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Small, C.R.; Ellis, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Instantaneous scan sampling for mean distance and synchronous action patterns and all-occurrence sampling for unison call, dance, strut, and hoover-up behaviors were conducted for five potential whooping crane pairs at Patuxent Environmental Science Center, Laurel. Maryland. Dance, strut, and hoover-up differed among pairs, as did total frequency of social behaviors. It was unclear whether or not total frequency of social behaviors during pair formation can be used as an index for potential breeding success. The relative importance of different action patterns should be used as indices of pair compatibility in captive whooping cranes.

  19. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G., Jr.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  20. Presumptive Acute Neural Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Red-Necked Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A red-necked male wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus from a German zoo was presented for acute onset of severe neurological signs, including head tremor, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and weakness. Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased LDH- and AST-levels, hyperproteinaemia, and reduced ALT-, ALP-, and creatinine-levels. The wallaby was found serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect haemagglutination test. After initiation of therapy by subcutaneous injections of trimethoprim/sulfadoxin, amelioration of neurological signs was noted and after 10 days the affected wallaby recovered. T. gondii can be confirmed rapidly by serology, and immediate therapy may reduce clinical illness and fatality of the disease within captive macropods.

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  2. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Brasil; Roberta Parentoni; Roberto Farias; Thiago Nery; Sílvio Vasconcellos; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the spec...

  3. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy; Fedullo José Daniel Luzes; Corrêa Sandra Helena Ramiro; Teixeira Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Coutinho Selene Dall' Acqua

    2006-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  4. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S

    2009-01-01

    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp. PMID:19204356

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  6. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Janse; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may feed the young in the first few days. The other eight animals started to feed after 4 to 9 days on a variety of food types. Birth size of the young increased with increasing age of the parents. Mati...

  7. Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Meir, Jessica U.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in norm...

  8. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  9. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    collected for each male was 1.8 mL and the sperm concentration was 13.99 spermatozoa/mL. Spermatocrit (41.5%) was positively associated (r2: 0.30) with sperm density calculated using a corpuscle counting chamber. Sperm motility was 88% and the average duration of forward motility was 41 s. Fertilization...... rate was 84% and there was no association between this trait and sperm motility (r2: 0.009) or with sperm density (r2: 0.073). These results suggest that captive B. siebenthalae broodstock can be reproduced successfully....

  10. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  11. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    House, Bailey R; Silk, Joan B; Lambeth, Susan P;

    2014-01-01

    and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing...... offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more "complex" experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more...

  12. Overall fluctuations and fat tails in an artificial financial market: The two-sided impact of leveraged trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Zhu, C. G.; An, K. N.; Huang, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen leveraged trading playing an increasingly important role in financial markets. However, the effect of leverage on the markets is still an open question. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate leveraged trading through both agent-based simulations and controlled human experiments on a one-stock artificial market. It shows that leverage increases the market risks, and at the same time decreases the outbreak probabilities of financial bubbles or crises. This work helps to understand the impact of leverage on financial markets appropriately.

  13. Comparison of the genetic diversity of wild and captive groups of Microcebus murinus using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, H; Hafen, T; Zimmermann, E; Rumpler, Y

    1998-01-01

    Continued survival of most animal species depends on population management and active protection. It is generally agreed that, in order to avoid extinction of endangered species, ex situ and in situ conservation must be developed in tandem. However, even though many recommendations have been put forward to promote the survival of captive populations, some rapidly become extinct due to loss of genetic diversity (drift effect). Genetic markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, can be applied to rapid testing of many individuals. They also permit analysis of very small amounts of DNA, when small species such as mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are to be tested. Using RAPD markers, we compare genetic diversity in four captive groups of Microcebus murinus to that in a sample of 70 wild mouse lemurs. Following the principles of Mendelian inheritance, each amplified fragment of DNA may be considered as a 'locus' (or an amplifying site). The series of bands amplified by a particular primer in any individual is referred to as the individual's 'profile'. We tested 5 primers, or, in the above terms, we studied 98 different 'loci'. Results showed that the captive groups had lost genetic information with respect to the wild sample. Among the four captive groups, the loss of genetic diversity varied according to their number of founders and/or the management of their captive reproduction. Our study of polymorphism permitted us to establish tools for the genetic management of captive breeding, and for the determination of paternity which frequently give better results than behavioural studies; and simulation of introductions or departures of individuals in one very monomorphic group permitted estimation of future increases in its genetic diversity. PMID:9595690

  14. Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2014-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting a more risk-averse strategy. In the great tit (Parus major), the shy-bold personality axis has been well characterized in captivity and linked to fitness. Here, we tested whether 'exploration behaviour', a captive assay of the shy-bold axis, can predict risk responsiveness during reproduction in wild great tits. Relatively slow-exploring (shy) females took longer than fast-exploring (bold) birds to resume incubation after a novel object, representing an unknown threat, was attached to their nest-box, with some shy individuals not returning within the 40 min trial period. Risk responsiveness was consistent within individuals over days. These findings provide rare, field-based experimental evidence that shy individuals prioritize survival over reproductive investment, supporting the hypothesis that personality reflects life-history variation through links with risk responsiveness. PMID:24829251

  15. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results. PMID:26884274

  16. Fatal Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Captive Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, V; van de Velde, N; Højer Kristensen, J; van Elk, C; Peters, M; Kilwinski, J; Schares, G; Siebert, U; Wohlsein, P

    2015-11-01

    A 7-year-old female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), born and held in captivity, suffered from reduced consciousness, imprecise and circling swimming movements and long phases of immobility over a period of 3 weeks. The animal died during treatment in a Danish open sea facility. Pathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous to necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglioneuritis, plexus chorioiditis, myocarditis, hepatitis and adrenalitis with few intralesional protozoal tachyzoites and bradyzoites within cysts. Immunohistochemistry was positive for Toxoplasma gondii antigen within the lesions. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of T. gondii-specific genome fragments was confirmed. A multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using nine unlinked marker regions (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) resulted in the identification of T. gondii type II (variant Apico Type I), which is the T. gondii genotype dominating in Germany. This is the first description of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis in a captive harbour porpoise that lived in an open sea basin. Surface water contaminated with toxoplasma oocysts is regarded as the most likely source of infection. PMID:26381675

  17. Deposition of growth layer groups in dentine tissue of captive common dolphins Delphinus delphis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Murphy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of age structure and longevity (maximum age are essential for modelling marine mammal population dynamics. Estimation of age in common dolphins (Delphinus spp. is primarily based on counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs in the dentine of thin, decalcified and stained sections of teeth. An annual incremental deposition rate was validated for Delphinus spp. 30-years ago through the use of tetracycline. However, it is not known if the pulp cavity becomes occluded in older individuals or GLGs continue to be deposited in dentine tissue. To investigate the deposition of GLGs in dentine tissue, teeth samples were obtained during the necropsies of two short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis that were held in captivity for 31 and 33 years in New Zealand. Individuals were captured together in Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand and classified as juveniles based on physical appearance. Teeth were processed in two ageing laboratories, using four different bone decalcifiers, two sectioning techniques incorporating the use of both a freezing microtome (-20°C and paraffin microtome, and two different stains. An age was estimated for one of the dolphins, in line with that proposed based on estimated age at capture and period in captivity. However, a hypomineralised area was observed in the dentine tissue close to the pulp cavity of the second individual, preventing estimation of maximum age. The presence and structure of this anomaly is explored further within the study. 

  18. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered. PMID:27135378

  19. Physiological and behavioral responses to routine procedures in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Galvão, Ana Cecília; Ferreira, Renata Gonçalves; de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2016-07-01

    The effect of routine captive procedures on the welfare of species used as experimental models in biomedical research is of great interest, since stress may alter the generalization and interpretation of results. This study investigated behavioral and endocrine (fecal cortisol) reactivity patterns in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) adult males (N = 10) and females (N = 9) subjected to three types of routine procedures in captivity: (1) moving to a same-sized cage (P1), to a smaller cage (P2), and (2) first-time pair formation (P3). Sexually dimorphic cortisol responses were detected in animals submitted to a physical environmental stressor (cage change). Females showed an increased response throughout P1, in relation to baseline (BP) cortisol, and a trend during P2. Males increased cortisol only during P2. On the other hand, males and females showed a similar endocrine response when management involved social challenge (pair formation), with both sexes increasing cortisol levels, but females exhibited a more intense and longer-lasting cortisol increase. Males and females exhibited similar behavioral responses to cage change, except for autogrooming, with males decreasing this behavior in P1. Only females demonstrated a significantly higher increase in piloerection frequency than that of males during the pair formation phase. These endocrine and behavioral changes must be taken into account when interpreting research data that involve these types of procedures. Further studies on the impacts of routine colony management are required to devise and include protocols in official husbandry guidelines. PMID:26946459

  20. The effects of automated scatter feeders on captive grizzly bear activity budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nathan L P; Ha, James C

    2014-01-01

    Although captive bears are popular zoo attractions, they are known to exhibit high levels of repetitive behaviors (RBs). These behaviors have also made them particularly popular subjects for welfare research. To date, most research on ursid welfare has focused on various feeding methods that seek to increase time spent searching for, extracting, or consuming food. Prior research indicates an average of a 50% reduction in RBs when attempts are successful and, roughly, a 50% success rate across studies. This research focused on decreasing time spent in an RB while increasing the time spent active by increasing time spent searching for, extracting, and consuming food. The utility of timed, automated scatter feeders was examined for use with captive grizzly bears (Ursis arctos horribilis). Findings include a significant decrease in time spent in RB and a significant increase in time spent active while the feeders were in use. Further, the bears exhibited a wider range of behaviors and a greater use of their enclosure. PMID:24467390

  1. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF CAPTIVE AND FREE-LIVING LEMURS AND DOMESTIC CARNIVORES IN EASTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Poirotte, Clémence; Porton, Ingrid J; Freeman, Karen L M; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa; Olson, Kimberly G; Iambana, Bernard; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Fecal samples from captive and free-living lemurs at Ivoloina Zoological Park (IZP) and domestic carnivores from six villages surrounding IZP were evaluated between July and August 2012. Free-living lemurs from Betampona Natural Reserve (BNR), a relatively pristine rainforest fragment 40 km away, were also evaluated in November 2013. All 33 dogs sampled (100%) and 16 of 22 cats sampled (72.7%) were parasitized, predominantly with nematodes (strongyles, ascarids, and spirurids) as well as cestodes and protozoans. Similar types of parasites were identified in the lemur populations. Identification of spirurid nematodes and protozoans in the lemur fecal samples were of concern due to previously documented morbidity and mortality in lemurs from these parasitic agents. Twelve of 13 free-living (93%) and 31 of 49 captive (63%) lemurs sampled at IZP had a higher parasite prevalence than lemurs at BNR, with 13 of 24 (54%) being parasitized. The lemurs in BNR are likely at risk of increased exposure to these parasites and, therefore, increased morbidity and mortality, as humans and their domestic animals are encroaching on this natural area. PMID:27010275

  2. Effects of classical music as part of environmental enrichment in captive Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the cues it offers the animals housed within. In a bid to remedy this, and promote better welfare, mice (Mus musculus were exposed to two conditions: no auditory stimulation, and stimulation with classical music. In all experiments, a battery of behavior tests was used. The results demonstrated significantly decreased immobility in the forced swim, increased enclosed arm entries in the plus-maze, and decreased immobility in the open-field, in animals that had been pre-exposed to music 24h earlier, suggesting that changes in mouse motor activity were caused by classical music. This study led to the conclusion that environmental enrichment may have profound effects on the behavior of mice in behavioral tests, and that classical music can be a relatively simple method of contributing to the well-being of captive mice, but it can affect the results of experiments such as forced swimming.

  3. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA. Highlights: •The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, followed by PFOS and PFDA in all alligator samples. •Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males. •The concentrations of the five PFCAs showed significant negative correlation to age. -- Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators

  4. Reproduction and embryogenesis of the mandi-amarelo catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Pimelodidae), in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, F P; Borçato, F L; Sato, Y; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2013-02-01

    To study reproduction and embryogenesis, Pimelodus maculatus specimens were kept in captivity and captured bimonthly during 1 year. Gonads samples (211 specimens) were collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Pimelodus maculatus prepared to reproduce when water temperature was high, and even reached advanced maturation but did not spawn in captivity. Spent fish gonads were not documented, and atretic follicles were frequent (60%) in late maturation females. When then submitted to hypophysation, 70% of the females responded positively to hormonal treatment. Oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after a second hormonal injection at 26°C. The fertilisation rate was 65.1 ± 9.2% at 24°C. Recently spawned oocytes of P. maculatus were spherical, non-adhesive, yellow in colour, with an average diameter of 1113.92 ± 37.02 μm and covered by a thick gelatinous layer. Blastopore closure occurred 7 h and 30 min after fertilisation. Embryonic development was completed within 18 h after fertilisation. The results of this work provide important knowledge for the handling and cultivation of not only P. maculatus, but other species of potential value for fish culture. PMID:22612443

  5. Immobilization of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) with a combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, and detomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricchiuta, P; De Monte, V; Campolo, M; Grano, F; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the administration of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam and detomidine (TZD) in 9 tigers (Panthera tigris). Nine captive tigers were immobilized with tiletamine-zolazepam and detomidine administered intramuscularly. At the end of the procedure immobilization was partially reversed with atipamezole. Lateral recumbency was achieved in 15.6 ± 5.9 min. The median induction score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 1. The immobilization score [scored 1 (poor) to 6 (too deep)] was 5 (4-5) at all study times. After atipamezole administration, all tigers experienced severe ataxia and incoordination. Median recovery score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 2.5 (range 2-3). No neurologic and/or important adverse reactions were noticed within 5 days after recovery. The combination tiletamine-zolazepam with detomidine proved to be effective in immobilizing captive healthy tigers but it maybe associated with hypertension and ataxia during recovery. Zoo Biol. 34:40-45, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25136814

  6. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  7. Food consumption and retention time in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Gee, G.F.; Slack, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Food consumption, digesta retention time, and food preference were measured for captive whooping cranes fed pelleted diets. The basal commercial diet was compared to four mixtures containing 70% basal and 30% of one of four important winter foods for the whooping crane: blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn), live oak acorn (Quercus virginiana), or common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata). Because captive birds would not eat whole foods, we were prevented from direct food preference tests. Food passed through the gut rapidly, with almost complete elimination within 7 hr. There was some indication that retention time was shorter for the low fiber and high ash and calcium clam diet. Cranes ate less wolfberry feed (g/day) than the other feeds, and all birds ate less wolfberry feed on the day it was first fed, compared to basal diet the previous day. Birds ate more low energy feed than high energy feed. Due to combined effects of low energy content, lower metabolizable energy coefficients, and reduced feed consumption, less energy was assimilated for study diets than basal diet. Apparent shorter retention times for some diets con-taming whooping crane foods may partly explain lower digestibilities and metabolizable energy of winter whooping crane foods compared to commercial crane diet.

  8. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One zero sampling method was used to observe daily activity with interval every 15 minutes which was divided in two periods (06.00-11.45 pm and 00.15-06.00 am. Result of behaviour observation showed that feeding activity (13.65%, drinking activity (0.58%, urination activity (4.71% and defecation activity (5.93%. Other activities are locomotion, grooming, and resting activities 42.59%; 23.54%; and 9.01%. Male and female sugar gliders different in their feeding activities and locomotion.

  9. Survival of captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots released in the Caribbean National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H., Jr.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual reintroduction of a second wild population elsewhere on the island. After extensive prerelease training, we released 10 parrots in 2000, 16 parrots in 2001, and eight parrots in 2002 ranging in age from 1-4 years old. All birds were equipped with radio-transmitters to monitor survival. The overall first-year survival estimate for the 34 parrots was 41% (CI = 22%-61%). Only one parrot died within the first week postrelease, with most (94%) surviving for at least eight weeks after release. Most (54%) documented mortalities were due to raptor predation, which claimed 21% of all released parrots. A captive-reared bird (male, age one), released in 2001, paired with a wild female and fledged two young in 2004. We also calculated survival based on 0% and 50% of observed predation losses and found hypothetical survival rates of 72% and 54%, respectively. Rigorous prerelease training and acclimation was believed to have improved initial postrelease parrot survival, and releasing mixed age-class groups suggests the potential for shortening the time to recruitment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  10. Anticipatory behavior in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ann-Louise M; Delfour, Fabienne; Carter, Toby

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a group of captive dolphins displayed anticipatory behaviors before shows. In general, anticipation occurs when an event is being predicted. Anticipatory behavior is defined by Spruijt et al. as "responses elicited by rewarding stimuli that lead to and facilitate consummatory behavior (Spruijt et al., 2001, Appl Anim Behav Sci 72: 145-171)." Using behavioral recording techniques, the behaviors, breathing rates, space use, and activity levels of all dolphins was recorded both before and after shows. Analysis compared pre- and post-show data in addition to looking at gradual changes in behavior prior to show sessions. Significant changes were found in the behavior and space use prior to sessions with the dolphins decreasing their activity levels, spending more time at the surface and moving towards the starting point of a session before it took place. There was a significant increase in the vigilant behavior before sessions, indicating that the dolphins were becoming more alert towards their trainers and other activities around the pool. This result mirrors previous research with other captive species; as feeding time was approaching, the animals seemed to "wait" and look for the handlers. Any behavioral change that may be regarded as anticipatory behavior was not evidently abnormal or stereotypic in nature, and breathing rates remained stable indicating that the animals do not perceive the shows as stressful or as an aversive experience. Additionally, behavior and level of activity remained stable following the sessions. PMID:23633033

  11. Influence of dominance status on adrenal activity and ovarian cyclicity status in captive African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Christine M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    The North American African (Loxodonta africana) elephant population is not self-sustaining, in part because of a high rate of abnormal ovarian activity. About 12% of adult females exhibit irregular cycles and 31% do not cycle at all. Our earlier work revealed a relationship between dominance status and ovarian acyclicity, with dominant females being more likely to not cycle normally. One theory is that dominant females may be expending more energy to maintaining peace within the captive herd than for supporting reproduction. The goal of this study was to determine if there was a relationship among dominance status, serum cortisol concentrations, and ovarian acyclicity. We hypothesized that adrenal glucocorticoid activity would be increased in dominant, noncycling elephants as compared with subdominant individuals. Blood samples were collected weekly over a 2-year period in 81 females of known dominance and cyclicity status, and analyzed for cortisol. Based on a path analysis model (Reticular Action Model Or Near Approximation [RAMONA]), noncycling, dominant African elephant females did not have higher mean serum cortisol concentrations, or exhibit more variability (i.e., coefficient of variation, standard deviation) in cortisol secretion. This study suggests that alterations in adrenal activity are not related to dominance status nor contribute directly to acyclicity in captive African elephants. PMID:20033989

  12. Dental abnormalities in eight captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Lin, W; Huang, S; Zhang, C; Pu, T; Ma, W; Lin, D

    2012-05-01

    Dental data from eight adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (four females and four males) were collected at the Beijing Zoo from February 2009 to July 2010. Examination findings were recorded in dental charts. All the pandas had different degrees of tooth wear. Incisors, canines and second premolars had the most abnormalities. Five animals had caries; molars were the most affected. Chip fractures were found in seven teeth (incisor, canine and premolar) of five pandas; two had complicated fractures of their canines. Premolars and other teeth were missing in three pandas. Different degrees of dental plaque and calculus were found in all animals. Two pandas had mild gingivitis; the depth of periodontal pockets in all pandas was normal (0-2 mm). Five pandas had abnormal tooth mobility. Samples of dental plaque were collected for microbial culture. Two hundred and fifty-three bacterial strains belonging to 48 species of 23 genera were isolated. Streptococcus, Moraxella, Peptostreptococcus and Porphyromonas were the dominant genera. Further research with larger sample sizes of free-ranging and captive giant pandas will be required in order to demonstrate the absence of the premolar tooth, tooth fractures and the relatively low prevalence of periodontal disease in captive giant pandas. PMID:21906751

  13. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Carvan, Michael J.; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.

    2012-01-01

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ199Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  15. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  16. Fatal anemia and dermatitis in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) infested with Echidnophaga fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi-Stefanoni, Karina; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Parás, Alberto; Garner, Michael M

    2008-08-17

    Two captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) died of anemia with centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis (2/2), severe flea ectoparasitism (2/2), and cardiomegaly attributed to anemia (1/2). Other agoutis were similarly parasitized and one had anemia. Fleas were manually removed and all agoutis treated topically with propoxur and selamectin and moved to another enclosure. No additional cases of fatal anemia were seen. Cutaneous lesions suggestive of hypersensitivity were observed in three additional agoutis with dorsal alopecia (3/3), a penetrating wound associated with pruritus and self-mutilation in the flank (2/3), flea ectoparasitism at the time of morphologic diagnosis (1/3), and hyperplastic perivascular dermatitis (3/3). One of these died of bacterial infection of the wound. Similar but milder skin disease was seen in 3 out of over 30 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) housed in the same exhibit. Fleas collected from all the fatal agouti cases and maras were classified in the genus Echidnophaga based on the angular front margin of head, contracted thorax, absence of genal and pronotal combs, and the fact that fleas did not jump. These findings suggest that flea ectoparasitism may be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in captive rodents. PMID:18556127

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the maintenance water of Antillean manatees (Trichechusmanatus in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Kury Nobre Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the water consumption and supply of pools used by Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus in captivity. Six samples were collected from the pool's supply system (at the beach, water used for manatee consumption, mineral water used in the preparation of artificial milk formulas offered to orphan manatee calves, also used in permanent maintenance pools in the visitation area, and water utilized in the rehabilitation area, where calves of all ages were kept. Before the water samples were processed, each sample was submitted to a filtration process. The diagnosis of the parasite was obtained by Kinyoun technique and the positive samples were submitted to the Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 66.67% (4/6 of the samples from the water supply system and pool, with eight to 56 oocysts per liter. There was evidence that the water used in the maintenance of the Antillean manatees could be an important medium for hydric transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and that it may be a predisposing factor to the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in Antillean manatees in captivity.

  18. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  19. Noise trauma induced by a mousetrap--sound pressure level measurement of vole captive bolt devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Napp, Matthias; Lange, Joern; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Beule, Achim G

    2010-05-01

    While ballistic parameters of vole captive bolt devices have been reported, there is no investigation on their hazardous potential to cause noise trauma. The aim of this experimental study was to measure the sound pressure levels of vole captive bolt devices. Two different shooting devices were examined with a modular precision sound level meter on an outdoor firing range. Measurements were taken in a semi-circular configuration with measuring points 0 degrees in front of the muzzle, 90 degrees at right angle of the muzzle, and 180 degrees behind the shooting device. Distances between muzzle and microphone were 0.5, 1, 2, 10, and 20 m. Sound pressure levels exceeded 130 dB(C) at any measuring point within the 20-m area. Highest measurements (more than 172 dB[C]) were taken in the 0 degrees direction at the 0.5-m distance for both shooting devices proving the hazardous potential of these gadgets to cause noise trauma. PMID:20345785

  20. Personality and subjective well-being in captive male western lowland gorillas living in bachelor groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sarah A; Steklis, H Dieter

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the personality structure of eight male gorillas (five silverbacks and three blackbacks) housed at the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas and to determine if personality predicts behavior and subjective well-being in male gorillas living in bachelor groups. We used the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire which contains 54 descriptive adjectives with representative items from the human five-factor model. Rates of 12 behaviors that are broadly defined as agonistic or affiliative were independently recorded and calculated. Principal components analysis yielded three reliable personality factors: Dominance, Extraversion/Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These results are the first potential quantitative evidence for a Conscientiousness factor in a hominoid other than chimpanzees and humans. This suggests that Conscientiousness originated with the common ancestor of male gorillas and humans around 10 million years ago. These results indicate that humans can reliably assess the personality and subjective well-being of captive male gorillas living in bachelor groups with robust levels of inter-rater reliability and validity. Furthermore, personality can accurately predict behavior (r = 0.79; n = 13) and subjective well-being (r = 0.83; n = 5) in gorillas and provide convergent and discriminant validity for the personality factors. The results advocate for the use of personality questionnaires in the captive management of bachelor gorillas over long-term multi-institutional behavioral studies. PMID:24677279

  1. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  2. Life span, reproductive output, and reproductive opportunity in captive Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Kara; Warneke, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of long-term field studies, demographic and reproductive records from animals housed in zoos and research laboratories are a valuable tool for the study of life history variables relating to reproduction. In this study, we analyzed studbook records of more than 2,000 individuals born over a 40-year period (1965-2004) to describe life history patterns of captive Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) housed in North America and Europe. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis methods, we found the mean life span to be 5.5 years. The rate of infant mortality, defined as death before 30 days, was approximately 30%, with European animals being more likely to survive infancy than North American animals. When individuals surviving at least 1.5 years are considered, lifetime reproductive output averaged 3.5 offspring, yet more than one-third of individuals did not produce any offspring. Using a smaller dataset of individuals with known pairing histories, we developed a measure of opportunity for reproduction (OFR), which represented the total time an individual was known to be housed with a potential mate. For both sexes, we found that the correlation between OFR and number of offspring produced was much higher than the correlation between life span and number of offspring produced. This result highlights the importance of taking into account an individual's OFR. As a whole, our findings help characterize the life histories of captive Goeldi's monkeys and emphasize the impact management practices may have on reproductive success. PMID:20131357

  3. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted. PMID:26403953

  4. Seasonal rhythms of salivary cortisol secretion in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menargues Marcilla, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Rubén

    2012-04-01

    Salivary cortisol has been recently used to assess welfare of captive and free-ranging animals. However, rhythms of cortisol secretion may vary annually and thus, it is necessary to take into account these rhythms when evaluating the physiological significance of fluctuations of this hormone throughout the year as stress indicator in animals. Here, we analyze monthly differences in cortisol secretion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during a year. Saliva samples of eight adult female Asian elephants were collected and analyzed using Radioimmunoassay. Results revealed an overall seasonal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion and significant differences in cortisol concentration among months were found. Overall, the highest cortisol levels were recorded in October, and then decreased until reaching the lowest concentration in April. However, some individual variations were found respect this annual overall trend. The occurrence of this annual pattern of cortisol secretion should be taken into account when using cortisol as a tool to assess animal welfare in captive animal at zoological parks, as well as it opens new questions to further analyze this pattern and its variations, as well as the endogenous mechanisms controlling it. PMID:22366473

  5. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons. PMID:22779245

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  7. Lead contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, D.J. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: debbie.pain@rspb.org.uk; Carter, I. [Natural England, Northminster House, Peterborough, PE1 1UA (United Kingdom); Sainsbury, A.W. [Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Eden, P. [Veterinary Department, Perth Zoo, 20 Labouchere Rd, South Perth, Western Australia, 6151 Australia (Australia); Conservation Medicine Program, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150 (Australia); Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Konstantinos, S. [School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Raab, A. [School of Physical Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Since 1989, a red kite Milvus milvus reintroduction programme has been underway in the United Kingdom, with 4-6 week old nestlings brought into captivity and held for 6-8 weeks before reintroduction. As scavengers, red kites may consume unretrieved game, and ingest shot or lead (Pb) fragments in their prey's flesh. We evaluated exposure to Pb in captive and wild red kites by taking blood samples from 125 captive young red kites prior to release, through analysing 264 pellets (regurgitated by wild birds) collected from under a roost site, and analysing Pb concentrations in livers and/or bones of 87 red kites found dead between 1995 and 2003. Lead isotope analyses of livers were also conducted in an effort to identify Pb exposure routes. Forty-six (36.8%) kites sampled prior to release had elevated blood Pb concentrations (201-3340 {mu}g l{sup -1}). The source of this Pb was probably small fragments of lead ammunition in the carcasses of birds or mammals either fed to the nestlings by their parents or, more likely, subsequently whilst in captivity. Once released, kites were also exposed to lead shot in their food, and a minimum of 1.5-2.3% of regurgitated pellets contained Pb gunshot. Seven of 44 red kites found dead or that were captured sick and died within a few days had elevated (> 6 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight [d.w.]) liver Pb concentrations, and six of these (14%) had concentrations of > 15 mg kg{sup -1} d.w., compatible with fatal Pb poisoning. Post-mortem analyses indicated that two of these birds had died of other causes (poisoning by rodenticide and a banned agricultural pesticide); the remaining four (9%) probably died of Pb poisoning. Bone samples from 86 red kites showed a skewed distribution of Pb concentration, and 18 samples (21%) had Pb concentrations > 20 mg kg{sup -1} d.w., indicating elevated exposure to Pb at some stage in the birds' life. Lead isotopic signatures (Pb {sup 208/206}; Pb {sup 206/207}) in liver samples of the majority of

  8. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.A.; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E.; Clauss, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a si

  9. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable, li

  10. Fecal Bacterial Composition of the Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoises Living Under Captive and Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoling; Ruan, Rui; McLaughlin, Richard William; Hao, Yujiang; Zheng, Jinsong; Wang, Ding

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal microbiota is essential to the health and physiology of host animals. We undertook the first microbiological study of the fecal bacterial composition from critically endangered (CR) Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis; YFPs) living under captive and semi-natural conditions using both high-throughput sequencing method and 16S rRNA gene clone library method. As determined by high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, semi-natural samples harbored 30 and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which was more than the 22 and 27 OTUs detected from YFPs living in captivity. In captive YFPs Firmicutes was the predominant phylum, whereas this was Proteobacteria for YFPs living in semi-nature conditions. This suggests habitat-specific fecal bacterial composition of YFPs. Plesiomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were identified in all the feces. Bacterial diversity from one porpoise living in captivity was also determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library and only 1 phylum was identified. High-throughput sequencing was more effective at determining the bacterial diversity compared to the 16S rRNA gene clone library. This study provides important information for the management and conservation of the CR YFPs. PMID:26620537

  11. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  12. 76 FR 52297 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; U.S. Captive-Bred Inter-Subspecific Crossed or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Welfare Act to possess big cats (typically zoos, circuses, and researchers) or registered to transport big... the Captive-bred Wildlife (CBW) regulations (44 FR 54002, September 17, 1979) to reduce Federal... provided zoological institutions and breeding operations the ability to quickly move animals...

  13. 77 FR 9884 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Publishing Notice of Receipt of Captive-Bred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Service published the Captive-Bred Wildlife (CBW) regulations at 50 CFR 17.21(g) (44 FR 54002, September... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; final rule (73 FR 61292; October 15, 2008). No... Governments'' (59 FR 22951; May 4, 1994) and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated possible effects on...

  14. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

  15. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. 50.4 Section 50.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE...

  16. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Michaels

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas. We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research.

  17. Hematological markers and biochemical profiles in terms of gender and age of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, E M; Silva, C J O; Ritter, R A; Monteiro, M V B; Albuquerque, N I; Kahwage, P R; Monteiro, F O B; Costa, C T C; Rahal, S C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    Complete blood counts and blood biochemical analyses are laboratory tests that allow the monitoring of physiological condition, nutrition, and health in free-living or captive wild animals. When interpreting these tests, it is essential to compare the results with reference ranges that are suitable for the species. Few studies have been conducted on the hematological and biochemical characteristics of Tayassu tajacu, particularly for animals raised in the Amazon biome. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the hematological and biochemical profiles of captive T. tajacu, and to establish reference intervals for these parameters. Complete blood counts and biochemical analyses were performed using manual methods and semi-automatic equipment, respectively. There were significant differences in relation to age in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and mean cell volumes, in captive T. tajacu. No basophils were observed, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was less than 1. Levels of total protein, urea, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly affected by age (P < 0.05). Gender did not affect any of the results. The hematological and biochemical parameters for this species were determined, and may be used as reference ranges for captive T. tajacu. PMID:26634461

  18. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. PMID:25100693

  19. West Nile virus and hemoparasites in captive snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) — management strategies to optimize survival

    OpenAIRE

    Harasym, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2005, 2 members of a group of 6 captive snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) in central Saskatchewan died of West Nile virus infection. One of these owls and 3 of the remaining owls had significant numbers of circulating hemoparasites. Management strategies are suggested to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  20. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus with the use of environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reisfeld

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use environmental enrichment techniques to reduce pododermatitis in a group of captive penguins. Five captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus that were showing bumblefoot lesions were followed during this project. To monitor the lesions, all animals were physically restraint 3 times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Environmental enrichment was introduced daily in the water with the goal of enhancing their time in the water for one extra hour daily. The results demonstrate that in a twelve weeks period, four animals showed significant reduction of the lesions in both feet and in two animals the lesions were completely healed. With these results we can conclude that aquatic environmental enrichment allowed this group of penguins to spend more time in the water, favoring the reduction of the bumblefoot lesions.