WorldWideScience

Sample records for capsules

  1. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2013-01-01

    of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy....

  2. Capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. The advent of CE in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases of the small intestine, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, polyposis syndromes, etc. CE has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of most diseases of the small bowel. Lately this technique has also been used for esophageal and colonic diseases.

  3. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  4. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  5. Esophageal capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Raul Armendariz; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is now considered as the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Esophageal capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected esophageal disorders is feasible and safe,and could be also an alternative procedure in those patients refusing upper endoscopy.Although large-scale studies are needed to confirm its utility in GERD and cirrhotic patients,current results are encouraging and open a new era in esophageal examination.

  6. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neviaser, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive cri...

  7. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  8. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  9. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Mata; J Llach; JM Bordas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new technique that allows complete exploration of the small bowel without external wires. Its role has been analyzed in many small bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease and gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes with promising results. Studies on other pathologies (I.e. Small bowel tumour, celiac disease) are under evaluation to define the role of this technique.

  10. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  11. Capsule-train stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  12. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient- friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease.

  13. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  14. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  15. Wireless capsule endo bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratz DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 67 year-old man presents 10 days after swallowing a capsule endoscopy camera that was never retrieved. The wireless capsule was swallowed asymptomatically for evaluation of heme positive stools after negative upper and lower endoscopies. Patient noted that the evening after swallowing the camera he developed mild shortness of breath and cough. The cough and shortness of breath were persistent and worsened while lying down and when moving positions. He denied prior issues with swallowing or aspiration. Review of Systems Negative other than what is noted above. PMH, SH, and FH Past medical history: coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, hyperlipidemia Surgical history: femoral-popliteal bypass, previous shoulder and back surgery Social history: 1 pack/day of cigarettes for 50 years, prior alcohol usage but not current, no illicit drugs Family history: no pulmonary diseases Physical Exam Vital signs: temperature 36.7º C, heart rate 86 beats per minute ...

  16. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. PMID:26299419

  17. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue ther...

  18. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  19. Pneumatic capsule pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Partyka, J.; Rudd, L. [Laurentian Univ., School of Engineering, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    With the rising cost of transporting ores and concentrates, alternatives to the traditional means of transportation by rail, trucks and hoists are being actively sought, as a means of reducing operating costs. Pneumatic encapsulated pipeline (PCP) transportation of raw, processed, or waste materials is being looked upon as a potentially viable alternative for material handling in the mining industry. There are several operating PCP systems in Europe and in Japan, although there are as yet no similar applications in North America. To evaluate the viability of pneumatic capsule pipeline systems, a 600 mm diameter, 70 m long pilot PCP plant, made of rigid fibreglass, was constructed at Laurentian University and several tests have already been conducted. It was found that any bulk material can be transported by PCP safely, with relatively small amounts of power, over long distances, and at a significantly reduced cost, while maintaining complete control. Both underground as well as surface applications appear to be viable. This paper concentrates on the results of experiments designed to test the energy requirements of a PCP system. Future studies should focus on exploring and improving the ability of PCP systems to transport vertically which would be a great advantage to hauling ore from underground mines to the surface. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  20. Optimisation of a Horizontal Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Cylindrical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Kollar, Laszlo; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    Pipelines carrying fluids and slurries are quite common. The third-generation pipelines carrying spherical or cylindrical capsules (hollow containers) filled with minerals or other materials including hazardous liquids are rather a new concept. These pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline results in minimum pressure drop in the pipeline. This corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. This study uses a rigorous approach to predict pumping cost based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and hence optimize the design of the capsule transporting pipelines. Pressure drop relationship developed has been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. Based on the least-cost principle, a methodology has been developed for the determination of the optimal diameter of cylindrical capsule carrying hydraulic pipeline. This procedure can be applied to obtain the optimal size of the capsule pipeline for minimum pumping and capital costs.

  1. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  4. Capsule endoscopy in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) for the investigation of the small bowel is an approved technique both in adults and children (more than 10 years old). The present review provides data on the indications, diagnostic yield, adverse events and limitations of the WCE technique in children and tries to predict the future of WCE usage in this population of patients.

  5. Family love time capsule preview

    CERN Document Server

    Musgrave, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Create your own family time capsule online using EMRE Publishing's ePub3 Creator Studio. With our storage plans, your family videos, music playlists and mysteries can be preserved for coming generations to add to, embellish, and communicate using our Family Forum inside the Embellisher eReader for multimedia ""enhanced"" eBooks. Just like the ""American Sniper"" enhanced eBook, you can pay tribute to your fallen heroes and other family members who have distinguished themselves in life.

  6. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  7. Regulation of capsule in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Thomas, Jennifer; Stephens, David S

    2016-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a devastating pathogen exclusive to humans, expresses capsular polysaccharides that are the major meningococcal virulence determinants and the basis for successful meningococcal vaccines. With rare exceptions, the expression of capsule (serogroups A, B, C, W, X, Y) is required for systemic invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in capsule expression or structure (e.g. hypo- or hyper-encapsulation, capsule "switching", acetylation) can influence immunologic diagnostic assays or lead to immune escape. The loss or down-regulation of capsule is also critical in meningococcal biology facilitating meningococcal attachment, microcolony formation and the carriage state at human mucosal surfaces. Encapsulated meningococci contain a cps locus with promoters located in an intergenic region between the biosynthesis and the conserved capsule transport operons. The cps intergenic region is transcriptionally regulated (and thus the amount of capsule expressed) by IS element insertion, by a two-component system, MisR/MisS and through sequence changes that result in post-transcriptional RNA thermoregulation. Reversible on-off phase variation of capsule expression is controlled by slipped strand mispairing of homo-polymeric tracts and by precise insertion and excision of IS elements (e.g. IS1301) in the biosynthesis operon. Capsule structure can be altered by phase-variable expression of capsular polymer modification enzymes or "switched" through transformation and homologous recombination of different polymerases. Understanding the complex regulation of meningococcal capsule has important implications for meningococcal biology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current and future vaccine development and vaccine strategies. PMID:26089023

  8. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  9. How helpful is capsule endoscopy to surgeons?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Ersoy; Bulent Sivri; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a new technology that, for the first time, allows complete, non-invasive endoscopic imaging of the small bowel. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of suspected small bowel diseases has been established. Important applications for surgeons include observations of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel neoplasms.

  10. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  11. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics

  12. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  13. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  14. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:1307994

  15. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  16. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  17. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  18. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the...

  19. Capsule Retentions and Incomplete Capsule Endoscopy Examinations: An Analysis of 2300 Examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte M. Höög; Lars-Åke Bark; Juan Arkani; Jacob Gorsetman; Olle Broström; Urban Sjöqvist

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate capsule endoscopy in terms of incomplete examinations and capsule retentions and to find risk factors for these events. Material and Methods. This retrospective and consecutive study includes data from 2300 capsule enteroscopy examinations, performed at four different hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden from 2003 to 2009. Results. The frequency of incomplete examinations was 20%. Older age, male gender, suspected, and known Crohn's disease were risk factors for an incomplete exami...

  20. Therapeutic Capsule Endoscopy: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for non-invasive (or less-invasive monitoring and treatment of medical conditions has attracted both physicians and engineers to work together and investigate new methodologies. Wireless capsule endoscopy is a successful example of such techniques which has become an accepted routine for diagnostic inspection of the gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a non-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy and provides the opportunity for exploring distal areas of the small intestine which are otherwise not accessible. Despite these advantages, wireless capsule endoscopy is still limited in functionality compared to traditional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopes with advanced functionalities, such as biopsy or drug delivery, are highly desirable. In this article, the current status of wireless capsule endoscopy is reviewed together with some of its possible therapeutic applications as well as the existing challenges.

  1. Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is ...

  2. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  3. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Pennazio; Emanuele Rondonotti; Roberto de Franchis

    2008-01-01

    Until recently,diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques.An array of new methods has recently been developed,increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage.Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ,since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized.Highquality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and fiat lesions recognized,without exposure to radiation.Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range,1.6%-2.4%)and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant;many were unsuspected and not found by other methods.However,it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance.Despite its limitations,CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management.Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms,ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings,remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  4. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  5. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  6. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  7. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  8. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  9. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  10. Capsule endoscopy: Current status in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Gupta; Nageshwar Duvvuru Reddy

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a safe, non invasive diagnostic modality for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the most important indications of capsule endoscopy.Capsule endoscopy has a very high diagnostic yield especially if the bleeding is ongoing. This technique appears to be superior to other techniques for the detection of suspected lesions and the source of bleeding. Capsule endoscopy has been shown to change the outcome in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI)bleed.

  11. ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS: USE THE EVIDENCE TO INTEGRATE YOUR INTERVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil; Labbe, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Frozen shoulder syndrome, clinically known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition affecting up to 5% of the population. Adhesive capsulitis is considered fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule with a chronic inflammatory response. Patients experience pain, limited range of motion, and disability generally lasting anywhere from 1 to 24 months. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to review the pathophysiolgy of adhesive capsulitis and discuss physical therapy...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg) tetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for...

  13. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate equivalent to 50, 100, 200, or 500 milligrams of dicloxacillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  15. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  16. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  17. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K;

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human ch...

  18. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  19. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  20. Guideline for Capsule Endoscopy: Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chang, Dong Kyung; Do, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Min, Byung Hoon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Jin-Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; ,

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal End...

  1. Resorcinarenes are hexameric capsules in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Evan-Salem, Tamar; Baruch, Inbal; Avram, Liat; Cohen, Yoram; Palmer, Liam C.; Rebek, Julius

    2006-01-01

    The host–guest complexes of resorcin[4]arenes with small molecules in organic solutions are examined using modern NMR spectroscopic methods. The complexation of glutaric acid and β-methyl d-glucopyranoside in chloroform were investigated through 2D COSY, 2D NOESY, 1D NOE, and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) techniques. These methods indicate that the complex is a self-assembled capsule composed of six resorcinarenes that surround six guest molecules of glutaric acid or three molecul...

  2. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data.

  3. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  4. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  5. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  6. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  7. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  8. Expanding role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy has been shown to detect small bowel inflammatory changes better than any other imaging modality. Selection criteria have been optimized to increase the yield of capsule endoscopy in patients suspected to have Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy allows for earlier diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel and improved diagnosis of colitis in patients where it is unclear if they suffer from Crohn's or ulcerative colitis. A test capsule is available to assess for small bowel strictures and thus avoid capsule retention. A common language has been developed and a new scoring index will be added to capsule software. It is envisioned that the manner in which we treat Crohn's disease in the future will change, based on earlier diagnosis and treatment aimed at mucosal healing rather than symptom improvement.

  9. The motion of a deforming capsule through a corner

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lailai

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional deformable capsule convected through a channel/duct with a corner is studied via numerical simulations using an accelerated boundary integral method adapted to general geometries. A global spectral method is adopted to resolve the dynamics of the capsule's membrane developing elastic tensions according to the Neo-Hookean constitutive law and bending moments in an inertialess flow. The simulations show that the trajectory of the capsule closely follows the underlying streamlines and the deformation of the capsule induces an anti-clockwise rotation of its material points with respect to the travelling direction. The surface area, principle tension and elastic energy of the capsule increase around the corner. Their temporal evolutions are characterised by a clear phase delay and the loss of time-reversal symmetry of Stokes flow due to the elasticity of membrane. The capsule centroid velocity decreases approaching the corner as the mean flow does while a velocity overshoot is observed past the...

  10. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The “perfect” capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  11. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  12. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  13. Fibrous Calcareous Concretions in the Capsules of Human Pineal Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Kodaka Tetsuo; Mori Ryoichi; Ezure Hiromitsu; Ito Junji; Otsuka Naruhito

    2013-01-01

    We examined calcareous concretions in the capsule of 15 human pineal glands containing a large amount of the concretions in the matrix. The capsule concretions, brown to blackish-brown in color and/or translucent, were smaller than the matrix concretions, which were yellowish-white. The matrix concretions showed the typical mulberry-shaped overall appearance with scallop-shaped concentric laminations of non-fibrous structures, but the capsule concretions, which also contained Ca and P, showed...

  14. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Debbie (LLNL); Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert (KTech); Nikroo, A. (General Atomics); Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace (Schafer); Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon (Schafer); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-11-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  15. Preparation of alginate-gelatin capsules and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan LI; Xi-guang CHEN; Cheng-sheng LIU; Chen-guang LIU; Yu-ping XUE

    2008-01-01

    Capsules based on alginate and gelatin prepared by extrusion method could increase the cell numbers of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to be 108 CFU·9-1 in the wet state of the capsules. The capsules were spherical, smooth-surfaced and non-aggregated with a diameter of (4.0±0.3) mm. The behavior of the samples were quite similar at low relative humidity (33%, 52%) and the ratio of weight change reached 93%. Four kinds of capsules in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) exhibited shrinkage while the beads eroded accompanied with slight swelling in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The pH values affected the stability of the capsules and with the increase in pH, the capsules chan-ged from shrank then swelled and finally, broke into pieces. The capsules behaved differently under different ion intens-ities and the introduction of gelatin weakened the stability of capsules compared with the alginate ones. Cells of L. casei ATCC 393 could be continuously released from the capsules in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the release amounts and speeds in SIF were much higher and faster than those in SGF.

  16. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Sang Hyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.

  17. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  18. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  19. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  20. New reduced volume preparation regimen in colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuo Kakugawa; Kazuhide Higuchi; Shinji Tanaka; Hideki Ishikawa; Hisao Tajiri; Yutaka Saito; Shoichi Saito; Kenji Watanabe; Naoki Ohmiya; Mitsuyuki Murano; Shiro Oka; Tetsuo Arakawa; Hidemi Goto

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed bowel preparation method for colon capsule endoscopy.METHODS:A pilot,multicenter,randomized controlled trial compared our proposed "reduced volume method" (group A) with the "conventional volume method" (group B) preparation regimens.Group A did not drink polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEGELS) the day before the capsule procedure,while group B drank 2 L.During the procedure day,groups A and B drank 2 L and 1 L of PEG-ELS,respectively,and swallowed the colon capsule (PillCam COLON(R) capsule).Two hours later the first booster of 100 g magnesium citrate mixed with 900 mL water was administered to both groups,and the second booster was administered six hours post capsule ingestion as long as the capsule had not been excreted by that time.Capsule videos were reviewed for grading of cleansing level.RESULTS:Sixty-four subjects were enrolled,with results from 60 analyzed.Groups A and B included 31 and 29 subjects,respectively.Twenty-nine (94%) subjects in group A and 25 (86%) subjects in group B had adequate bowel preparation (ns).Twenty-two (71%) of the 31 subjects in group A excreted the capsule within its battery life compared to 16 (55%) of the 29 subjects in group B (ns).Of the remaining 22 subjects whose capsules were not excreted within the battery life,all of the capsules reached the left side colon before they stopped functioning.A single adverse event was reported in one subject who had mild symptoms of nausea and vomiting one hour after starting to drink PEG-ELS,due to ingesting the PEG-ELS faster than recommended.CONCLUSION:Our proposed reduced volume bowel preparation method for colon capsule without PEG-ELS during the days before the procedure was as effective as the conventional volume method.

  1. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  2. Scheimpflug imaging of pediatric posterior capsule rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Dilraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented two days after blunt trauma to the left eye with a slingshot. On examination his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination of the left eye revealed a Vossius ring, traumatic cataract, traumatic posterior capsule tear (PCT. The contour of the posterior capsule bulge corresponded to the edges of the PCT. Rotating Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam 70700:Oculus, Wetzlar Germany confirmed the traumatic cataract in the region of the PCT visualized as increased lens density at the cortex-vitreous interface. The extent of the PCT in the greatest and least dimensions was documented before and after intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Intra-operatively, the PCT was evident and phaco-emulsification with an IOL implant was performed. Postoperatively, his BCVA improved to 20/20 in the left eye with a well-centered in-the-bag IOL as found on slit-lamp and Scheimpflug images.

  3. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  4. Protective Role of the Capsule and Impact of Serotype 4 Switching on Streptococcus mitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rukke, Håkon V.; Kalluru, Raja Sab; Repnik, Urska; Gerlini, Alice; José, Ricardo J.; Periselneris, Jimstan; Marshall, Helina; Griffiths, Gareth; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Brown, Jeremy S.; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule surrounding Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for virulence. Recently, Streptococcus mitis, a human commensal and a close relative of S. pneumoniae, was also shown to have a capsule. In this study, the S. mitis type strain switched capsule by acquisition of the serotype 4 capsule locus of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, following induction of competence for natural transformation. Comparison of the wild type with the capsule-switching mutant and with a capsule deletion mut...

  5. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...

  6. Highly active antibody-modified magnetic polyelectrolyte capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdepérez, Daniel; Del Pino, Pablo; Sánchez, Lourdes; Parak, Wolfgang J; Pelaz, Beatriz

    2016-07-15

    Polyelectrolyte hollow capsules are versatile platforms typically used for encapsulation of a wide variety of macromolecules in their cavity. The polymer shell of these capsules as composed by alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes also allows for adding additional functionalities. The properties of the shell can be for example engineered by trapping different nanoparticles in-between the shell layers and/or by attaching bioactive molecules such as antibodies to the outermost layer. Herein, iron oxide NPs were inmobilized into the shell of polyelectrolyte capsules and the outermost layer of the shell was covalently modified with anti peroxidase antibodies. These capsules act as prototype model system, aiming to obtain a microstructure with the potential capability to specifically recognize and separate macromolecules. Due to the magnetic nanoparticles in the capsule shell, the capsules together with the attached target might be extracted by magnetic field gradients. Here we verified this approach by extracting horseradish peroxidase from a solution through magnetic separation with capsules bearing antibodies against horseradish peroxidase. The bioactivity of the capsules and the high degree of specific antibody functionalization were confirmed and quantified through an enzymatic reaction mediated by the extracted horseradish peroxidase. PMID:27089014

  7. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule. PMID:19550023

  8. 1964 computer run on a laser-imploded capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAZER Alchemy 7b (WA-7b) is a WAZER calculation of a laser-driven micro-implosion of a spherical capsule consisting of a thin gold pusher surrounded by a thick (frozen) deuterium ablator. The properties of the target capsule and the shape of the laser pulse used to irradiate it are described

  9. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  10. Design of capsules capable of argon-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the use of polycarbosilane capsules as fuel container in inertial confinement fusion experiments was analyzed in the paper. Primary study indicates that the polycarbosilane capsules can be filled with argon by means of diffusion and possess reasonable retention time for deuterium. (author)

  11. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  12. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  13. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  14. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  15. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  16. Vortex Rings from Sphagnum Moss Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Emily S; Cha, Jung Ha; Strassman, Sam; Hard, Clara; Whitaker, Dwight L

    2010-01-01

    Long distance wind dispersal requires small spores with low terminal velocities, which can be held aloft by turbulent air currents until they are deposited in suitable habitats for colonization. The inherent difficulty in dispersing spores by wind is that spores easily carried by wind are also rapidly decelerated when moving through still air. Thus the height of spore release is critical in determining their range of dispersal. Vascular plants with wind dispersed spores use the height of the plant to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, however non-vascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently tall. These fluid dynamics videos show how exploding capsules of {\\em Sphagnum} moss generate vortex rings to carry spores to heights above 10 cm with an initial velocity of 16 m s$^{-1}$. In contrast spores launched ballistically at these speeds through still air would travel only 2-7 mm.

  17. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  18. Adhesion and detachment of a capsule in axisymmetric flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, M. P.; Leal, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    The adhesion and detachment of a capsule on a solid boundary surface is studied via a combination of scaling theory and numerical simulation and the behavior is compared and contrasted with a vesicle. It is shown that the dominant physical property for both capsules and vesicles is the area dilation modulus Ks of the membrane. The nonzero shear modulus Gs for capsules increases the resistance to deformation and thus decreases slightly the equilibrium contact radius for an adhered capsule compared to an adhered vesicle. The detachment process in this study is due to an external axisymmetric flow. Unlike a rigid body that must be pulled away without change of shape, capsules (and vesicles) almost always detach dominantly by peeling in which the contact radius decreases but the minimum separation distance does not change until the final moments of detachment. Compared to a vesicle with the same Ks, a capsule maintains a more compact shape and is harder to elongate under a given external flow. Hence, the detachment process is slower for capsules compared to vesicles with the same Ks.

  19. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N

    2003-10-01

    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  20. Patency(C) and agile(C) capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    àngel Caunedo-àlvarez; Javier Romero-Vazquez; Juan M Herrerias-Gutierrez

    2008-01-01

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods.The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract,in a non-invasive manner.The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency(C) capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel,and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy,despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction.Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency(C) capsule,four of them needed surgery.So,a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile(C) capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion.This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  1. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  2. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  3. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications. PMID:26083534

  4. Wireless capsule video endoscopy:Three years of experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Eliakim

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review and summerize the current literatue regarding M2A wireless capsule endoscopy.METHODS: Peer reviewed publications regarding the use of capsule endoscopy as well as our personal experience were reviewed.RESULTS: Review of the literature dearly showed that capsule endoscopy was superior to enteroscopy, small bowel follow through and computerized tomography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, iron deficiency anemia,or suspected Crohn′s disease. It was very sensitive for the diagnosis of small bowel tumors and for survailance of small bowel pathology in patients with Gardner syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Its role in celiac disease and in patients with known Crohn′s disease was currently being investigated.CONCLUSION: Capsule video endoscopy is a superior and more sensitive diagnostic tool than barium follow through,enteroscopy and entero- CT in establishing the diagnosis of many small bowel pathologies.

  5. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. PMID:19163990

  6. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years.

  7. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina). (2) The contents of 1 capsule should be mixed with the food of the...

  8. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  9. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  10. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  11. Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagation of wireless capsule endoscopy in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Eng-Gee; 王炤; 陈瑾慧; TILLO; Tammam; MAN; Ka-lok

    2013-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy(WCE) is a promising technique which has overcome some limitations of traditional diagnosing tools, such as the comfortlessness of the cables and the inability of examining small intestine section. However, this technique is still far from mature and asks for the feasible improvements. For example, the relatively low transmission data rate and the absence of the real-time localization information of the capsule are all important issues. The studies of them rely on the understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in human body. Investigation of performance of WCE communication system was carried out by studying electromagnetic(EM) wave propagation of the wireless capsule endoscopy transmission channel. Starting with a pair of antennas working in a human body mimic environment, the signal transmissions and attenuations were examined. The relationship between the signal attenuation and the capsule(transmitter) position, and direction was also evaluated. These results provide important information for real-time localization of the capsule. Moreover, the pair of antennas and the human body were treated as a transmission channel, on which the binary amplitude shift keying(BASK) modulation scheme was used. The relationship between the modulation scheme, data rate and bit error rate was also determined in the case of BASK. With the obtained studies, it make possible to provide valuable information for further studies on the selection of the modulation scheme and the real-time localization of the capsules.

  13. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  14. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate. PMID:25453768

  15. [Clinical practice using colon capsule endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakugawa, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Minori; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy(CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic technologies designed to explore the colorectum. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006, and the second generation (PillCam COLON 2 : CCE-2), with increased sensitivity, was released in 2009. The CCE-2 has 2 imagers with a much wider angle of view that has been increased to 172 degrees per imager, allowing nearly 360 degrees coverage of the colon by two. The most unique feature of the CCE-2 is its adaptive frame rate (AFR). This new technology allows the CCE-2 to capture 35 images per second when in motion and 4 images per second when virtually stationary. The per-patient CCE-2 sensitivity for detecting polyps > or = 6 mm has been reported as 84%-91%. These recent advancements in this modality might offer physicians the option to screen for colorectal lesions noninvasively. PMID:24597367

  16. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  17. [Anticonvulsant and psychotropic effects of topamax capsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, V V; Zheleznova, E V; Sokolova, L V; Zemlianaia, A A

    2009-01-01

    Anticonvulsant and psychotropic effects of "Topamax capsules"(TC) were compared to a traditional form of topiramate (TFT) and some other anticonvulsant drugs (ACD). Thirty-six patients (12 men and 24 women) with partial temporary epilepsy were examined. Sixteen patients received TFT in tablets and 20 patients received ACD before the beginning of the study. Drug effect was assessed by frequency of seizures and some neuropsychiatric parameters. The results revealed that TC was comparable to TFT and ACD in the reduction of seizures of any semiotics. After 3 months of therapy, total MMSE scores increased from 27 to 28. There were less perseverant errors and more right responses in the WCST. Verbal fluency and memory measured with Sunderland test improved as well. TC led to decreased latencies of negative responses in the WCST and increased verbal fluency compared to TFT. Patients who received TFT prior to TC did fewer errors in the WCST than patients who received ACD prior to TC. Verbal fluency improved compared to patients who received other ACD. At the same time, a somewhat increase of paranoid signs on the scale SCL-90 was noted in the group treated with topiramate only. It has been concluded that TC has an activating effect on frontal brain areas.

  18. Analytical Quality check of oil based blend in Flaxilip capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Rane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of capsules containing blend in the powder form is easy, but it is bit difficult to analyse the soft gelatin capsule containing oil based blend. The purpose of this study was to develop test parameters to determine and supervise the quality of such herbal capsule formulation. Five different lots of soft gelatin Flaxilip capsule containing Linseed oil, Guggulu processed with linseed oil, Garlic oil, Fenugreek oil along with Soyabean oil as an excipient , were selected for the study. All the five lots were subjected to general capsule tests such as determination of average weight and disintegration time. Results obtained were around 1.3500g and 10minutes respectively. Specific test parameters applicable for oils like specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value were applied quantitatively for quality evaluation. Standardised suitable classical methods were applied. Results in all the five lots were found to be well within inhouse limit. All the samples were subjected to heavy metals and microbiological testing. Compliance of corresponding findings with the standard pharmacopoeial guidelines assure the safe intake of the drug. For getting the better effect, the Guggulu that is Commiphora mukul used in the formulation was processed with linseed oil. Its presence was confirmed by carrying out HPTLC for E and Z guggulu sterone. Resemblance of spots at Rf ranging from 0.36 to 0.38 and 0.43 to 0.45 in Toluene : Acetone (9:1 system showed the presence of gugulu in blends of all the lots. Hence by applying all these test parameters one can ensure the quality of the soft gelatin ayurvedic capsule formulation containing oily base like in Flaxilip capsule.

  19. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  20. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; Cotter; Francisca; Dias; de; Castro; Joana; Magalhes; Maria; Joo; Moreira; Bruno; Rosa

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer(RTV)and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations(IE)and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy(SBCE).METHODS:Prospective single center interventional study,from June 2012 to February 2013.Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV.If it remained in the stomach,the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min.If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of10 mg of domperidone was administered orally.After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach,it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal(GI)endoscopy.The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department(control group,January 2009-May 2012).RESULTS:Both groups were similar regarding age,sex,indication,inpatient status and surgical history.The control group included 307 patients,with 48(15.6%)IE.The RTV group included 82 patients,with3(3.7%)IE,P=0.003.In the control group,average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel(77 min vs 26 min,P=0.003).In the RTV group,the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients(17.0%)vs 48/307(15.6%)in the control group,P=0.736.Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time(260min vs 297 min,P=0.229).The capsule detected positive findings in 39%of patients in the control group and 49%in the RTV group(P=0.081).CONCLUSION:The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations,with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.

  1. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant.

  2. FEM analysis of escape capsule suffered to gas explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-lu; Mei, Rui-bin; Li, Chang-sheng; Cai, Ban; Liu, Xiang-hua

    2013-05-01

    Escape capsules are new devices for underground coal mines that provide air, water, food and supplies in the event of an emergency in where miners are unable to escape. It is difficult to carry out the experiments of explosion and safety because the danger and nonrepeatability of explosion. The structure deformation and distribution of equivalent stress has been investigated under different impact pressure conditions including unimodal and bimodal loads based on the FEM and software LS-DYNA. The results show that the distribution of deformation and equivalent stress has the same trend on the same surface with the increment of explosion pressure. The deformation and stress are larger with side impact pressure compared with that of the same front impact pressure. Furthermore, the maximum equivalent stress is 246MPa and 260MPa on the front and sides of capsule with five times for national standard impact pressure 1.5MPa. Under these conditions, the deformation is less than about 9.97mm and 10.47mm, respectively. When the front impact pressure is 2.0MPa, the deformation of capsule still belongs to elasticity but the less plastic deformation occurs on the Ushape stiffening channels with the same side impact pressure. However, it is safe for capsule structure because the equivalent stress 283MPa is much less than the tensile strength. It is noted that bimodal load accelerates the capsule deformation so that it is more dangerous compared with unimodal load.

  3. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro. (paper)

  4. Improvement and utilization of irradiation capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several improvements of irradiation capsule technology regarding irradiation test parameters, such as temperature and neutron flux/fluence, and regarding instrumentation have progressed at HANARO since the last KAERI-JAERI joint seminar held in 2008. The standard HANARO capsule technology that was developed for use in a commercial power plant temperature of about 300degC was improved to apply to a temperature range of 100-1000degC for the irradiation test of materials of new research reactors and future nuclear systems. Low-flux and long-term irradiation technologies have been developed at HANARO. As a beginning step of the localization of capsule instrumentation technology, the irradiation performance of a domestically produced thermocouple and LVDT will be examined at HANARO. The accuracy of an evaluation of neutron fluence and precise welding technology are also being examined at HANARO. Based on these accumulated capsule technologies, a HANARO irradiation capsule system is being actively utilized for the national R and D programme on commercial nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea. HANARO has recently started the irradiation support of R and D relevant to future nuclear systems including SMART, VHTR, and SFR, and HANARO is preparing new support relevant to new research and Fusion reactors. (author)

  5. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  6. FTIR-ATR imaging of coated oil capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Coated oil capsules are used to deliver new functional food ingredients. In this study spherical capsules were investigated containing a core with fish oil coated with a transparent gelatine layer. The remaining actives are within a hard coating, which is applied on the gelatine capsules. For the microstructural characterization of the coating the following techniques were used: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microscopy using an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal, Light Microscopy (LM), X-ray microtomography (μCT) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For FTIR-ATR imaging the oil capsules were embedded in epoxy resin. The embedded sample was trimmed in a microtome using a glass knife for the initial rough trimming. For the final fracture a diamond knife was used to obtain the best possible surface. A Ge-crystal was brought in contact with the surface of interest. LM images were obtained using the visible light camera of the FTIR system. A principal component analysis was performed on the FTIR-ATR imaging showing the spatial distribution of some of the compounds. This study demonstrated that imaging techniques can be used to analyse the microstructure of coated oil capsules. Correlative microscopy of techniques like FTIR-ATR imaging, LM, XRT and SEM-EDX results in useful information about the spatial distribution of the chemical compounds and layer thickness of solid food samples.

  7. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  8. Biomechanics of the Hip Capsule and Capsule Management Strategies in Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Smith, Matthew V

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the function of the hip capsule have clarified its importance to normal hip function and kinematics. The iliofemoral ligament is the primary stabilizing structure for controlling anterior translation and external rotation of the hip, and is violated by the arthroscopic interportal capsulotomy. Microinstability of the hip occurring after surgical trauma remains a poorly defined clinical entity. In certain at-risk populations, capsular repair should be considered as part of an arthroscopic hip procedure to achieve optimal outcomes and avoid iatrogenic instability (dislocation or microinstability). Despite a lack of conclusive evidence-based indications, we recommend capsular repair in the settings of borderline hip dysplasia (or dysplastic variants such as increased femoral anteversion), hip hypermobility, connective tissue disorders, and traumatic or atraumatic instability. With careful attention to arthroscopic capsular management, adequate exposure can be achieved and reproducibly allow for an effective capsular repair when indicated. PMID:26524549

  9. Inhibitive Effects of Quercetin on Rabbit Tenon Capsule Fibroblasts Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Lin Chen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To study the inhibitive effects of quercetin (QU) on the fibroblasts proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule and its mechanism.Methods: Cultured fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of QU solution and investigated by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of QU was obser ved on cells cycle using the flow cytometer. Besults: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency.Flow cytometer results showed 26.92% cell increase in G1 phase, 23.50% decrease in S phase and 3.42% decrease in G2 phase.Conclusions: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency. QU may effect all phase of cell cycle and inhibit cell proliferation by inhibiting G1 phase transitting to S phase and G2 phase.

  10. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  11. Demonstration of bacteroides capsules by light microscopy and ultrastructural cytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, H; Payne, C M; Ryan, K J

    1983-05-01

    Forty-six anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, including 26 members of the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG), were examined for capsules by the India ink technic. Thirty-five were encapsulated, including all the BFG strains. As a follow-up, seven of these isolates and two previously studied reference strains (B. fragilis ATCC 23745 and Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482) were examined for capsules by ultrastructural cytochemistry. Using the periodic acid thiocarbohydrazide silver proteinate (PATCSP) method of Thiéry, all the BFG examined were encapsulated. In addition to the reference strains, this included one strain of B. fragilis and four of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. One non-BFG strain showed no capsular material. Differences between these results and those reported previously with the ruthenium red technic may reflect species differences in the chemical composition of Bacteroides capsules.

  12. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new rou...

  13. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  14. Capsule Performance Optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2009-10-13

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  15. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  16. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  17. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  18. Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-hong FANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; Bing-ling ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition ofsimethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and sime-thicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the small intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and small bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal small intes-tines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no effect on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean small intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side effects observed.

  19. Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Starr

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo, and galactose (Gal. Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

  20. Silicone Oil Tamponade Combined with Lensectomy Preserving Anterior Lens Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuL; YangJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the therapeutic effect and indicatio n of silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule.Methods:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule was performed in 33 cases (33 eyes)of high myopia ,proliferative vitroretinopathy(PVR)D grade and giant retinal tear(GRT).10 cases were onlyeye and 11 cases had harder nucleus of lens.The surgical methods included:1.smashing lens nucleus and lensectomy preserving complete anterior capsule;2,vitrectomy and membrane peeling;3,usage of liquid perfluorocarbin or retinotomy or drainage;4.silicone oil tamponade;5.postoperative Nd;YAG laser for anterior capsulectomy. Results:Follow-up time was 6 months or more in 29 cases.Total retinal reattachment was achieved in 22 cases,macular retinal reattachment in 5 cases.The visual acuity was 20/800 to 20/200 in 13 cases,20/100 to 20/50 in 12 cases.Visual acuity was significantly improved in GRT group(P<0.05).Complications included unexpected anterior capsule break intraoperatively,anterior capsule opacity,silicone oil emulsification and liquid perfluorocarbin remainig postoperatively.Conclusions:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior capsule was safe and can reduce the operative complications.The indications included:1.GRT complicated with high myopia;2,advanced PVR cases complicated with high myopia in which silicone oil must be used;3.severe lens opacity cases in which silicone oil must be used;4.complex retinal detachment of only ye.

  1. Enzymes in the dissolution testing of gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Margareth R C

    2014-12-01

    Gelatin capsules are a widely used dosage form both for pharmaceutical drug products as well as dietary supplements. Gelatin in the presence of certain compounds, mainly aldehydes, or in high humidity and high temperature conditions can cross-link. Cross-linking involves covalent bonding of the amine group of a lysine side chain of one gelatin molecule to a similar amine group on another molecule. The covalent bonding is, for practical purposes, irreversible. Cross-linking results in the formation of a pellicle on the internal or external surface of the gelatin capsule shell that prevents the capsule fill from being released. In vitro dissolution testing of cross-linked gelatin capsules can result in slower release of the drug or no release at all. The data obtained by the Gelatin Capsule Working Group, created in the early 90s to investigate noncompliance of gelatin capsules, was used to establish the type and amounts of enzymes that can be added to the dissolution medium in the case of test failure to the presence of cross-linking in the gelatin. The two-tier dissolution testing was included in the US Pharmacopeia and it recommends the addition of pepsin (pH below 6.8) or pancreatin (pH above 6.8) to the medium depending on its pH. Pepsin shows good protease activity up to pH 4 and pancreatin above pH 6 leaving a gap where neither one has good activity. Possible proteolytic enzymes that could be used for the pH range 4-6.8 could be papain or bromelain. PMID:24942315

  2. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangning Li; Yongping Fan; Tao Yang; Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  3. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  4. A parametric study on ice formation inside a spherical capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Silva, T.M. da [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos - FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP, Campinas (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica - DEMEC, UFPE, CEP 50740-530, PE, Recife (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a numerical study on the heat transfer during the process of solidification of water inside a spherical capsule. The governing equations of the problem and associated boundary conditions were formulated and solved using a finite difference approach and a moving grid scheme. The model was optimized and the numerical predictions were validated by comparison with experimental results realized by the authors. The model was also used to investigate the effects of the size and material of the shell, initial temperature of the phase change material and the external temperature of the spherical capsule on the solidified mass fraction and the time for the complete solidification. (authors)

  5. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears in young patients are a particular challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. Surgical treatment options include debridement, partial rotator cuff repair, patch-augmented rotator cuff repair, bridging rotator cuff reconstruction with graft interposition, tendon transfer, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Recently, reconstruction of the superior glenohumeral capsule using a fascia lata autograft has been suggested to reduce superior glenohumeral translation and restore superior stability. Promising clinical results have been reported in 1 case series of 23 patients, indicating that superior capsular reconstruction may be a promising tool to manage massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. This article describes our preferred technique for arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction. PMID:27284506

  6. A novel localization method for noninvasive monitoring capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wenhui; Yan Guozheng; Jiang Pingping; Guo Xudong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive monitoring capsule for gastrointestinal tract can be swallowed by patient. It is of great importance for the physician to monitor the precise position of capsule in gastrointestinal tract. The authors investigated a novel method for it. Using three coils with DC current to excite magnetic field and one triaxial magnetoresistive sensor to measure the excited magnetic vectors, they tried to solve the problem.The authors provided the localization principle of the method and analyzed it by an experiment, too. The method may be applied in practice in the future though it is still immature now.

  7. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  8. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-02-25

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  9. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. PMID:25206695

  10. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... images of the small bowel with a wireless camera contained in a capsule. This device includes an ingestible capsule (containing a light source, camera, transmitter, and battery), an antenna array,...

  11. Dynamic capsule restructuring by the main pneumococcal autolysin LytA in response to the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Colin C; Gao, Geli; Mann, Beth; Myers, Lance; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens produce complex carbohydrate capsules to protect against bactericidal immune molecules. Paradoxically, the pneumococcal capsule sensitizes the bacterium to antimicrobial peptides found on epithelial surfaces. Here we show that upon interaction with antimicrobial peptides, encapsulated pneumococci survive by removing capsule from the cell surface within minutes in a process dependent on the suicidal amidase autolysin LytA. In contrast to classical bacterial autolysis, during capsule shedding, LytA promotes bacterial survival and is dispersed circumferentially around the cell. However, both autolysis and capsule shedding depend on the cell wall hydrolytic activity of LytA. Capsule shedding drastically increases invasion of epithelial cells and is the main pathway by which pneumococci reduce surface bound capsule during early acute lung infection of mice. The previously unrecognized role of LytA in removing capsule to combat antimicrobial peptides may explain why nearly all clinical isolates of pneumococci conserve this enzyme despite the lethal selective pressure of antibiotics. PMID:26924467

  12. 10 CFR 32.21 - Radioactive drug: Manufacture, preparation, or transfer for commercial distribution of capsules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for commercial distribution of capsules containing carbon-14 urea each for âin vivoâ diagnostic use..., preparation, or transfer for commercial distribution of capsules containing carbon-14 urea each for “in vivo... commercial distribution capsules containing 37 kBq (1 µCi) carbon-14 urea (allowing for nominal...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  14. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... animals weighing 6 to 14 pounds, one capsule twice daily. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of urinary...), tonsillitis due to alpha and beta hemolytic streptococci, hemolytic positive staphylococci, E. coli, and.... Treatment of respiratory tract infections (bacterial pneumonia) due to alpha and beta hemolytic...

  15. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    structure, responsive to microwave electromagnetic radiation, is attached to a first wall portion of the capsule wall structure which comprises a lossy dielectric material. At least a predetermined segment of the first wall portion is heated by received microwave electromagnetic radiation to trigger...

  16. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2015-04-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.

  17. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  18. Investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding : capsule endoscopy or double balloon enteroscopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, J.; Weersma, R. K.; Koornstra, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to visualise the small bowel has dramatically improved with the introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). CE and DBE have become standard practice in investigating suspected diseases of the small bowel. An important reason to perform small bowel inv

  19. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  20. PHYSIOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONS FOR ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS OF SHOULDER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Isaac Jason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on various physiotherapy management for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Methods: A search of the literature was conducted using Clinical Key, ProQuest and PEDro databases up to September 2015. Search limits included the English language and human studies. Search terms included adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, Physical therapy, Physiotherapy etc. Inclusion criteria: Systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs in English language were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (a patients with adhesive capsulitis were included, (b results on pain and function were reported, and (c a study period of at least two weeks was reported. Articles were assessed using the Jadad (1 scale and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale. ‘High-quality’ was defined as a “yes” score of 50% in Jadad scale and a PEDro rating of 5 out of 10. Totally 17 studies were selected for this systematic review. Conclusion: This study has found sufficient level of evidence for physiotherapy in the treatment of adhesive capsulitis the shoulder. In particular, manual treatment must be combined with commonly indicated exercise or conventional physiotherapy, as it remains the standard care.

  1. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions. (paper)

  2. Treatment of hyperlipoidemia by Xiaozhi capsule: a clinical efficacy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect and efficacy of Xiaozhi Capsule (XZC) ,a Chinese medicine preparation for tonifying Gan-Shen,invigorating Pi to dissipate dampness (TGSIPDD) on total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) ,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ,and

  3. Research Update: Performance Pay for Teachers. Information Capsule. Volume 0911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing recognition that the traditional teacher salary schedule does not reward the most effective teachers, most U.S. school districts don't offer teacher incentives for improving student performance and the vast majority of teachers actually oppose such a plan. This Information Capsule reviewed recent studies conducted…

  4. A facile route to synthesize silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhakumar, S; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-06-01

    We are reporting a novel green approach to incorporate silver nanoparticles (NPs) selectively in the polyelectrolyte capsule shell for remote opening of polyelectrolyte capsules. This approach involves in situ reduction of silver nitrate to silver NPs using PEG as a reducing agent (polyol reduction method). These nanostructured capsules were prepared via layer by layer (LbL) assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and dextran sulfate (DS) on silica template followed by the synthesis of silver NPs and subsequently the dissolution of the silica core. The size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was 60±20 nm which increased to 100±20 nm when the concentration of AgNO(3) increased from 25 mM to 50 mM. The incorporated silver NPs induced rupture and deformation of the capsules under laser irradiation. This method has advantages over other conventional methods involving chemical agents that are associated with cytotoxicity in biological applications such as drug delivery and catalysis. PMID:21333503

  5. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  6. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Ping-Kuo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the resolution of demosaicked image is still low, and some interesting spots may be unintentionally omitted. Especially, the images will be severely distorted when physicians zoom images in for detailed diagnosis. Increasing resolution may cause significant power consumption in RF transmitter; hence, image compression is necessary for saving the power dissipation of RF transmitter. To overcome this drawback, we have been developing a new capsule endoscope, called GICam. Methods We developed an ultra-low-power image compression processor for capsule endoscope or swallowable imaging capsules. In applications of capsule endoscopy, it is imperative to consider battery life/performance trade-offs. Applying state-of-the-art video compression techniques may significantly reduce the image bit rate by their high compression ratio, but they all require intensive computation and consume much battery power. There are many fast compression algorithms for reducing computation load; however, they may result in distortion of the original image, which is not good for use in the medical care. Thus, this paper will first simplify traditional video compression algorithms and propose a scalable compression architecture. Conclusion As the result, the developed video compressor only costs 31 K gates at 2 frames per second, consumes 14.92 mW, and reduces the video size by 75% at least.

  7. Channa striatus capsules induces cytokine conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Paliliewu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether Channa striatus capsule induces sputum and cytokine conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study was conducted to pulmonary TB patients who admitted to Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A total of 36 pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 18 including one group received standart antituberculosis drugs plus Channa striatus capsule and another group received standart antituberculosis drugs plus placebo. Channa striatus capsule was given at a dose of 2 g each time, 3 times per day, for 12 weeks. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-10 were analyses using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: The rate of positive sputum smear decline was more pronounced in the Channa striatus group but did not reach statistically different value between groups. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were not significantly different in Channa striatus group compared to placebo group at baseline (week 0. But at week 12, the supplementation of Channa striatus capsule significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 levels compared to baseline. In placebo groups, there were no significant differences for IL-10 levels at week 12, but the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ significantly decreased. Conclusion: Adjunctive supplementation of Channa striatus capsules accelerated the beneficial therapeutic effect of TB chemotherapy by improving cytokine response. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 237-242

  8. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  9. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  10. Buckling and its effect on the confined flow of a model capsule suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The rheology of confined flowing suspensions, such as blood, depend upon the dynamics of the components, which can be particularly rich when they are elastic capsules. Using boundary integral methods, we simulate a two-dimensional model channel through which flows a dense suspension of fluid-filled capsules. A parameter of principal interest is the equilibrium membrane perimeter, which ranges from round capsules to capsules with an elongated dog-bone-like equilibrium shape. It is shown that the minimum effective viscosity occurs for capsules with a biconcave equilibrium shape, similar to that of a red blood cell. The rheological behavior changes significantly over this range; transitions are linked to specific changes in the capsule dynamics. Most noteworthy is an abrupt change in behavior when capsules transition to a dog-bone-like equilibrium shape, which correlates with the onset of capsule buckling. The buckled capsules have a more varied orientation and make significant rotational (rotlet) contributions to the capsule-capsule interactions. Supported under NSF Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  11. Three-dimensional tracking of sensor capsules mobilised by fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for simultaneously measuring particle trajectories and temperature in fluids using specially designed light-emitting sensor capsules/particles is reported. The sensor capsules each contain a microcontroller (with integrated temperature sensor), uniquely coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs), a battery, and other components. When inserted into a fluid, the sensor capsules are mobilised by fluid flow. As they emit light they can be readily tracked and their 3D position over time measured, using an externally positioned camera along with a planar mirror in a calibrated set-up. The capsules can also take intra-fluid temperature measurements and transmit encoded data by modulating their LEDs whilst moving. Controlled experiments with a sensor capsule placed on a rotating turntable and unconstrained fluid-driven motion of multiple sensor capsules placed in a mixing tank are reported. The results demonstrate how the pathlines of capsules (and instantaneous velocities) and temperature can be simultaneously measured. (paper)

  12. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  13. Protective role of the capsule and impact of serotype 4 switching on Streptococcus mitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Håkon V; Kalluru, Raja Sab; Repnik, Urska; Gerlini, Alice; José, Ricardo J; Periselneris, Jimstan; Marshall, Helina; Griffiths, Gareth; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Brown, Jeremy S; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2014-09-01

    The polysaccharide capsule surrounding Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for virulence. Recently, Streptococcus mitis, a human commensal and a close relative of S. pneumoniae, was also shown to have a capsule. In this study, the S. mitis type strain switched capsule by acquisition of the serotype 4 capsule locus of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, following induction of competence for natural transformation. Comparison of the wild type with the capsule-switching mutant and with a capsule deletion mutant showed that the capsule protected S. mitis against phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages. This effect was enhanced in the S. mitis strain expressing the S. pneumoniae capsule, which showed, in addition, increased resistance against early clearance in a mouse model of lung infection. Expression of both capsules also favored survival in human blood, and the effect was again more pronounced for the capsule-switching mutant. S. mitis survival in horse blood or in a mouse model of bacteremia was not significantly different between the wild type and the mutant strains. In all models, S. pneumoniae TIGR4 showed higher rates of survival than the S. mitis type strain or the capsule-switching mutant, except in the lung model, in which significant differences between S. pneumoniae TIGR4 and the capsule-switching mutant were not observed. Thus, we identified conditions that showed a protective function for the capsule in S. mitis. Under such conditions, S. mitis resistance to clearance could be enhanced by capsule switching to serotype 4, but it was enhanced to levels lower than those for the virulent strain S. pneumoniae TIGR4. PMID:24958712

  14. A Prototype Design of a Wireless Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as intestinal bleeding and ulceration, are very common. To determine the location of the disease, as well as to diagnose the problem, endoscopy is performed. A wireless capsule endoscope is a pill-sized device that is easily swallowed by the patient. It is equipped with a camera and a wireless transmitter so that as it travels through the patient's gastrointestinal tract, it takes pictures or video images of the tract and transmits the information out of the patient's body. This article discusses the possible solutions and challenges of a wireless capsule endoscope in terms of the choice of wireless frequency and circuit components. A prototype is built with commercially available components to demonstrate the concept of the device.

  15. Arthroscopic capsule reconstruction in the hip using iliotibial band allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Christiano A C; Sawyer, Gregory A; Fukui, Kiyokazu; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    The hip capsule has been identified as an important static stabilizer of the hip joint. Despite the intrinsic bony stability of the hip socket, the capsule plays a key role in hip stability, particularly at the extremes of motion, and the iliofemoral ligament is the most important stabilizer in extension and external rotation. Patients who do not undergo capsular closure or plication may continue to complain of hip pain and dysfunction postoperatively, likely because of microinstability or muscle invagination into the capsular defect, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography will identify the capsular defect. Seen primarily in the revision setting, capsular defects can cause recurrent stress at the chondrolabral junction. An attempt at secondary closure can be challenging because of capsular limb adherence to the surrounding soft tissues. Therefore reconstruction may be the only possible surgical solution for this problem. We describe our new surgical technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using iliotibial band allograft.

  16. Arthroscopic capsule reconstruction in the hip using iliotibial band allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Christiano A C; Sawyer, Gregory A; Fukui, Kiyokazu; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    The hip capsule has been identified as an important static stabilizer of the hip joint. Despite the intrinsic bony stability of the hip socket, the capsule plays a key role in hip stability, particularly at the extremes of motion, and the iliofemoral ligament is the most important stabilizer in extension and external rotation. Patients who do not undergo capsular closure or plication may continue to complain of hip pain and dysfunction postoperatively, likely because of microinstability or muscle invagination into the capsular defect, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography will identify the capsular defect. Seen primarily in the revision setting, capsular defects can cause recurrent stress at the chondrolabral junction. An attempt at secondary closure can be challenging because of capsular limb adherence to the surrounding soft tissues. Therefore reconstruction may be the only possible surgical solution for this problem. We describe our new surgical technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using iliotibial band allograft. PMID:25973378

  17. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  18. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  19. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Haruhiko

    2008-07-01

    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  20. Adhesive capsulitis of the wrist. Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E C; Wood, V E; Thiel, A E; Maloney, M D; Sauser, D D

    1988-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis occurs as a pathologic entity in the shoulder, hip, and ankle joints. Thickening and contracture of the wrist joint capsule were demonstrated on arthrograms performed on ten patients ranging in age from 20 to 82 years. The patients had pain and limited range of motion in the wrist. The findings included: (1) resistance to the injection of smaller than normal volumes of contrast material, (2) obliteration of recesses, and (3) extravasation of the contrast agent along the needle tract. Closed manipulation under general anesthesia of the wrist on four patients resulted in some improvement in range of motion. A distal ulna fracture in one older patient occurred as a complication of manipulation. Careful technique and judicious patient selection are of paramount importance.

  1. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Willis F Buck; Gaspar Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty...

  2. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in 2007: Indications, risks and limitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate,endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions).The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming,can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy.At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy).

  3. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-28

    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  4. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  5. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  6. Mission Capture with a Multi-Role Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, M.

    The multi-role system concept is to maximise the number of mission that a system can undertake, thus maximising the value of its acquisition cost. The viability of this concept was explored by matching missions from International Space Station (ISS) support through to to Mars Landing with a feasibility design for a multi-role capsule. It was found that as the missions became more ambitious and moved further from lunar/Earth space, so increasing large add-on modules were required. However, these modules contained only simple elements like propellant tanks, increased pressurised space and supplies, and therefore represented lower cost developments; the expensive functions having been undertaken by the capsule. When it came to human interplanetary missions such as to Mars it was found that new primary transportation systems were required, but the capsule could still play a key role in support, for example Mars lander ascent stage, conducting Martian moon excursion missions and as the crew return to earth system. Given the immediate future of manned space flight is to maintain ISS operations combined with a range of exploration objectives beyond earth orbit, it is clearly not viable to develop specialist systems for each mission and multi-role systems will be essential. The feasibility concept illustrated how systems that require heavy development investment can made with sufficiently flexible to cover all these missions with only minimal additional investments.

  7. Investigation of fMRI activation in the internal capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Kimberley D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in white matter has long been considered controversial. Recently, this viewpoint has been challenged by an emerging body of evidence demonstrating white matter activation in the corpus callosum. The current study aimed to determine whether white matter activation could be detected outside of the corpus callosum, in the internal capsule. Data were acquired from a 4 T MRI using a specialized asymmetric spin echo spiral sequence. A motor task was selected to elicit activation in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Results White matter fMRI activation was examined at the individual and group levels. Analyses revealed that activation was present in the posterior limb of the internal capsule in 80% of participants. These results provide further support for white matter fMRI activation. Conclusions The ability to visualize functionally active tracts has strong implications for the basic scientific study of connectivity and the clinical assessment of white matter disease.

  8. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  9. Little Joe (LJ1A): Only true Boilerplate capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    The Mercury capsule and escape tower are being lowered onto the Little Joe booster for launch on August 21, 1959. Joseph Shortal described this as follows (vol. 3, p. 33): 'The Little Joe booster was assembled at Wallops on its special launcher in a vertical attitude. It is shown in the [on the left] with the work platform in place. The launcher was located on a special concrete slab in Launching Area 1. The capsule was lowered onto the booster by crane.... After the assembly was completed, the scaffolding was disassembled and the launcher pitched over to its normal launch angle of 80 degrees.... Little Joe had a diameter of 80 inches and an overall length, including the capsule and escape tower of 48 feet. The total weight at launch was about 43,000 pounds. The overall span of the stabilizing fins was 21.3 feet.' 'Although in comparison with the overall Mercury Project, Little Joe was a simple undertaking, the fact that an attempt was made to condense a normal two-year project into a 6-month one with in house labor turned it into a major undertaking for Langley.' - Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition.

  10. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient.

  11. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  12. Design and fabrication of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and fabrication of four High Flux Isotope Reactor-magnetic fusion energy removable beryllium capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400/C) to accommodate magnetic fusion energy specimens preirradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. These capsule designs incorporate provisions for removal, examination, and re-encapsulation of the MFE specimens at intermediate exposure levels en route to a target exposure level of 30 displacements per atom (dpa). With the exception of the 600C capsule, where the test specimens will be in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, the specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) will be controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a small gap region between the specimen holder and the containment tube. Hafnium sleeves will be used to tailor the neutron spectrum to closely match the helium production-to-atom displacement ratio (14 appm/dpa) expected in a fusion reactor first wall. Design and preparation of fabrication drawing for the 60 and 3300C capsules and all generic capsule components and support facilities have now been completed. Assembly of the 600C capsule is complete and the 3300C capsule is nearing completion. The irradiation of both capsules will begin when the HFIR returns to full power operation. Design and preparation of fabrication drawings for the 200 and 4000C capsules will be completed in 1988, and operation of these two capsules will follow the first two (60 and 3300C). 5 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Comparison of esophageal capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy for diagnosis of esophageal varices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine T Frenette; John G Kuldau; Donald J Hillebrand; Jill Lane; Paul J Pockros

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of esophageal varices.METHODS: Cirrhotic patients who were undergo-ing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for variceal screening or surveillance underwent capsule endos-copy. Two separate blinded investigators read each capsule endoscopy for the following results: variceal grade, need for treatment with variceal banding or prophylaxis with beta-blocker therapy, degree of portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric varices.RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent both capsule and EGD. Forty-eight patients had both procedures on the same day, and 2 patients had capsule endoscopy within 72 h of EGD. The accuracy of capsule endos-copy to decide on the need for prophylaxis was 74%,with sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 82%. Inter-rater agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.56). Agree-ment between EGD and capsule endoscopy on grade of varices was 0.53 (moderate). Inter-rater reliability was good (kappa = 0.77). In diagnosis of portal hyper.tensive gastropathy, accuracy was 57%, with sensitiv-ity of 96% and specificity of 17%. Two patients had gastric varices seen on EGD, one of which was seen on capsule endoscopy. There were no complications from capsule endoscopy.CONCLUSION: We conclude that capsule endoscopy has a limited role in deciding which patients would benefit from EGD with banding or beta-blocker thera-py. More data is needed to assess accuracy for staging esophageal varices, PHG, and the detection of gastric varices.

  14. Comparative performance of capsulated Vs non-capsulated 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) is employed as a 'gold standard' technique for the detection of active Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, to follow up the patients after its eradication and for epidemiological evaluations. Due to high accuracy of this test and other benefits it is recommended as the best option for 'test-and-treat' strategy in primary health care centers. So far no appropriate study has been done to compare the performance of 14C-UBT using capsulated versus non-capsulated protocol. In this study, we employed a novel technique of performing capsulated 14C-UBT with simultaneous monitoring the dynamic movement of capsule and compared the results with non-capsulated protocol. (author)

  15. Hexameric Capsules Studied by Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Identifying Solvent Molecules in Pyrogallol[4]arene Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Liat; Goldbourt, Amir; Cohen, Yoram

    2016-01-18

    Powders of pyrogallol[4]arene hexamers were produced by evaporation from organic solvents and were studied, for the first time, by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS ssNMR). Evaporation selectively removed non-encapsulated solvent molecules leaving stable hexameric capsules encapsulating solvent molecules. After exposure of the powder to solvent vapors, (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear correlation MAS ssNMR experiments were used to assign the signals of the external and encapsulated solvent molecules. The formed capsules were stable for months and the process of solvent encapsulation was reversible. According to the ssNMR experiments, the encapsulated solvent molecules occupy different sites and those sites differ in their mobility. The presented approach paves the way for studying guest exchange, guest affinity, and gas storage in hexamers of this type in the solid state.

  16. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cemal Yazici; John Losurdo; Michael D Brown; Scott Oosterveen; Robert Rahimi; Ali Keshavarzian; Leila Bozorgnia

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status.METHODS:We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005.Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure.CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses.After retrospective analysis,21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction,prior gastric surgery,endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data.Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP),70 in-patient (IP)],CE indications,findings,location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed.Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago,IL).Chi-square,t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams.RESULTS:The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years.Sixty-one percent of the study population was female,and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P =0.07).The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study.Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P =0.0001),while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P =0.002 and P =0.01,respectively).Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs.The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264OPs (P =0.04).The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001).The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to OPs,98.5 ±139.5 min vs 60.4

  17. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  18. Characterization of two WESF [Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility] capsules after five years of service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) 137Cs capsules have been analyzed destructively after five years of service in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS). The program concentrated on studies of the inner capsule, inner capsule weld areas, and analysis of the CsCl salt. No measurable corrosion was observed on the capsule wall or welds after the five years in the SIDSS Facility. The operating temperatures of the inner capsule wall were calculated to be between 140 and 180/degree/C. Radiochemistry and isotopic analyses provided data for specific activity calculations. There was good correlation between the measured calorimetry of the capsules before sectioning, 53 and 55 kCi, and the activity calculations, 54 and 59 kCi, respectively. 21 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs

  19. Effects of Toutongning capsule on enkephalin expression in a rat migraine headache model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Yao; Yuhong Man; Jingjing Qi; Tingmin Yu; Dihui Ma

    2011-01-01

    Toutongning capsule is used for the treatment of migraine headaches, and has yielded therapeutically beneficial effects. However, whether Toutongning capsule exerts its effects via endogenous opioid peptides remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of Toutongning capsule on enkephalin expression in the midbrain of rats with nitroglycerin-induced migraine headache at the mRNA and protein levels. Results confirmed that proenkephalin mRNA levels were significantly upregulated following treatment with Toutongning capsule. The numbers of methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin-positive cells were significantly greater in the migraine headache rats following treatment with Toutongning capsule compared with the model group. Taken together, these results show that Toutongning capsule exerts potentially beneficial effects by promoting enkephalin expression in nitroglycerin-induced migraine headache rats.

  20. Shuganjieyu capsule increases neurotrophic factor expression in a rat model of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Fu; Yingjin Zhang; Renrong Wu; Yingjun Zheng; Xianghui Zhang; Mei Yang; Jingping Zhao; Yong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Shuganjieyu capsule has been approved for clinical treatment by the State Food and Drug Ad-ministration of China since 2008. In the clinic, Shuganjieyu capsule is often used to treat mild to moderate depression. In the rat model of depression established in this study, Shuganjieyu capsule was administered intragastrically daily before stress. Behavioral results conifrmed that depressive symptoms lessened after treatment with high-dose (150 mg/kg) Shuganjieyu capsule. Immunohistochemistry results showed that high-dose Shuganjieyu capsule signiifcantly increased phosphorylation levels of phosphorylation cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA3 area. Overall, our results suggest that in rats, Shuganjieyu capsule effec-tively reverses depressive-like behaviors by increasing expression levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain.

  1. On the Feasibility of Steering Swallowable Microsystem Capsules Using Computer-Aided Magnetic Levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Billy; Mintchev, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Swallowable capsule endoscopy is used for non-invasive diagnosis of some gastrointestinal (GI) organs. However, control over the position of the capsule is a major unresolved issue. This study presents a design for steering the capsule based on magnetic levitation. The levitation is stabilized with the aid of a computer-aided feedback control system and diamagnetism. Peristaltic and gravitational forces to be overcome were calculated. A levitation setup was built to analyze the fe...

  2. THICKENING AND MULTILAMELLAR APPEARANCE OF THE ANTERIOR LENS CAPSULE AND RELATED FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Tsutsui; Yosmaki Nawa; Sachiko Uemura; Mitsuo Tsukamoto; Toshio Shimizu; Masaya Kominami; Yoshiaki Hara

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors (including age, sex, grade of cataract, diabetes mellitus (DM), pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma, and atopy) are correlated with thickening and/or multilamellar appearance of the anterior lens capsule. Seventy-two anterior lens capsules were obtained during cataract surgeries. They were fixed, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson-Trichrome. We measured thickness of the anterior capsules on microscopi...

  3. Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injection for the Treatment of Idiopathic Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Robert G.; Malizia, Robert W.; Kenter, Keith; Wickiewicz, Thomas L.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder of the shoulder is controversial. The hypothesis of the study is that intra-articular corticosteroid injection in the early stages of idiopathic adhesive capsulitis will lead to a razpid resolution of stiffness and symptoms. This is a retrospective cohort study of only patients with stage 1 or stage 2 adhesive capsulitis. The diagnosis was made by history and physical examination and only when other causes of pain and motion loss...

  4. Design of polymeric capsules for autonomous healing of cracks in cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    HILLOULIN, Benoit; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Gruyaert, Elke; LOUKILI, Ahmed; De Belie, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Now, most of the capsules used to contain polymeric healing agents in self-healing concrete, are made of glass. However, glass capsules cannot be mixed in concrete and are therefore placed manually into the moulds during concrete casting in laboratory tests. This represents a major drawback for an eventual industrialisation. In this study, polymeric capsules were designed to meet three requirements: breakage upon crack appearance, compatibility with the polymeric healing agent and survival...

  5. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 2000C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented

  6. Capsulation and Gene Copy Number at the cap Locus of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although more than 98% of natural isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b carry a duplication of 17 kilobases (kb) of DNA at the chromosomal capsulation locus, only one copy is required for capsulation. In one laboratory-derived and two clinical type b strains, the capsulation locus had a single copy of this 17-kb segment, together with 1.3 kb of DNA identified as lying between the repeats of the duplicated locus. This 1.3 kb appears to be crucial for capsule production, since strains lacki...

  7. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  8. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  9. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license 90SrF2 heat sources - specifically the 90SrF2 capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF 90SrF2 capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements

  10. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  11. Panning of a phage display library against a synthetic capsule for peptide ligands that bind to the native capsule of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Beer

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax with the ability to not only produce a tripartite toxin, but also an enveloping capsule comprised primarily of γ-D-glutamic acid residues. The purpose of this study was to isolate peptide ligands capable of binding to the native capsule of B. anthracis from a commercial phage display peptide library using a synthetic form of the capsule consisting of 12 γ-D-glutamic acid residues. Following four rounds of selection, 80 clones were selected randomly and analysed by DNA sequencing. Four clones, each containing a unique consensus sequence, were identified by sequence alignment analysis. Phage particles were prepared and their derived 12-mer peptides were also chemically synthesized and conjugated to BSA. Both the phage particles and free peptide-BSA conjugates were evaluated by ELISA for binding to encapsulated cells of B. anthracis as well as a B. anthracis capsule extract. All the phage particles tested except one were able to bind to both the encapsulated cells and the capsule extract. However, the peptide-BSA conjugates could only bind to the encapsulated cells. One of the peptide-BSA conjugates, with the sequence DSSRIPMQWHPQ (termed G1, was fluorescently labelled and its binding to the encapsulated cells was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. The results demonstrated that the synthetic capsule was effective in isolating phage-displayed peptides with binding affinity for the native capsule of B. anthracis.

  12. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Lee, Thay Q.; Itami, Yasuo; HASEGAWA, Akihiko; Ohue, Mutsumi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: An arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction, in which the fascia lata autograft attached medially to the superior glenoid and laterally to the greater tuberosity, restores shoulder stability and muscle balance in patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears; consequently, it improves shoulder function specifically deltoid muscle function and relieves pain. We assessed the clinical outcome of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (Figure 1) in 100 consecutive patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Specifically, we focused on the rates of return to sport and work. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, we performed arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction on 107 consecutive patients (mean 66.7 years; range, 43 to 82) with irreparable rotator cuff tears that had failed conservative treatment. Seven patients were lost to follow-up because of other medical problems or reasons. In the remaining 100 patients there were 56 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears; 39 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears; 3 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis tears; and 2 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor tears. Physical examination, radiography, and MRI were performed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and yearly thereafter. Rates of return to sport and work were also investigated in those patients who had been employed (34 patients: 21 manual workers, 10 farmers, 1 butcher, 1 cook, and 1 athletic trainer) or played sport (26 patients: 6 golf, 4 table tennis, 4 swimming, 3 martial arts, 2 baseball, 2 yoga, 1 tennis, 1 badminton, 1 skiing, 1 mountain-climbing, and 1 ground golf) before injury. Results: The average preoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was 31.6 points (range, 3.3 to 63.3 points) and the average Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 51.6 points (26.5 to 68.5 points). Average postoperative clinical outcome scores all improved significantly at final

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Mexiletine Hydrochloride in Capsules Using Bromothymol Blue

    OpenAIRE

    Aydoğmuş, Zeynep; ÇETİN, S. Müge; Tosunoğlu, Sedat

    2002-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method based on the formation of an ion-pair using bromothymol blue as ion-pair complexing reagent was developed for the determination of mexiletine hydrochloride in capsules. The ion-pair formed was highly coloured and easily extracted with dichloromethane. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 1.08--10.8 m g.ml-1 at lmax = 408 nm (r = 0.9999). The results obtained from the developed method were compared statistically with those obt...

  14. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by Xinfeng capsule: an efficacy observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄传兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of Xinfeng Capsule(XC)in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA).Methods Recruited were 80 active RA patients,who were randomly assigned to the normal control group and the treatment group,40 in each group.All patients received the same routine anti-rheumatic treatment:Methotrexate 10 mg per week;Diclofenac 50 mg when painwas obvious,twice daily.Patients in the treatment group took XC 3 tablets each time,thrice daily.All treatment lasted for 12

  15. Design of on-demand wireless capsule endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Eric W Able; Peng Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    An on-demand wireless capsule endoscope with full-digital and bidirectional communication is presented,aiming at fulfilling the requirements of micromation and micropower consumption of modern wireless endoscope.The proposed multifunctional operation and unique radio transmission system cuts down the power consumption efficiently and on-demand bidirectional communication in vitro improves the detection rate of focus.Meanwhile,gray dilatation is introduced in a bit plane that optimizes the distortion rate in the process of image recording and transmission.

  16. Effectiveness of Qiangjijianli capsule on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunmin Li; Bo Fu; Yuyan Li; DongYang; Shudong Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) and anti-AchR antibody of human myasthenia gravis are the same immune globulin.This antibody restricts the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the amount of receptor binding sites is decreased,so myasthenia gravis occurs.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action of Qiangjijianli capsule on EAMG rats.DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Acetylcholine receptors(AchR)were extracted from electric skate's electric organ which lives in the sea near Guangzhou.It had high biological activity and the protein content was 1.63 g/L.Qiangjijianli capsule (Astragalus mongholicus,Codonopsis pilosula,Atractylodes macrocephala,Angelica sinensis,Bupleurum chinense,Cairo morningglory root or leaf,Glycyrrhixa uralensis,etc.0.5 g crude drug per capsule) was bought from the Manufacturing Laboratory of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine with the Batch No.89-11-1.METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May to August 1990.①Adult female SD rats were immunized with AchR.The animals' movement condition was observed and recorded everyday. Ten rats were chosen as normal control group.and they were not given any treatment and raised normally.After modeled,20 successful rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups:treatmental group and model group. 2 mL Qiangjijianli capsule suspension(1 g)was intragastrically administrated into each rat of treatmental group for 30 days; The same amount of clean water was intragastrically administrated into the rats of model group for 30 days.(2)Serum AchR antibody was measured with ABC-ELISA method. After administration,the rats were sacrificed.The complete diaphragmatic muscle was extracted for in vitro receptor binding test

  17. Measurement of capsule heat transfer gaps using neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring heat transfer gaps from neutron radiographs. The method involves scanning the radiograph negative with a recording microdensitometer to obtain a trace of the optical density variation across the diameter of the capsule. The optical density change representing the gap is measured from the microdensitometer trace and related to the physical measurement. Heat transfer gaps from 0.061 to 0.178 cm have been determined by this technique and agree with preassembly physical measurements to plus or minus 0.005 cm.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of budesonide (Entocort EC) capsules for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsbäcker, Staffan; Andersson, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    This overview summarises available pharmacokinetic data on budesonide capsules (Entocort EC), approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate active Crohn's disease involving the ileum and/or ascending colon and for prolongation of symptom control. Budesonide is a locally-acting glucocorticosteroid with an extensive, primarily hepatic, metabolism after oral administration. It is rapidly absorbed and biotransformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A to metabolites with negligible glucocorticoid activity. Entocort EC, a pH- and time-dependent oral formulation of budesonide, was developed to optimise drug delivery to the ileum and throughout the colon. Pharmaco-scintigraphic studies have confirmed that the Entocort EC formulation delays budesonide absorption and prolongs the rate of elimination but maintains complete absorption. This improves the delivery of budesonide to the intestinal lumen relative to a plain formulation. A low systemic availability of 9-21% indicates extensive first-pass elimination. Food appears to have little impact on the absorption of budesonide from Entocort EC capsules and the pharmacokinetics are dose-proportional between 3 and 15 mg. On average, systemic availability was 2.5-fold higher in patients with cirrhosis compared with healthy controls; however, mild liver impairment had little effect on systemic exposure. Pharmacokinetics appear unaffected by gender and age, although this has not been tested in younger children. Renal impairment is not expected to have an impact on the kinetics of Entocort EC. Budesonide is unlikely to inhibit the metabolism of other drugs, including CYP3A4 substrates, mainly because of the very low plasma concentrations obtained with the compound even after high doses of Entocort trade mark EC capsules. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, will inhibit the metabolism of budesonide, resulting in several-fold increases in the area under the concentration-time curve of budesonide. Also, grapefruit juice intake

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  20. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: duan-hao@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Pei, Wenbing [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-09-15

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  1. OMOM capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yi LI; Bing-ling ZHANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; You-ming LI

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic efficiency of OMOM capsule endoscopy (CE) in a group of patients with different indications. Methods: Data from 89 consecutive patients (49 males, 40 females) with suspected small bowel disease who under-went OMOM CE (Jinshan Science and Technology Company, Chongqing, China) examination were obtained by retrospective review. The patients' indications of the disease consisted of the following: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), abdominal pain or diarrhea, partial intestinal obstruction, suspected inflammatory bowel disease, tumor of unknown origin, hypoproteinemia, constipation, weight loss, and elevated tumor markers. Results: CE failed in one patient. Visualization of the entire small bowel was achieved in 75.0%. Capsules were naturally excreted by all patients. The detection rate of abnormalities was 70.5% for pa-tients with suspected small bowel disease, and the diagnostic yield for patients with OGIB was higher than that for patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (85.7% vs 53.3%, P<0.005). Angiodysplasia was the most common small bowel finding. Active bleeding sites were noted in the small intestine in 11 cases. Conclusion: OMOM CE is a useful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of variably suspected small bowel disease, whose diagnostic efficiency is similar to that of the Pillcam SB (small bowel) CE (Given Imaging, Yoqneam, Israel).

  2. Five years' experience with capsule endoscopy in a single Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taylan Kav; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases.Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bidirectional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn's disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases.

  3. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

    2006-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  4. In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Matthew; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Zarara, Moataz; Elkordy, Eman Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective. PMID:22992055

  5. Little Joe (LJ1) after accidental launch of capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    Testing of the Little Joe booster on its launcher. The launcher is positioned at its normal launch angle of 80 degrees. Joseph Shortal wrote (vol. 3, p. 33): 'The Little Joe booster was assembled at Wallops on its special launcher in a vertical attitude. It is shown in the [on the left] with the work platform in place. The launcher was located on a special concrete slab in Launching Area 1. The capsule was lowered onto the booster by crane.... After the assembly was completed, the scaffolding was disassembled and the launcher pitched over to its normal launch angle of 80 degrees.... Little Joe had a diameter of 80 inches and an overall length, including the capsule and escape tower of 48 feet. The total weight at launch was about 43,000 pounds. The overall span of the stabilizing fins was 21.3 feet.' 'Although in comparison with the overall Mercury Project, Little Joe was a simple undertaking, the fact that an attempt was made to condense a normal two-year project into a 6-month one with in house labor turned it into a major undertaking for Langley.'

  6. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  7. Summary of the irradiation history of the TRIST-ER1 capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The TRIST-ERI capsule was assembled and irradiated in a large Removable Beryllium (RB{star}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during this reporting period. Irradiation began on March 8, 1996, was completed on June 20, 1996, during operating cycles 344, 345, and 346. This report describes the thermal operation of the capsule.

  8. Genetic Characterization of the Capsulation Locus of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype e▿

    OpenAIRE

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola; Cerquetti, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The capsulation (cap) locus of Haemophilus influenzae type e (Hie) was characterized and sequenced. No IS1016 element was found to flank the locus. The 18.2-kb locus included 14 open reading frames (ORFs), which were grouped into three functional regions. Eight new ORFs (named ecs1 to ecs8) were identified in the Hie capsule-specific region II.

  9. Cross-type optical separation of elastic oblate capsules in a uniform flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic behavior of an elastic capsule with an initially oblate spheroidal shape during cross-type optical separation was numerically investigated. The penalty immersed boundary method was adopted for the fluid-membrane interaction, and the optical force calculation was conducted by using the ray optics method including the ray-surface intersection algorithm. The oblate elastic capsule of b/a = 0.5 with different surface Young's moduli and different initial inclination angles was considered. The oblate capsule with higher surface Young's moduli was less deformed, and was more migrated for each initial inclination angle. Unlike the oblate rigid particle, the initially inclined capsules with moderate inclination angles were similarly migrated since the oblate elastic capsule was deformed during rotation near the laser beam axis. The oblate capsules can be separated according to the surface Young's modulus, except for nearly non-inclined capsules. As the fluid velocity decreased, the migration distance increased. The maximum deformation parameter was insensitive to the fluid velocity. Furthermore, a new dimensionless number (Sec) was introduced to predict the migration distance of the oblate elastic capsule

  10. Visual quality inspection of capsule heads utilizing shape and gray information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tie; Cai, Zhenlin; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-11-01

    Capsule quality inspection is important and necessary in the pharmaceutical industry. The popular methods often mis-detect capsule head defects. To solve this problem, we propose a high-quality visual defect inspection method for capsule heads. In detail, first, capsule head images are captured by high-speed cameras with ring illuminators. Then, radial symmetry transform (RST) is employed to locate region of interest (ROI). Next, the ROI image is enhanced by homomorphic filter and binarized by basic global thresholding. After that, six discriminative features of ROI are extracted, which are skeleton feature, binary density, number of connected boundaries, RST power, mean, and variance. Finally, these features are classified by support vector machine to inspect the quality of the capsule head. The experiment is carried out on a self-established capsule image database, Northeastern University Capsule Image Database Version 1.0. According to our experiment, the proposed method can detect ROI correctly for all of the capsule head images and inspection accuracy achieves a true positive rate of 100.00% and true negative rate of 100.00%.

  11. Design and fabrication of a capsule for a material irradiation in an OR hole of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the design of a capsule for a material irradiation that is supposed to be loaded in an OR test hole in HANARO. Nuclear characteristics for the test holes of HANARO were analyzed for this purpose. A test for a pressure drop and a vibration of this capsule was performed before manufacturing a material capsule suitable for an OR hole in HANARO. In the basic design, capsules with an outside diameter of 50, 52, 54, 56 mm were reviewed theoretically to establish if they met the hydraulic requirements in HANARO. It was estimated that the diameter of a capsule for an OR holes should be more than 49 mm by an evaluation of the flow rate and pressure drop in theory. After a pressure drop test, the capsules with a diameter of 54 and 56 mm were selected and the flow rates were measured in the HANARO operation conditions. Using the velocity data measured at the single channel test loop of the outer core test facility, the heat transfer coefficient was reviewed and the temperature on the surface of the capsule was evaluated to confirm that it was less than the ONB temperature. Finally, a thermal performance test was performed using a mock-up capsule made with the out-pile test results. (author)

  12. Improved Water Barrier Properties of Calcium Alginate Capsules Modified by Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Zukas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate films generally offer poor diffusion resistance to water. In this study, we present a technique for encapsulating aqueous drops in a modified calcium alginate membrane made from an emulsion of silicone oil and aqueous alginate solution and explore its effect on the loss of water from the capsule cores. The capsule membrane storage modulus increases as the initial concentration of oil in the emulsion is increased. The water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules were determined by observing the mass loss of capsules in a controlled environment. It was found that capsules made with emulsions containing 50 wt% silicone oil were robust while taking at least twice the time to dry completely as compared to capsules made from only an aqueous alginate solution. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsion also has an effect on the water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules. This study demonstrates a facile method of producing aqueous core alginate capsules with a modified membrane that improves the diffusion resistance to water and can have a wide range of applications.

  13. Tissue responses against immunoisolating alginate-PLL capsules in the immediate posttransplant period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; van Hoogmoed, CG; de Haan, BJ; Busscher, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Alginate-polylysine (PLL) capsules are commonly applied for immunoisolation of living cells for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules with failure of the grafts as a consequence. Mo

  14. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on...

  15. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, A; Dagan, O

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan-alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb(2+)/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules' ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations - copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) - was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation's affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1M nitric acid suspension for 24h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  16. What the Research Tells Us: Class Size Reduction. Information Capsule. Volume 1001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule examines the background and history in addition to research findings pertaining to class size reduction (CSR). This Capsule concludes that although educational researchers have not definitively agreed upon the effectiveness of CSR, given its almost universal public appeal, there is little doubt it is here to stay in some…

  17. Design, development and test of a compact lightweight capsule recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, G.; De Pascale, F.; Kruijff, M.; Mironov, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports about the development and test of a recovery system for small capsules, originally developed for the YES2 satellite launched in 2007, that included a miniature re-entry capsule, Fotino. The system includes a beacon and parachute, an activation system, and a compact spring-based pa

  18. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE RB spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to fabricate and operate irradiation capsules for irradiating magnetic fusion energy (MFE) first-wall materials in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) removable beryllium (RB) positions. Japanese and US MFE specimens are being transferred to RB positions following irradiation to 7.5 dpa at temperatures of 60, 200, 330, and 400C in Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) experiments ORR-MFE-6J and -7J. Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60C capsule, where the test specimens are in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, the specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a small gap region between the specimen holder and the containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330C capsules was started on July 17, 1990. As of September 30, 1991, these two capsules had completed 12 cycles of their planned 28-cycle irradiation to a damage level of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Fabrication of parts for the other two (200 and 400C capsules) is complete. Assembly of the 200 and 400C capsules is scheduled for completion in FY 1993; operation of these two capsules will follow the first two (60 and 330C)

  19. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.;

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted....... pneumoniae....

  20. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if there were any interactions between cardiac devices and small bowel capsules secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI) in patients who have undergone small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE).

  1. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  2. Development of capsule design support subprograms for 3-dimensional temperature calculation using FEM Code NISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, Masahiro; Matsui, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Prediction of irradiation temperature is one of the important issues in the design of the capsule for irradiation test. Many kinds of capsules with complex structure have been designed for recent irradiation requests, and three-dimensional (3D) temperature calculation becomes inevitable for the evaluation of irradiation temperature. For such 3D calculation, however, many works are usually needed for input data preparation, and a lot of time and resources are necessary for parametric studies in the design. To improve such situation, JAERI introduced 3D-FEM (finite element method) code NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for System Analysis) and developed several subprograms, which enabled to support input preparation works in the capsule design. The 3D temperature calculation of the capsule are able to carried out in much easier way by the help of the subprograms, and specific features in the irradiation tests such as non-uniform gamma heating in the capsule, becomes to be considered. (author)

  3. Influence of KeGan Capsule to Mice with CC14 Chronic Hepatic Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYufang

    2004-01-01

    To study the action of KeGan capsule to resist injury of hepatic cells and fibrosis of liver. Methods Rephcate model of chronic hepatic injury with CC14, at the beginning of which KeGan capsule was applied; finishing experiment, respectively tested the level of liver fimction, TP,ALB, A/G, L-hydroxyproline and liver index and do pathologic examination to fiver. Results KeGan capsule can obviously reduce the degree of fibrosis of liver and the level of L - hydroxyproline, improve the fiver function. The histological examination showed that capsule has the action of protecting hepatic cells from injury and resisting fibrosis of fiver either. Conclusion For KeGan capsule has the action of resisting injury of liver cells and fibrosis of liver, it' s hoped to be applied in precaution and treatment of fibrosis of fiver.

  4. Failure of the capsule 74F-2A for fuel compacts irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsule 74F-2A is for irradiation at 16000C for VHTR fuel compacts in JMTR. However, an irradiation with the capsule was suspended and the capsule was taken out, because the compacts temperature suddenly rose when the reactor power had reached to 40 MW and FPs gas was released from the compacts container during a reactor power decrease about 1-hour after the temperature rise. Subsequent examinations showed that the trouble was caused by sudden gas evolution from the flame-sprayed molybdenum coating on a graphite sleeve containing fuel compacts when the sleeve temperature exceeded a certain level. Described are the situation of temperature rise and FPs gas release, the abnormal phenomena viewed in design, fabrication and inspection of the capsule, the results of its dismounting in a hot cell, the gas releases from various capsule structural materials at elevated temperatures, and the cause as above revealed, and countermeasures to be taken in future. (author)

  5. Using gamma-ray emission to measure areal density of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion neutrons streaming from a burning inertial confinement fusion capsule generate gamma rays via inelastic nuclear scattering in the ablator of the capsule. The intensity of gamma-ray emission is proportional to the product of the ablator areal density (ρR) and the yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gamma rays we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of the capsule's total neutron yield. In plastic-shell capsules, for example, 12C nuclei emit gamma rays at 4.44 MeV after excitation by 14.1 MeV neutrons from D+T fusion. These gamma rays can be measured by a new gamma-ray detector under development. Analysis of predicted signals is in progress, with results to date indicating that the method promises to be useful for diagnosing imploded capsules.

  6. Engineering an iridium-containing metal-organic molecular capsule for induced-fit geometrical conversion and dual catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhao; Wu, Jinguo; Chen, Liyong; Zhong, Xiaoming; He, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chunying

    2016-08-11

    By introducing photoactive fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium moieties as a ligand backbone to constrain the coordination geometry of cobalt ions, a multifunctional Ir2Co3-type capsule was achieved and showed induced-fit capsule-capsule conversion by cooperative binding one carbonate anion with the equatorial Co(ii) centers. The capsule combined photocatalysis and transition metal activation synergistically and exhibited efficient catalytic ability on visible light-activated α-trichloromethylation. PMID:27320443

  7. Influence of different excipients on the properties of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min., while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.. Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release.

  8. Liquid-core nanocellulose-shell capsules with tunable oxygen permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, A J; Bender Koch, C; Hedenqvist, M S; Nilsson, F; Glasser, G; Baluschev, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-01-20

    Encapsulation of oxygen sensitive components is important in several areas, including those in the food and pharmaceutical sectors, in order to improve shelf-life (oxidation resistance). Neat nanocellulose films demonstrate outstanding oxygen barrier properties, and thus nanocellulose-based capsules are interesting from the perspective of enhanced protection from oxygen. Herein, two types of nanocellulose-based capsules with liquid hexadecane cores were successfully prepared; a primary nanocellulose polyurea-urethane capsule (diameter: 1.66 μm) and a bigger aggregate capsule (diameter: 8.3 μm) containing several primary capsules in a nanocellulose matrix. To quantify oxygen permeation through the capsule walls, an oxygen-sensitive spin probe was dissolved within the liquid hexadecane core, allowing non-invasive measurements (spin-probe oximetry, electron spin resonance, ESR) of the oxygen concentration within the core. It was observed that the oxygen uptake rate was significantly reduced for both capsule types compared to a neat hexadecane solution containing the spin-probe, i.e. the slope of the non-steady state part of the ESR-curve was approximately one-third and one-ninth for the primary nanocellulose capsule and aggregated capsule, respectively, compared to that for the hexadecane sample. The transport of oxygen was modeled mathematically and by fitting to the experimental data, the oxygen diffusion coefficients of the capsule wall was determined. These values were, however, lower than expected and one plausible reason for this was that the ESR-technique underestimate the true oxygen uptake rate in the present systems at non-steady conditions, when the overall diffusion of oxygen was very slow. PMID:26572358

  9. Semisolid matrix filled capsules: an approach to improve dissolution stability of phenytoin sodium formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Massik, M A; Abdallah, O Y; Galal, S; Daabis, N A

    2003-05-01

    Seven semisolid fill bases were selected for the formulation of 24 capsule formulations, each containing 100 mg of phenytoin sodium. The fill materials were selected based on the water absorption capacity of their mixtures with phenytoin sodium. The fill matrices included lipophilic bases (castor oil, soya oil, and Gelucire (G) 33/01), amphiphilic bases (G 44/14 and Suppocire BP), and water-soluble bases (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000). The drug:base ratio was 1:2. Excipients such as lecithin, docusate sodium, and poloxamer 188 were added to some formulations. The dissolution rate study indicated that formulations containing lipophilic and amphiphilic bases showed the best release profiles. These are F4 (castor oil-1% docusate sodium); F10 (castor oil-3% poloxamer 188); F14 (G33/01-10% lecithin); F17 (G33/01-1% docusate sodium), and F20 (Suppocire BP). Further, the dissolution stability of the five formulations above was assessed by an accelerated stability study at 30 degrees C and 75% RH using standard Epanutin capsules for comparison. The study included the test and standard capsules either packed in the container of marketed Epanutin capsules (packed) or removed from their outer pack (unpacked). Release data indicated superior release rates of castor oil based formulations (F4 and F10) relative to standard capsules in both the unpacked and packed forms. For instance, the extent of drug release at 30 min after 1 month was 91% for F4 and F10 and 20% for standard capsules. Drug release from packed capsules after 6 months storage was 88% for both formulations F4 and F10 and 35% for standard capsules. In conclusion, the pharmaceutical quality of phenytoin sodium capsules can be improved by using a semisolid lipophilic matrix filled in hard gelatin capsules. PMID:12779283

  10. Fabrication of Biobased Polyelectrolyte Capsules and Their Application for Glucose-Triggered Insulin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongjian; Ran, Maoshuang; Zhang, Li; Huang, He; Li, Xiaojie; Chen, Mingqing; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    To enhance the glucose sensitivity and self-regulated release of insulin, biobased capsules with glucose-responsive and competitive properties were fabricated based on poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and chitosan oligosaccharide (CS) polyelectrolytes. First, poly(γ-glutamic acid)-g-3-aminophenylboronic acid) (γ-PGA-g-APBA) and galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (GC) were synthesized by grafting APBA and lactobionic acid (LA) to γ-PGA and CS, respectively. The (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules were then prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of γ-PGA-g-APBA and GC via electrostatic interaction. The size and morphology of the particles and capsules were investigated by DLS, SEM, and TEM. The size of the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules increased with increasing glucose concentration due to the swelling of the capsules. The capsules could be dissociated at high glucose concentration due to the breaking of the cross-linking bonds between APBA and LA by the competitive reaction of APBA with glucose. The encapsulated insulin was able to undergo self-regulated release from the capsules depending on the glucose level and APBA composition. The amount of insulin release increased with incubation in higher glucose concentration and decreased with higher APBA composition. Moreover, the on-off regulation of insulin release from the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules could be triggered with a synchronizing and variation of the external glucose concentration, whereas the capsules without the LA functional groups did not show the on-off regulated release. Furthermore, the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules are biocompatible. These (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 with good stability, glucose response, and controlled insulin delivery are expected to be used for future applications to glucose-triggered insulin delivery. PMID:27210795

  11. Numerical Studies of the Effects of Water Capsules on Self-Healing Efficiency and Mechanical Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoliang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, self-healing due to further hydration of unhydrated cement particles is taken as an example for investigating the effects of capsules on the self-healing efficiency and mechanical properties of cementitious materials. The efficiency of supply of water by using capsules as a function of capsule dosages and sizes was determined numerically. By knowing the amount of water supplied via capsules, the efficiency of self-healing due to further hydration of unhydrated cement was quantified. In addition, the impact of capsules on mechanical properties was investigated numerically. The amount of released water increases with the dosage of capsules at different slops as the size of capsules varies. Concerning the best efficiency of self-healing, the optimizing size of capsules is 6.5 mm for capsule dosages of 3%, 5%, and 7%, respectively. Both elastic modulus and tensile strength of cementitious materials decrease with the increase of capsule. The decreasing tendency of tensile strength is larger than that of elastic modulus. However, it was found that the increase of positive effect (the capacity of inducing self-healing of capsules is larger than that of negative effects (decreasing mechanical properties when the dosage of capsules increases.

  12. Three-dimensional image reconstruction in capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Alexandros Karargyris

    2012-01-01

    To date,limited research has been carried out in developing methods and materials that offer three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the digestive tract.In the field of capsule endoscopy (CE),hardware approaches have been developed that provide real time both 3-D information and texture using an infrared projector and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera.The major drawbacks of this system are its size,power consumption and packaging issues.A software approach to approximate a 3-D representation of digestive tract surface utilising current CE technology has been proposed.The algorithm utilizes the Shape from Shading technique and seem to provide promising results for polypoid structures and angioectasias.Further clinical evaluation is currently under way.

  13. [Glomus tumor of volar elbow capsule. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, M; Erhard, L

    2014-02-01

    Glomus tumors are rare tumors, benign but painful and responsible for a major functional impairment. Although their preferential localization is digital, 35% of glomus tumors are extradigital. Ignorance of this disease characterized by atypical clinical signs and the absence of specific imaging are responsible for a significant diagnostic delay, 7 to 10 years in extradigital forms. Treatment by surgical excision simply ensures immediate disappearance of pain without recurrence in 90% of cases. It is therefore necessary to emphasize the existence of this sometimes debilitating condition benefiting from effective therapeutic solution. We report the case of a glomus tumor of the anterior capsule of the left elbow in a 24-year-old woman with a diagnostic delayed by 12 years. PMID:24394237

  14. Computational Hypersonic Aerodynamics with Emphasis on Earth Reentry Capsules

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    Mihai Leonida NICULESCU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The temperature in the front region of a hypersonic vehicle nose can be extremely high, for example, reaching approximately 11 000 K at a Mach number of 36 (Apollo reentry due to the bow shock wave. In this case, accurate prediction of temperature behind the shock wave is necessary in order to precisely estimate the wall heat flux. A better prediction of wall heat flux leads to smaller safety coefficient for thermal shield of space reentry vehicle; therefore, the size of thermal shield decreases and the payload could increase. However, the accurate prediction of temperature behind the bow shock wave implies the use of a precise chemical model whose partial differential equations are added to Navier-Stokes equations. This second order partial differential system is very difficult to be numerically integrated. For this reason, the present paper deals with the computational hypersonic aerodynamics with chemical reactions with the aim of supporting Earth reentry capsule design.

  15. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. PMID:27150251

  16. Patch-Augmented Rotator Cuff Repair and Superior Capsule Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, M.; Greenspoon, J.A.; Moulton, S.G.; Millett, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears in active patients with minimal glenohumeral arthritis remain a particular challenge for the treating surgeon. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: For patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears, a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer are often performed. However, both procedures have rather high complication rates and debatable long-term results, particularly in younger patients. Therefore, patch-augmented rotator cuff repair or superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) have been recently developed as arthroscopically applicable treatment options, with promising biomechanical and early clinical results. Conclusion: For younger patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears wishing to avoid tendon transfers or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, both patch-augmentation and SCR represent treatment options that may delay the need for more invasive surgery.

  17. The measurement of capsule heat transfer gaps using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    The use of neutron radiographs to determine dimensional changes of heat transfer gaps in cylindrical nuclear fueled capsules is described. A method was developed which involves scanning a very fine grained neutron radiograph negative with a recording microdensitometer. The output of the densitometer is recorded on graph paper and the heat transfer gap is plotted as a well-defined optical density change. Calibration of the recording microdensitometer ratio arms permits measurements to be made of the heat transfer optical density change from the microdensitometer trace. Total heat transfer gaps, measured by this method, agree with the physical measurements within plus or minus 0.005 cm over a range of gaps from 0.061 to 0.178 cm.

  18. Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Images using Local Binary Patterns

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    Adriana Florentina CONSTANTINESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy, the gold standard in the screening and diagnosis of small bowel diseases, is one of the most recent investigations for gastrointestinal pathology. This examination has the advantages of being non-invasive, painless, with a large clinical yield, especially for small bowel diseases, but also some disadvantages. The long time necessary for reading and interpreting all frames acquired is one of these disadvantages. This inconvenient could be improved through different methods by using software applications. In this study we have used a software application for texture analysis based on local binary pattern (LBP operator. This operator detects and removes non-informative frames in a first step, then identifies potential lesions. Our study group consisted of 33 patients from the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Centre Craiova and from the 1st Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Clinic from the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova. The patients included in the study have corresponded to our inclusion criteria established. The exclusion criteria were represented by the contraindications of the capsule endoscopy. In the first phase of the study, we have removed the non-informative frames from the original videos obtained, and we have acquired an average reduction of 6.96% from the total number of images. In the second phase, using the same LBP operator, we have correctly identified 93.16% of telangiectasia lesions. Our study demonstrated that software applications based on LBP operator can lead to a shorter analysis time, by reducing the overall frames number, and can also provide support in diagnosis.

  19. Capsule endoscopy: Improving transit time and image view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zvi Fireman; D Paz; Y Kopelman

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of various methods of small bowel preparation on the transit time and the quality of visualization of the entire small bowel mucosa.METHODS: Ninety-five patients underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) by easily swallowing the capsule. They were divided into three study groups according to the preparation used: group A (n = 26) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) liter or with sodium phosphate (SP) 12 h prior to the CE study; group B (n = 29) by erythromycin 1 h prior to the CE study; and group C (n = 40) without any preparation. Visualization ranged from good to satisfactory to poor.RESULTS: The gastric emptying time in the group prepared with erythromycin was shorter but without statistical significance and the small bowel transit time was unaffected. In elderly subjects prepared by PEG or SP, the gastric emptying time was significantly longer (163.7 min, P = 0.05). The transit times of the three sub-groups were not affected by gender or pathology.The grade of cleaning of the entire study group was 3.27±1.1. The erythromycin group presented significantly the worst quality of images (P = 0.05) compared to the other sub-groups. Age, gender, and pathology had no effect on the quality of the cleaning of the small bowel in the sub-groups. One (1.05%) case had no natural excretion.CONCLUSION: Erythromycin markedly reduces gastric emptying time, but has a negative effect on the quality of the image in the small bowel. The preparation of elderly subjects with PEG or SP has a negative effect on the small bowel transit time.

  20. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2015-12-01

    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively. PMID:26350415

  1. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2015-12-01

    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively.

  2. A discrete-time localization method for capsule endoscopy based on on-board magnetic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent achievements in active capsule endoscopy have allowed controlled inspection of the bowel by magnetic guidance. Capsule localization represents an important enabling technology for such kinds of platforms. In this paper, the authors present a localization method, applied as first step in time-discrete capsule position detection, that is useful for establishing a magnetic link at the beginning of an endoscopic procedure or for re-linking the capsule in the case of loss due to locomotion. The novelty of this approach consists in using magnetic sensors on board the capsule whose output is combined with pre-calculated magnetic field analytical model solutions. A magnetic field triangulation algorithm is used for obtaining the position of the capsule inside the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental validation has demonstrated that the proposed procedure is stable, accurate and has a wide localization range in a volume of about 18 × 103 cm3. Position errors of 14 mm along the X direction, 11 mm along the Y direction and 19 mm along the Z direction were obtained in less than 27 s of elaboration time. The proposed approach, being compatible with magnetic fields used for locomotion, can be easily extended to other platforms for active capsule endoscopy

  3. X-ray drive of beryllium capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Olson, R. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Celliers, P. M.; Schneider, M. B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S.

    2016-05-01

    National Ignition Facility experiments with beryllium capsules have followed a path begun with “high-foot” plastic capsule implosions. Three shock timing keyhole targets, one symmetry capsule, a streaked backlit capsule, and a 2D backlit capsule were fielded before the DT layered shot. After backscatter subtraction, laser drive degradation is needed to match observed X-ray drives. VISAR measurements determined drive degradation for the picket, trough, and second pulse. Time dependence of the total Dante flux reflects degradation of the of the third laser pulse. The same drive degradation that matches Dante data for three beryllium shots matches Dante and bangtimes for plastic shots N130501 and N130812. In the picket of both Be and CH hohlraums, calculations over-estimate the x-ray flux > 1.8 keV by ∼100X, while calculating the total flux correctly. In beryllium calculations these X-rays cause an early expansion of the beryllium/fuel interface at ∼3 km/s. VISAR measurements gave only ∼0.3 km/s. The X-ray drive on the Be DT capsule was further degraded by an unplanned decrease of 9% in the total picket flux. This small change caused the fuel adiabat to rise from 1.8 to 2.3. The first NIF beryllium DT implosion achieved 29% of calculated yield, compared to CH capsules with 68% and 21%.

  4. Fibrous capsule formation of the peritoneal catheter tip in ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Two case reports

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    Tomoaki Kano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A fibrous capsule formation of a peritoneal catheter tip has not previously been researched as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunts. Case Description: Two adult patients who had undergone a VP shunt for communicative hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm have been identified with malfunction of the VP shunt system by mild disturbance of consciousness and gait disturbance or loss of appetite. Hydrocephalus was diagnosed by computed tomography and the obstruction of the peritoneal catheter was revealed by shuntgraphy. Laparoscopy was performed and the peritoneal catheter tips were obstructed by fibrous white capsules that covered them. One was a thin membranous capsule like a stocking with two small endoluminal granulomas of the peritoneal catheter, and other one was a fibrous glossy white capsule like a sock. These fibrous capsules were excised by laparoscopy forceps without the conversion to a new peritoneal catheter. Following the procedure, the shunt functioned normally. The pathological diagnoses were peritoneum with foreign body reaction or hyalinization of membranous tissue surrounded by fibrous tissue. Conclusion: These fibrous capsules might be formed by the peritoneal reaction to cerebrospinal fluid as a foreign material. As such, a periodic medical check should be scheduled since a fibrous capsule of the peritoneal catheter tip might be formed again.

  5. Capsule 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Jing Peng; Ping-I Hsu; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ren-Shyan Liu; Shui-Cheng Lee; Daw-Guey Tsay; Ching-Chu Lo; Huei-Hwa Tseng; Wen-Keui Huang; Gin-Ho Lo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the accuracy of capsule 13C-urea breath test (UBT) with conventional invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: One hundred patients received CLO test,histological examination, culture and 100- or 50-mg capsule UBT for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection. Hpylori infection was defined as those with positive culture or positive results from both histology and CLO test.RESULTS: Both the sensitivity and specificity of the 100-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the 50-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 96.4and 100%, respectively. Taken together, the accuracy of capsule UBT (n=100) was higher than that of CLO test,histology and culture (100% vs 92%, 91% and 89%,respectively; P= 0.035, 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Our data showed that the optimal timing of sampling for 100-and 50-mg capsule UBT was 15-30 and 6-15 min, respectively.CONCLUSION: Capsule UBT has a higher accuracy compared with biopsy-based tests. It is an ideal method for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection.

  6. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  7. Fabrication and irradiation of HFIR-MFE-JP-17, -18, and -19 target irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to fabricate and irradiate capsules for testing magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactor candidate first-wall materials in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target positions. Japanese and US test specimens are being irradiated to determine fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels and a few chromium ferritic steels and high heat flux alloys after irradiation to 3 dpa at temperatures of 60-125 and 250-300C. Fabrication and irradiation of three new uninstrumented HFIR target capsules for testing 12.5-mm-diameter stainless steel fracture toughness specimens to a damage level of approximately 3 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures of 60-125 and 250-300C are proceeding satisfactorily. Two low temperature capsules of identical design, designated HFIR-MFE-JP-18 and HFIR-MFE-JP-19, each contain 32 fracture toughness specimens directly cooled by reactor cooling water. Irradiation of these two capsules is nearing completion. A single helium-filled elevated temperature capsule, designated HFIR-MFE-JP-17, will contain a stack of 86 fracture toughness specimens. Additional neutronic calculations were required for this experiment to insure that it will not cause unacceptable neutron flux shifting and hot spots in HFIR fuel regions. Irradiation of this capsule is scheduled to start in late November, 1991. Included in each capsule are companion transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SS-3 tensile specimens for correlation of microstructural, tensile, and fracture toughness properties

  8. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE-RB spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to fabricate and operate irradiation capsules for irradiating magnetic fusion energy (MFE) candidate first-wall materials in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) removable beryllium (RB*) positions. Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB* capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400 C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60 C capsule, where the test specimens are in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a thin gas gap region between the specimen holder and containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330 C capsules was started on July 17, 1990. As of March 31, 1992, these two capsules had completed 17 cycles of their planned 22-cycle (formerly 28-cycle) irradiation to a damage level of approximately 17.5 displacements per atom (dpa). Assembly of the 200 and 400 C capsules is scheduled for completion in August, 1992; operation of these two capsules will follow the first two (60 and 330 C)

  9. Effects of compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of naval servicemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-zhong ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of the compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of the naval servicemen during military activity. Methods  The subjects included 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the amino acids capsule group and placebo group (n=50. Under the condition of military operations, either amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained or placebo capsule was given for 14 days continuously. The humoral immune indices, i.e., IgG, IgA, IgM, and complements C3 and C4, were measured with immunoturbidimetry. The percentage of peripheral blood CD subsets was measured using flow cytometry on the first day and 14th day. Results  The levels of IgG, IgM, and complement C3 in the capsule group were significantly higher on the 14th day than on the first day (P+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3-CD19+ B lymphocytes in the capsule group on the 14th day were higher than those on the first day, whereas the CD3-CD56+ NK lymphocytes decreased significantly (PConclusion  Compound amino acids capsule can improve the humoral and cellular immunological function of naval servicemen.

  10. Effect of Low Dose of Mifeprostone in Capsules combined with Misoprostol on Termination of Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄紫蓉; 王巧风; 杜明昆; 王卫芳; 顾林金

    2001-01-01

    Objective In this double-blind randomized trial, we compare the effect of 75 mg mifeprostone in capsules on termination of early pregnancy was compared with that of 150 mg in tablets combined with misoprostol. Methods A total of 160 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 80 for each group. The capsule group was administered with mifeprostone 75 mg in capsules,placebo tablets and misoprostol 0. 6 mg. The tablet group was administered with mifeprostone 150 mg in tablets, placebo capsules and misoprostol 0. 6 mg.Results The complete abortion rate in the capsule group and in the tablet group was 98. 8% and 97. 5% respectively, with no significant difference (P> 0. 05). There were no significant differences in bleeding time after abortion, side effects, recovery of menstruation or length of menstrual period between the two groups.Conclusion The clinical effect of mifeprostone capsule is the same with that of tablet in combination with misoprostol in terminating early pregnancy, while dose and cost is lower and the side effect is smaller. Mi feprostone capsule is recommended to be widely used for terminating early pregnancy.

  11. Diameter prediction mathematical models for xanthan gum-alginate capsules produced by extrusion-dripping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the applicability of particle diameter prediction mathematical models (i.e. Tate's Law equation, the modified Tate's Law equation, the modified Yildirim's model) to determine diameter of liquid core capsules. The capsules were produced by extruding xanthan gum-calcium chloride solution through a hypodermic needle into sodium alginate solution. The effects of two types of xanthan gum with different concentrations and needle diameters on capsule diameter were investigated in this work. The results showed that there was no significant difference in capsule diameter despite different types and concentrations of xanthan gum were used. However, the diameter of the capsules increased when the diameter of needles increased. As a whole, the produced capsules were in the range of 3.47 mm to 4.86 mm. Among the three studied prediction models, the modified Tate's Law mathematical equation was the most suitable model for the diameter prediction of the liquid core capsules with AAD of 2.74% and MAD of 6.55%.

  12. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine (131I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. Aim: A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. Materials and Methods: In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Results: Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. Conclusions: The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations. PMID:27385885

  13. Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Laura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM. Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children Methods Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes. Results Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes; at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis was cultured from 65.9% (60/91 of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes were non-capsulated (NTHi and 31.4% (11/35 episodes were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples. NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7% from recurrent episodes. Conclusions We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM.

  14. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Parham, T. G.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO2) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented.

  15. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  16. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1997-01-01

    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  17. Genetic Analysis of the Capsule Locus of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f

    OpenAIRE

    Satola, Sarah W.; Patricia L Schirmer; Farley, Monica M.

    2003-01-01

    A 19-kb DNA region containing genes involved in the biosynthesis of the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f (Hif) has been cloned and characterized. The Hif cap locus organization is typical of group II capsule biosynthetic loci found in other H. influenzae serotype b bacteria and other gram-negative bacteria. However, the Hif cap locus was not associated with an IS1016 element. Three new open reading frames, Fcs1, Fcs2, and Fcs3, were identified in the Hif capsule-specific region II...

  18. Visualization study of the shrinkage void distribution in thermal energy storage capsules of different geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revankar, Shripad T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Croy, Travis [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID 83404-5558 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The presence of concentrated shrinkage voids in thermal energy storage systems employing encapsulated phase change material can cause serious problems when one attempts to melt the solidified phase change material for the next thermal cycle. Experiments were performed and void-formation phenomena with rectangular flat plate, spherical, and torus shape capsules were investigated. The initial void growth, distribution and the total void in the capsule were photographically studied from transparent capsules using cyclohexane, hexadecane, butanediol and octadecane as phase change materials. The observations on freezing process and the shrinkage void distribution are presented. (author)

  19. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, S.; Ghosh, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2%) from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk). The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano...

  20. Hot dense capsule-implosion cores produced by Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot dense capsule implosions driven by Z-pinch x rays have been measured using a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum to implode 1.7-2.1 mm diameter gas-filled CH capsules. The capsules absorbed up to ∼20 kJ of x rays. Argon tracer atom spectra were used to measure the Te∼1 keV electron temperature and the ne∼1-4x1023 cm-3 electron density. Spectra from multiple directions provide core symmetry estimates. Computer simulations agree well with the peak emission values of Te, ne, and symmetry, indicating reasonable understanding of the hohlraum and implosion physics

  1. Capsule Ablator Inflight Performance Measurements Via Streaked Radiography Of ICF Implosions On The NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Mackinnon, A.; MacPhee, A.; Meezan, N.; Olson, R.; Hicks, D.; LePape, S.; Izumi, N.; Fournier, K.; Barrios, M. A.; Ross, S.; Pak, A.; Döppner, T.; Kalantar, D.; Opachich, K.; Rygg, R.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B.; LaFortune, K.; Widmayer, C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, J.; Moses, E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data delivers good accuracy in implosion metrics that meets our requirements for ignition and agrees with recently introduced 2-dimensional pinhole radiography. Calculations match measured trajectory across various capsule designs and laser drives when the peak laser power is reduced by 20%. Furthermore, calculations matching measured trajectories give also good agreement in ablator shell thickness and remaining mass.

  2. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaviarasan T; Siva Sankar R; Yogamoorthi A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.

  3. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Maeng, W. Y.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Jung, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Jun, Y. K.; Yang, S. H.

    1997-08-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  4. Status for development of a capsule and instruments for high-temperature irradiation in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the reactors planned in the Gen-IV program will be operated at high temperature and under high neutron flux, the requirements for irradiation of materials at high temperature are recently being gradually increased. The irradiation tests of materials in HANARO up to the present have been performed usually at temperatures below 300degC at which the RPV materials of the commercial reactors are being operated. To overcome the restriction for high-temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule with double thermal media composed of two kinds of materials such as Al-Ti and Al-graphite was designed and fabricated as a more advanced capsule than the single thermal media capsule. (author)

  5. Status of DOE/JAERI collaborative program phase II and phase III capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, J.E.; Lenox, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ioka, I.

    1996-04-01

    During this reporting period, the HFIR-MFE-RB-200J-1 spectrally tailored capsules were disassembled and the individual specimens recovered, sorted, and identified. Tensile testing and irradiation creep measurements will be performed during the next reporting period.

  6. Disassembly of irradiated lithium-bonded capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.

    1996-04-01

    Capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens from irradiation experiments in FFTF and EBR-II are being processed to remove the lithium bond and retrieve the specimens for testing. The work has progressed smoothly.

  7. Semen controlled-release capsules allow a single artificial insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, D; Faustini, M; Villani, S; Orsini, F; Bucco, M; Chlapanidas, T; Conte, U; Ellis, K; Torre, M L

    2009-09-01

    Controlled-release capsules containing boar spermatozoa were developed to extend the preservation time of spermatozoa and maximize the efficiency of a single artificial insemination. A large trial (4245 sows) was performed with these capsules using double/triple conventional artificial insemination as a control. The effect of treatment on pregnancy diagnosis, delivery, and born piglets was investigated, with allowance being made for considering season, spermatozoa amount, and the weaning-to-estrus interval as confounding variables. The same pregnancy rate and prolificacy were obtained by two insemination techniques, and a higher parturition frequency was reached with capsules. The reproductive performance in pigs has therefore been optimized by a single instrumental insemination with controlled-release capsules. PMID:19505716

  8. Networks of fibers and factors: regulation of capsule formation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Mayer, François L; Sánchez-León, Eddy; de S Araújo, Glauber R; Frases, Susana; Kronstad, James W

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals is due in large part to elaboration of a capsule consisting of polysaccharide fibers. The size of the cell-associated capsule is remarkably responsive to a variety of environmental and host conditions, but the mechanistic details of the regulation, synthesis, trafficking, and attachment of the polysaccharides are poorly understood. Recent studies reveal a complex network of transcription factors that influence capsule elaboration in response to several different signals of relevance to disease (e.g., iron deprivation). The emerging complexity of the network is consistent with the diversity of conditions that influence the capsule and illustrates the responsiveness of the fungus to both the environment and mammalian hosts. PMID:27516877

  9. Long-duration life tests of slip ring capsule assemblies for inertial guidance platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, S. R.; Glossbrenner, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    Eight slip ring capsules, each having 80 or 100 circuits, were operated for time periods ranging from 14,300 hours to 24,700 hours. The test mode simulated the motion of gimbal axes of the Saturn inertial guidance the platform in an organic free nitrogen environment. Computer-compiled noise data (approximately 45,000 recordings) were graphed as a function of test time and position within the capsules and as extreme probability distributions. Greater than ninety-nine percent of the noise measurements for the capsules with sufficient lubrication were less than 10 milliohms. Capsules with glass dielectrics did not perform significantly differently than those with filled epoxy dielectrics. The initial wear mode of prow formation was followed by rider wear. After 10 to the 8th power wipes, ring wear depth did not exceed the surface finish and the radial rider wear depth was less than 13 microns.

  10. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What’s on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today’s standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years. PMID:26457013

  11. Using gamma-ray emission to measure areal density of ICF capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Nelson M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Douglas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hermann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Carlton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Fusion neutrons streaming from a burning ICF capsule generate gamma rays via nuclear inelastic scattering in the ablator of the capsule. The intensity of gamma-ray emission is proportional to the product of the ablator areal density ('{rho}R') and the yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gamma rays we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of the capsule's total neutron yield. In plastic-shell capsules, for example, {sup 12}C nuclei emit gamma rays at 4.44 MeV after excitation by 14.1-MeV neutrons from D+T fusion. These gamma rays can be measured by the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) experiment being built at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A linear error analysis indicates the chief sources of uncertainty in inferred areal density.

  12. Biocompatible multilayer capsules engineered with a graphene oxide derivative: synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mercato, Loretta L.; Guerra, Flora; Lazzari, Gianpiero; Nobile, Concetta; Bucci, Cecilia; Rinaldi, Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of graphene mechanics and for novel (bio)technological applications. However, the assembly of 3D complexes from graphene or its derivatives is challenging because of its poor stability under biological conditions. In this work, we attempted to integrate a layer of graphene oxide derivative into the shell of biodegradable capsules by exploiting a facile layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol. As a first step we optimized the LbL protocol to obtain colloidal suspensions of isolated capsules embedding the graphene oxide derivative. As a following step, we investigated in detail the morphological properties of the hybrid capsules, and how the graphene oxide derivative layer influences the porosity and the robustness of the multilayer composite shells. Finally, we verified the uptake of the capsules modified with the GO derivative by two cell lines and studied their intracellular localization and biocompatibility. As compared to pristine capsules, the graphene-modified capsules possess reduced porosity, reduced shell thickness and a higher stability against osmotic pressure. They show remarkable biocompatibility towards the tested cells and long-term colloidal stability and dispersion. By combining the excellent mechanical properties of a graphene oxide derivative with the high versatility of the LbL method, robust and flexible biocompatible polymeric capsules with novel characteristics have been fabricated.Graphene-based capsules have strong potential for a number of applications, including drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, sensors, catalysis and reactors. The ability to integrate graphene into carrier systems with three-dimensional (3D) geometry may open new perspectives

  13. Tunable capsule space: self-assembly of hemispherical cavitands with hydrogen-bonding linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masamichi; Ishii, Kei; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2006-11-10

    Fine and/or drastic tuning of capsule space has been attained by alteration of the hydrogen-bonding linker and/or hemispherical cavitand, respectively. Two molecules of tetracarboxyl-cavitand 1 or tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-cavitand 2 as a hemisphere and four molecules of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP) or tetrahydro-2-pyrimidinone (THP) as an equatorial hydrogen-bonding linker self-assemble into a capsule [(1)2.(2-AP)4] (3), [(1)2.(THP)4] (4), [(2)2.(2-AP)4] (5), or [(2)2.(THP)4] (6), respectively, via 16 hydrogen bonds. These capsules provide isolated nanospace and can encapsulate one guest molecule (7-13) in solution. Each capsule has a different cavity size and shows particular guest selectivity on the competitive encapsulation experiments. PMID:17081009

  14. The Preliminary Study of Interferon-γGene Transfection to Human Tenon's Capsule Fibroblasts in Vitro#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqing Lan; Jian Ge; Mingkai Lin; Jianliang Zheng; Huiyi Chen; Haiquan Liu; Jing Wei; Yanyan Li

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the results of the interferon-gamma(IFN-y) gene transfer and transient expression in human Tenon's capsule fibroblast in vitro in order to find a way to gene therapy in vivo. Method: Using LipofectAMINE, IFN-γ gene was transferred in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts with plasmid pcDNA3 IFN-y. Its mRNA transcription and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry assay respectively.Result: The human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts transferred the IFN-γgene can express the IFN-γin transcription and protein level transiently.Conclusion: IFN-γ gene can be transferred successfully and expressed efficiently in human tenon's capsule fibroblast in vitro.

  15. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors

  16. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L., E-mail: luisa.torsi@uniba.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Ligonzo, T. [Department of Physics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Palazzo, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Center of Colloid and Surface Science—CSGI—Bari Unit, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  17. Polishing and local planarization of plastic spherical capsules using tumble finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, T.I., E-mail: suratwala1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Steele, W.A.; Feit, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Moreno, K. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stadermann, M.; Fair, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chen, K.; Nikroo, A.; Youngblood, K. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumble finishing method for achieving local planarization on capsules is performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Domes surface defects were observed to locally planarize after polishing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A material removal model based on spherical-spherical Hertzian contacts is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dome convergence model based on workpiece-lap mismatch is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated evolution of isolated domes compare well with the experimental data. - Abstract: A new method (a variant of tumble finishing) for polishing and achieving local planarization on precision spherical, plastic capsules is described. Such capsules have niche applications, such as ablators used in high-peak-power laser targets for fusion energy research. The as-manufactured ablators contain many shallow domes (many 100's of nm high and a few 10's of {mu}m wide) on the outer surface which are undesirable due to contributions to instabilities during implosion. These capsules were polished (i.e., tumble finished) by rotating a cylindrical vial containing the capsule, many borosilicate glass or zirconia media, and an aqueous-based colloidal silica polishing slurry. During tumble finishing, the relative media/capsule motions cause multiple, random sliding spherical-spherical Hertzian contacts, resulting in material removal, and possibly plastic deformation, on the capsule. As a result, the domes were observed to locally planarize (i.e., converge to lower heights). Utilizing the correct kinematics (i.e., the characteristics of the media/capsule motions), as controlled by the vial rotation rate and the fill fraction of media and slurry, the high velocity downward circumferential media motions were avoided, preventing fracturing of the fragile capsules. Also, the resulting post-polished surface roughness on the capsule was found to scale with the initial media surface roughness. Hence, pre

  18. SMAC — A Modular Open Source Architecture for Medical Capsule Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Beccani; Ekawahyu Susilo; Christian Di Natali; Pietro Valdastri

    2014-01-01

    The field of Medical Capsule Robots (MCRs) is gaining momentum in the robotics community, with applications spanning from abdominal surgery to gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. MCRs are miniature multifunctional devices usually constrained in both size and on-board power supply. The design process for MCRs is time consuming and resource intensive, as it involves the development of custom hardware and software components. In this work, we present the STORM Lab Modular Architecture for Capsules ...

  19. Validation of the quality control method for sodium dicloxacillin in Dicloxen capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium dicloxacillin is a semi synthetic derivative of the isoxasocyl penicillin group that may appear in oral suspension form and in caplets. For the analysis of the raw materials and the finished products, it is recommended to use high performance liquid chromatography that is an unavailable method at the dicloxen capsule manufacturing lab for the routine analysis of the drug. To develop and to validate a useful ultraviolet spectrophotometry method for the quality control of sodium dicloxacillin in Dicloxen capsules

  20. [Histopathological techniques for diagnosing cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzoni, Alexandra Flávia; Pegas, Karla Lais; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2008-01-01

    A case of cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus is presented, in which culturing of the clinical specimen and tests for capsular antigen in cerebrospinal fluid and serum were negative. The histopathological techniques evaluated were hematoxylin-eosin, Grocott methenamine silver, Mayers mucicarmine and Fontana-Masson. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus was confirmed by means of the Fontana-Masson technique and by direct immunofluorescence. The potential of the histochemical techniques is discussed. PMID:18368276

  1. The role of capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyun Mi; Park, Chan Hyuk; Lee, Jin Ha; Kim, Bo Kyung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Hong, Sung Pil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joon Seok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative computed tomographic (CT) enterography. We retrospectively included 30 patients with OGIB who received capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography. The median age of the patients was 60 years, and 60% of patients were male. The median follow-up duration was 8 months. Overt bleeding was 60%, and occult bleeding was 40%. Based on capsule endoscopy results, a definitive diagnosis was made for 17 patients (57%): ulcer in nine patients (30%), active bleeding with no identifiable cause in five (17%), angiodysplasia in two (7%) and Dieulafoy's lesion in one (3%). Two patients with jejunal ulcers were diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Seven patients (41%) with positive capsule endoscopy received double balloon enteroscopy and two patients (12%) received steroid treatment for Crohn's disease. Patients with overt bleeding, a previous history of bleeding, or who received large amounts of blood transfusions were more likely to show positive capsule endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yields in patients with OGIB after negative CT enterography and may help to provide further therapeutic plans for patients with OGIB and negative CT enterography. circle CT enterography has been widely used in evaluating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). circle Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yield for OGIB after negative CT enterography. circle Negative CT enterography does not exclude important causes of small bowel bleeding. circle Most lesions missed at CT-enterography are flat and can be detected by capsule endoscopy. (orig.)

  2. Capsule endoscopy and push enteroscopy in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈之铮; 胡运彪; 萧树东

    2004-01-01

    Background In obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, it is often difficult to detect the bleeding sites located in the small bowel with conventional radiological, scintigraphic or angiographic techniques. Push enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy are currently considered to be the most effective diagnostic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the detection rates between capsule endoscopy and push enteroscopy. Methods From May 2002 through January 2003, we prospectively examined by capsule endoscopy 39 patients with suspected small bowel diseases, in particular GI bleeding of unknown origin in Renji Hospital. Among them, 32 complained of obscure recurrent GI bleeding. Between January 1993 and October 1996, we used push enteroscopy on 36 patients who suffered from unexplained GI bleeding. All patients had prior normal results on gastroscopy, colonoscopy, small bowel barium radiography, scintigraphy and/or angiography. Results M2A capsule endoscopy disclosed abnormal small bowel findings in 26 (82%) out of 32 patients. Twenty-one of them had significant pathological findings explaining their clinical disorders. Diagnostic yield was therefore 66% (21 of 32 patients). Definite bleeding sites diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in 21 patients included angiodysplasia (8), inflammatory small-bowel (5), small-bowel polyps (4), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (2), carcinoid tumour and lipoma (1), and hemorrhagic gastritis (1). Push enteroscopy detected the definite sources of bleeding in 9 (25%) of the 36 patients. Patients with definite bleeding sources included angiodysplasias (2), leiomyosarcoma (2), leiomyoma (1), lymphoma (1), Crohn's disease (1), small-bowel polyps (1) and adenocarcinoma of ampulla (1). Suspected bleeding sources were shown by push enteroscopy in two additional patients (6%), and in other five patients (16%) by capsule endoscopy.Conclusions The present study of patients with obscure GI bleeding showed that capsule endoscopy significantly superior

  3. How Does A Porous Shell Collapse? Delayed Buckling And Guided Folding Of Inhomogeneous Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sujit S.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R; Weitz, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy's law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  4. Lateral migration of an elastic capsule by optical force in a uniform flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-12-01

    The lateral migration of an elastic capsule under an optical force in a uniform flow was studied to show the separation characteristics according to the elastic properties in the cross-type optical separator. The initially spherical capsule was moved through the fluid flow using a laser beam with a Gaussian distribution focused along the direction normal to the flow device surface. To simulate such a system, a penalty immersed boundary method was adopted to enable fluid-membrane coupling, and a dynamic ray tracing method was applied to the optical force calculation. The effects of the elastic properties of the capsule membrane (the surface Young's modulus and the bending modulus) on the lateral migration were studied. By increasing the surface Young's modulus, the capsule deformed less and the migration distance increased; however, buckling occurred in the capsule with a high surface Young's modulus. Buckling could be suppressed by increasing the bending rigidity. The effects of the flow velocity and the laser beam power were also examined. In the simulation, the S number, i.e., the ratio of the optical force to the viscous force, was adjusted by decreasing the flow velocity or increasing the laser beam power. The migration distance increased as the S number increased, and a constant lateral migration distance was obtained for a rigid particle for a given S number. An elastic capsule under conditions intermediate between a fixed flow velocity and a fixed laser beam power, however, did not yield a constant lateral migration distance due to the extent of the deformation in the different situations. To predict the lateral migration distance of an elastic capsule, a nondimensional parameter, S_{e}, was defined to include the effects of the optical force, the elastic force, and the fluid viscous force. A unified tendency of the lateral migration distance with S_{e} was obtained for capsules with intermediate elasticity, by varying either the flow velocity or the laser

  5. An embryo of protocells: The capsule of graphene with selective ion channels

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhan; Wang, Chunmei; Tian, Longlong; Bai, Jing; Yao, Huijun; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Cao, Shiwei; Qi, Wei; Wang, Suomin; Shi, Keliang; Xu, Youwen; Mingliang, Zhang; Liu, Bo; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of artificial cell is a route for searching the origin of protocell. Here, we create a novel cell model of graphene capsules with selective ion channels, indicating that graphene might be an embryo of protocell membrane. Firstly, we found that the highly oxidized graphene and phospholipid-graphene oxide composite would curl into capsules under a strongly acidic saturated solution of heavy metallic salt solution at low temperature. Secondly, L-amino acids exhibited higher reactiv...

  6. Coracoid pain test: a new clinical sign of shoulder adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Carbone; Gumina, S.; Vestri, A. R.; Postacchini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with adhesive capsulitis were clinically evaluated to establish whether pain elicited by pressure on the coracoid area may be considered a pathognomonic sign of this condition. The study group included 85 patients with primary adhesive capsulitis, 465 with rotator cuff tear, 48 with calcifying tendonitis, 16 with glenohumeral arthritis, 66 with acromioclavicular arthropathy and 150 asymptomatic subjects. The test was considered positive when pain on the coracoid region was more sever...

  7. Investigation of various factors affecting encapsulation on the in-cap automatic capsule-filling machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Renuka; Vemuri, Murti; Agrawala, Praful; Kim, Soo-il

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence fill weight and weight variability of capsules produced on the In-Cap and to assess any differences in terms of capsule defects between gelatin and HPMC (Quali-V) shells. The In-Cap is an automatic tamping type capsule-filling machine and the low output of approximately 3000 capsules/hour makes it ideal for early formulation development and phase I/IIa clinical supplies manufacture. Four commonly used excipients (Avicel PH101, Avicel PH302, A-Tab, and Prosolv HD90) and a poorly flowing drug blend were encapsulated at various pin settings and powder bed heights. The average fill weight and coefficient of weight variation were determined. The percentage of defective capsules formed during encapsulation was calculated. Results of the study showed that pin setting was critical for controlling the fill weight and the weight variation. The order of pin setting with pin 1 (closer to the powder chute) set to a relatively higher position and pin 4 (before ejection) set to a lower position was found to give higher fill weights with relatively lower weight variability. The powder bed height influenced the fill weight for poorly flowing powders. The capsule machine speed did not appear to significantly influence the fill weight. The fill weight and weight variation were found to depend on the flow property of the material. A large percentage of defective capsules was obtained using HPMC shell size #00. Some of the commonly observed defects included split caps and improperly closed filled capsules. In general, appropriate selection of pin settings and bed height can reduce the weight variability seen, especially with poorly flowing high-dose formulations. PMID:15760054

  8. Comparative analysis of EPA and DHA in fish oil nutritional capsules by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Tao; Li, Shuk-Man; Fan, Jia-Yi; Fan, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish oil is a popular nutritional product consumed in Hong Kong. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two main bioactive components responsible for the health benefits of fish oil. Market survey in Hong Kong demonstrated that various fish oil capsules with different origins and prices are sold simultaneously. However, these capsules are labelled with same ingredient levels, namely EPA 180 mg/g and DHA 120 mg/g. This situation makes the consumers very c...

  9. Using HT and DT gamma rays to diagnose mix in Omega capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A.; Hammel, B. A.; Sepke, S. M.; Leatherland, A.; Gales, S.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence [1] indicates that shell material can be driven into the core of Omega capsule implosions on the same time scale as the initial convergent shock. It has been hypothesized that shock-generated temperatures at the fuel/shell interface in thin exploding pusher capsules diffusively drives shell material into the gas core between the time of shock passage and bang time. We propose a method to temporally resolve and observe the evolution of shell material into the capsule core as a function of fuel/shell interface temperature (which can be varied by varying the capsule shell thickness). Our proposed method uses a CD plastic capsule filled with 50/50 HT gas and diagnosed using gas Cherenkov detection (GCD) to temporally resolve both the HT “clean” and DT “mix” gamma ray burn histories. Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. An experiment to observe these differences as a function of capsule shell thickness is proposed to determine if interface mixing is consistent with thermal diffusion λii∼T2/Z2ρ at the gas/shell interface. Since hydrodynamic mixing from shell perturbations, such as the mounting stalk and glue, could complicate these types of capsule-averaged temporal measurements, simulations including their effects also have been performed showing minimal perturbation of the hot spot geometry.

  10. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Monodispersed Spherical Capsules with a Mesoporous Shell

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2010-05-11

    Monodispersed HMSs with tunable particle size and shell thickness were successfully synthesized using relatively concentrated polystyrene latex templates and a silica precursor in a weakly basic ethanol/water mixture. The particle size of the capsules can vary from 100 nm to micrometers. These highly engineered monodispersed capsules synthesized by a facile and scalable process may find applications in drug delivery, catalysis, separationm or as biological and chemical microreactors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. The effects of thermal capsulorrhaphy of medial parapatellar capsule on patellar lateral displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Brent R; Zheng Naiquan; Andrews James R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The effectiveness of thermal shrinkage on the medial parapatellar capsule for treating recurrent patellar dislocation is controversial. One of reasons why it is still controversial is that the effectiveness is still qualitatively measured. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the immediate effectiveness of the medial parapatellar capsule shrinkage as in clinical setting. Methods Nine cadaveric knees were used to collect lateral displacement data before...

  12. Interventional microadhesiolysis: A new nonsurgical release technique for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Tae-Kyun; Yang Seung-Min; Kim Eun-Ha; Lee Young-Jin; Ahn Kang; Kim Yong-Soo; Jhun Hyung-Joon

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A nonsurgical intervention, interventional microadhesiolysis, was developed to release adhesions in joints and soft tissues. This paper introduces the procedure and evaluates the efficacy of the intervention for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Methods Ten patients (five men and five women) with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were treated at a chronic pain management center in Korea. Three specially made needles are used in interventional microadhesiolysis...

  13. LOXL1 expression in lens capsule tissue specimens from individuals with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Tanya T.; Li, Guorong; Navarro, Iris D.; Kastury, Rama D.; Zeil, Carol J.; Semchyshyn, Taras M.; Moya, Frank J.; Epstein, David L.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Challa, Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To study lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) expression in freshly collected lens capsules from pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (XFG), and normal cataract control individuals. We also investigated the effects of four glaucoma drug medications on LOXL1 expression in primary human lens epithelial cell cultures to see if they could affect LOXL1 expression. Methods Lens capsules were collected at the time of cataract surgery. Controls were matched to age, sex, and et...

  14. A case of phacolytic glaucoma with anterior lens capsule disruption identified by scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Woong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Jae; Chung, In-Young; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Phacolytic glaucoma is induced by lens protein or macrophages that have leaked through a macroscopically intact anterior lens capsule. Here, we report a case of phacolytic glaucoma with anterior lens capsule disruptions visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Case presentation A 71-year-old man was referred to our institute for increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination revealed corneal edema, the presence of inflammatory c...

  15. An optimized methodology to analyze biopolymer capsules by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, Egle, E-mail: egle.conforto@univ-lr.fr [LaSIE UMR 7356 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Joguet, Nicolas [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Buisson, Pierre [INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Vendeville, Jean-Eudes; Chaigneau, Carine [IDCAPS, filiale R and D INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Maugard, Thierry [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an optimized methodology to study the surface characteristics and internal structure of biopolymer capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in environmental mode. The main advantage of this methodology is that no preparation is required and, significantly, no metallic coverage is deposited on the surface of the specimen, thus preserving the original capsule shape and its surface morphology. This avoids introducing preparation artefacts which could modify the capsule surface and mask information concerning important feature like porosities or roughness. Using this method gelatin and mainly fatty coatings, difficult to be analyzed by standard SEM technique, unambiguously show fine details of their surface morphology without damage. Furthermore, chemical contrast is preserved in backscattered electron images of unprepared samples, allowing visualizing the internal organization of the capsule, the quality of the envelope, etc.… This study provides pointers on how to obtain optimal conditions for the analysis of biological or sensitive material, as this is not always studied using appropriate techniques. A reliable evaluation of the parameters used in capsule elaboration for research and industrial applications, as well as that of capsule functionality is provided by this methodology, which is essential for the technological progress in this domain. - Highlights: • We optimized a methodology using ESEM to analyze biopolymer capsules. • This methodology allows analyzing original surface samples without any preparation. • No preparation artefact are introduced which would mask important surface details. • Morphological details and chemical contrast from the original surface are preserved. • Capsule shape, volume, surface roughness and coating quality were reliably evaluated.

  16. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  17. Membrane support of accelerated fuel capsules for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a thin membrane to suspend an (inertial fusion energy) fuel capsule in a holder for injection into a reactor chamber is investigated. Capsule displacement and membrane deformation angle are calculated for an axisymmetric geometry for a range of membrane strain and capsule size. This information is used to calculate maximum target accelerations. Membranes must be thin (perhaps of order one micron) to minimize their effect on capsule implosion symmetry. For example, a 5 μm thick cryogenic mylar membrane is calculated to allow 1,000 m/s2 acceleration of a 3 mm radius, 100 mg capsule. Vibration analysis (for a single membrane support) shows that if membrane vibration is not deliberately minimized, allowed acceleration may be reduced by a factor of four. A two membrane alternative geometry would allow several times greater acceleration. Therefore, alternative membrane geometry's should be used to provide greater target acceleration potential and reduce capsule displacement within the holder (for a given membrane thickness)

  18. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  19. Comparative assessment of feature extraction methods for visual odometry in wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Niafas, Stavros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2015-10-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the non-invasive examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by a swallowable device equipped with a miniature camera. Accurate localization of the capsule in the GI tract enables accurate localization of abnormalities for medical interventions such as biopsy and polyp resection; therefore, the optimization of the localization outcome is important. Current approaches to endoscopic capsule localization are mainly based on external sensors and transit time estimations. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of capsule localization based-entirely-on visual features, without the use of external sensors. This technique relies on a motion estimation algorithm that enables measurements of the distance and the rotation of the capsule from the acquired video frames. Towards the determination of an optimal visual feature extraction technique for capsule motion estimation, an extensive comparative assessment of several state-of-the-art techniques, using a publicly available dataset, is presented. The results show that the minimization of the localization error is possible at the cost of computational efficiency. A localization error of approximately one order of magnitude higher than the minimal one can be considered as compromise for the use of current computationally efficient feature extraction techniques. PMID:26073184

  20. Simultaneous Quantification of 13 Compounds in Guanxin Shutong Capsule by HPLC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Lunhui; Gu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Chenzhi; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huifen

    2016-07-01

    Guanxin Shutong (GXST) capsule, which is frequently used in clinical therapy, has a certain and positive therapeutic effect against coronary heart disease. However, the existing quality standard of GXST capsule is inadequate to control the quality of GXST capsule. In this paper, a new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of 13 compounds (gallic acid, danshensu, protocatechuic acid, procatechuic aldehyde, ellagic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid B, eugenol, dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA) in GXST capsule was developed and validated. The analytes were successfully separated and quantified with an Agilent TC-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution using 0.05% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. All the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.9991) in a relatively wide concentration range. The intra-and the inter-day variability were in the range of 0.85-2.68 and 1.47-2.86%, respectively. The recoveries of the selected compounds were in the range of 95.24-104.75%. This method was successfully applied to quantify the 13 components in GXST capsule and was conducive to controlling the quality of GXST capsule. PMID:26969683

  1. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were oxidized into carboxyl groups. XRD analysis suggested that TEMPO-oxidation decreased the crystallinity of KGM. DO80% was considered as the optimum candidate for capsule preparation owing to its superior solubility, transparency and reduced viscosity. The hydrophilicity of OKGM films, measured by contact angle measurement, increased with increasing DO. The elongation at break and tensile strength of the OKGM films enhanced with increasing DO. In vitro drug dissolution profile of OKGM capsules showed that the shell rupture time of DO80% capsule is about 5-10min, and 80% of the drugs were released within 30-45min. Thus DO80% OKGM was qualified to be used for gastric soluble hard capsules. PMID:27083368

  2. Remote-welding technique for assembling in-pile IASCC capsule in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate behavior of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) caused by the simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and high temperature water environment in such a light water reactor (LWR), it is necessary to perform crack growth tests in an in-pile IASCC capsule irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The development of the remote-welding technique is essential for remotely assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule installing the pre-irradiated CT specimens. This report describes a new remote-welding machine developed for assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule. The remote-welding technique that the capsule tube is rotated light under the fixed torch was applied to the machine for the welding of thick and large-diameter tubes. The assembly work of four in-pile IASCC capsules having pre-irradiated CT specimens in the hot cell was succeeded for performing the crack growth test under the neutron irradiation in JMTR. The irradiation test of two capsules has been already finished in JMTR without problems. (author)

  3. Slow-release nutrient capsules for microorganism stimulation in oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, E A; Rocha-Leão, M H M; Leite, S G F

    2013-02-01

    As the concern towards environmental deterioration grows worldwide, new technological achievements become essential for all countries. Among the technologies with great potential of bioremediation is microencapsulation of active material. Several studies have investigated the use of controlled release of active materials as a way of biostimulation and supplying the nutrients necessary for the bioremediation process. In fact, as the use of microorganisms has a great potential in degrading crude oils, this work aims to use that technology and to associate it to produce controlled-release capsules of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K) for bioremediation purposes. For the capsule formulation, polymers of sodium alginate, Capsul®, and the commercial fertilizer NPK from Sempre Verde Inc. were used. Crude oil was the only carbon source and mineral medium for microorganism growth. Controlled-release nutrient capsules, with 4 mm in diameter, made of 3.0 % alginate (w/v) and 4.0 % Capsul® (w/v) were produced. Those capsules were used in association with a microbial consortium, in a liquid phase bioremediation process, having degraded 43.6 % of the total hydrocarbon within 240 h, evidencing thus as a promising tool for hydrocarbon bioremediation. PMID:23306878

  4. Efficacy of Qianggan capsule in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun He; Meng-Xian Wang; Min-Man Ning

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effects of Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia. Methods:A total of 112 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were included in the study and divided into the control group (n=50) and the observation group (n=62). The patients in the control group were given silibinin capsule, while the patients in the observation group were given Qianggan capsule. The patients in the two groups were treated for 24 weeks. The liver/spleen CT was performed before and after treatment. BMI was measured. The liver function, serum lipid, and leptin were detected. Results:TG, LDL-C, BMI, and liver/spleen CT ratio in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. The levels of HDL-C and adiponectin in the observation group were significantly elevated when compared with the control group. The differences of ALT, GGT, and AST after treatment between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions:Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule has an accurate efficacy and high safety in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia.

  5. Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Clara R.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Cerqueira, Mariana T.; Marques, Alexandra P.; Reis, Rui L.; Mano, João F.

    2016-02-01

    A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the “stem cell niche”, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of BMP-2, RUNX2 and BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources.

  6. Slow-release nutrient capsules for microorganism stimulation in oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, E A; Rocha-Leão, M H M; Leite, S G F

    2013-02-01

    As the concern towards environmental deterioration grows worldwide, new technological achievements become essential for all countries. Among the technologies with great potential of bioremediation is microencapsulation of active material. Several studies have investigated the use of controlled release of active materials as a way of biostimulation and supplying the nutrients necessary for the bioremediation process. In fact, as the use of microorganisms has a great potential in degrading crude oils, this work aims to use that technology and to associate it to produce controlled-release capsules of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K) for bioremediation purposes. For the capsule formulation, polymers of sodium alginate, Capsul®, and the commercial fertilizer NPK from Sempre Verde Inc. were used. Crude oil was the only carbon source and mineral medium for microorganism growth. Controlled-release nutrient capsules, with 4 mm in diameter, made of 3.0 % alginate (w/v) and 4.0 % Capsul® (w/v) were produced. Those capsules were used in association with a microbial consortium, in a liquid phase bioremediation process, having degraded 43.6 % of the total hydrocarbon within 240 h, evidencing thus as a promising tool for hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  7. Characteristics of Photosystem II Behavior in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Bract and Capsule Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-li; LUO Hong-hai; HU Yuan-yuan; Reto J. Strasser; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Though bract and capsule wall of boll in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have different photosynthetic capacities, the features of photosystem II (PS II) in these organs are scarce. In this paper, chlorophyll a lfuorescence emission was measured to investigate the difference in the photosynthetic apparatus of dark-acclimated (JIP-test) and light-acclimated (light-saturation pulse method) bract and capsule wall. Compared with leaves, the oxygen evolving system of non-foliar organs had lower efifciency. The pool size of PS II electron acceptor of non-foliar organs was small, and the photochemical activity of leaves was higher than that of the bract and capsule wall. In regard to the photosystem I (PS I) electron acceptor side, the pool size of end electron acceptors of leaves was larger, and the quantum yield of electron transport from QA (PS II primary plastoquinone acceptor) further than the PS I electron acceptors of leaves was higher than that of bract and capsule wall. In all green organs, the actual quantum yield of photochemistry decreased with light. The thermal dissipation fraction of light absorbed by the PS II antennae was the highest in bract and the lowest in capsule wall relative to leaves. Compared with leaves, capsule wall was characterized by less constitutive thermal dissipation and via dissipation as lfuorescence emission. These results suggested that lower PS II photochemical activity in non-foliar organs may be result from limitations at the donor side of PS II and the acceptor sides of both photosystems.

  8. Off-plane motion of a non-spherical capsule in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Dynamics of a capsule and a biological cell in fluid flow is now of great interest in chemical engineering and bioengineering. In this study, we numerically investigated the motion of a spheroid capsule in simple shear flow including a red blood cell type biconcave disk. The membrane of a capsule was modeled by a two-dimensional hyperelastic material, and its large deformation was solved by a finite element method. The motion of internal and external liquids was estimated as a Stokes flow and solved by a boundary element method. The results showed that the orientation of a spheroid capsule is variant under time reversal, though that of a rigid spheroid is invariant. The final orientation of a spheroid capsule over a long time duration tends to converge to a certain direction depending on the shear rate despite initial placement with random orientation. These results can be utilized for a particle alignment technique and form a fundamental basis of the suspension mechanics of capsules and biological cells.

  9. Conformational transitions of cytochrome c in sub-micron-sized capsules at air/buffer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Maheshkumar; Dhathathreyan, Aruna

    2014-09-30

    This work presents the design of sub-micron-sized capsules of Cytochrome c (cyt c) in the range 300-350 nm and the conformational transitions of the protein that occur when the films of these capsules spread at the air/buffer interface are subjected to repeated compression-expansion cycles. Steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and circular dichroic (CD) spectra have been used to study the highly compact native conformation (70% helicity) of the protein in the capsules and its stability has been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The capsules have been characterized using zeta sizer and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Surface concentration-surface pressure (Γ-π) isotherms of the films of the capsules spread at air/buffer interface following compression-expansion show destabilizing effect on cyt c. FTIR and CD spectra of these films skimmed from the surface show that the protein transitions gradually from its native helical to an anomalous beta sheet aggregated state. This results from a competition between stabilizing hydrated polar segments of the protein in the capsule and destabilizing nonspecific hydrophobic interactions arising at the air/buffer interface. This 2D model could further our understanding of the spatial and temporal roles of proteins in confined spaces and also in the design of new drug delivery vehicles using proteins.

  10. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  11. Interventional microadhesiolysis: A new nonsurgical release technique for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tae-Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nonsurgical intervention, interventional microadhesiolysis, was developed to release adhesions in joints and soft tissues. This paper introduces the procedure and evaluates the efficacy of the intervention for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Methods Ten patients (five men and five women with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were treated at a chronic pain management center in Korea. Three specially made needles are used in interventional microadhesiolysis: the Round, Flexed Round, and Ahn's needles. A Round Needle is inserted on the skin over middle of supraspinatus and advanced under the acromion and acromioclavicular joint (subacromial release. A Flexed Round Needle is inserted two-fingers caudal to the inferior border of the scapular spine and advanced over the capsule sliding on the surface of infraspinatus muscle-tendon fascia. The capsule is released while an assistant simultaneously passively abducts the shoulder to full abduction (posteroinferior capsule release. An Ahn's Needle is inserted on the skin over the lesser tubercle and advanced under the coracoid process sliding on the surface of the subscapularis muscle (subcoracoid release. Results After the patients underwent interventional microadhesiolysis, the self-rated pain score or severity declined significantly (p p Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventional microadhesiolysis is effective for managing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

  12. Capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel Crohn′s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Zheng Ge; Yun-Biao Hu; Shu-Dong Xiao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected Crohn′s disease (CD)of the small bowel undetected by conventional modalities,and to determine the diagnostic yield of M2A Given Capsule.METHODS: From lay 2002 to April 2003, we prospectively examined 20 patients with suspected CD by capsule endoscopy. The patients had the following features:abdominal pain, weight loss, positive fecal occult blood test, iron deficiency anaemia, diarrhoea and fever. All the patients had normal results in small bowel series (SBS)and in upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy before they were examined. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.5 years.RESULTS: Of the 20 patients, 13 (65%) were diagnosed as CD of the small bowel according to the findings of M2A Given Capsule. The findings detected by the capsule were mucosal erosions (2 patients), aphthas (5 patients),nodularity (1 patient), large ulcers (2 patients), and ulcerated stenosis (3 patients). The distribution of the lesions was mainly in the distal part of the small bowel,and the mild degree of lesions was 54%.CONCLUSION: Wireless capsule endoscopy is effective in diagnosing patients with suspected CD undetected by conventional diagnostic methods. It can be used to detect early lesions in the small bowel of patients with CD.

  13. Wireless capsule endoscopy video reduction based on camera motion estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Pan, Ning; Lu, Heng; Song, Enmin; Wang, Qian; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a novel technology aiming for investigating the diseases and abnormalities in small intestine. The major drawback of WCE examination is that it takes a long time to examine the whole WCE video. In this paper, we present a new reduction scheme for WCE video to reduce the examination time. To achieve this task, a WCE video motion model is proposed. Under this motion model, the WCE imaging motion is estimated in two stages (the coarse level and the fine level). In the coarse level, the WCE camera motion is estimated with a combination of Bee Algorithm and Mutual Information. In the fine level, the local gastrointestinal tract motion is estimated with SIFT flow. Based on the result of WCE imaging motion estimation, the reduction scheme preserves key images in WCE video with scene changes. From experimental results, we notice that the proposed motion model is suitable for the motion estimation in successive WCE images. Through the comparison with APRS and FCM-NMF scheme, our scheme can produce an acceptable reduction sequence for browsing and examination. PMID:22868484

  14. Photo-triggered release in polyamide nanosized capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marturano, V.; Ambrogi, V. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Cerruti, P. [Institute of Polymer Chemistry and Technology (ICTP-CNR), via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Giamberini, M.; Tylkowski, B. [University Rovira i Virgili, Department of Chemical Engineering, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, nanosized capsules based on a lightly cross-linked polyamide containing azobenzene moieties in the main chain were synthesized by miniemulsion interfacial polymerization. The obtained nanocapsules were loaded either with toluene or with the fluorescent probe coumarin-6 as a core. Diameters of the nanocapsules were in the 100-900 nm range, depending on the selected emulsion conditions. The morphology and shape of the samples were observed by TEM and SEM while the emulsion droplets and nanocapsules size was measured by DLS. Under continuous UV irradiation the polymer underwent E-Z photoisomerization allowing the release of the encapsulated material. Variation in diameter of the nanocapsules with the time of UV irradiation was detected through DLS analysis. 10-30% growth was observed, depending on the sample. The kinetics of release of coumarin-6 was followed by spectrofluorimetry in ethanol. In absence of irradiation, the fluorescence intensity appeared to be constant over time, while it increased when the sample was irradiated with 360 nm UV light.

  15. A New Theory of Mix in Omega Capsule Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Dana; Chacon, Luis; Rauenzahn, Rick; Simakov, Andrei; Taitano, William; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie

    2014-10-01

    We put forth a new mix model that relies on the development of a charge-separation electrostatic double-layer at the fuel-pusher interface early in the implosion of an Omega plastic ablator capsule. The model predicts a sizable pusher mix (several atom %) into the fuel. The expected magnitude of the double-layer field is consistent with recent radial electric field measurements in Omega plastic ablator implosions. Our theory relies on two distinct physics mechanisms. First, and prior to shock breakout, the formation of a double layer at the fuel-pusher interface due to fast preheat-driven ionization. The double-layer electric field structure accelerates pusher ions fairly deep into the fuel. Second, after the double-layer mix has occurred, the inward-directed fuel velocity and temperature gradients behind the converging shock transports these pusher ions inward. We first discuss the foundations of this new mix theory. Next, we discuss our interpretation of the radial electric field measurements on Omega implosions. Then we discuss the second mechanism that is responsible for transporting the pusher material, already mixed via the double-layer deep into the fuel, on the shock convergence time scale. Finally we make a connection to recent mix motivated experimental data on. This work conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory, managed by LANS, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Effect of four different intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahmi; Duman; Fatih; Karel; Pelin; ?zyol; Can; Ates

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of 4 different intraocular lenses(IOLs) on posterior capsule opacification(PCO) by comparing the neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet(Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy rates.METHODS: This retrospective study included 4970 eyes of 4013 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January 2000 and January 2008 by the same surgeon at one clinic. Four different IOLs were assessed. The outcome parameter was the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomies.· RESULTS: An Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 153(3.07%) of the 4970 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 84 mo for all of the IOL groups. The percentage of eyes developing PCO was significantly greater for the acrylic hydrophilic IOLs than for the hydrophobic IOLs, although eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs did not require Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy as soon as eyes with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. There was no difference between the long-term PCO rates when 1-and 3-piece acrylic hydrophobic IOLs were compared or when IOLs made of the same material but with different haptic angles were compared.· CONCLUSION: In this study, eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs were more likely to develop PCO than those with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. The lens design(1-piece versus 3-piece and varying haptic angles) did not affect the PCO rate.

  17. Small sized slip-ring capsule endurance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondier, Jean-Bernard

    2005-07-01

    Slip-ring capsules are mechanical units used to carry electrical signals or power currents through a rotating joint. They are used either in solar array drive mechanisms (SADM) or in scientific instruments like radiometers. Analyses of the latest missions show that the slip-rings requirements are more and more demanding. For example, the number of in-orbit mechanical cycles keeps increasing. As a result, a signal slip-ring technology, which had been successfully tested for a given need, now has to improve its performances. It was therefore interesting to try to reach the slip-rings technical limits by testing them beyond the required performance of already known space missions. Slip-rings units are currently used in mechanisms such as SADM for the CNES Proteus and Myriade satellite family. They can be also found in the payload instruments of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, namely Madras and Scarab. A selected hardware was tested at the mechanism endurance laboratory of the CNES, in Toulouse. The typical in-orbit rotation speed was increased in order to limit the test duration to 2 years. The main interest of this work was to provide a continuous slip-ring performance status and a large set of engineering data. The main test results are presented and discussed. The following lines also report a part of the hardware detailed inspection and the lessons learned.

  18. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  19. Effect of jianpiyiwei capsule on gastric precancerous lesions in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Shi; Feng-Zhi Zhao; Xin Dai; Lian-Sheng Ma; Xiu-Yu Dong; Jie Fang

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of compoundChinese drugs, Jianpiyiwei capsule (JPYW) on gastricprecancerous lesions in rats and to explore itsmechanism of action.METHODS:Model of gastric precancerous lesions wasconstructed in male Wistar rats: a metal spring wasinserted and fixed through pyloric sphincter. One weekafter recovery, each rat was given 50-60 ℃ hot pastecontainingt50 g/L NaCl 2 mL orally, twice a week for15 weeks.Then 10 normal and 11 model rats wereanaesthetized, after the measurement of gastricmucosa blood flow (GMBF), the rats were killed andthe mucosal hexosamines and malonic dialdehyde(MDA) were measured. The morphological changes ofgastric mucosa were observed macroscopically andmicroscopically, and by an automatic imaging analysissystem. Other rats were treated with JPYW 1.5 g/kg.d-1or 4.5 g/kg@d-1, or distilled water as negative controlrespectively (n=-10 in each group). After 12 weeks, allthe rats were examined as above.RESULTS: The gastric mucosa of model rats showedchronic atrophic gastritis with dysplasia and intestinalmetaplasia (IM), GMBF and hexosamine content werereduced significantly and MDA was increased ascompared to the normal group (P<0.01). After 12 weekstreatment, the pathological changes of the negativecontrol group became worsened, while in JPYW treatedgroups the changes were modified with significantincrease of GMBF and reduction of MDA, although thehexosamine concentration increased only mildly.CONCLUSION: JPYW increases GMBF and reduces MDAcontent in gastric mucosa and has therapeutic effectson gastric precancerous lesions.

  20. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations. PMID:26855917

  1. Silicon-Class Ablators for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Darwin; Salmonson, Jay; Haan, Steve

    2012-10-01

    We present design studies using silicon-class ablators (i.e., Si, SiC, SiB6, and SiB14) for NIC ignition capsules. These types of ablators have several advantages in that they: (a) require no internal dopant layers and are robust to M-band radiation; (b) have smooth outer surfaces; (c) have stable fuel-ablator interface; and (d) have good 1-D performance. The major disadvantage for some of the ablators in this class is the relatively smaller ablation stabilization. Consequently, the ablator is more susceptible to breakup caused by RT instabilities. However, smoother outer surfaces on this class of ablators can reduce the effect of RT instabilities. 2-D simulations of SiC ablators show ignition failure despite smooth surfaces and good 1-D performance. But SiB6 and SiB14 ablators exhibit promising behaviors. SiB6 (SiB14) ablators have high 1-D ignition margin and high peak core hydrodynamic pressure 880 (900) Gbar. The ablation scale length for SiB6 is longer than that for SiC and for SiB14 is comparable to that of plastic. Therefore, we expect acceptable performance for SiB6 and less RT growth for SiB14. 2-D simulations are now in progress.

  2. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  3. Polishing and local planarization of plastic spherical capsules using tumble finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, T. I.; Steele, W. A.; Feit, M. D.; Moreno, K.; Stadermann, M.; Fair, J.; Chen, K.; Nikroo, A.; Youngblood, K.; Wu, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new method (a variant of tumble finishing) for polishing and achieving local planarization on precision spherical, plastic capsules is described. Such capsules have niche applications, such as ablators used in high-peak-power laser targets for fusion energy research. The as-manufactured ablators contain many shallow domes (many 100's of nm high and a few 10's of μm wide) on the outer surface which are undesirable due to contributions to instabilities during implosion. These capsules were polished (i.e., tumble finished) by rotating a cylindrical vial containing the capsule, many borosilicate glass or zirconia media, and an aqueous-based colloidal silica polishing slurry. During tumble finishing, the relative media/capsule motions cause multiple, random sliding spherical-spherical Hertzian contacts, resulting in material removal, and possibly plastic deformation, on the capsule. As a result, the domes were observed to locally planarize (i.e., converge to lower heights). Utilizing the correct kinematics (i.e., the characteristics of the media/capsule motions), as controlled by the vial rotation rate and the fill fraction of media and slurry, the high velocity downward circumferential media motions were avoided, preventing fracturing of the fragile capsules. Also, the resulting post-polished surface roughness on the capsule was found to scale with the initial media surface roughness. Hence, pre-polishing the media greatly reduced the roughness of the media and thus the roughness of the polished capsule. A material removal model is described based on the Preston model and spherical-spherical Hertzian contacts which shows reasonable agreement with measured average removal rates of 35 ± 15 nm/day and which serves as a valuable tool to scale the polishing behavior with changes in process variables. Narrow domes were observed to planarize more rapidly than wider domes. A local planarization convergence model is also described, based on the concept of workpiece

  4. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  5. Proposed pushered single shell capsule design for the investigation of mid/high Z mix on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert; Graziani, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The CD Mix campaign has given a detailed explination of the mix mechanics in the current ignition capsule designs by investigating the relationship between material mixing, shell-fuel interfaces, and the change in thermonuclear yield given a deuterated layer in the capsule. Alternative ignition scenarios include the use of double shell designs that incorporate high-Z material in the capsule. Simulations are conducted on a proposed capsule platform using the ARES code on a scaled capsule design using a partially reduced glass capsule design. This allows for the inclusion of deuterium on the inner surface of the pusher layer similar to the CD mix experiments. The presence of silicon dioxide allows for the investigation of the influence of higher Z material on the mixing characteristics.

  6. Informative frame detection from wireless capsule video endoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mekada, Yoshito

    2008-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting the visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the high amount of time for video diagnosis. In this study, we propose a method for informative frame detection by isolating useless frames that are substantially covered by turbid fluids or their contamination with other materials, e.g., faecal, semi-processed or unabsorbed foods etc. Such materials and fluids present a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme, therefore, consists of two stages: highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frame detection and significantly bubbled (SB) frame detection. Local color moments in the Ohta color space are used to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in Stage-1. The rest of the frames go to the Stage-2, where Laguerre gauss Circular Harmonic Functions (LG-CHFs) extract the characteristics of the bubble-structures in a multi-resolution framework. An automatic segmentation method is designed to extract the bubbled regions based on local absolute energies of the CHF responses, derived from the grayscale version of the original color image. Final detection of the informative frames is obtained by using threshold operation on the extracted regions. An experiment with 20,558 frames from the three videos shows the excellent average detection accuracy (96.75%) by the proposed method, when compared with the Gabor based- (74.29%) and discrete wavelet based features (62.21%).

  7. Fabrication of Single Crystal MgO Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for machining MgO crystal blocks into forms for containing metallic and silicate liquids at temperatures up to 2,400 C, and pressures up to at least 320 kilobars. Possible custom shapes include tubes, rods, insulators, capsules, and guides. Key differences in this innovative method include drilling along the crystallographic zone axes, use of a vibration minimizing material to secure the workpiece, and constant flushing of material swarf with a cooling medium/lubricant (water). A single crystal MgO block is cut into a section .5 mm thick, 1 cm on a side, using a low-speed saw with a 0.004 blade. The cut is made parallel to the direction of cleavage. The block may be cut to any thickness to achieve the desired length of the piece. To minimize drilling vibrations, the MgO block is mounted on a piece of adhesive putty in a vise. The putty wad cradles the bottom half of the entire block. Diamond coring tools are used to drill the MgO to the desired custom shape, with water used to wet and wash the surface of swarf. Compressed air may also be used to remove swarf during breaks in drilling. The MgO workpiece must be kept cool at all times with water. After all the swarf is rinsed off, the piece is left to dry overnight. If the workpiece is still attached to the base of the MgO block after drilling, it may be cut off by using a diamond cutoff wheel on a rotary hand tool or by using a low-speed saw.

  8. Development of a Friction Welded Tube for Preventing a Leakage of Coolant into a Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumented capsule has been developed at HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) for the neutron irradiation tests of nuclear reactor materials. The temperature of the specimens during a irradiation is controlled by adjusting the internal He gas pressure in the capsule. After an irradiation test, the main body of a capsule is cut off at the bottom of the protection tube with a cutting system and it is transported to the IMEF hot cell and dismantled for post irradiation tests. At this cutting stage, the reactor coolant leaks into the capsule through the gas control pipe and it causes some troubles for the post irradiation analysis. To prevent a coolant leakage during a cutting, aluminum tube is especially attractive because of its superior workability. However, present structures made of stainless steels can not be entirely replaced with aluminum structures, by taking into account the strength, although it is possible to replace part of a structure with aluminum tube. In this case, it is necessary to join stainless steel to aluminum. Sound joints have been hardly obtained, owing to the formation of a large amount of brittle intermetallic compounds in the weld and to their big difference of the thermal expansion coefficients when using a conventional fusion welding. Friction welding is known to be more effective in joining dissimilar metals when compared with a fusion welding, because it is a solid state process. The friction welded tube has been also known to be applied in the irradiation capsules in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor). In the present study, a friction welded tube developed for the prevention of a coolant leakage into a capsule is described. The friction welded tube will be applied to all of the material capsules in HANARO

  9. Structure and selectivity trends in crystalline urea-functionalized anion-binding capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Custelcean, Radu [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A tripodal trisurea receptor (L1) persistently self-assembles with various divalent oxoanion salts M{sub n}X (M = Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cd; X = SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) into isomorphous series of crystalline frameworks in three different compositions: MX(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6} (M = Mg, Ca, Cd) (1), Na{sub 2}X(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} (2) and K{sub 2}X(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (3). Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that all three series of structures adopt a NaCl-type topology, consisting of alternating anionic X(L1){sub 2}{sup 2-} capsules and M(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+}, Na{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{sup 2+} or K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{sup 2+} hydrated cations. The capsules provide a complementary environment to tetrahedral oxoanions via 12 hydrogen bonds from six urea groups lining the cavities of the capsules. The persistent formation of the capsules facilitated the investigation of structural trends and structure-selectivity relationships across series 1-3. First, it was found that the size of the capsules is relatively unresponsive to the change in the encapsulated anion, resulting in good shape and size recognition in the separation of anions by competitive crystallizations. Second, it was found that the size of the capsules varies linearly with the size of the external cation, which provides a way for tuning the anion encapsulation selectivity. However, no straightforward dependence was found between the size of the capsules and the relative selectivity for different-sized tetrahedral oxoanions in competitive crystallizations.

  10. New capsule with tailored properties for the encapsulation of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacík, I; Brissová, M; Anilkumar, A V; Powers, A C; Wang, T

    1998-01-01

    A new capsule for the encapsulation and transplantation of pancreatic islets has been developed. Five active ingredients are involved in the capsule formation process: high viscosity sodium alginate (SA-HV), cellulose sulfate (CS), poly(methylene-co-guanidine) hydrochloride (PMCG), calcium chloride, and sodium chloride. Complexation reaction exhibits several unique features: (1) solution of SA-HV with CS represents a physical mixture of two entangled polyanions that provide both pH-sensitive (carboxylic) and permanently charged (sulfate) groups; (2) presence of CaCl2 in the cation solution ensures formation of the gelled bead after the drop of polyanion solution is immersed in the cation solution; (3) character of the polycation (PMCG), i.e., low molecular weight and unusually high charge density, combines both high mobility and reactivity; (4) presence of PMCG in cation solution, together with CaCl2, gives rise to the competitive binding of these two cations based on their diffusion and affinity towards the anion groups; and (5) NaCl provides the anti-gelling sodium ions that significantly affect the reaction of CaCl2 with the polyanion matrix, thus altering the final properties of the capsule surface, shape, and permeability. The capsule size, mechanical strength, membrane thickness, and permeability can be precisely adjusted and quantified. Detailed information on the permeability aspects is given in another paper by Brissová et al. [J. Biomed. Mater. Sci., 39, 61 (1998)]. The new features concerning capsule processing and testing are presented. We believe that the capsule characteristics can be optimized in the next step to meet the biological criteria. The initial transplantation results suggest that this capsule is biocompatible and noncytotoxic and is a promising candidate for the immunoisolation of cells such as pancreatic islets. PMID:9429096

  11. Characterisation of transmission Raman spectroscopy for rapid quantitative analysis of intact multi-component pharmaceutical capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Michael D; Macleod, Neil A; Smith, Mark R; Andrews, Darren; Hammond, Stephen V; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-02-20

    A detailed characterisation of the performance of transmission Raman spectroscopy was performed from the standpoint of rapid quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical capsules using production relevant formulations comprising of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and 3 common pharmaceutical excipients. This research builds on our earlier studies that identified the unique benefits of transmission Raman spectroscopy compared to conventional Raman spectroscopy. These include the ability to provide bulk information of the content of capsules, thus avoiding the sub-sampling problem, and the suppression of interference from the capsule shell. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the technique's insensitivity to the amount of material held within the capsules. Different capsules sizes with different overall fill weights (100-400 mg) and capsule shell colours were assayed with a single calibration model developed using only one weight and size sample set (100 mg) to a relative error of typically 5s acquisition time. Models built using the same calibration set also predicted the 3 low level excipients with relative errors of 5-15%. The quantity of API was also predicted (with a relative error within ∼3%) using the same model for capsules prepared with different generations of API (i.e. API manufactured via different processes). The study provides further foundation blocks for the establishment of this emerging technique as a routine pharmaceutical analysis tool, capitalising on the inherently high chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy and the non-invasive nature of the measurement. Ultimately, this technique has significant promise as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool for online production application. PMID:20947277

  12. Short-wavelength and three-dimensional instability evolution in National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and, most recently, experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as 2000, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to 200 on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode 1200 have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  13. Thermal analysis of an irradiation capsule for high-temperature materials to be used in future nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kim, Sung Ryul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Neutron Application Technology

    2016-05-15

    The requirement of irradiation of materials at high temperature are gradually increasing with the development of Gen-IV (Generation-IV) reactors, which will be operated at high temperatures and under a high neutron flux. To overcome the restrictions for the high temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule was designed and fabricated. Through the irradiation test, the structural integrity and safety of the capsule during irradiation at high temperature were confirmed.

  14. Review of safety issues that pertain to the use of WESF cesium chloride capsules in an irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, G.L.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Lytle, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    Since the recovery of the fission product cesium-137 began in 1967, about 1500 capsules, each containing an average of about 50,000 curies of cesium chloride, have been produced. These capsules were designed to safely store this gamma-emitting fission product, but they are now considered to be a valuable source for irradiators. The capsules were designed to have a large margin of safety in their mechanical properties. Impact, percussion, and thermal tests have been conducted that demonstrate their ability to meet anticipated licensing requirements. Although this document is not intended to develop or evaluate accident scenarios, an examination of the effects of heating a capsule to 800/sup 0/C for up to 90 min was completed. At 800/sup 0/C, the salt volume would be expected to exceed the initial capsule volume in a few (up to 1/3) of the WESF capsules. Under these conditions, the inner capsule would expand to accommodate the salt volume and the gas pressure. The strength and ductility of the capsule are more than adequate to permit this expansion with a safety margin of at least a factor of three. Capsules have now been stored in the WESF pool for 10 years, and 15 capsules have been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids facility for nearly 5 years without any capsule failure. This experience, along with available laboratory and production data, gives reasonable assurance that the capsules can be safely used in properly designed commercial irradiators. This is especially the case when one considers current and future evaluation programs designed to assess the long-term effects of corrosion and mechanical properties degradation.

  15. Capsule endoscopy assisted by traditional upper endoscopy Cápsula endoscópica asistida por una endoscopia alta tradicional

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, N; Figueiredo, P; Lopes, S; Freire, P.; Lérias, C; Hermano Gouveia; M. Correia Leitão

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: capsule endoscopy (CE) can be prevented by difficulties in swallowing the device and/or its gastric retention. In such cases, endoscopic delivery of the capsule to duodenum is very useful. We describe the indications and outcomes of cases in which traditional endoscopic techniques allowed placement of the capsule in duodenum. Patients and methods: this is a retrospective, descriptive case series. All patients in the above conditions were identified and indications for CE,...

  16. Investigation and design of the dismantling process of irradiation capsules containing tritium. 2. Detailed design and trial fabrication of capsule dismantling apparatus and investigation of glove box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-pile functional tests of breeding blankets have been planned by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), using a test blanket module (TBM) which will be loaded in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In preparation for the in-pile functional tests, JAEA has been performing irradiation experiments of lithium titanate (Li2TiO3), which is the first candidate of solid breeder materials for the blanket of the demonstration reactor (DEMO) under designing in Japan. The present report describes 1) results of a detailed design and trial fabrication tests of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules which were used in irradiation experiments by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAEA, and 2) results of a preliminary investigation of a glove box facility for post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). In the detailed design of the dismantling apparatus, detailed specifications and the installation methods were examined, based on results of a conceptual design and basic design which were carried out before the present work. In the trial fabrication, cutting tests were curried out by making a mockup of a cutting component, which is a key component of the dismantling apparatus, as well as some simulated JMTR irradiation capsules. Good cutting performance was attained by optimizing the cutting speed, through repeated reviews of the results of the trial fabrication tests. In addition, improvement of the capsule clamping mechanism brought a prospect for feasibility of the apparatus in terms of operational convenience such as setting and removal, respectively, of the capsule before and after the cutting. Furthermore, a preliminary investigation of a glove box facility was carried out in order to secure a facility for PIE work after the capsule dismantling, which revealed a technical feasibility. (author)

  17. Synergistic action on hypnosia: Yinao capsules with pentobarbital sodium of threshold and sub-threshold dosages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilan Zhang; Mingsan Miao; Jingjing Shi; Yalei Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sedative and hypnotic drugs could cure insomnia in a dependent manner, and traditional Chinese medicine has some superiority in treating insomnia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the synergistic action of Yinao capsules with pentobarbital sodium in threshold and sub-threshold dosages in hypnosia and sedation.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design and control experiment.SETTING: Pharmacological laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Totally 200 grade Ⅱ Kunming mice of 18 - 21 g, either male or female, were used. Yinao capsules, main ingredients of which were turtleback glue, thinleaf milkwort root, Chinese magnoliavine fruit,mythic fungus, tangshen, ginseng and grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, were offered by Chinese-American Huayi Pharmacy, Co.,Ltd. (ratified number: 040901); Kangnaoshuai capsules, main ingredients of which were prepared rehmannia root, tuber fleeceflower root, ginseng, membranous milkvetch root, thinleaf milkwort root, Fushen, grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, spine date seed, lecithin, barbary wolfberry fruit, pueraria root,vitamin E, etc., were produced by Shijiazhuang Siyao, Co.,Ltd. (ratified number: 040964); Pentobarbital sodium was produced by China Medicine (Group) Shanghai Chemical Reagent, Co,.Ltd. (Ratified number:030816). ZZ-6 mice spontaneous activity apparatus was produced by Chengdu Taimeng Science and Technology, Co.,Ltd.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Animal Experimental Center, Henan College of spontaneous activity of mice: Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 mice in each group:Mice in the large, middle and small dosages of Yinao capsules groups were intragastrically infused with Yinao capsules suspension (1.36, 0.68, 0.34 g/kg); Those in the Kangnaoshuai capsules group were infused with Kangnaoshuai suspension (1.12 g/kg); Those in the control group were given physiologic saline of the same volume. The mice were administrated once a day for

  18. Capsule endoscopy retention as a helpful tool in the management of a young patient with suspected small-bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chryssostomos Kalantzis; Periklis Apostolopoulos; Panagiota Mavrogiannis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Xenofon Papacharalampous; Ioannis Bramis; Nikolaos Kalantzis

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is an easy and painless procedure permitting visualization of the entire small-bowel during its normal peristalsis. However, important problems exist concerning capsule retention in patients at risk of small bowel obstruction. The present report describes a young patient who had recurrent episodes of overt gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, 18 years after small bowel resection in infancy for ileal atresia.Capsule endoscopy was performed, resulting in capsule retention in the distal small bowel. However, this event contributed to patient management by clearly identifying the site of obstruction and can be used to guide surgical intervention, where an anastomotic ulcer is identified.

  19. The use of tritium rich capsules with 25-35% deuterium to achieve ignition at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D C; Grim, G P; Herrmann, H W; Wilke, M D [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Spears, B K; Ii, S P Hatchett; Cerjan, C J; Springer, P T; Clark, D S; Edwards, M J; Salmonson, J D; Weber, S V; Hammel, B A, E-mail: dcw@lanl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Diagnostics such as neutron yield, ion temperature, image size and shape, and bang time in capsules with >{approx}25 % deuterium fuel show changes due to burn product heating. The comparison of performance between a THD(2%) and THD(35%) can help predict ignition in a TD(50%) capsule. Surrogacy of THD capsules to TD(50%) is incomplete due to variations in fuel molecular vapour pressures. TD(25-35%) capsules might be preferred to study hot spot heating, but at the risk of increased fuel/ablator mixing.

  20. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis

  1. Capsules, toxins and AtxA as virulence factors of emerging Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézillon, Christophe; Haustant, Michel; Dupke, Susann; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Lander, Angelika; Franz, Tatjana; Monot, Marc; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Jouvion, Gregory; Leendertz, Fabian H; Grunow, Roland; Mock, Michèle E; Klee, Silke R; Goossens, Pierre L

    2015-04-01

    Emerging B. cereus strains that cause anthrax-like disease have been isolated in Cameroon (CA strain) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI strain). These strains are unusual, because their genomic characterisation shows that they belong to the B. cereus species, although they harbour two plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBCXO2, that are highly similar to the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis that encode the toxins and the polyglutamate capsule respectively. The virulence factors implicated in the pathogenicity of these B. cereus bv anthracis strains remain to be characterised. We tested their virulence by cutaneous and intranasal delivery in mice and guinea pigs; they were as virulent as wild-type B. anthracis. Unlike as described for pXO2-cured B. anthracis, the CA strain cured of the pBCXO2 plasmid was still highly virulent, showing the existence of other virulence factors. Indeed, these strains concomitantly expressed a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule and the B. anthracis polyglutamate (PDGA) capsule. The HA capsule was encoded by the hasACB operon on pBCXO1, and its expression was regulated by the global transcription regulator AtxA, which controls anthrax toxins and PDGA capsule in B. anthracis. Thus, the HA and PDGA capsules and toxins were co-regulated by AtxA. We explored the respective effect of the virulence factors on colonisation and dissemination of CA within its host by constructing bioluminescent mutants. Expression of the HA capsule by itself led to local multiplication and, during intranasal infection, to local dissemination to the adjacent brain tissue. Co-expression of either toxins or PDGA capsule with HA capsule enabled systemic dissemination, thus providing a clear evolutionary advantage. Protection against infection by B. cereus bv anthracis required the same vaccination formulation as that used against B. anthracis. Thus, these strains, at the frontier between B. anthracis and B. cereus, provide insight into how the monomorphic B. anthracis may have emerged.

  2. Capsules, toxins and AtxA as virulence factors of emerging Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Brézillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging B. cereus strains that cause anthrax-like disease have been isolated in Cameroon (CA strain and Côte d'Ivoire (CI strain. These strains are unusual, because their genomic characterisation shows that they belong to the B. cereus species, although they harbour two plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBCXO2, that are highly similar to the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis that encode the toxins and the polyglutamate capsule respectively. The virulence factors implicated in the pathogenicity of these B. cereus bv anthracis strains remain to be characterised. We tested their virulence by cutaneous and intranasal delivery in mice and guinea pigs; they were as virulent as wild-type B. anthracis. Unlike as described for pXO2-cured B. anthracis, the CA strain cured of the pBCXO2 plasmid was still highly virulent, showing the existence of other virulence factors. Indeed, these strains concomitantly expressed a hyaluronic acid (HA capsule and the B. anthracis polyglutamate (PDGA capsule. The HA capsule was encoded by the hasACB operon on pBCXO1, and its expression was regulated by the global transcription regulator AtxA, which controls anthrax toxins and PDGA capsule in B. anthracis. Thus, the HA and PDGA capsules and toxins were co-regulated by AtxA. We explored the respective effect of the virulence factors on colonisation and dissemination of CA within its host by constructing bioluminescent mutants. Expression of the HA capsule by itself led to local multiplication and, during intranasal infection, to local dissemination to the adjacent brain tissue. Co-expression of either toxins or PDGA capsule with HA capsule enabled systemic dissemination, thus providing a clear evolutionary advantage. Protection against infection by B. cereus bv anthracis required the same vaccination formulation as that used against B. anthracis. Thus, these strains, at the frontier between B. anthracis and B. cereus, provide insight into how the monomorphic B. anthracis may have

  3. Erosion characteristics of an erodible tablet incorporated in a time-delayed capsule device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jason T; Ross, Alistair C; Florence, Alastair J; Stevens, Howard N E

    2005-01-01

    A time-delayed oral drug delivery device was investigated in which an erodible tablet (ET), sealing the mouth of an insoluble capsule, controlled the lag-time prior to drug release. The time-delayed capsule (TDC) lag-time may be altered by manipulation of the excipients used in the preparation of the ET. Erosion rates and drug release profiles from TDCs were investigated with four different excipient admixtures with lactose: calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; Methocel K100LV grade) and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC; Prosolv 90 grade). Additionally, the compressibility of different insoluble coated capsules was tested at different moisture levels to determine their overall integrity and suitability for oral delivery. Erosion rates of CSD, DCP, and SMCC displayed a nonlinear relationship to their concentration, while HPMC indicated rapid first-order erosion followed by zero-order erosion, the onset of which was dependent on the HPMC concentration. Capsule integrity was confirmed to be most suitable for oral delivery when the insoluble ethyl cellulose coat was applied to a hard gelatin capsule using an organic spray coating process. T50% drug release times varied between 245 (+/-33.4) and 393 (+/-40.8) minutes for 8% and 20% DCP, respectively, T50% release times of 91 (+/-22.1) and 167 (+/-34.6) were observed for 8% and 20% CSD; both formulations showed incidence of premature drug release. The SMCC formulations showed high variability due to lamination effects. The HPMC formulations had T50% release times of 69 (+/-13.9), 213 (+/-25.4), and 325 (+/-30.3) minutes for 15%, 24%, and 30% HPMC concentrations respectively, with no premature drug release. In conclusion, HPMC showed the highest reproducibility for a range of time-delayed drug release from the assembled capsule formulation. The method of capsule coating was confirmed to be important by investigation of the overall capsule integrity at

  4. Erosion characteristics of an erodible tablet incorporated in a time-delayed capsule device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jason T; Ross, Alistair C; Florence, Alastair J; Stevens, Howard N E

    2005-01-01

    A time-delayed oral drug delivery device was investigated in which an erodible tablet (ET), sealing the mouth of an insoluble capsule, controlled the lag-time prior to drug release. The time-delayed capsule (TDC) lag-time may be altered by manipulation of the excipients used in the preparation of the ET. Erosion rates and drug release profiles from TDCs were investigated with four different excipient admixtures with lactose: calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; Methocel K100LV grade) and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC; Prosolv 90 grade). Additionally, the compressibility of different insoluble coated capsules was tested at different moisture levels to determine their overall integrity and suitability for oral delivery. Erosion rates of CSD, DCP, and SMCC displayed a nonlinear relationship to their concentration, while HPMC indicated rapid first-order erosion followed by zero-order erosion, the onset of which was dependent on the HPMC concentration. Capsule integrity was confirmed to be most suitable for oral delivery when the insoluble ethyl cellulose coat was applied to a hard gelatin capsule using an organic spray coating process. T50% drug release times varied between 245 (+/-33.4) and 393 (+/-40.8) minutes for 8% and 20% DCP, respectively, T50% release times of 91 (+/-22.1) and 167 (+/-34.6) were observed for 8% and 20% CSD; both formulations showed incidence of premature drug release. The SMCC formulations showed high variability due to lamination effects. The HPMC formulations had T50% release times of 69 (+/-13.9), 213 (+/-25.4), and 325 (+/-30.3) minutes for 15%, 24%, and 30% HPMC concentrations respectively, with no premature drug release. In conclusion, HPMC showed the highest reproducibility for a range of time-delayed drug release from the assembled capsule formulation. The method of capsule coating was confirmed to be important by investigation of the overall capsule integrity at

  5. Capsules with evolving brittleness to resist the preparation of self-healing concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruyaert, E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsules for self-healing concrete have to possess multifunctional properties and it would be an enormous advantage in the valorization process when they could also be mixed in. Therefore, we aimed to develop capsules with evolving brittleness. Capsules with high initial flexibility were prepared by adding a plasticizer to an ethyl cellulose matrix. During hardening of the concrete, the plasticizing agent should leach out to the moist environment yielding more brittle capsules which break upon crack appearance. The tested capsules could easily be mixed in during concrete production. However, incompatibility issues between the capsule wall and the inner polymeric healing agent appeared. Moreover, the capsules became insufficiently brittle and the bond strength to the cementitious matrix was too weak. Consequently, multilayer capsules were tested. These capsules had a high impact resistance to endure concrete mixing and were able to break upon crack formation.Las cápsulas para la auto-reparación del hormigón tienen que poseer propiedades multifuncionales. Una enorme ventaja en el proceso para su valorización se obtendría si aquellas pudieran resistir con éxito el mezclado. Por lo tanto, nos propusimos desarrollar cápsulas cuya fragilidad evoluciona. Cápsulas con una alta flexibilidad inicial se prepararon mediante la adición de un plastificante a una matriz de etil celulosa. Durante el endurecimiento del hormigón, el agente plastificante debe filtrarse hacia el medio ambiente húmedo produciendo cápsulas más frágiles que se rompen con el surgimiento de fisuras. Las cápsulas pudieron ser fácilmente mezcladas durante la producción de hormigón. Sin embargo, aparecieron problemas de incompatibilidad entre la pared de la cápsula y el agente de curación polimérico interior. Por otra parte, las cápsulas se comportaron insuficientemente frágiles y con una baja adherencia hacia la matriz cementicia. En consecuencia, se probaron las c

  6. Interaction model between capsule robot and intestine based on nonlinear viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Tan, Renjia; Li, Hongyi

    2014-03-01

    Active capsule endoscope could also be called capsule robot, has been developed from laboratory research to clinical application. However, the system still has defects, such as poor controllability and failing to realize automatic checks. The imperfection of the interaction model between capsule robot and intestine is one of the dominating reasons causing the above problems. A model is hoped to be established for the control method of the capsule robot in this article. It is established based on nonlinear viscoelasticity. The interaction force of the model consists of environmental resistance, viscous resistance and Coulomb friction. The parameters of the model are identified by experimental investigation. Different methods are used in the experiment to obtain different values of the same parameter at different velocities. The model is proved to be valid by experimental verification. The achievement in this article is the attempted perfection of an interaction model. It is hoped that the model can optimize the control method of the capsule robot in the future.

  7. Post-irradiation examination on the HANARO capsule (00M-02K) in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIE of capsule cutting, dismantling, specimen classification and neutron monitor carrying out is conducted for the instrumented capsule(00M-02K) which is irradiated at IR2 test hole of HANARO during 3 days with 72 MWD in IMEF (Irradiation Materials Examnation Facility) during 1 month. The neutron fluence of this capsule is predicted to 3.4 x 1019 n/cm2 (E>1.0 MeV) assumed to the amount of the lifetime of commercial reactor. This capsule consists of 5 specimen holders and contains several kinds of specimens-Charpy specimens, PCCV, small tensile specimens, MBE specimens, ABI specimens, 1/3 size Cv specimens, and small punch specimens-with neutron monitors to research and develop the advanced material characteristics of reactor material. The capsule is cut with Al2O3 cutting wheel and 2.5 rpm of chuck, 200 rpm of wheel and 0.15 mm/min of feed during 1 hour. Also the maximum exposure of neutron monitor is measured 97 μSv/h at second specimen holder from bottom and that is corresponded the gamma scanning results of the HANARO fuel assembly

  8. An implantable compound-releasing capsule triggered on demand by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeig, Olga; Chin, Sau Yin; Kim, Sohyun; Chitnis, Parag V; Sia, Samuel K

    2016-03-11

    Implantable devices have a large potential to improve human health, but they are often made of biofouling materials that necessitate special coatings, rely on electrical connections for external communication, and require a continuous power source. This paper demonstrates an alternative platform, which we call iTAG (implantable thermally actuated gel), where an implanted capsule can be wirelessly controlled by ultrasound to trigger the release of compounds. We constructed a millimeter-sized capsule containing a co-polymer gel (NiPAAm-co-AAm) that contracts above body temperature (i.e. at 45 °C) to release compounds through an opening. This gel-containing capsule is biocompatible and free of toxic electronic or battery components. An ultrasound hardware, with a focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer and a co-axial A-mode imaging transducer, was used to image the capsule (to monitor in real time its position, temperature, and effectiveness of dose delivery), as well as to trigger a rapid local rise in temperature, contraction of gel, and release of compounds in vitro and in vivo. The combination of this gel-based capsule and compact ultrasound hardware can serve as a platform for triggering local release of compounds, including potentially in deep tissue, to achieve tailored personalized therapy.

  9. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  10. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  11. Evidence for a role of the polysaccharide capsule transport proteins in pertussis pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Hoo

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (PS capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule itself, affects drastically B. pertussis colonization efficacy in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that absence of KpsT in B. pertussis resulted in global down-regulation of gene expression including key virulence genes regulated by BvgA/S, the master two-component system. Using a BvgS phase-locked mutant, we demonstrated a functional link between KpsT and BvgA/S-mediated signal transduction. Whereas pull-down assays do not support physical interaction between BvgS sensor and any of the capsule locus encoded proteins, absence of KpsT impaired BvgS oligomerization, necessary for BvgS function. Furthermore, complementation studies indicated that instead of KpsT alone, the entire PS capsule transport machinery spanning the cell envelope likely plays a role in BvgS-mediated signal transduction. Our work thus provides the first experimental evidence of a role for a virulence-repressed gene in pertussis pathogenesis.

  12. State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-08-17

    Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca numbers (e.g. 0.0075 number exceeds a critical value (e.g. Ca = 0.0175), the rolling state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape. PMID:27492192

  13. Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Porous Carbon Capsules Derived From Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Bradley, Siobhan J; Chan, Andrew; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Nann, Thomas; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-09-14

    We report a new methodology for producing monometallic or bimetallic nanoparticles confined within hollow nitrogen-doped porous carbon capsules. The capsules are derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals that are coated with a shell of a secondary material comprising either a metal-tannic acid coordination polymer or a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer. Platinum nanoparticles are optionally sandwiched between the MOF core and the shell. Pyrolysis of the MOF-shell composites produces hollow capsules of porous nitrogen-doped carbon that bear either monometallic (Pt, Co, and Ni) or alloyed (PtCo and PtNi) metal nanoparticles. The Co and Ni components of the bimetallic nanoparticles are derived from the shell surrounding the MOF crystals. The hollow capsules prevent sintering and detachment of the nanoparticles, and their porous walls allow for efficient mass transport. Alloyed PtCo nanoparticles embedded in the capsule walls are highly active, selective, and recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. PMID:27575666

  14. Radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule in hip arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio Porthos

    2015-12-01

    Hip arthroscopy (HA) is considered to be a very difficult and demanding surgical procedure, special instruments, an image intensifier and a fracture table or hip distractor are required to access the hip joint, the most common and worldwide used HA technique is entering blindly to the central compartment with the use of fluoroscopy and continuous distraction; with the potential danger if performed in unskillful hands of labral penetrations, labral resections and scuffing of the femoral head cartilage. Our technique describes the arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), performing a preoperative planning using radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule without the use of fluoroscopy. Access to the hip joint is made extra-articularly from the peritrochanteric compartment palpating the greater trochanter and posteriorly penetrating the iliotibial band sliding the arthroscopic sheath and obturator from the trochanteric border to the anterior femoral neck to visualize the anterior capsule bursa and anterior capsule fibers and posteriorly following our previous landmarks perform an anterior oblique Inverted 'T' or 'H' capsulotomy with a radiofrequency wand to access the cam-type impingement and distraction is made under direct controlled arthroscopic vision. Our technique in HA aiming the anterior capsule using radiographic and anatomic landmarks is safe, reliable and reproducible in FAI with big cams, deep sockets and cases with mild arthritis where the capsule is thick, stiff and calcified. PMID:27011869

  15. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  16. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: a case report: an entity in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Very little has been discussed in the medical literature concerning adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH). There are no articles to date in the physical therapy literature regarding ACH and only a dozen or so in medical journals. Evidence suggests ACH may present in a similar progression through four stages as adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS) (from synovial inflammation to capsular fibrosis). Consensus does not exist for management of ACS or ACH. However, most clinicians agree that treatment should be guided by the stage of the disorder, whether medically, surgically, or through physical therapy. A large part of the confusion for management of adhesive capsulitis (ACS and ACH) is due to the many studies that have not reported their findings by stage. Arthroscopy and synovial/capsular biopsy can confirm the presence and stage of adhesive capsulitis. Primary (idiopathic) ACH is proposed to be caused by biomechanical dysfunction in the hip or other joints related to the mechanical function of the hip. The treatment for stages 1 and 2 consists of using techniques to reduce inflammation and correct biomechanical faults that affect the hip. In stages 3 and 4 treatment focuses on the biomechanical dysfunction of the spine, hip(s), pelvic ring, and lower limb, if needed. In this case, the 55-year-old female patient presenting with probable stage 3 adhesive capsulitis, responded well to manual therapy and has been able to return to functional activities and maintain them with a home program.

  17. The dynamics of a capsule in a wall-bounded oscillating shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, LaiLai; Brandt, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The motion of an initially spherical capsule in a wall-bounded oscillating shear flow is investigated via an accelerated boundary integral implementation. The neo-Hookean model is used as the constitutive law of the capsule membrane. The maximum wall-normal migration is observed when the oscillation period of the imposed shear is of the order of the relaxation time of the elastic membrane; hence, the optimal capillary number scales with the inverse of the oscillation frequency and the ratio agrees well with the theoretical prediction in the limit of high-frequency oscillation. The migration velocity decreases monotonically with the frequency of the applied shear and the capsule-wall distance. We report a significant correlation between the capsule lateral migration and the normal stress difference induced in the flow. The periodic variation of the capsule deformation is roughly in phase with that of the migration velocity and normal stress difference, with twice the frequency of the imposed shear. The maximum...

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans capsule protects cell from oxygen reactive species generated by antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Renato Araujo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Kato, Ilka T.; Fuchs, Beth; Mylonakis, Eleytherios; Simões Ribeiro, Martha; Tegos, George

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) is based on the utilization of substances that can photosensitize biological tissues and are capable of being activated in the presence of light. Cryptococcus neoformans is an yeast surrounded by a capsule composed primarily of glucoronoxylomannan that plays an important role in its virulence. This yeast causes infection on skin, lungs and brain that can be associated with neurological sequelae and neurosurgical interventions, and its conventional treatment requires prolonged antifungal therapy, which presents important adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Cryptococcus neoformans capsule against reactive oxygen species generated by APDI. Cryptococcus neoformans KN99α, which is a strain able to produce capsule, and CAP59 that does not present capsule production were submitted to APDI using methylene blue (MB), rose bengal (RB), and pL-ce6 as photosensitizers (PS). Then microbial inactivation was evaluated by counting colony form units following APDI and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) illustrated localization as well as the preferential accumulation of PS into the fungal cells. C. neoformans KN99α was more resistant to APDI than CAP59 for all PSs tested. CLSM showed incorporation of MB and RB into the cytoplasm and a preferential uptake in mitochondria. A nuclear accumulation of MB was also observed. Contrarily, pL-ce6 appears accumulated in cell wall and cell membrane and minimal florescence was observed inside the fungal cells. In conclusion, the ability of C. neoformans to form capsule enhances survival following APDI.

  19. Influence of temperature and relative humidity conditions on the pan coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose molded capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Elena; Zema, Lucia; Pandey, Preetanshu; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Felton, Linda A

    2016-03-01

    In a previous study, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based capsular shells prepared by injection molding and intended for pulsatile release were successfully coated with 10mg/cm(2) Eudragit® L film. The suitability of HPC capsules for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time dependent approach was demonstrated. In the present work, data logging devices (PyroButton®) were used to monitor the microenvironmental conditions, i.e. temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), during coating processes performed under different spray rates (1.2, 2.5 and 5.5g/min). As HPC-based capsules present special features, a preliminary study was conducted on commercially available gelatin capsules for comparison purposes. By means of PyroButton data-loggers it was possible to acquire information about the impact of the effective T and RH conditions experienced by HPC substrates during the process on the technological properties and release performance of the coated systems. The use of increasing spray rates seemed to promote a tendency of the HPC shells to slightly swell at the beginning of the spraying process; moreover, capsules coated under spray rates of 1.2 and 2.5g/min showed the desired release performance, i.e. ability to withstand the acidic media followed by the pulsatile release expected for uncoated capsules. Preliminary stability studies seemed to show that coating conditions might also influence the release performance of the system upon storage. PMID:26686650

  20. Possible Radio Interference Between Video Capsule Endoscopy and Second-Generation OmniPod Patch Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitocco, Dario; Rizzi, Alessandro; Tortora, Annalisa; Manto, Andrea; Zaccardi, Francesco; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Riccioni, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to observe the small intestinal mucosa. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with T2DM, treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using second-generation OmniPod patch pump, undergoing VCE (Given M2A; VCE Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) for melena and anemia. During VCE, an abnormal interruption of communication between video capsule and its receiver occurred. Two hours after capsule ingestion, the patient activated the insulin pump infusion through the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM) because she drank a sugary beverage for the first time after ingestion. Due to this, we decided to repeat VCE after the removal of the insulin pump and PDM: at this time, the capsule recorded for more than 10 h without any interruption. The video capsule and second-generation OmniPod patch pump use the same radio frequency and this may cause interference between these two devices. In patients using second-generation OmniPod patch pump undergoing VCE, we suggest to switch to intravenous insulin infusion or multiple daily injection or to use a different model of VCE, as MiRoCam (Intromedic, Seoul, Korea).

  1. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  2. Polyvinylamine-based capsules: a mechanistic study of the formation using alginate and cellulose sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, A; Hunkeler, D

    2007-06-01

    Capsules based on sodium alginate (SA) and sodium cellulose sulphate (SCS), have been prepared using polyvinylamines (PVAm) of varying intrinsic viscosities. The resulting capsules are relatively dense in nature, revealing a bursting force which is four times that observed for the classical SA/SCS/polymethylene-co-guanidine chemistry. Molar mass cutoffs were typically in the 10-70 kDa range. A mechanistic study was carried out where the reaction time, ionic strength and pH of the reaction mixture, as well as the stoichiometry of the polyanion blend and the PVAm molar mass were varied. It is postulated that both the SA-PVAm and the SCS-PVAm binary interactions contribute to the mechanical properties and the permeability of the resulting capsules. The polyvinylamine-based chemistry offers interesting alternatives to the PMCG system in that it provides a means to produce capsules at low, or zero, ionic strengths. Subtle changes in the pH, or the SA:SCS ratio, can also be used to tune the bursting force quite sensitively. The most appropriate capsules, for transplantation, would likely be formed at polyanion levels of 1.2 wt% with a PVAm molar mass below 17 kDa. PMID:17497386

  3. Research on the Capsule of Ganoderma lucidum and Zizhiphi spinozae Improving the Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Dang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more people are suffering from insomnia with difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum and Ziziphi spinosae (Z. Spinosae are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and they have been used lonely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, G. lucidum and Z. spinosae were combined and the active fractions were extracted to make the capsule. Furthermore, their effect on improving sleep in mice was investigated. The functional compositions of the capsule were polysaccharide, total flavone, spinosin and triterpenoid, with the content being 12.08, 1.35, 0.67 and 1.50 g/100 g, respectively. The effect of the capsule on improving sleep in mice was studied. Results showed no effects on the sleep induced directly in mice assessed with the loss-of-righting reflex even at the high dose of 450, 1350 mg/kg/day. However, the capsule significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleeping time and prolonged sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium at high doses. In conclusion, the capsule of G. lucidum and Z. spinozae combined had the function of improving sleep

  4. A Data Capsule Framework For Web Services: Providing Flexible Data Access Control To Users

    CERN Document Server

    Kannan, Jayanthkumar; Chun, Byung-Gon

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a secure data capsule, which refers to an encapsulation of sensitive user information (such as a credit card number) along with code that implements an interface suitable for the use of such information (such as charging for purchases) by a service (such as an online merchant). In our capsule framework, users provide their data in the form of such capsules to web services rather than raw data. Capsules can be deployed in a variety of ways, either on a trusted third party or the user's own computer or at the service itself, through the use of a variety of hardware or software modules, such as a virtual machine monitor or trusted platform module: the only requirement is that the deployment mechanism must ensure that the user's data is only accessed via the interface sanctioned by the user. The framework further allows an user to specify policies regarding which services or machines may host her capsule, what parties are allowed to access the interface, and with what parameter...

  5. Angular radiation temperature simulation for time-dependent capsule drive prediction in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Liling; Kuang, Longyu [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Ding, Yongkun [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: huangyblhy@gmail.com [Mechatronics School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-02-15

    The x-ray drive on a capsule in an inertial confinement fusion setup is crucial for ignition. Unfortunately, a direct measurement has not been possible so far. We propose an angular radiation temperature simulation to predict the time-dependent drive on the capsule. A simple model, based on the view-factor method for the simulation of the radiation temperature, is presented and compared with the experimental data obtained using the OMEGA laser facility and the simulation results acquired with VISRAD code. We found a good agreement between the time-dependent measurements and the simulation results obtained using this model. The validated model was then used to analyze the experimental results from the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. More specifically, the variations of the peak radiation temperatures at different view angles with the albedo of the hohlraum, the motion of the laser spots, the closure of the laser entrance holes, and the deviation of the laser power were investigated. Furthermore, the time-dependent radiation temperature at different orientations and the drive history on the capsule were calculated. The results indicate that the radiation temperature from “U20W112” (named according to the diagnostic hole ID on the target chamber) can be used to approximately predict the drive temperature on the capsule. In addition, the influence of the capsule on the peak radiation temperature is also presented.

  6. Wireless fluorescence capsule for endoscopy using single photon-based detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Cumming, David R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence Imaging (FI) is a powerful technique in biological science and clinical medicine. Current FI devices that are used either for in-vivo or in-vitro studies are expensive, bulky and consume substantial power, confining the technique to laboratories and hospital examination rooms. Here we present a miniaturised wireless fluorescence endoscope capsule with low power consumption that will pave the way for future FI systems and applications. With enhanced sensitivity compared to existing technology we have demonstrated that the capsule can be successfully used to image tissue autofluorescence and targeted fluorescence via fluorophore labelling of tissues. The capsule incorporates a state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor single photon avalanche detector imaging array, miniaturised optical isolation, wireless technology and low power design. When in use the capsule consumes only 30.9 mW, and deploys very low-level 468 nm illumination. The device has the potential to replace highly power-hungry intrusive optical fibre based endoscopes and to extend the range of clinical examination below the duodenum. To demonstrate the performance of our capsule, we imaged fluorescence phantoms incorporating principal tissue fluorophores (flavins) and absorbers (haemoglobin). We also demonstrated the utility of marker identification by imaging a 20 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling solution on mammalian tissue.

  7. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  8. Acute extensive ischemic enteritis in a young man diagnosed with wireless capsule endoscopy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Seong; Song, Hyun Joo; Na, Soo Young; Boo, Sun Jin; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Jinseok; Choi, Guk Myung

    2013-03-25

    Ischemic enteritis is caused by either the interruption or significant reduction of arterial inflow to the small intestine. Risk factors are old age, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. It is very rare in young patients. We experienced a 21-year-old man with recurrent acute ischemic enteritis who was diagnosed with capsule endoscopy. He had previously taken medications for pulmonary hypertension and obstruction of both carotid arteries, and about 20 months earlier, he had been admitted due to hematochezia. Two sessions of angiography did not reveal the cause of hematochezia. At that time, capsule endoscopy showed mucosal edema and erythema in the terminal ileum, suggesting healed ischemic enteritis. The patient was admitted again due to hematochezia. Abdominal computed tomography showed focal celiac trunk stenosis and diffuse wall thickening of the small intestine, suggesting ischemic enteritis. Capsule endoscopy showed multiple active ulcers and severe hemorrhage with exudate, extending from the proximal jejunum to the terminal ileum. Using capsule endoscopy, the patient was diagnosed with acute extensive ischemic enteritis. Because endoscopic images of ischemic enteritis have rarely been reported, we report a case of a 21-year-old man who was diagnosed acute extensive ischemic enteritis with capsule endoscopy.

  9. An implantable compound-releasing capsule triggered on demand by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeig, Olga; Chin, Sau Yin; Kim, Sohyun; Chitnis, Parag V.; Sia, Samuel K.

    2016-03-01

    Implantable devices have a large potential to improve human health, but they are often made of biofouling materials that necessitate special coatings, rely on electrical connections for external communication, and require a continuous power source. This paper demonstrates an alternative platform, which we call iTAG (implantable thermally actuated gel), where an implanted capsule can be wirelessly controlled by ultrasound to trigger the release of compounds. We constructed a millimeter-sized capsule containing a co-polymer gel (NiPAAm-co-AAm) that contracts above body temperature (i.e. at 45 °C) to release compounds through an opening. This gel-containing capsule is biocompatible and free of toxic electronic or battery components. An ultrasound hardware, with a focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer and a co-axial A-mode imaging transducer, was used to image the capsule (to monitor in real time its position, temperature, and effectiveness of dose delivery), as well as to trigger a rapid local rise in temperature, contraction of gel, and release of compounds in vitro and in vivo. The combination of this gel-based capsule and compact ultrasound hardware can serve as a platform for triggering local release of compounds, including potentially in deep tissue, to achieve tailored personalized therapy.

  10. Efficacy of antiadhesion barrier solution on periimplant capsule formation in a white rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Dae Hyun; Yoon, Jung Ho; Hong, Jong Won; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2010-08-01

    Antiadhesive barrier solution (AABS) has been proven to prevent intraabdominal adhesion by reducing inflammation and fibrosis formation. Because this mechanism can also be applied to capsule formation after the breast implant insertion, we hypothesize that AABS can reduce capsular contraction and evaluate the efficacy of AABS on perisilastic implant capsule formation after submuscular insertion. A silicone block was inserted beneath the panniculus carnosus muscle in 10 rats. The experiment group received 0.1 mL of AABS (Guardix, Hanmi Medical Co.) instilled into the pocket, whereas the control group received 0.1 mL saline solution. Periimplant capsules were excised after 4 weeks and were evaluated for inflammatory cell count, capsular thickness, collagen pattern, and amount of myofibroblast. The inflammatory cell count and the capsular thickness were lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The collagen pattern was loose and parallel in the experiment group, and the amount of myofibroblast was much less compared with the control group. AABS reduced the amount of inflammatory cells, myofibroblast, and capsular thickness. It also made the collagen fibers in the capsule loose and parallel. Therefore, AABS seemed to be effective in reducing the periimplant capsule formation. PMID:20606576

  11. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB* capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400 degrees C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60 degrees C capsule, where the test specimens were in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a thin gap region between the specimen holder outer sleeve and containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330 degrees C capsules, which started on July 17, 1990, was completed on November 14, 1992, after 24 cycles of irradiation to an incremental damage level of approximately 10.9 displacements per atom (dpa). Assembly of the follow-up 200 and 400 degrees C capsules was completed in November 1992, and their planned 20-cycle irradiation to approximately 9.1 incremental dpa was started on November 21, 1992. As of February 11, 1993, the 200 and 400 degrees C capsules had successfully completed three cycles of irradiation to approximately 1.4 incremental dpa

  12. Exocrine contamination impairs implantation of pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the kidney capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D W; Sutton, R; McShane, P; Peters, M; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    The effect of exocrine contamination on islets implanted under the kidney capsule has been studied by histological examination of pure or exocrine-contamination human, monkey, or rat islets transplanted to the kidney capsule of the nude rat, monkey, or rat, respectively. Exocrine contamination resulted in an appearance suggestive of impaired islet implantation, due to tissue necrosis and subsequent fibrosis. The effect of exocrine contamination was examined quantitatively in a rat islet isograft model in which handpicked DA rat islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of normal DA rats. The islets were either pure or deliberately recontaminated with exocrine tissue (50 or 90% contamination). Four hundred pure islets were placed under one kidney capsule and 400 islets (of similar size and from the same islet preparation) were contaminated and then placed under the contralateral kidney capsule. After 2 weeks the kidneys were removed and extracted for insulin content. The insulin content of kidneys bearing islets contaminated by either 50 or 90% exocrine tissue was significantly reduced when compared to the contralateral kidney bearing pure islets. These findings support the view that exocrine contamination of islets resulted in impaired islet implantation when transplanted to a confined site such as the kidney subcapsule.

  13. Automatic detection of informative frames from wireless capsule endoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, M K; Kitasaka, T; Suenaga, Y; Mekada, Y; Mori, K

    2010-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the excessive amount of time required for video diagnosis. We therefore propose a method for generating smaller videos by detecting informative frames from original WCE videos. This method isolates useless frames that are highly contaminated by turbid fluids, faecal materials and/or residual foods. These materials and fluids are presented in a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or have bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme therefore consists of two steps: isolating (Step-1) highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frames and (Step-2) significantly bubbled (SB) frames. Two color representations, viz., local color moments in Ohta space and the HSV color histogram, are attempted to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in Step-1. The rest of the frames go to Step-2, where a Gauss Laguerre transform (GLT) based multiresolution texture feature is used to characterize the bubble structures in WCE frames. GLT uses Laguerre Gauss circular harmonic functions (LG-CHFs) to decompose WCE images into multiresolution components. An automatic method of segmentation was designed to extract bubbled regions from grayscale versions of the color images based on the local absolute energies of their CHF responses. The final informative frames were detected by using a threshold on the segmented regions. An automatic procedure for selecting features based on analyzing the consistency of the energy-contrast map is also proposed. Three experiments, two of which use 14,841 and 37,100 frames from three videos and the rest uses 66,582 frames from six videos, were conducted for justifying the proposed method. The two combinations of the proposed color and texture features showed excellent average detection accuracies (86

  14. Morpho-functional evaluation of small bowel using wireless motility capsule and video capsule endoscopy in patients with known or suspected Crohn’s disease: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Diana; Douglas, Sarah; Hobson, Anthony R.; Giannakou, Andry; Plevris, John N.; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: SmartPill® (Given Imaging Corp.,Yoqneam,Israel) is an ingestible, non-imaging capsule that records physiological data including contractions and pH throughout the gastrointestinal tract. There are scarce data looking at SmartPill® assessment of patients with known/suspected small-bowel Crohn’s Disease (CD). This pilot study aims to investigate feasibility and safety of SmartPill® to assess gut motility in this group.  Patients and methods: Over 1 year, patients with known/suspected CD, referred for small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE), were invited to participate and 12 were recruited (7 female, 5 male, mean age 44.2 ± 16.6 years). They underwent hydrogen breath test to exclude small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, patency capsule (Agile®), and provided stool samples for fecal calprotectin (FC). Patients ingested PillCam®SB2 and SmartPill® 4 hours apart. Using unpublished data, 33 healthy controls also were identified for the study. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 12 patients enrolled, 10 underwent complete Smartpill® examination (1 stomach retention, 1 dropout). Pillcam® was complete in 10 (1 dropout, 1 stomach retention). Mean fecal calprotectin was 340 ± 307.71 mcg/g. The study group had longer transit times and lower gut motility index than did the controls. The difference in motility appears to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Longer transit times for SmartPill® (not statistically significant) may have been due to different specifications between the capsules. Limitations included transient Smartpill® signal loss (5/10 studies). Conclusions: This is the first pilot to attempt combining SBCE and SmartPill® to assess small-bowel CD. Data on motility in CD are scarce. Multimodal information can provide a clearer clinical picture. Despite concerns about capsule retention in CD patients, SmartPill® seems safe for use if a patency capsule is employed beforehand. PMID

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Κ-Carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of 5-flourouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer multilayer capsules are made by generating a template, coating it with alternating layers of different polymers and removing the template to make it hollow. It is considered a good drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug being encapsulated by just changing the polymers and template used. Κ-Carrageenan and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Polymer multilayer capsule can be made with these polymers using the layer-by-layer deposition (LbL) method. The strong electrostatic attraction between these two oppositely charged polymers which males the capsules stable and their biocompatibility makes them excellent candidates for drug delivery applications. The drug to be encapsulated in this study is fluorouracil, a widely used drug for the treatment of cancerous tumors with a large variety of side effects which requires controlled and targeted delivery in the patient. The objectives of this study are the following: to synthesize κ-carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules with 1 layer κ-carrageenan, and 5, 10, and 11 alternating layers of κ-carrageenan and chitosan, to obtain the fluorescence images and microscopy images of the hollow capsules, and to determine the encapsulation and release profile of fluorouracil as a function of time. Hollow capsules with 5 layers of alternating chitosan and κ-carrageenan have been synthesized with polystyrene as the core template, and the polystyrene removed after depositing the polymer layers by washing it with THF. The capsules were then subjected to gamma irradiation at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the THF washings that five washings are needed to completely remove the polystyrene core template from

  16. Self-assembly of amphiphilic janus particles into monolayer capsules for enhanced enzyme catalysis in organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-14

    Encapsulation of enzymes during the creation of an emulsion is a simple and efficient route for enhancing enzyme catalysis in organic media. Herein, we report a capsule with a shell comprising a monolayer of silica Janus particles (JPs) (referred to as a monolayer capsule) and a Pickering emulsion for the encapsulation of enzyme molecules for catalysis purposes in organic media using amphiphilic silica JPs as building blocks. We demonstrate that the JP capsules had a monolayer shell consisting of closely packed silica JPs (270 nm). The capsules were on average 5-50 μm in diameter. The stability of the JP capsules (Pickering emulsion) was investigated with the use of homogeneous silica nanoparticles as a control. The results show that the emulsion stabilized via amphiphilic silica JPs presented no obvious changes in physical appearance after 15 days, indicating the high stability of the emulsions and JP capsules. Furthermore, the lipase from Candida sp. was chosen as a model enzyme for encapsulation within the JP capsules during their formation. The catalytic performance of lipase was evaluated according to the esterification of 1-hexanol with hexanoic acid. It was found that the specific activity of the encapsulated enzymes (28.7 U mL(-1)) was more than 5.6 times higher than that of free enzymes in a biphasic system (5.1 U mL(-1)). The enzyme activity was further increased by varying the volume ratio of water to oil and the JPs loadings. The enzyme-loaded capsule also exhibited high stability during the reaction process and good recyclability. In particular, the jellification of agarose in the JP capsules further enhanced their operating stability. We believe that the monolayer structure of the JP capsules, together with their high stability, rendered the capsules to be ideal enzyme carriers and microreactors for enzyme catalysis in organic media because they created a large interfacial area and had low mass transfer resistance through the monolayer shell.

  17. Protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a Bacillus anthracis capsule conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Donald J; Ribot, Wilson J; Joyce, Joseph; Cook, James; Hepler, Robert; Nahas, Debbie; Chua, Jennifer; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2016-07-25

    The efficacy of currently licensed anthrax vaccines is largely attributable to a single Bacillus anthracis immunogen, protective antigen. To broaden protection against possible strains resistant to protective antigen-based vaccines, we previously developed a vaccine in which the anthrax polyglutamic acid capsule was covalently conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B and demonstrated that two doses of 2.5μg of this vaccine conferred partial protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax . Here, we demonstrate complete protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a higher 50μg dose of the same capsule conjugate vaccine. These results indicate that B. anthracis capsule is a highly effective vaccine component that should be considered for incorporation in future generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:27329184

  18. Retained wireless video enteroscopy capsule: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott R; Lohr, Joann M

    2009-01-01

    Capsule enteroscopy, which is a wireless noninvasive approach to evaluation of the small intestine, consists of an 11 x 26-mm capsule containing a miniature video camera, batteries, illuminating light-emitting diodes, a transmitter, and an antenna. The components inside the capsule are encased by a slippery, nonbiodegradable, plastic housing, which weighs less than 4 g. Information obtained from the imager, approximately 2 frames per second, is transmitted by way of radiotelemetry to an array of sensors taped to the abdomen, which connect to a data recorder worn on a belt around the waist. The batteries are designed to last roughly 7-8 hours, providing enough energy to generate approximately 50,000 to 60,000 detailed images. The clinical review of the imagery is made available after completion of the study when images are downloaded from the data recorder to a computer with dedicated software. PMID:20005505

  19. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Solem, J C; Bradley, P A; Rundberg, R S

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  20. Capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: concise up-to-date overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Sarah DouglasCentre for Liver and Digestive Disorders, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area.Keywords: capsule, imaging, small bowel, Crohn’s, celiac, GI bleed

  1. A study on the synthesis of multiple emulsion and multiple capsule using chitosan-PVP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.T.; Shul, Y.G. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.; Lee, M.S.; Nam, S.I. [Cheiljaedang Co. (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Multiple capsule was prepared by using chitosan-PVP multiple emulsion system(W/O/W) in which oil and water phase can co-exist simultaneously. In multiple emulsion, chitosan and PVP solution were used for external and internal aqueous phase materials, respectively. And squalane was used for oil phase material. To increase the stability of multiple emulsion, multiple emulsion was ejected into the NaOH solution through the nozzle to form multiple capsule of 2-3 mm in diameter, where the chitosan-PVP composite was used as a wall materials. The hardness of this multiple capsule was found to increase as the amount of PVP increased. Antibacterial property of this multicapsule was tested by E. coli. After 1 h, there was drastic decrease of E. coli population and all the E. coli was diminished after 24 h.

  2. A Smart Capsule With GI-Tract-Location-Specific Payload Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuyang; Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Ziaie, Babak

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a smart capsule for location-specific drug release in the gastrointestinal tract. Once activated through a magnetic proximity fuse, the capsule opens up and releases its powdered payload in a location specified by an implanted miniature magnetic marker or an externally worn larger magnet. The capsule (9 mm × 26 mm) comprises of two compartments: one contains a charged capacitor and a reed switch, while the second one houses the drug reservoir capped by a taut nylon thread intertwined with a nichrome wire. The nichrome wire is connected to the capacitor through the reed switch. The capacitor is charged to 2.7 V before ingestion and once within the proximity of the permanent magnet; the reed switch closes, discharging the capacitor through the nichrome wire, melting the nylon thread, detaching the cap, and emptying the drug reservoir. PMID:25909999

  3. Vacuum encapsulated, high temperature diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, Josh; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2015-12-29

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first high-temperature solder weld disposed between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and a second high-temperature solder weld disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the cathode element. The cathode capsule is formed by a high temperature weld process under vacuum such that the first solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and the second solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the cathode element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  4. Capsule design for irradiation of fatigue crack propagation specimens in ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsule has been designed to allow the irradiation of fatigue crack propagation specimens with the 0.5T compact tension (0.5T CT) geometry at elevated temperatures in the high-flux region of the ORR core. Temperature control will be achieved by a balance between gamma heat generation in the specimens and heat loss to the reactor cooling water through an externally controlled variable gas gap. The design of the ORR capsule has been derived from NRL capsules used to irradiate reactor pressure vessel steels in a number of research reactors, with modifications to the geometry to allow for the high gamma heating rate encountered in the core of ORR. The first assembly of this design will be irradiated as experiment MFE-3, scheduled for insertion in ORR by the end of FY 78

  5. GENGTC-JB: a computer program to calculate temperature distribution for cylindrical geometry capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In design of JMTR irradiation capsules contained specimens, a program (named GENGTC) has been generally used to evaluate temperature distributions in the capsules. The program was originally compiled by ORNL(U.S.A.) and consisted of very simple calculation methods. From the incorporated calculation methods, the program is easy to use, and has many applications to the capsule design. However, it was considered to replace original computing methods with advanced ones, when the program was checked from a standpoint of the recent computer abilities, and also to be complicated in data input. Therefore, the program was versioned up as aim to make better calculations and improve input method. The present report describes revised calculation methods and input/output guide of the version-up program. (author)

  6. Under-air staining of the anterior capsule using Trypan blue with a 30 G needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammaria, Daniele; Giannotti, Michele; Scopelliti, Angelo; Pellegrini, Giacomo; Giannotti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The original technique of staining the anterior capsule of the lens with Trypan blue involves the injection of an air bubble in the anterior chamber. A drawback of this technique is the possible instability of the anterior chamber caused by the sudden exit of air when the dye is injected with the cannula through the side-port incision. Other staining techniques that use viscoelastic substances to increase the stability of the anterior chamber and to dose the injected dye have been described. The authors present an under-air staining technique of the anterior capsule using one drop of Trypan blue injected with a 30 G needle through the peripheral cornea. This procedure prevents the air bubble from escaping the anterior chamber and allows fast and selective staining of the capsule. PMID:23386783

  7. Effect of a controlled-release albendazole capsule on parasitism and productivity of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I; Legény, J; Juris, P; Veselý, L

    1991-11-01

    The efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (ABZ) capsules (Profitril-Captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity were studied in 300 ewes infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Coprological tests revealed that treated animals remained negative for 10 weeks after the administration of capsules. Contamination of pasture with nematode larvae was significantly reduced during the whole experiment. Necropsy of 14 animals (seven treated and seven untreated) showed 96.9-99.2% efficacy against the nematodes Nematodirus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris ovis, while efficacy was 88.5% against D. dendriticum. During the 6 month pasture season (May-October 1989), treated ewes produced on average 2.56 kg cheese and 0.6 kg wool per ewe more than untreated controls. Our study confirms the reliability of the ABZ slow-release capsules over 90 days and the positive effect of treatment on nematode contamination of pasture and ewe productivity.

  8. [Application of molecularly imprinted technology for separation of PGG from Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ya-ling; Wang, Xue-jing; Ni, Fu-yong; Gu, Rui; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xu, Xiao-jie; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG) is one of the main active compounds of Guizhi Fuling capsule. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have high affinity toward template molecules synthesized by molecularly imprinted technology for its specific combined sites, which can overcome the shortcoming of traditional separation methods, such as complex operation, low efficiency, using large quantity of solvent and environmental pollution. In this paper, surface molecularly imprinted polymer (SMIP) was prepared by surface imprinting with PGG as the template molecule. Its adsorption capacity was measured by the scatchard equation. The separation of PGG from Guizhi Fuling capsule at preparatived scale was achieved with molecularly imprinted polymer as stationary phase and the purity was 90.2% by HPLC. This method can be used to prepare PGG from Guizhi Fuling capsule with large capacity and is easy to operate. It provides a new method for efficient separation and purification for other natural products.

  9. Simulation of fuel rod irradiation capsules in water loops by electric heater rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The out of pile simulation of irradiation devices was carried out by J.E.N. in the frame of the KfK-JEN joint experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods (IVO-FR2-Vg7). A typical single-wall-Nak (22% Na, 78% K) electrical heated capsule was fabricated and hydraulical tests were done. The capsule was instrumented with 10 thermocouples in order to obtain the radial temperature profile into the capsule in function of the electrical rod power (max. 215 w/cm), flow rate (max. 2,4 m3/h) and coolant temperature (max. 60degC). The experimental values are compared to the Tecap-Code results. (author)

  10. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  11. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P<0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P=0.0003. The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P<0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P<0.00001 or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P<0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P<0.00001. 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension.

  12. Contribution of fucose-containing capsules in Klebsiella pneumoniae to bacterial virulence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, June Hsieh; Wu, Albert M; Tsai, Cheng Gie; Chang, Xin-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Wu, Ting-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) contains a prominent capsule. Clinical infections usually are associated with pneumonia or urinary tract infection (UTI). Emerging evidence implicates KP in severe liver abscess especially in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the capsular polysaccharides from KP of liver abscess (hepatic-KP) and of UTI-KP. The composition of capsular polysaccharides was analyzed by capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Dionex system). The terminal sugars were assayed by binding ability to lectins. The results showed that the capsule of a hepatic KP (KpL1) from a diabetic patient contained fucose, while the capsule from UTI-KP (KpU1) did not. The absence of fucose was verified by the absence of detectable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment for fucose synthesis genes, gmd and wcaG in KpU1. Mice infected with the KpL1 showed high fatality, whereas those infected with the KpU1 showed high survival rate. The KpL1 capsule was reactive to lectins AAA and AAL, which detect fucose, while the KpU1 capsule was reactive to lectin GNA, which detects mannose. Phagocytosis experiment in mouse peritoneal cavity indicated that the peritoneal macrophages could interact with KpU1, while rare association of KpL1 with macrophages was observed. This study revealed that different polysaccharides were displayed on the bacterial capsules of virulent KpL1 as compared with the less virulent KpU1. Interaction of KpU1 with mice peritoneal macrophages was more prominent than that of KpL1. The possession of fucose might contribute to KpL1 virulence by avoiding phagocytosis since fucose on bacteria had been implicated in immune evasion.

  13. Chinese patent medicine tongxinluo capsule for hypertension: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.87, -5.32 to -2.41, P < 0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.72, -4.19 to -1.24, P = 0.0003). The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: -9.40, -10.90 to -7.90, P < 0.00001; and DBP: -11.80, -12.40 to -11.20, P < 0.00001) or western medicine (SBP: -3.90, -4.93 to -2.87, P < 0.00001; and DBP: -3.70, -3.83 to -3.57, P < 0.00001). 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension. PMID:24693319

  14. Differential expression of extracellular matrix genes in glenohumeral capsule of shoulder instability patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2016-07-01

    Anterior shoulder instability is a common orthopedic problem. After a traumatic shoulder dislocation, patients present a plastic deformation of the capsule. The shoulder instability biology remains poorly understood. We evaluated the expression of genes that encode the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibronectin 1 (FN1), tenascin C (TNC) and tenascin XB (TNXB) in the glenohumeral capsule of anterior shoulder instability patients and controls. Moreover, we investigated the associations between gene expression and clinical parameters. The gene expression was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the antero-inferior (macroscopically injured region), antero-superior and posterior regions of the capsule of 29 patients with shoulder instability and 8 controls. COMP expression was reduced and FN1 and TNC expression was increased in the antero-inferior capsule region of cases compared to controls (p shoulder instability patients (p = 0.022). COMP expression was reduced in the antero-inferior region compared to the posterior region of shoulder instability patients (p = 0.007). In the antero-inferior region, FN1 expression was increased in the capsule of patients with more than one year of symptoms (p = 0.003) and with recurrent dislocations (p = 0.004) compared with controls. FN1 and TNXB expression was correlated with the duration of symptoms in the posterior region (p shoulder instability patients. Dislocation episodes modify FN1, TNC and TNXB expression in the injured tissue. COMP altered expression may be associated with capsule integrity after shoulder dislocation, particularly in the macroscopically injured portion. PMID:27093129

  15. OVERVIEW ABOUT THE INSTRUMENTED NOSE ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE EXPERT CAPSULE

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Thomas; Stubicar, Kornelia; Koppenwallner, Georg; Müller-Eigner, Rudolf; Lein, Sebastian; Steinbeck, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The EXPERT mission aims at collecting precise in-flight data during atmospheric re-entry. For this purpose a vehicle was envisaged that is designed especially for that. Almost twenty payloads are on board of the EXPERT capsule which has the shape of a cone with a blunt nose. Four non-moveable flaps are located at the end of the capsule. The nose of the vehicle is made from a ceramic matrix (CMC) composite material. In the nose four exciting experiments are situated. Payload 1 is a Flush Air D...

  16. Sensor-Aided Localized Capsule-Cooling Using Neural Networks for Energy-Efficient Refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, N.; P. K. Sadhu; Pal, N.; SWAROOP R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensor-aided localized capsule-cooling technique is a unique refrigeration process where sensors precisely capsulate the location of an item(s) on a shelf of a fridge and hence direct the governing artificial intelligence to take suitable action. Here the sensors are used to locate the objects and the designed smart system (neural network) activates the corresponding ductlines to cool the object. Here neural network system opens the gate(s) and tilts the angle to allow the flow of cool air th...

  17. Simulation and assessment of ion kinetic effects in a direct-drive capsule implosion experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Ari; Schmitt, M J; Herrmann, H W; Batha, S H

    2016-01-01

    The first simulations employing a kinetic treatment of both fuel and shell ions to model inertial confinement fusion experiments are presented, including results showing the importance of kinetic physics processes in altering fusion burn. A pair of direct drive capsule implosions performed at the OMEGA facility with two different gas fills of deuterium, tritium, and helium-3 are analyzed. During implosion shock convergence, highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions and separations in the density and temperature amongst the ion species are observed. Diffusion of fuel into the capsule shell is identified as a principal process that degrades fusion burn performance.

  18. Hot dense capsule implosion cores produced by z-pinch dynamic hohlraum radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, J E; Slutz, S A; Golovkin, I; Lake, P W; MacFarlane, J J; Mancini, R C; Buris-Mog, T J; Cooper, G; Leeper, R J; Mehlhorn, T A; Moore, T C; Nash, T J; Nielsen, D S; Ruiz, C L; Schroen, D G; Varnum, W A

    2003-01-01

    Hot dense capsule implosions driven by z-pinch x-rays have been measured for the first time. A ~220 eV dynamic hohlraum imploded 1.7-2.1 mm diameter gas-filled CH capsules which absorbed up to ~20 kJ of x-rays. Argon tracer atom spectra were used to measure the Te~ 1keV electron temperature and the ne ~ 1-4 x10^23 cm-3 electron density. Spectra from multiple directions provide core symmetry estimates. Computer simulations agree well with the peak compression values of Te, ne, and symmetry, indicating reasonable understanding of the hohlraum and implosion physics.

  19. Issues in capsule fabrication and injection into a wet-walled IFE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility for mass production of high gain targets for a laser fusion reactor is discussed focusing on the capsule fabrication and the life of cryogenic targets heated with the latent heats of residual gas in the reactor. The model targets are (a) a solid DT layer in a relatively thick polystyrene capsule and (b) solid DT in a cryogenic DT foam ablator with a thin gas barrier. The latter target involved various issues concerning its fabrication process and both targets cannot survive in a conceptual laser fusion reactor KOYO

  20. [The lateral splitting of the knee joint capsule for treatment of chondropathia patellae (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, R

    1977-06-26

    This is a report on the results of the lateral splitting of the knee-joint capsule for treatment of chondropathia patellae. The operative procedure is described. Pains relative to the patella syndrome, chondropathia patellae, forms of dysplasia of the patella and lateral dislocation of the patella are regarded as indications. 50 knee-joints were post-examined. 26% were without complaints, 54% showed improvement, 10% no change, 10% deteriorated. These results are comparable to those of other, more intensive surgery. Representing a comparatively minor operation, the lateral splitting of the capsule is therefore particularly recommended for young patients.

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL in-pile capsule shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Haynie, C.B.; Crowley, W.K.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The ORNL in-pile capsule shipping cask is used to transport irradiated experimental capsules and spent fuel elements. The cask was analytically evaluated to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. Computational procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation show that the cask is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  2. Treatment Approach to Small Inadvertent Injury of the Crystalline Lens Anterior Capsule During Iridodialysis Repair Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Gökçe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old man presented to our ophthalmology department with photophobia. On ophthalmic examination, iridodialysis secondary to blunt trauma that occurred 5 years ago was diagnosed. During iridodialysis repair surgery, long curved double-armed needle of 10-0 polypropylene suture (PC-9 inserted into the 19 gauge side port turned down inadvertently by its own weight, resulting in crystalline lens anterior capsule perforation. Postoperative clinical observation revealed no lens opacification affecting visual acuity. This case report showed that lens aspiration surgery should be postponed if the capsule injury is small.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 61-3

  3. Plasma pharmacological study on Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule on platelet aggregation of normal person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-sheng; CHEN Fang-ping; XIAO Chang-jiang; HE Shi-lin; FU Bin; LI Xin; CAO Xing-yu; CHEN Yan; XIE Qin-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop a plasma pharmacological method evaluates the effect of Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule on platelet aggregation and its mechanism, which is a representative Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Prescription Promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis. Methods Platelets specimens from healthy volunteers made serum and plasma with medicine, while platelet PRP were separated, which were divided into 8groups,i.e. auto-serum, allo-serum, serum with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule , serum with aspirin, auto-plasma, plasma with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule, plasma with aspirin, every group added to serum and plasma to hatch. After ADP and adrenalin were added into the specimens and hatched, the effects of specimens on platelet aggregation were observed. Results After ADP adrenalin were added, all the serum groups did not present platelet aggregation,while all the plasma group presented platelet aggregation. P1, P5, Pmax, t and TM have no significant difference (P>0. 05) between auto-plasma group and allo-plasma group induced by ADP and adrenalin. P1, P5, t and Pmax have significant differences (P<0. 01) and TM decreased significantly (P<0. 05) comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule and plasma group of aspirin to allo-plasma group. P1, t and Pmax have significant difference (P<0.05), and P5 and TM are simulate comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule to plasma group of aspirin. P1, P5, t and Pmax have significant differences (P<0. 01), P1, TM have also significant(P<0. 05), comparing plasma group of Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule with plasma of aspirin to allo-plasma group induced by adrenalin. P1 ,P5 and Pmax have significant differences (P<0.05), and t and Pmax are simulate comparing plasma group with Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule with plasma group of aspirin. Conclusion The serum pharmacological study is inappropriate to study platelet aggregation in vitro. The plasma pharmacological study is inappropriate to study

  4. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  5. Deep Dive Topic: State of understanding of capsule modeling in context of high-foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The work is summarized from several perspectives: 1D simulation perspective: Post-shot models agree with yield data to within a factor of ~2 at low implosion velocities, but the models diverge from the data as the velocity and convergence ratio increase. 2D simulation perspective: Integrated hohlraum-capsule post-shot models agree with primary data for most implosions, but overpredict yield and DSR for a few of the highest velocity implosions. High-resolution 3D post-shot capsule-only modeling captures much of the delivered performance of the one shot currently simulated.

  6. CULTURAL CAPSULES AND READING TEXTS: TRIGGERS TO CROSS-CULTURAL LANGUAGE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in the international setting is based on cultural presuppositions about the kinds of language performance that are appropriate for specific situations. Culture capsules are useful teaching techniques to teach English, as learners would be able to bring in their own cultural insights into learning the pragmatics of English through the various combinations of word choice, prosodic and paralinguistic features. This paper will provide examples of capsules which focus on a range of speech acts (greetings, directives, requests, etc and demonstrate how they can be used as a stimulus to cross-cultural language awareness.

  7. Design and Use of a Novel Apparatus for Measuring Capsule Fill Hole Conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seugling, R M; Nederbragt, W W; Klingmann, J L; Edson, S; Reynolds, J; Cook, R

    2006-11-27

    Description and results of a novel apparatus for determining the flow conductance through a laser drilled hole in a spherical shell for inertial confinement fusion experiments are described. The instrument monitors the pressure of an enclosed volume containing the laser pressure drilled capsule as air bleeds through the hole into the shell. From these measurements one obtains the conductance of the fill hole. This system has proven to be a valuable tool for verifying the conduct conductance into the capsule in a timely and nondestructive manner.

  8. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  9. In-the-bag decentration of a hydrophilic radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens secondary to capsule contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of in-the-bag decentration and tilt of a hydrophilic rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) of the M Plus type secondary to capsule contraction. After uneventful surgery and follow-up for 3 months, progressive decentering and tilting of the IOL secondary to capsul

  10. Evidence of binary division in mature central capsules of a collosphaerid colonial radiolarian: Implications for shell ontogenetic patterns in modern and fossil species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anderson, O.R.; Gupta, S.M.

    of the skeletons are deposited at nearly the same time following multiple divisions of skeletonless central capsules and (2) "successive shell depositon," where mature central capsules with shells give rise to additional ones through delayed binary fission...

  11. Capsule of parotid gland tumor: evaluation by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging using surface coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide (Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan)), e-mail: ishibashi-ttr@umin.ac.jp; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki (Div. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Dept. of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of parotid gland tumors has been widely reported, although few reports have evaluated the capsule of parotid gland tumors in detail. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils for detection of the parotid gland tumor capsule, and to clarify the characteristics of the capsules. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with parotid gland tumors (63 benign and 15 malignant) were evaluated. Axial and coronal T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained using a 3.0 T MR scanner with 70 mm surface coils. It was retrospectively assessed whether each parotid gland tumor was completely surrounded by a capsule. The capsule was classified as regular or irregular in terms of capsular thickness, and as none, mildly, or strongly enhancing in terms of contrast enhancement. Visual interpretations were compared with histopathological findings to evaluate the diagnostic ability of MR imaging to detect parotid gland tumor capsules. Statistical evaluation was conducted concerning the presence of capsules, capsular irregularity, and the difference in contrast enhancement between benign and malignant tumors, and that between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumors. Results: Capsules completely surrounding the tumor on MR imaging yielded a sensitivity of 87.7% (50/57), specificity of 90.5% (19/21), and accuracy of 88.5% (69/78). Benign tumors had a capsule completely surrounding the tumor significantly more often than malignant tumors (P = 0.009). Concerning capsular irregularity, malignant tumors tended to have more irregular capsules than benign tumors, although there were no significant differences. The capsules of malignant tumors enhanced significantly more strongly than those of benign tumors (P = 0.018). Conclusion: 3.0 T MR imaging using surface coils could correctly depict parotid gland tumor capsules in most cases. Most benign and some malignant tumors had

  12. Capsule expression in Streptococcus mitis modulates interaction with oral keratinocytes and alters susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, H V; Engen, S A; Schenck, K; Petersen, F C

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mitis is a colonizer of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx, and is closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both species occur in encapsulated and unencapsulated forms, but in S. mitis the role of the capsule in host interactions is mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how capsule expression in S. mitis can modulate interactions with the host with relevance for colonization. The S. mitis type strain, as well as two mutants of the type strain, an isogenic capsule deletion mutant, and a capsule switch mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, were used. Wild-type and capsule deletion strains of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 were included for comparison. We found that capsule production in S. mitis reduced adhesion to oral and lung epithelial cells. Further, exposure of oral epithelial cells to encapsulated S. mitis resulted in higher interleukin-6 and CXCL-8 transcription levels relative to the unencapsulated mutant. Capsule expression in S. mitis increased the sensitivity to human neutrophil peptide 1-3 but reduced the sensitivity to human β-defensin-3 and cathelicidin. This was in contrast with S. pneumoniae in which capsule expression has been generally associated with increased sensitivity to human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Collectively, these findings indicate that capsule expression in S. mitis is important in modulating interactions with epithelial cells, and is associated with increased or reduced susceptibility to AMPs depending on the nature of the AMP.

  13. CAPS Capsule: The National Assessment of Educational Progress, Concept and Organization, Vol. 3, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Judith, Ed.

    The Winter, 1970 issue of CAPS Capsule concerns the concept and structure of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which responds to the need to look at the outputs of education. Frank B. Womer, Staff Director of NAEP, discusses the following: (1) NAEP's origin; (2) the subject areas selected for assessment; (3) the development…

  14. 75 FR 39024 - Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules, 10 Milligrams, 20 Milligrams, and 40...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314.162). Under Sec. 314... sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness before an ANDA that refers to that listed drug may be... HUMAN SERVICES> Food and Drug Administration Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules,...

  15. Mechanical characterization of an unusual elastic biomaterial from the egg capsules of marine snails (Busycon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, H Scott; Shadwick, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    Egg capsule material serves as a putative protection mechanism for developing snail embryos facing the perils of the marine environment. We conducted the first quantitative study of this acellular structural protein with the goals of characterizing its chemical and mechanical properties and the relationship of these properties to its biological protective function. We have found that this protein polymer exhibits long-range elasticity with an interesting recoverable yield evidenced by an order of magnitude decrease in elastic modulus (apparent failure) that begins at 3%-5% strain. This material differs significantly from other common structural proteins such as collagen and elastin in mechanical response to strain. Qualitative similarities in stress/strain behavior to keratin, another common structural protein, are more than coincidental when composition and detailed mechanical quantification are considered. This suggests the possibility of alpha-helical structure and matrix organization that might be similar in these two proteins. Indeed, the egg capsule protein may be closely related to vertebrate keratins such as intermediate filaments. We conclude that while this material's bimodal tensile properties may serve as useful protection against the impact loading egg capsules encounter in the intertidal zone, the full biological importance of these capsules is not known.

  16. Generation and Beaming of Early Hot Electrons onto the Capsule in Laser-Driven Ignition Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E. L.; Hartemann, F.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Divol, L.; Robey, H. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Döppner, T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B.; Meezan, N. B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse ("picket") while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlraum emissions, in conjunction with the measurement of time-resolved bremsstrahlung spectra, allows us to uncover for the first time the directionality of these hot electrons and infer the capsule preheat. Data and Monte Carlo calculations indicate that for most experiments the hot electrons are emitted nearly isotropically from the LEH. However, we have found cases where a significant fraction of the generated electrons are emitted in a collimated beam directly towards the capsule poles, where their local energy deposition is up to 10 × higher than the average preheat value and acceptable levels for ICF implosions. The observed "beaming" is consistent with a recently unveiled multibeam stimulated Raman scattering model [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055003 (2015)], where laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave on axis. Finally, we demonstrate that we can control the amount of generated hot electrons by changing the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma.

  17. [Jinlong capsule combined with chemoradiotherapy for NSCLC: a Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Jing-bin; Feng, Yi-fan; She, Qin; Shi, Zhong-feng

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of Jinlong capsule combined with chemotherapy or radio-therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLS) using Meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases were all searched without language restriction, and searching time was from January 1990 to July 2015. All eligible published studies were included in this study for quality assessment and data extraction. All the data were analyzed using Revman 5.3. A total of ten studies including 736 subjects (370 in Jinlong capsule plus chemoradiotherapy and 366 in chemoradiotherapy only) were finally included in this Meta-analysis. The result of Meta analysis showed that compared with pure chemoradiotherapy group, Jinlong capsule combined with chemoradiotherapy for NSCLC could improve the patients' curative effect (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.29-2.43, P benefit rate (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.22-2.91, P < 0.05), life quality improvement rate (OR = 2. 56, 95% CI: 1.61-4.05, P < 0.05), and decrease leucopenia incidence rate (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0. 22-0.56, P < 0.05) and gastrointestinal reaction rate (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40-1.11, P < 0.05). The pooled results showed that Jinlong capsule combined with chemoradiotherapy for NSCLC could improve the curative effect and life quality, and decrease the adverse reaction of patients. PMID:27097429

  18. The indentation of pressurized elastic shells: from polymeric capsules to yeast cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, D.

    2011-08-10

    Pressurized elastic capsules arise at scales ranging from the 10 m diameter pressure vessels used to store propane at oil refineries to the microscopic polymeric capsules that may be used in drug delivery. Nature also makes extensive use of pressurized elastic capsules: plant cells, bacteria and fungi have stiff walls, which are subject to an internal turgor pressure. Here, we present theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations of the indentation of a linearly elastic shell subject to a constant internal pressure. We show that, unlike unpressurized shells, the relationship between force and displacement demonstrates two linear regimes. We determine analytical expressions for the effective stiffness in each of these regimes in terms of the material properties of the shell and the pressure difference. As a consequence, a single indentation experiment over a range of displacements may be used as a simple assay to determine both the internal pressure and elastic properties of capsules. Our results are relevant for determining the internal pressure in bacterial, fungal or plant cells. As an illustration of this, we apply our results to recent measurements of the stiffness of baker\\'s yeast and infer from these experiments that the internal osmotic pressure of yeast cells may be regulated in response to changes in the osmotic pressure of the external medium.

  19. Asymptomatic carriage of group A streptococcus is associated with elimination of capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Anthony R; Jewell, Brittany E; Olsen, Randall J; Shelburne, Samuel A; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2014-09-01

    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but despite decades of study, the underlying molecular contributors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a group A streptococcus carriage strain contains a frameshift mutation in the hasA gene resulting in loss of hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. This mutation was repaired by allelic replacement, resulting in restoration of capsule production in the isogenic derivative strain. The "repaired" isogenic strain was significantly more virulent than the carriage strain in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis and had enhanced growth ex vivo in human blood. Importantly, the repaired isogenic strain colonized the mouse oropharynx with significantly greater bacterial burden and had significantly reduced ability to internalize into cultured epithelial cells than the acapsular carriage strain. We conducted full-genome sequencing of 81 strains cultured serially from 19 epidemiologically unrelated human subjects and discovered the common theme that mutations negatively affecting capsule biosynthesis arise in vivo in the has operon. The significantly decreased capsule production is a key factor contributing to the molecular détente between pathogen and host. Our discoveries suggest a general model for bacterial pathogens in which mutations that downregulate or ablate virulence factor production contribute to carriage.

  20. TAGS-85/2N RTG power for Viking Lander Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-08-01

    Results of studies performed by Isotopes, Inc., Nuclear Systems Division, to optimize and baseline a TAGS-85/2N RTG for the Viking Lander Capsule prime electrical power source are presented. These studies generally encompassed identifying the Viking RTG mission profile and design requirements, and establishing a baseline RTG design consistent with these requirements.

  1. Generation and Beaming of Early Hot Electrons onto the Capsule in Laser-Driven Ignition Hohlraums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E L; Hartemann, F; Michel, P; Milovich, J; Hohenberger, M; Pak, A; Landen, O L; Divol, L; Robey, H F; Hurricane, O A; Döppner, T; Albert, F; Bachmann, B; Meezan, N B; MacKinnon, A J; Callahan, D; Edwards, M J

    2016-02-19

    In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse ("picket") while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlraum emissions, in conjunction with the measurement of time-resolved bremsstrahlung spectra, allows us to uncover for the first time the directionality of these hot electrons and infer the capsule preheat. Data and Monte Carlo calculations indicate that for most experiments the hot electrons are emitted nearly isotropically from the LEH. However, we have found cases where a significant fraction of the generated electrons are emitted in a collimated beam directly towards the capsule poles, where their local energy deposition is up to 10× higher than the average preheat value and acceptable levels for ICF implosions. The observed "beaming" is consistent with a recently unveiled multibeam stimulated Raman scattering model [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055003 (2015)], where laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave on axis. Finally, we demonstrate that we can control the amount of generated hot electrons by changing the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma. PMID:26943541

  2. Timed Release of Valsartan from Programmable Release Capsules: Importance of Plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Yogendra Nayak*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different plasticizers on the ethylcellulose coatings of capsules and its timed release characteristics. Various plasticizers such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP, triacetin (TA, glycerol, triethyl citrate (TEC, polyethylene glycol-4000 and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG were studied. The physicochemical properties of the casted polymeric films such as mechanical resistance, water uptake and dry weight loss were determined. Also the type and concentration of plasticizer on timed release of the capsule was studied. The drug release was found to be strongly dependent on the type of plasticizer and was in the order of GY>TA>PEG 6000>PEG 4000>TEC>DBP. Capsules coated with hydrophobic DBP (5% showed good release with a lag time of 6 ± 0.5 h. DBP provided mechanically resistant coatings on the capsule and remained within the polymeric films without leaching upon exposure to the release media which helped in maintaining the lag time.

  3. Reaction-in-flight neutrons as a signature for shell mixing in National Ignition Facility capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Bradley, P. A.; Grim, G. P.; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic calculations and results from computational simulations are presented that suggest that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons can be used to diagnose mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. Such mixing processes in NIF capsules are of fundamental physical interest and can have important effects on capsule performance, quenching the total thermonuclear yield. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to down-scattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

  4. Ingestible Wireless Capsule Technology: A Review of Development and Future Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Basar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestible wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is the one and only painless, effective, novel, diagnostic technology for inspecting the entire gastrointestinal (GI tract for various diseases, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB, tumors, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease. Since the development of this technology, several companies have made remarkable improvements in their clinical products, but there are still some limitations that relate to the use of conventional wired endoscopy. Some of the major limitations that currently impede its wider application include its inability to repeat the view of critical areas, working time constraints, and poor image resolution. Many research groups currently are working on ways to solve these limitations. Presently, developing the ability to control the movement of the capsule, increasing its image transmission speed, and obtaining high-quality images are the main issues in the research area. A complex capsule with some therapeutic tools for the treatment of diseases of the GI tract also is at the beginning of development for the next generation of an active medical robot. In this paper, we report the status of several activities related to WCE, including improvement of capsule technology, research progress, technical challenges, and key indicators concerning the next-generation, active, medical robot.

  5. Effects of alga polysaccharide capsule shells on in-vivo bioavailability and disintegration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting; GUO Shuju; MA Lin; YUAN Yi; HAN Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin has been used in hard capsule shells for more than a century,and some shortcomings have appeared,such as high moisture content and risk of transmitting diseases of animal origin to people.Based on available studies regarding gelatin and vegetable shells,we developed a new type of algal polysaccharide capsule (APPC) shells.To test whether our products can replace commercial gelatin shells,we measured in-vivo plasma concentration of 12 selected volunteers with a model drug,ibuprofen,using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),by calculating the relative bioavailability of APPC and Qualicaps(R) referenced to gelatin capsules and assessing bioequivalence of the three types of shells,and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters with the software DAS 2.0 (China).The results show that APPC shells possess bioequivalence with Qualicaps(R) and gelatin shells.Moreover,the disintegration behavior of four types of shells (APPC,Vegcaps(R),Qualicaps(R) and gelatin shells) with the content of lactose and radioactive element (99mTc) was observed via gamma-scintigraphic images.The bioavailability and gamma-scintigraphic studies showed that APPC was not statistically different from other vegetable and gelatin capsule shells with respect to in-vivo behavior.Hence,it can be concluded that APPCs are exchangeable with other vegetable and gelatin shells.

  6. [Papaver bracteatum, influence of cold treatment and cloning on Thebaine content of the capsules.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastart-Malsot, M; Paris, M

    1982-05-01

    A high heterogeneity of thébaïne yields is revealed in capsules of plants obtained from seeds cultivated in a phytotron. Clonage methods could be used to perform culture. Heterogeneity of plants hides influence of low temperature on thebaïne production. With clone this influence appears to be slight but appreciable. PMID:17396776

  7. [Clinical observation on treatment of mycotic vaginitis with Sophora gel combined with Fluconazole capsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na-mei; Cui, Lin; Ma, Chun-fen; Wang, Hui-xia

    2015-03-01

    Mycotic vaginitis is a common and frequently-occurring gynaecopathia and easy to attack repeatedly, so painful to patients. In this study, the authors observed the clinical efficacy of Sophora gel combined with Fluconazole capsules in treating mycotic vaginitis, in order to seek an effective method for treating mycotic vaginitis. Totally 85 patients with mycotic vaginitis treated in our hospital between December 2012 and July 2014 were randomly divided into the treatment group (43 patients) and the control group (42 patients). The treatment group was given vaginally Sophora gel (one piece every night for 14 days) and orally Fluconazole capsules (150 mg, once every three days, four times in total); The control group was only administered with Fluconazole capsules. The total efficacy, cure rate, recurrence rate and clinical symptom improvements of the two groups were observed. The results show that the total efficacy, the cure rate and the recurrence rate of the treatment group vs. the control group were respectively 97.7%, 90.7% and 2.6% vs. 83.3%, 71.4% and 20.0%, with statistical significance in their differences (P Fluconazole capsules can improve antifungal activity of drugs, relieve clinical symptoms, shorten the course of disease, enhance the cure rate and reduce the recurrence rate; So this therapy can be widely applied in clinic.

  8. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  9. An improved YEF-DCT based compression algorithm for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Khan, Tareq; Wahid, Khan

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive technique to receive images of intestine for medical diagnostics. The main design challenges of endoscopy capsule are accruing and transmitting acceptable quality images by utilizing as less hardware and battery power as possible. In order to save wireless transmission power and bandwidth, an efficient image compression algorithm needs to be implemented inside the endoscopy electronic capsule. In this paper, an integer discrete-cosine-transform (DCT) based algorithm is presented that works on a low-complexity color-space specially designed for wireless capsule endoscopy application. First of all, thousands of human endoscopic images and video frames have been analyzed to identify special intestinal features present in those frames. Then a color space, referred as YEF, is used. The YEF converter is lossless and takes only a few adders and shift operation to implement. A low-cost quantization scheme with variable chroma sub-sampling options is also implemented to achieve higher compression. Comparing with the existing works, the proposed transform coding based compressor performs strongly with an average compression ratio of 85% and a high image quality index, peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 52 dB.

  10. Inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compared to other modalities, capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD with predefined diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  12. Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell capsules composed of calcium carbonate whisker core (rod-like shape and chitosan/chitosansulfate shell were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. Two chitosan samples of different molecular weights (Mw=9.7×104 and 1.09×106g·mol-1 were used as original materials. Hollow capsules were also obtained by dissolution of the core in hydrochloric acid. Electron microscopy revealed that the surface of the shell is rather ragged associated with some agglomerates. The shell thickness l obeys a linear relation with respect to the number of deposited layers m as l=md+a(a>0. The values of d (thickness per layer were 4.0 and 1.0 nm for the higher and lower Mw chitosan materials, respectively, both of which are greater than the thickness of the monolayer. The results suggest that the feature of the deposition does not obey an ideal homogeneous monolayer-by-monolayer deposition mechanism. Shell crosslinked capsules were also prepared via photodimerization reaction of cinnamoyl groups after a deposition of cinnamoyl chitosan to the calcium carbonate whisker core. The degree of crosslink was not enough to stabilize the shell structure, and hollow capsule was not obtained.

  13. Investigation of a cuboidal permanent magnet’s force exerted on a robotic capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wan’an Yang,1 Chengbing Tang,2 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, 2CNPC Chuanqing Geophysical Prospecting Company Research Center Computer Department, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To control and drive a robotic capsule accurately from outside a patient’s body, we present a schema in which the capsule enclosing the imaging device, circuits, batteries, etc is looped by a permanent magnet ring that acts as an actuator. A cuboidal permanent magnet situated outside the patient's body attracts or pushes the magnet ring from different directions to make the capsule move or rotate. A mathematic model of attractive or repulsive force that the cuboidal magnet exerts on the magnet ring is presented for accurate calculation of force. The experiments showed that the measuring force was in agreement with the theoretical one, and the relations between the dimensions of the cuboidal magnet and force are useful to produce a cuboidal magnet with optimal shape to get appropriate force. Keywords: control and drive, robotic capsule, permanent magnet ring, optimal dimension, force model

  14. Pharmacokinetic Study on Lovastatin Sustained-release Tablet and Sustained-release Capsule in Begal Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琳; 代宗顺; 侯淑贤; 万元胜

    2004-01-01

    This study pharmacokinetically examined the lovastatin sustained-release tablet and sustained release capsule in Beagle dogs. An reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the determination of lovastatin in Beagle dog plasma. Pharmacokinetic findings were compared among three preparation(lovastatin sustained-release tablet, TP; sustained-release capsule, TJ and conventional capsule). Our results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters in 6 dogs after single-dose oral administration of three perparations were calculated. Tmax , Cmax and MRT revealed significant difference (P<0.05). Relative bioavailability was 111. 5 ± 16. 9 % (TP) and 110.4% ± 9.6%(TJ). The pharmacokinetic parameters in the 6 dogs after multiple-dose oral administration of three perparations, Tmax Cmax MRT and DF had significant difference (P<0. 05); Cav, Cmin and AUC0-24 h displayed no significant difference (P>0.05). It is concluded that the lovastatin sustained-release tablet and sustained-release capsule are able to maintain a sustained-release for 24 h.

  15. An endoscopic capsule robot: a meso-scale engineering case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of unique challenges arise in fabricating and assembling complex mechanisms at the meso-scale (hundreds of microns to centimetres). In general, for a complex multi-part mechanism at this length scale, no single machining technique can produce all the necessary parts—or often even a single individual part. Towards developing a comprehensive set of 'best practices' for combining multiple precision micromachining operations at the meso-scale, we present a case study on fabricating and assembling an endoscopic capsule robot. Existing passive imaging capsules have proven exceptionally useful in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and robotic capsules promise to enhance their diagnostic capabilities and enable non-invasive treatment delivery. In this case study, we describe the fabrication of a robotic capsule (2.6 cm3 in volume) containing a complex mechanism consisting of 72 components, each of which requires a variety of meso- or even micro-scale features. We describe the manufacturing processes used to produce these components and features (combinations of high precision, multiply refixtured computer numerical control processes, sink and wire electro discharge machining, laser cutting, etc). These results contribute to the emerging framework of best practices in meso-scale design and manufacture, illustrating ways to effectively combine several processes to produce a complex meso-scale device

  16. Design approach of irradiated sample/capsule dismantling machine for use in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main job of designing a machine for purpose boils down to a selection process from the available tools/techniques satisfactory to the five issues noted above. The paper deals with the dismantling of a typical irradiated capsule of 50R/hr

  17. Design and trial fabrication of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules of solid tritium breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: hayashi.kimio@jaea.go.jp; Nakagawa, T.; Onose, S.; Ishida, T.; Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan); Takatsu, H. [Fusion Energy and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, M.; Noguchi, T. [Kaken, Inc., 873-3 Shikada, Hokota-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1416 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Irradiation experiments of solid breeder materials including Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} have been being carried out in preparation for a test blanket module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The present paper deals with design and trial-fabrication works for developing a dismantling apparatus for the irradiation capsules. The dismantling process leads to release of tritium which is left in free volumes of the capsule or in the breeder specimens. In the design of the dismantling apparatus, the released tritium is recovered safely by a purge-gas system during the cutting of the irradiation capsule by a band saw, and then the tritium is consolidated into a radioactive waste. Furthermore, an inner-box enclosing the dismantling apparatus works as a countermeasure of possible release of tritium in accidental events. Good performance of a trial fabrication model of the dismantling apparatus has been demonstrated by preliminary cutting runs using some mockups simulating the irradiation capsules. Thus, the present design of the apparatus, together with the trial mock-up runs, will contribute to the design of the TBM structure and to the planning of the dismantling process of the TBM.

  18. Design and trial fabrication of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules of solid tritium breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation experiments of solid breeder materials including Li2TiO3 have been being carried out in preparation for a test blanket module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The present paper deals with design and trial-fabrication works for developing a dismantling apparatus for the irradiation capsules. The dismantling process leads to release of tritium which is left in free volumes of the capsule or in the breeder specimens. In the design of the dismantling apparatus, the released tritium is recovered safely by a purge-gas system during the cutting of the irradiation capsule by a band saw, and then the tritium is consolidated into a radioactive waste. Furthermore, an inner-box enclosing the dismantling apparatus works as a countermeasure of possible release of tritium in accidental events. Good performance of a trial fabrication model of the dismantling apparatus has been demonstrated by preliminary cutting runs using some mockups simulating the irradiation capsules. Thus, the present design of the apparatus, together with the trial mock-up runs, will contribute to the design of the TBM structure and to the planning of the dismantling process of the TBM.

  19. The effects of thermal capsulorrhaphy of medial parapatellar capsule on patellar lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Brent R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of thermal shrinkage on the medial parapatellar capsule for treating recurrent patellar dislocation is controversial. One of reasons why it is still controversial is that the effectiveness is still qualitatively measured. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the immediate effectiveness of the medial parapatellar capsule shrinkage as in clinical setting. Methods Nine cadaveric knees were used to collect lateral displacement data before and after medial shrinkage or open surgery. The force and displacement were recorded while a physician pressed the patella from the medial side to mimic the physical exam used in clinic. Ten healthy subjects were used to test the feasibility of the technique on patients and establish normal range of lateral displacement of the patella under a medial force. The force applied, the resulting displacement and the ratio of force over displacement were compared among four data groups (normal knees, cadaveric knees before medial shrinkage, after shrinkage and after open surgery. Results Displacements of the cadaveric knees both before and after thermal modification were similar to normal subjects, and the applied forces were significantly higher. No significant differences were found between before and after thermal modification groups. After open surgery, displacements were reduced significantly while applied forces were significantly higher. Conclusion No immediate difference was found after thermal shrinkage of the medial parapatellar capsule. Open surgery immediately improved of the lateral stiffness of the knee capsule.

  20. Responsiveness of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index in patients with adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Juel Niels; Ekeberg Ole; Tveitå Einar; Bautz-Holter Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background Instruments designed to measure the subjective impact of painful shoulder conditions have become essential in shoulder research. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is one of the most extensively used scales of this type. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility and responsiveness of the SPADI in patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods SPADI test-retest r...

  1. Automated segmentation and characterization of esophageal wall in vivo by tethered capsule optical coherence tomography endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughi, Giovanni J; Gora, Michalina J; Swager, Anne-Fré; Soomro, Amna; Grant, Catriona; Tiernan, Aubrey; Rosenberg, Mireille; Sauk, Jenny S; Nishioka, Norman S; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical diagnostic modality that can acquire cross-sectional images of the microscopic structure of the esophagus, including Barrett's esophagus (BE) and associated dysplasia. We developed a swallowable tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) device that acquires high-resolution images of entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract luminal organs. This device has a potential to become a screening method that identifies patients with an abnormal esophagus that should be further referred for upper endoscopy. Currently, the characterization of the OCT-TCE esophageal wall data set is performed manually, which is time-consuming and inefficient. Additionally, since the capsule optics optimally focus light approximately 500 µm outside the capsule wall and the best quality images are obtained when the tissue is in full contact with the capsule, it is crucial to provide feedback for the operator about tissue contact during the imaging procedure. In this study, we developed a fully automated algorithm for the segmentation of in vivo OCT-TCE data sets and characterization of the esophageal wall. The algorithm provides a two-dimensional representation of both the contact map from the data collected in human clinical studies as well as a tissue map depicting areas of BE with or without dysplasia. Results suggest that these techniques can potentially improve the current TCE data acquisition procedure and provide an efficient characterization of the diseased esophageal wall. PMID:26977350

  2. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bo, E-mail: yebo@hubu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China); Sun, Zhen-jun [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo, Lin [School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Deng, Chao [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Ya-qi [Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhang, Hong-hai [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Sheng [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application. - Highlights: • A new magnetic control method for spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope is proposed. • Wireless capsule endoscope rotates synchronously with external permanent magnet. • The method controls the wireless capsule endoscope well in porcine small intestine. • Long control distance makes the method may be used in future medical application. • Experimental setup has great advantages: high cost performance and easy operation.

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Xuezhikang Capsule (血脂康胶囊)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shui-ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been proved thatXuezhikang Capsule ( XZK,血脂康胶囊), a Chinese red-yeast rice extract, contains multiple natural statins (8 monacolins) and other components, which could significantly reduce the total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in blood.

  4. CAPSULE REMOVING WITH MAMMARY IMPLANT TO TREAT CAPSULE CONTRACTURE AFTER AUGMENTATION MAMMOPLASTY%带假体包膜剥离法治疗隆乳后包膜挛缩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙喜永; 王晋煌; 侯文明

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索去除挛缩包膜的最佳手术方法。方法:对11例隆乳后包膜挛缩的患者采用带假体包膜剥离法进行治疗。结果:该方法具有安全、易操作、痛苦小、出血少、不损坏假体和不易复发等优点。结论:带假体包膜剥离法是治疗假体隆乳后包膜挛缩的最佳手术方法之一%Objective: In order to find the best way to remove capsule contracture after silicone breast implants. Method:11 women with capsule contracture after silicone breast implants, we adopt the way to remove capsule with mammary implant. Results: This method is safe, painless, and easy to do, we can remove the capsule easy and the capsule can't contract again. Conclusion: The way to remove contractive capsule with mammary implant is one of the best way to treat capsule contracture after silicone breast implants.

  5. Primary Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation in Traumatic Cataract With Posterior Capsule Breaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YupingZou; WenhuiYang

    1995-01-01

    Background:In patients with incomplete posterior capsule support,posterior chamber intraocular lenses(PC-IOLs)were implanted with both haptics transs-cleral fixation.This causes more damage to the eye and may result in more com-plications,In patients with small posterior breaks,non-fixation or single haptic fixation may be adequate.Methods:Thiry-two consecutive patients of traumatic cataract with posterior capsule breaks caused by penetrating eye trauma were retospected.Posterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all these patients with three tech-niques,ie,without fixation,with single haptic fixation and with both haptics fixation .The selection of the technique was based on the position and size of the posterior capsule.The follow-up period was 21days to 28months(mean,15.2months).Results:Intra-operative problems included ciliary body bleeding(Two patents,6.25%)and enlargement of posterior capsule breaks(2patients,6.25).Postoperative visual acuity was0.5or better(Corrected)in28case(87.5%)and 0.1-0.4in four patients(12.5%),Postoperative complications included hyphema(6eyes,18.8%),transient intraocular pressure elevation(6eyes,18.8%),transient hypotention(7eyes,21.8%).Postoperative IOL position were good except one case of IOL tilt.No pupillary capture or endophthalmitis was found.Conclusions:Not all PC-IOLs have to be fixed by two haptics.In patients with small posterior capsule breaks,PC-IOLmay not be fixed or fixed by only one haptics.Eye Science1995;11:140-142.

  6. Thermal analysis of on the open basket type instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the open basket type instrumented capsule to be used for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels, it is necessary to examine the thermal behavior due to a thermal gradient as well as the compatibility of a capsule with HANARO and the structural integrity of a capsule. The thermal analysis of instrumented capsule was performed by using ANSYS, a commercial Finite Element Analysis(FEA) code. To ensure the accuracy of temperature analysis results by ANSYS, the theoretical analysis based on the heat transfer theory was done. From these two methods, the center temperature of pellet was 1227 .deg. C(FEA) and 1234 .deg. C(theoretical analysis) in the case of average linear power=29.677kW/m, and 1433 .deg. C and 1429 .deg. C in the case of maximum linear power=33.557kW/m. The maximum stress intensities in the cladding due to thermal gradient were 38.3MPa and 45.1MPa in each linear power. At the contact part of bottom end cap and cladding, the stress intensity of cladding was 35.0MPa in 29.677kW/m and 38.5MPa in 33.557kW/m respectively. The thermal stresses calculated by ANSYS and the mechanical stress due to the difference of internal and external pressure of fuel rod were satisfied with the strength criterion of ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Through the above thermal analysis, it could be decided whether the irradiation temperature condition of pellet agrees with that requested by users. In addition, it was ensured that the instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test meets the strength criterion in ASME boiler and pressure vessel code during the irradiation test in HANARO

  7. Evaulation of B{sub 4}C as an ablator material for NIF capsules. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Dittrich, T.R.; Wallace, R.J.; Honea, E.C.; King, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steinman, D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-03-26

    Boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is examined as a potential fuel container and ablator for implosion capsules on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A capsule of pure B{sub 4}C encasing a layer of solid DT implodes stably and ignites with anticipated NIF x-ray drives, producing 18 MJ of energy. Thin films of B{sub 4}C were found to be resistant to oxidation and modestly transmitting in the infrared (IR), possibly enabling IR fuel characterization and enhancement for thin permeation barriers but not for full-thickness capsules. Polystyrene mandrels 0.5 mm in diameter were successfully coated with 0.15-2.0 micrometers of B{sub 4}C. Thickness estimated from optical density agreed well with those measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The B{sub 4}C microstructure was columnar but finer than for Be made at the same conditions. B{sub 4}C is a very strong material, with a fiber tensile strength capable of holding NIF fill pressures at room temperature, but it is also very brittle, and microscopic flaws or grain structure may limit the noncryogenic fill pressure. Argon (Ar) permeation rates were measured for a few capsules that had been further coated with 5 micrometers of plasma polymer. The B{sub 4}C coatings tended to crack under tensile load. Some shells filled more slowly than they leaked, suggesting that the cracks open and close under opposite pressure loading. As observed earlier for Ti coatings, 0.15-micrometer layers of B{sub 4}C had better gas retention properties than 2-micrometer layers, possibly because of fewer cracks. Permeation and fill strength issues for capsules with a full ablator thickness of B{sub 4}C are unresolved. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  8. An Investigation Into Bayesian Networks for Modeling National Ignition Facility Capsule Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrani, J

    2008-08-18

    Bayesian networks (BN) are an excellent tool for modeling uncertainties in systems with several interdependent variables. A BN is a directed acyclic graph, and consists of a structure, or the set of directional links between variables that depend on other variables, and conditional probabilities (CP) for each variable. In this project, we apply BN's to understand uncertainties in NIF ignition experiments. One can represent various physical properties of National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule implosions as variables in a BN. A dataset containing simulations of NIF capsule implosions was provided. The dataset was generated from a radiation hydrodynamics code, and it contained 120 simulations of 16 variables. Relevant knowledge about the physics of NIF capsule implosions and greedy search algorithms were used to search for hypothetical structures for a BN. Our preliminary results found 6 links between variables in the dataset. However, we thought there should have been more links between the dataset variables based on the physics of NIF capsule implosions. Important reasons for the paucity of links are the relatively small size of the dataset, and the sampling of the values for dataset variables. Another factor that might have caused the paucity of links is the fact that in the dataset, 20% of the simulations represented successful fusion, and 80% didn't, (simulations of unsuccessful fusion are useful for measuring certain diagnostics) which skewed the distributions of several variables, and possibly reduced the number of links. Nevertheless, by illustrating the interdependencies and conditional probabilities of several parameters and diagnostics, an accurate and complete BN built from an appropriate simulation set would provide uncertainty quantification for NIF capsule implosions.

  9. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy: from bench to bedside at the primary care office (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Michalina J.; Simmons, Leigh H.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Walker Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Metlay, Joshua P.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a swallowable tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) device that acquires microscopic images of the entire esophagus in unsedated subjects in a quick and comfortable procedure. To test its capabilities of TCE to become a population-based screening device, we conducted a clinical feasibility study in the primary care office. The swept-source OCT imaging system (1310nm central wavelength, 40kHz A-line rate, 10um axial resolution) together with the tethered capsule catheter (11x25mm capsule attached to a flexible tether) were transferred to the PCP office where unsedated patients scheduled for non-urgent PCP visits swallowed the capsule and microscopic OCT images of the entire esophagus were collected. After the whole length of the esophagus was imaged, the catheter was disinfected for reuse. Twenty subjects were enrolled in the study, including nine female and eleven male. All TCE procedures were performed by a nurse and lasted in average 5:42 ± 1:54 min. High-resolution images of the esophagus were obtained in all seventeen subjects that swallowed the capsule. Our clinical experience in this cohort, subject feedback, image quality, and technological adaptations for efficient utilization in this setting will be presented. The ease and simplicity of the procedure combined with high quality of the images demonstrate the potential for this technology to become a population-based screening device. Technology limitations and future development guided by findings from this initial experience will be discussed with the goal of effectively translating TCE to the outpatient primary care setting.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus ClpC divergently regulates capsule via sae and codY in strain newman but activates capsule via codY in strain UAMS-1 and in strain Newman with repaired saeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Thanh T; Sau, Keya; Roux, Christelle; Sau, Subrata; Dunman, Paul M; Lee, Chia Y

    2011-02-01

    ClpC is an ATPase chaperone found in most Gram-positive low-GC bacteria. It has been recently reported that ClpC affected virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Here we report that ClpC regulates transcription of the cap operon and accumulation of capsule, a major virulence factor for S. aureus. As virulence genes are regulated by a complex regulatory network in S. aureus, we have used capsule as a model to understand this regulation. By microarray analyses of strain Newman, we found that ClpC strongly activates transcription of the sae operon, whose products are known to negatively regulate capsule synthesis in this strain. Further studies indicated that ClpC repressed capsule production by activating the sae operon in strain Newman. Interestingly, the clpC gene cloned into a multiple-copy plasmid vector exhibited an activation phenotype, suggesting that ClpC overexpression has a net positive effect. In the absence of sae function, by either deletion or correction of a native mutation within saeS, we found that ClpC had a positive effect on capsule production. Indeed, in the UAMS-1 strain, which does not have the saeS mutation, ClpC functioned as an activator of capsule production. Our microarray analyses of strain Newman also revealed that CodY, a repressor of capsule production, was repressed by ClpC. Using genetic approaches, we showed that CodY functioned downstream of ClpC, leading to capsule activation both in Newman and in UAMS-1. Thus, ClpC functions in two opposite pathways in capsule regulation in strain Newman but functions as a positive activator in strain UAMS-1.

  11. Innervation and functional characteristics of connective tissues, especially elastic fibers, in human fetal thoracic intervertebral articular capsule and its surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Miya; Yasui, Masaya; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    The articular capsules between the thoracic vertebrae, which have physiologically different functions from those of other levels of the vertebrae, have yet to be subjected to neuro-anatomical and fine structural analysis. In the present study, we analyzed serial frozen sections of decalcified thoracic vertebrae in human fetuses, and identified the articular capsule tissue with its unique distribution of elastic fibers. The fine structure of the elastic fibers was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the early-stage fetus, the fibrous membrane forming the lateral intervertebral articular capsule contained abundant thin elastic fibers consisting of microfibrils. In the late-stage fetus, the lateral capsule of fibrous membrane was occupied by thick elastic fibers. A medial articular capsule, namely the ligamenta flava, contained numerous thick elastic fibers in both early and late-stage fetuses. The distributional differences in nerve fibers between early and late-stage fetuses were determined by immunostaining, using antibodies raised against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5; ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase). Innervation by PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers was limited to the areas of the articular capsules near the blood vessels, which may indicate their functional relation with blood flow. No PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers were found in the ligamenta flava of the late-stage fetus. Innervation might be directly involved in the development of the intervertebral articular capsules in normal human fetuses.

  12. Determination of travel time capsules hydraulic rabbit system channel 2 (JBB 02) at the G.A. Siwabessy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbit System is an irradiation facilities used for research on neutron activation. There are two types of Rabbit Systems including 4 pieces Rabbit Hydraulic Systems (JBB01 - JBB04) and Rabbit Pneumatic Systems (JBB05). Irradiation facility of hydraulic rabbit system is irradiation facility with media delivery in the form of capsules. Travel time delivery and the return capsule in hydraulic rabbit system facility depends on the magnitude of the observed flow rate on flow measurement instruments for water circulation. To determine the travel time should be observed flow rates varied by opening the valve (JBB02 AA007), so the delivery time and the return capsule in the rabbit facility hydraulic system can be known. Observations made from the results obtained travel time capsule delivery poly ethylene (PE) of the isotope cell to irradiation position appropriate to the graph Y=57,67 e-0,139.x, for capsules Aluminum (Al) appropriate graph Y= 68,178 e-0,189.x, while the travel time of the return capsule poly ethylene (PE) from the irradiation position to the isotope cell appropriate graph Y=56,459 e-13.x, for capsules Al appropriate graph Y= 65,51 e-183.x this result can be used as a reference for determining the travel time desired by the operator. (author)

  13. Interchangeability of Two 500 Mg Amoxicillin Capsules with One 1000 Mg Amoxicillin Tablet After a Single Oral Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid A; Cortesi R; Kort J; Sweileh W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil® capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare® tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil® ) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare® , wit...

  14. Gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a wireless motility capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Stefan; Muellenbach, Ralf M.; Johannes, Amélie; Zollhöfer, Bernd; Roewer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Evaluation of gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a novel, wireless motility capsule. Material/Methods A motility capsule was applied into the stomach of 7 Pietrain pigs with acute lung injury induced by high volume saline lavage. Wireless transmission of pH, pressure and temperature data was performed by a recorder attached to the animal’s abdomen. Gastric motility was evaluated using pH and pressure values, and capsule location was confir...

  15. Olfaction Presentation System Using Odor Scanner and Odor-Emitting Apparatus Coupled with Chemical Capsules of Alginic Acid Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakairi, Minoru; Nishimura, Ayako; Suzuki, Daisuke

    For the purpose of the application of odor to information technology, we have developed an odor-emitting apparatus coupled with chemical capsules made of alginic acid polymer. This apparatus consists of a chemical capsule cartridge including chemical capsules of odor ingredients, valves to control odor emission, and a temperature control unit. Different odors can be easily emitted by using the apparatus. We have developed an integrated system of vision, audio and olfactory information in which odor strength can be controlled coinciding with on-screen moving images based on analytical results from the odor scanner.

  16. Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injection for the Treatment of Idiopathic Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Robert W.; Kenter, Keith; Wickiewicz, Thomas L.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder of the shoulder is controversial. The hypothesis of the study is that intra-articular corticosteroid injection in the early stages of idiopathic adhesive capsulitis will lead to a razpid resolution of stiffness and symptoms. This is a retrospective cohort study of only patients with stage 1 or stage 2 adhesive capsulitis. The diagnosis was made by history and physical examination and only when other causes of pain and motion loss were eliminated. Stage 1 adhesive capsulitis was defined as significant improvement in pain and normalization of motion following intra-articular injection. Stage 2 included patients who had significant improvement in pain and partial improvement in motion following injection. Seven patients with stage 1 and 53 patients with stage 2 comprised the baseline cohort. The mean age was 52 years (range: 30 to 78); 46 patients were female and nine patients had diabetes mellitus. Patients completed a physical examination as well as a shoulder rating questionnaire for symptoms and disability. Criteria for resolution were defined as forward flexion and external rotation to within 15° of the contralateral side and internal rotation to within three spinal levels of the contralateral side. Forty-four of the patients out of 60 met the criteria for recovery at a mean of 6.7 months. The mode and median time to recovery was 3 months. The mean score at final follow-up for 41 patients using the shoulder-rating questionnaire of L’Insalata was 90 (range 52–100). The mean time to recovery for the stage 1 patients was 6 weeks (range: 2 weeks to 3 months), and it was 7 months for stage 2 patients (range: 2 weeks to 2 years). Glenohumeral corticosteroid injection for early adhesive capsulitis may have allowed patients to recover motion at a median time of 3 months. In many cases, the patients had improvement prior to the 3-month mark; however, that was the routine time for follow

  17. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Gupta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2% from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk. The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano-capsules could be achieved using isabgol fiber as encapsulant. However it was observed that the nano-capsules followed a non-Fickian diffusion pattern. Good DPPH-radical scavenging and metal-chelation activities were observed for encapsulated carotenoids. Shelf-life studies showed that the nano-capsules gradually degraded at 97% relative humidity, as the moisture-induced rancidity was evidently not extensive.En el presente trabajo los carotenos fueron aislados (1,2% a partir de aceite de palma crudo y encapsulados con fibra de isabgol (cáscara de psyllium. La eficiencia de encapsulación fue 82,23±1,42 %. La morfología de las cápsulas mostró una textura áspera de la superficie con mínimos poros. La naturaleza amorfa de las nanocápsulas fue evidenciada a partir de patrones de difracción de rayos X. Los estudios de DSC mostraron una alta estabilidad térmica de las nanocápsulas entre 20–120 °C. En los estudios de liberación in vitro se vió que la liberación controlada de las nanocápsulas se podría lograr mediante fibra isabgol como encapsulante. Sin embargo se observó que las nanocápsulas siguieron un patrón de difusión no- Fickian. Se observaron buenas actividades DPPH captadoras de radicales y actividades de quelación de metal para carotenoides encapsulados. Los estudios sobre la vida útil mostraron que las nanocápsulas se degradan gradualmente con una humedad relativa del 97%, y aunque la humedad indujo el enranciamiento, este

  18. Neuroanatomical distribution of mechanoreceptors in the human cadaveric shoulder capsule and labrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Jessica W; Smirnova, Irina V; McIff, Terence E

    2014-09-01

    The distribution, location, and spatial arrangement of mechanoreceptors are important for neural signal conciseness and accuracy in proprioceptive information required to maintain functional joint stability. The glenohumeral joint capsule and labrum are mechanoreceptor-containing tissues for which the distribution of mechanoreceptors has not been determined despite the importance of these tissues in stabilizing the shoulder. More recently, it has been shown that damage to articular mechanoreceptors can result in proprioceptive deficits that may lead to recurrent instability. Awareness of mechanoreceptor distribution in the glenohumeral joint capsule and labrum may allow preservation of the mechanoreceptors during surgical treatment for shoulder instability, and in turn retain the joint's proprioceptive integrity. For this reason, we sought to develop a neuroanatomical map of the mechanoreceptors within the capsule and labrum. We postulated that the mechanoreceptors in these tissues are distributed in a unique pattern, with mechanoreceptor-scarce regions that may be more appropriate for surgical dissection. We determined the neuroanatomical distribution of mechanoreceptors and their associated fascicles in the capsule and labrum from eight human cadaver shoulder pairs using our improved gold chloride staining technique and light microscopy. A distribution pattern was consistently observed in the capsule and labrum from which we derived a neuroanatomical map. Both tissues demonstrated mechanoreceptor-dense and -scarce regions that may be considered during surgical treatment for instability. Capsular fascicles were located in the subsynovial layer, whereas labral fascicles were concentrated in the peri-core zone. The capsular fascicles presented as a lattice network and with a plexiform appearance. Fascicles within the labrum resembled a cable structure with the fascicles running in parallel. Our findings contribute to the neuroanatomical knowledge of the two

  19. Polymeric capsule-cushioned leukocyte cell membrane vesicles as a biomimetic delivery platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changyong; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Zhihua; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural cell membrane camouflaged polymeric multilayer capsules with the immunosuppressive and tumor-recognition functionalities of natural leukocytes provide a new biomimetic delivery platform for disease therapy.We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural

  20. To investigate the influence of machine operating variables on formulations derived from lactose types in capsule filling: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor A; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    This study is the second in a series that examines the characterizing and selection of suitable grades of lactose for capsule formulation development. Based upon the previous study, four grades were selected for further study. The effects of drug load and operational variables on formulations derived from these four lactose types were evaluated for physicochemical and mechanical attributes of plugs and their capsules on an instrumented dosing-disc capsule filling machine (H&H KFM/3) using acetaminophen as a model, highly soluble and poorly compressible drug. The results obtained were as follows: (1) flowability reduced upon increasing drug load; (2) powder bed height (PBH) and compression force (CF) had positive significant effect on plug weight (p time point (p time points (p machine operating variables which will help in defining criteria for meeting key quality attributes for capsule formulation development.

  1. Effect of incorporation of nutraceutical capsule waste of safflower oil in the mechanical characteristics of corn starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de CAMPO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4 were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.

  2. Production and first use of 153SmCl3-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated 153Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of 153Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: ► Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing 153Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. ► In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. ► In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. ► 153Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to 111In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  3. Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Signature for Shell Mixing in NIF capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Grim, G P; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J B

    2009-01-01

    We present analytic calculations and results from computational simulations showing that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons act as a robust indicator for mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in DT capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to downscattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

  4. Development of a capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation tests in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule assembly machine (CAM) for the long-term irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor has been designed, developed and demonstrated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The CAM will provide a technical base for viable re-irradiation services. This machine will be installed in the reactor service pool of the HANARO reactor. The new assembly technique by using a mock up of the CAM in air demonstrated its suitability for an assembly operation, and for an application of this technique to a reactor. The technique will be upgraded after a commissioning test under water environments. This technique would be expected to be recommended for a country where an underwater canal for transporting irradiated devices and enough space of a hot cell for assembling capsule components are not available. (author)

  5. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: difficulties in comparing CT enterography and video capsule endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP 2, Department of Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965-Paris 7 ' ' Angiogenese et recherche translationnelle' ' , Paris (France); Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2012-06-15

    A paper reports the results of a retrospective study that was designed to evaluate the potential role of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in elucidating the cause of bleeding in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for whom CT enterography was negative. The authors highlight the limitations of dual-phase CT enterography for the detection of flat lesions of the small bowel such as ulcers, angiodysplasias or arteriovenous malformations, and confirm the superiority of VCE for the detection of this category of lesions. This commentary discusses some of the issues raised. Key Points circle Video capsule endoscopy surpasses CT enterography in detecting flat small bowel lesions. circle Retrospective VCE and CT enterography findings in obscure bleeding need further evaluation. circle A fair and unbiased comparison of the two investigations is still needed. (orig.)

  6. Localization of a Robotic Capsule for GI Motility Inspection with a Portable Ultrasonic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜萍萍; 颜国正

    2004-01-01

    The micro-systems used for in vivo physical inspection have many advantages over traditional methods. In order to aid diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders, a capsule is developed for GI pressure and pH inspection. Localization of the capsule in GI tract with time is a necessary condition for subsequent data analysis and medical diagnosis. It is also a common problem facing all in vivo mobile micro-systems. An approach of segment localization by utilizing some key points along GI tract is proposed. A portable ultrasonic detecting device was designed for this purpose. Experiments under conditions similar to GI tract were carried out and the results proved the effectiveness and reliability of this method and the device.

  7. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Targeted Delivery by Smart Capsules for Controlling Two-phase Flow in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Weitz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and controlling two-phase flow in porous media are of particular importance to the relevant industry applications, such as enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, and groundwater remediation. We develop a variety of smart microcapsules that can deliver and release specific substances to the target location in the porous medium, and therefore change the fluid property or medium geometry at certain locations. In this talk, I will present two types of smart capsules for (a) delivering surfactant to the vicinity of oil-water interface and (b) delivering microgels to the high permeability region and therefore blocking the pore space there, respectively. We also show that flooding these two capsules into porous media effectively reduces the trapped oil and improves the homogeneity of the medium, respectively. Besides of its industrial applications, this technique also opens a new window to study the mechanism of two-phase flow in porous media.

  9. HRB-22 capsule irradiation test for HTGR fuel. JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Kazuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kousaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    As a JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel, JAERI fuel compacts were irradiated in the HRB-22 irradiation capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Postirradiation examinations also were performed at ORNL. This report describes 1) the preirradiation characterization of the irradiation samples of annular-shaped fuel compacts containing the Triso-coated fuel particles, 2) the irradiation conditions and fission gas releases during the irradiation to measure the performance of the coated particle fuel, 3) the postirradiation examinations of the disassembled capsule involving visual inspection, metrology, ceramography and gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples, and 4) the accident condition tests on the irradiated fuels at 1600 to 1800degC to obtain information about fuel performance and fission product release behavior under accident conditions. (author)

  10. [Tri-dimensional omics analysis on effect of zhuanggu zhitong capsule against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Ping; Zeng, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Min; Liu, Hui-Ping; Mo, Xin-Min

    2014-08-01

    To propose the new concept of multidimensional omics, and define that the multidimensional omics is a proper method for studying the material base and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds. Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule was taken for example to study its effect against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis. From the perspective of chemi-omics, genomics and proteomics of TCM, it systematically interpreted the efficacious materials and mechanisms of Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule in preventing and treating experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis, while taking the lead in designing a three dimensional form to intuitively exhibit the results of the multidimensional omics study. This study provides a new idea and solution for studies on the efficacious materials and mechanisms of TCM compounds.

  11. Small bowel capsule endoscopy: Where are we after almost15 years of use?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cedric Van de Bruaene; Danny De Looze; Pieter Hindryckx

    2015-01-01

    The development of capsule endoscopy (CE) in 2001has given gastroenterologists the opportunity toinvestigate the small bowel in a non-invasive way. CE ismost commonly performed for obscure gastrointestinalbleeding, but other indications include diagnosis orfollow-up of Crohn's disease, suspicion of a smallbowel tumor, diagnosis and surveillance of hereditarypolyposis syndromes, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrug-induced small bowel lesions and celiac disease.Almost fifteen years have passed since the release ofthe small bowel capsule. The purpose of this reviewis to offer the reader a brief but complete overviewon small bowel CE anno 2014, including the technicaland procedural aspects, the possible complications andthe most important indications. We will end with somefuture perspectives of CE.

  12. Characteristics of spatial magnetic torque of an intestine capsule micro robot with a variable diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A drive and control method is put forward for a variable diameter capsule micro robot to screw forward in intestine using magnetic coupling between an inner actuator inside the robot and the rotational magnetic field generated by a rotating outer actuator. The structures of the outer and inner actuators are magnet cylinders with multiple magnetic poles in tegular shape alternating with dissimilar radial magnetization. An universal mathematical model of magnetic torque at eccentric state is established based on the equivalent magnetic charge method, and the characteristics of magnetic torque with respect to structural parameters of actuators are theoretically studied. Experiments show that the driving method features advantages such as powerful magnetic torque, high safety, reliability, etc. The driving ability of the variable diameter capsule micro robot is greatly improved by its automatic radial clearance compensation. The magnetic drive system has a promising prospect of medical applications in intestine.

  13. Modelling the effect of 3He in direct drive capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, W. J.; Horsfield, C. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Cooley, J. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Drew, D.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Frenje, J.; Glebov, V. Yu

    2010-08-01

    D3He fuels are often used in ICF implosion experiments, either as a surrogate for DT to restrict the output neutron yield, or to produce protons for use in diagnosis of core conditions. Recent experiments have suggested that capsules filled with D3He do not behave as expected, but that both proton and neutron yields are anomalously degraded relative to the pure D2 case. We have performed direct drive implosion experiments using the Omega laser to examine the effect of 3He on DT-filled glass capsules. The use of DT fuel allows reaction history measurements to be obtained using the Gas Cherenkov diagnostic (GCD). It was hoped that the detailed information provided by GCD measurements would complement existing measurements to constrain modelling. We present recent modelling and analysis of the experiments using radiation-hydrocode simulations, and explore some of the hypotheses proposed to explain the results.

  14. Development of a capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A capsule assembly machine (CAM) for the long term irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor has been designed, developed and demonstrated at the Korea Atomic Energy Reasearch Institute (KAERI). The CAM will provide a technical base for viable re-irradiation servives. This machine will be installed in the reactor service pool of the HANARO reactor. The new assembly technique by using a mockup of the CAM in air demonstrated its suitability for an assembly operation, and for an application of this technique to a reactor. The technique will be upgraded after a commissioning test under water environments. This would be expected to be recommended for a country where an under water canal for transporting irradiated devices and enough space of a hot cell for assembling capsule components are not available.

  15. An in situ mechanical-radiation effects test capsule for simulating fusion material environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of radiation and simultaneous cyclic stress on materials are inherent in advanced energy source designs such as inertially and magnetically confined controlled thermonuclear reactors. A test capsule capable of applying a cyclic stress to test specimens while they are being irradiated in the 800-MeV proton beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility has been developed. The design and performance of this device are discussed in this report. This machine has facilities for seven pairs of differential samples; one sample of a pair receives an applied cyclic stress and its companion in an identical flux will be the unstressed control. Control of the sample temperature and in situ monitoring of sample elongation and load are provided in the design. Results of an earlier experiment will be discussed, along with those of preliminary bench tests of the redesigned capsule. (orig.)

  16. In situ mechanical-radiation effects test capsule for simulating fusion material environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of radiation and simultaneous cyclic stress on materials are inherent in advanced energy source designs such as inertially and magnetically confined controlled thermonuclear reactors. A test capsule capable of applying a cyclic stress to test specimens while they are being irradiated in the 800-MeV proton beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility has been developed. The design and performance of this device are discussed in this report. This machine has facilities for seven pairs of differential samples; one sample of a pair receives an applied cyclic stress and its companion in an identical flux will be the unstressed control. Control of the sample temperature and in situ monitoring of sample elongation and load are provided in the design. Results of an earlier experiment will be discussed, along with those of preliminary bench tests of the redesigned capsule

  17. A four spiral slots microstrip patch antenna for radiotelemetry capsules based on FDTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Antenna is very crucial to radiotelemetry capsules which can measure the physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The objective of this paper is to design a novel spiral slots microstrip patch antenna for the radiotelemetry capsules communicating with external recorder at 915 MHz located in ISM (Industry, Science, and Medical) bands. The microstrip patch antenna is designed and evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Return loss characteristics and the effect of the human body on resonant frequency are analyzed, and the performances of radiation patterns at different positions of the human alimentary tract are also estimated. Finally, specific absorption rate (SAR) computations are performed, and the peak 1-g and 10-g SAR values are calculated. According to the peak SAR values, the maximum delivered power for the designed antenna was found so that the SAR values of the antenna satisfy the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) limitations.

  18. AB086. The effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jun; Liu, Cundong; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yanping; Ye, Yunlin; Liu, Cundong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia. Methods A total of 46 patients with erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia were divided into a treatment group (n=23) and a control group (n=23), both treated by bromocriptine and the former given Xuanju compound capsule in addition. After treatment for 12 weeks, comparison were made in erectile function, serum prolactin level and serum testosterone in two groups. Results Compared with those before treatment, the erectile function after treatment was significantly improved in two groups (P0.05). Serum testosterone after treatment in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (Phyperprolactinemia, and the effect was better than bromocriptine.

  19. Theoretical study of the fibrous capsule tissue growth around a disk-shaped implant

    KAUST Repository

    Djellouli, Rabia

    2012-08-19

    We analyze the mathematical properties of the fibrous capsule tissue concentration around a disk-shaped implant. We establish stability estimates as well as monotonicity results that illustrate the sensitivity of this growth to the biocompatibility index parameters of the implant. In addition, we prove that the growth of the tissue increases exponentially in time toward an asymptotic regime. We also study the mathematical properties of the solution of the inverse problem consisting in the determination of the values of the biocompatibility index parameters from the knowledge of some fibrous capsule tissue measurements. We prove that this model calibration problem admits a unique solution, and establish a characterization of the index parameters. Furthermore, we demonstrate analytically that such a solution is not continuous with respect to the data, and therefore the considered inverse problem is ill-posed due to the lack of the stability requirement. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized