WorldWideScience

Sample records for capsule test series

  1. UO2-PuO2 fuel pin capsule-irradiations of the test series FR 2-5a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienst, W.; Goetzmann, O.; Schulz, B.

    1975-06-01

    In the capsule-irradiation test series FR 2-5a, short UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel pins (80 mm fuel length) of 7 mm diameter were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at mean rod powers of 400 - 450 W/cm and mean cladding surface temperatures of 500 - 550 0 C to burnups of 0.6, 1.8 and 5.0 at% (U + Pu). Void volume redistribution in the fuel pins was examined in micrographs of cross-sections by measuring crack widths, central void diameters, and fuel porosity. The width of the radial cracks at the outer fuel rim was taken as a basis for measuring the irradiation-induced densification of the UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel. The result was that the final fuel density after irradiation-induced densification amounted to 92 - 94% TD and had already been reached after 0.6 at% burnup. The porosity measurement on fuel cross-sections was to show a possible dependence of the radial porosity redistribution on the initial sintered density. Examining the fuel pin diameters after irradiation showed permanent cladding strains after 5 at% burnup, which must be due to mechanical interaction with the fuel. To judge if the chemical compatibility between the fuel and the cladding of Cr-Ni-stainless steel 1.4988, the depths of chemical attack on the cladding inside was measured by micrographs of fuel pin cross-sections. (orig./GSC) [de

  2. Endurance test for DUPIC capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Bae, K. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, J. M.; Ryu, J. S.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed fabricately by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate across the capsule corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.632 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the capsule ranges from 14 to 18.5 Hz. RMS (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 14 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 54 μm. Based on the endurance test results, the appreciable fretting wear for the DUPIC capsule was not detected. Oxidation on the support tube is observed, also tiny trace of wear between contact points observed. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 45 figs

  3. A study for the development of the capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Kim, J. K.; Yeom, K. Y.; Yoon, K. B.; Choi, M. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    A series of in-pile tests are being carried out to support the advanced fuel development programs at the HANARO reactor. There are still some limitations for satisfying the test requirements. To meet the demands for the high burnup test at HANARO, new capsule assembling technology is required. This paper describes the design requirements, design and fabrication of the mockup, and pre-operational tests performed for the development of the new capsule assembly machine. The mockup manufactured consists of a base plate, a capsule stand, a capsule guide pipe and clamping device and is 1m in outer diameter, 1.8m in height and 136kg in weight. From the pre-operation tests, the optimum clamping torque was 450kgf·cm for preventing rotation and shaking of the capsule main body during assembling capsule main body and protection tube, and this remote assembling procedure can be applicable to the high burnup test

  4. Non-destructive tests of capsules for JMTR irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidetaka; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Sato, Masashi; Osawa, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Irradiation examination are increasing in advanced irradiation research for accurate prediction control and evaluation of irradiation parameter such as neutron fluence, etc. by using JMTR. Irradiation capsule internals are therefore structurally complicated recently. This report described the procedure of non destructive tests such as radiographic test, penetrant test, ultrasonic test, etc. for inspection of irradiation capsules in JMTR, and the result of Test-case of confirmation procedure for internal parts of irradiation capsules. (author)

  5. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  6. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules

  7. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B G; Joo, K N [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  8. Thermal characteristic test for saturated temperature type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Ohuchi, Mitsuo; Harayama, Yasuo

    1989-08-01

    The Japan Material Testing Reactor Project is developing a new type capsule so-called 'Saturated Temperature Capsule', as a part of irradiation technique improvement program. This type capsule, in which the water is supplied and boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature and facilitating the temperature setting of specimens heated by gamma-ray in reactor. However, out-pile test was planned, because there were few usable data for design and operation of the capsule into which the coolant was injected. A out-pile apparatus, simulated the capsule with electric heaters, was fabricated and experiments were carried out, to obtain data concerning design and operation for the capsule into which the water was injected. As a structure of simulated capsule, a type of downward coolant supply was adopted. The downward coolant tube type injectes the water in the bottom of capsule by tube through the upper flange. Major objects of experiences were to grasp thermal features under operation and to provide performances of capsule control equipment. Experimental results proved that the temperature of water within the capsule was easily varied by controlling supply water flow rate, and that the control equipment was operated stably and safety. (author)

  9. Design Improvements of a Fuel Capsule for Re-irradiation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byeong; Kim, Bong Goo

    2006-01-01

    The development of an advanced reactor system such as the next generation nuclear plant and other generation IV systems require new fuels, claddings, and structural materials. To characterize the performance of these new materials, it is necessary for us to have leading-edge technology to satisfy the specific test requirements of the recent R and D activities such as the high-fluence- and high burnup- related tests. Thus, new capsule assembling technology and re-instrumentation technology has been developed to meet the demands for the high burnup test at HANARO since 2003. In 2003, a mockup of the capsule assembly machine was designed and fabricated. The performance test which started in 2004 was undertaken to determine and present the main performance characteristics of the capsule assembly machine (CAM) including the special tools. In 2005, a series of analyses using a finite element analysis program, ANSYS and full scale tests in air were performed to improve the design of the capsule's components for an effective utilization of the CAM. The handling tools were fully qualified through the performance tests in 2006. KAERI is now reviewing the water flow area in the top region of a fuel capsule main body for re-irradiation tests and optimizing the design of the central region area of a capsule to be joined with special bolts

  10. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective of the Materials Interaction Test (MIT) is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low level neutron fields. Compatibility, structural properties, and chemical transformations will be studied. The multiple test samples are contained within test capsules connected end-to-end to form a test train. Only passive instrumentation has been used to monitor temperatures and record neutron fluence. The test train contains seven capsules: three to test compatibility, two for structural tests, and two for chemical transformation studies. The materials tested are potential candidates for the spent fuel package canister and repository geologies

  11. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this project was to establish basic capsule irradiation technology using the multi-purpose research reactor [HANARO] to eventually support national R and D projects of advanced fuel and materials related to domestic nuclear power plants and next generation reactors. There are several national nuclear projects in KAERI, which require several irradiation tests to investigate in-pile behavior of nuclear reactor fuel and materials for the R and D of several types of fuels such as advanced PWR and DUPIC fuels and for the R and D of structural materials such as RPV(reactor pressure vessel) steel, Inconel, zirconium alloy, and stainless steel. At the moment, internal and external researchers in institutes, industries and universities are interested in investigating the irradiation characteristics of materials using the irradiation facilities of HANARO. For these kinds of material irradiation tests, it is important to develop various capsules using our own techniques. The development of capsules requires several leading-edge technologies and our own experiences related to design and fabrication. In the second phase from April 1,2000 to March 31, 2003, the utilization technologies were developed using various sensors for the measurements of temperature, pressure and displacement, and instrumented capsule technologies for the required fuel irradiation tests were developed. In addition, the improvement of the existing capsule technologies and the development of an in-situ measurable creep capsule for specific purposes were done to meet the various requirements of users

  12. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel surveillance capsule examinations. Application of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A series of pressure vessel surveillance capsules is installed in each commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. A capsule typically contains neutron dose meters, thermal monitors, tensile specimens, and Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In order to determine property changes of the pressure vessel resulting from irradiation, surveillance capsules are periodically removed during the life of a reactor and examined. There are numerous standards, regulations, and codes governing US pressure vessel surveillance capsule programmes. These are put out by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A majority of the pertinent ASTM standards are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Applications and Measurements of Radiation Effects. The standards, regulations, and codes pertaining to pressure vessel surveillance play an important role in ensuring reliability of the nuclear pressure vessels. ASTM E 185-73 is the Standard Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactors. This standard recommends procedures for both the irradiation and subsequent testing of surveillance capsules. ASTM E 185-73 references many additional specialized ASTM standards to be followed in specific areas of a surveillance capsule examination. A key element of surveillance capsule programmes is the Charpy V-notch impact test, used to define curves of fracture behaviour over a range of temperatures. The data from these tests are used to define the adjusted reference temperature used in determining pressure-temperature operating curves for a nuclear power plant. (author)

  13. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  14. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  15. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  16. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  17. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y H; Cho, M S [and others

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  18. Development of endplug welding technology for irradiation testing capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Shin, Y. T.; Kim, S. S.; Kim, B. K.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of newly developed nuclear fuel, it is necessary to irradiate the fuel at a research reactor and examine the irradiated fuel. For the irradiation test in a reasearch reactor, a fuel assembly which is generally called a capsule should be fabricated, considering the fuel irradiation plan and the characteristics of the reactor to be used. And also the fuel elements containing the developed fuel pellets should be made and assembled into a capsule. In this study, the welding method, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make fuel elements for the irradiation test at the HANARO research reactor. The TIG welding method using automatic orbital tube welding system was adopted and the welding joint design was developed for the fabrication of various kinds of irradiation fuel elements. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established for the endplug welding of Zircaloy-4 cladding tube.

  19. Results from annual testing of ARECO cesium capsules from 1990-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile the results of the cesium capsule inspections and testing at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) facility in Lynchburg, VA, performed in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994. The 25 cesium capsules at the ARECO facility were visually identified and clunk tested. A Go/No Go gauge test was required for capsules failing the clunk test. A visual inspection of capsules was required for the initial testing (1990). All 25 capsules passed the inspections and testing each year.

  20. Confirmation tests of PWR surveillance capsule shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, N.; Ue, K.; Ohashi, M.; Asada, K.; Yoneda, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. carried out the confirmation tests to confirm the reliability of the PWR surveillance capsule shipping container and to collect cask design data using a 10-ton weight full scale model at Kobe Shipyard and Engine Works. This report presents the outline of these tests. The B Type container was a cylinder 3289 mm long, 1080 mm in diameter and designed in accordance with the new modified Japanese regulations similar to IAEA regulation. These tests consist of four 9 m drop tests, two 1 m puncture tests, a fire test and an immersion test. In conclusion, safetyness of this container has been proved and various technical data for cask design were also collected through these tests. (author)

  1. Fabrication of irradiation capsule for IASCC irradiation tests (2). Irradiation capsule for crack propagation test (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Kawamata, Kazuo; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Kanazawa, Yoshiharu; Onuma, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shuichi; Izumo, Hironobu; Ishida, Takuya; Saito, Takashi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    It is known that irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) occurs when austenitic stainless steel components used for light water reactor (LWR) are irradiated for a long period. In order to evaluate the high aging of the nuclear power plant, the study of IASCC becomes the important problem. The specimens irradiated in the reactor were evaluated by post irradiation examination in the past study. For the appropriate evaluation of IASCC, it is necessary to test it under the simulated LWR conditions; temperature, water chemistry and irradiation conditions. In order to perform in-pile SCC test, saturated temperature capsule (SATCAP) was developed. There are crack growth test, crack propagation test and so on for in-pile SCC test. In this report, SATCAP for crack propagation test is reported. (author)

  2. Fabrication of irradiation capsule for IASCC irradiation tests (1). Irradiation capsule for crack growth test (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Kawamata, Kazuo; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Kanazawa, Yoshiharu; Onuma, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shuichi; Izumo, Hironobu; Ishida, Takuya; Saito, Takashi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    It is known that Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) occurs when austenitic stainless steel components used for light water reactor (LWR) are irradiated for a long period. In order to evaluate the high aging of the nuclear power plant, the study of IASCC becomes the important problem. The specimens irradiated in the reactor were evaluated by post irradiation examination in the past study. For the appropriate evaluation of IASCC, it is necessary to test it under the simulated LWR conditions; temperature, water chemistry and irradiation conditions. In order to perform in-pile SCC test, saturated temperature capsule (SATCAP) was developed. There are crack growth test, crack propagation test and so on for in-pile SCC test. In this report, SATCAP for crack growth test is reported. (author)

  3. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  4. An Analysis of the Thermal and Structure Behaviour of the UO2-PuO2-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment of the UO2-PuO2-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment FR2 Capsule Test Series 5a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.; Helmut, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the Karlsruhe research reactor FR2 nine fuel pins were irradiated within three irradiation capsules in the course of the test series 5a. The pins contained UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel pellets. They reached bump values of about 6, 17 and 47 Mwd/Kg Me with linear rod powers of 400 to 600 W/cm and clad surface temperature between 500 and 700 degree centigree. A detailed analysis of the fuel structuration data (columnar-grain and equiaxed- -grain growth regions) have allowed to determine, with the help of physic-mathematical models, the radii of these regions and the heat transfer through the contact zone between fuel and clad depending on the bump. The results of the analysis showed that the fuel surface temperature rose with increasing burnup. (Author) 16 refs

  5. Classroom Issues with Series Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell

    2005-01-01

    We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

  6. Utilization of the capsule out-pile test facilities(2000-2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, Y. G. and others

    2003-06-01

    Two out-pile test facilities were installed and being utilized for the non-irradiation tests outside the HANARO. The names of the facilities are the irradiation equipment design verification test facilities and the one-channel flow test device. In these facilities, the performance test of all capsules manufactured before loading in the HANARO and the design verification test for newly developed capsules were performed. The tests in these facilities include loading/unloading, pressure drop, endurance and vibration test etc. of capsules. In the period 2000{approx}2003, the performance tests for 8 material capsules of 99M-01K{approx}02M-05U were carried out, and the design verification tests of creep and fuel capsules developed newly were performed. For development of the creep capsule, pressure drop measurement, operation test of heater, T/C, LVDT and stress loading test were performed. In the design stage of the fuel capsule, the endurance and vibration test besides the above mentioned tests were carried out for verification of the safe operation during irradiation test in the HANARO. And in-chimeny bracket and the capsule supporting system were fixed and the flow tubes and the handling tools were manufactured for use at the facilities.

  7. Work plan for testing silicone impression material and fixture on pool cell capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work plan is to provide a safe procedure to test a cesium capsule impression fixture at Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The impression will be taken with silicone dental impression material pressed down upon the capsule using the impression fixture. This test will evaluate the performance of the fixture and impression material under high radiation and temperature conditions on a capsule in a WESF pool cell

  8. Vibration test report on the instrumented capsule for fuel irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Wu, J. S.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. W

    2003-01-01

    The fluid-induced vibration level of instrumented capsule, which was manufactured for fuel irradiation test at the reactor core of HANARO, was investigated. For this purpose, the instrumented capsule was loaded at the OR site of the HANARO design verification test facility that could simulate identical flow condition as the HANARO core. Then, vibration signals of the instrumented capsule subjected to various flow conditions were measured by using vibration sensors. In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes and RMS values of the measured acceleration and displacement signals were obtained. By using frequency domain analysis, frequency components of the fluid-induced vibration were analyzed. In addition, natural frequencies of the instrumented capsule were obtained by performing modal test. The frequency analysis results showed that the natural frequency components near 7.5Hz and 17.5Hz were dominant in the fluid-induced vibration signal. The maximum amplitude of the accelerations was measured as 12.04m/s{sup 2} that is within the allowable vibrational limit(18.99m/s{sup 2})of the reactor structure. Also, the maximum displacement amplitude was calculated as 0.191mm. Since these vibration levels are remarkably low, excessive vibration is not expected when the irradiation test of the instrumented capsule is performed at the HANARO core.

  9. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200 0 C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented

  10. Omega test series - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has supported a series of high explosive calibration experiments that were conducted in the Degelen Mountain area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (ROK). This paper will provide an overview of the second and third tests of this series which have been designated Omega-2 and Omega-3. Omega-2 was conducted on Saturday, September 25, 1999 and Omega-3 on Saturday, July 29, 2000. (author)

  11. A performance test of a capsule for a material irradiation in the OR holes of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Shin, Y. T.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    A test for a pressure drop and a vibration was performed to develop a material capsule for an irradiation at the OR hole in HANARO. It was analyzed before the test that a diameter of a material capsule for the OR holes should be more than 49mm by an evaluation of a flow rate and pressure drop in theory. According to this estimation, 3 kinds of mock-up capsules with a diameter of 52, 54, 56 mm were made and applied to a pressure drop test. As a result of the pressure drop test, the requirement for a pressure and a flow rate in HANARO was confirmed to be satisfied for the 3 kinds of diameters. The capsules with diameters of 54, 56mm were applied to a vibration test by taking into consideration a receptive capacity of the specimens. The capsule with a diameter of 56mm satisfied the requirement for an allowable limit of the vibration acceleration applied in HANARO. The heat transfer coefficient and the temperature on the surface of a capsule were estimated. As the temperature on the surface of the capsule was calculated to be 43.7 .deg. C, the ONB condition in HANARO was satisfied

  12. Design verification test of instrumented capsule (02F-11K) for nuclear fuel irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Sohn, J. M.; Oh, J. M. [and others

    2004-01-01

    An instrumented capsule is being developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in HANARO. The instrumented capsule for measuring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. The instrumented capsule includes three test fuel rods installed thermocouple to measure fuel centerline temperature and three SPNDs (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) to monitor the neutron flux. Its stability was verified by out-of-pile performance test, and its safety evaluation was also shown that the safety requirements were satisfied. And then, to verify the design of the instrumented capsule in the test hole, it was successfully irradiated in the test hole of HANARO from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.8 full power days at 24 MWth). During irradiation, the centerline temperature of PWR UO{sub 2} fuel pellets fabricated by KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company and the neutron flux were continuously measured and monitored. The test fuel rods were irradiated at less than 350 W/cm to 5.13 GWD/MTU with fuel centerline peak temperature below 1,375 .deg. C. The structural stability of the capsule was satisfied by the naked eye in service pool of HANARO. The capsule and test fuel rods were dismantled and test fuel rods were examined at the hot cell of IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility)

  13. Integrity Assessment of HANARO Irradiation Capsule for Long-Term Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Yang, Tae Ho; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Myong Seop [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Hyun [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule technology was basically developed for irradiation testing under a commercial reactor operation environment. Most irradiation testing using capsules has been performed at around 300 .deg. C within four reactor operation cycles (about 100 days equivalent to 1.5 dpa (displacement for atom)) at HANARO. Based on the accumulated experience as well as the sophisticated requirements of users, HANARO has recently been required to support national R and D projects requiring much higher neutron fluence. To scope the user requirements for higher neutron irradiation fluence, several efforts using an instrumented capsule have been applied at HANARO. In this paper, the applied stresses on the capsule are estimated because the capsule was suspected to be susceptible to fatigue failure during irradiation testing. In addition, the on-going design improvements of the irradiation capsule for higher neutron irradiation fluence at HANARO are described. The applied stresses on the rod tip were analyzed using the ANSYS program. The applied stresses on the rod tip can be classified into stresses by the designed bottom spring, by the upward flowing coolant, by the capsule vibration, and by the welding residual stress. The maximal stresses due to the first three factors were estimated as 5.4 MPa, 132.9 MPa, and 161 MPa, respectively. These stresses do not exceed the known fatigue strength of stainless steels (∼300 MPa). Residual stress by welding is another possible stress and it is known to occur at up to about 300 MPa.

  14. HRB-22 capsule irradiation test for HTGR fuel. JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Kazuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kousaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    As a JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel, JAERI fuel compacts were irradiated in the HRB-22 irradiation capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Postirradiation examinations also were performed at ORNL. This report describes 1) the preirradiation characterization of the irradiation samples of annular-shaped fuel compacts containing the Triso-coated fuel particles, 2) the irradiation conditions and fission gas releases during the irradiation to measure the performance of the coated particle fuel, 3) the postirradiation examinations of the disassembled capsule involving visual inspection, metrology, ceramography and gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples, and 4) the accident condition tests on the irradiated fuels at 1600 to 1800degC to obtain information about fuel performance and fission product release behavior under accident conditions. (author)

  15. Structural analysis on the open basket type instrumented capsule for fuel irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Sik; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Oh, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    To develop the open basket type instrumented capsule to be used for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels, it is necessary to ensure the compatibility of the capsule with HANARO and the structural integrity of the capsule. The dimensions of the open basket type instrumented capsule were determined in the basis of the pressure drop criteria in OR test hole of HANARO(mass flow rate <12.7kg/s, pressure drop {delta}P>200kPa). From the buckling stability analysis for this capsule, the critical buckling load P{sub cr} was 7.5kN. The vertical impact stress of the capsule under unit impact load was evaluated by the transient analysis, and the maximum vertical impact load calculated from the impact stress and the allowable stress was 60.5kN. Under the loading of the calculated Pcr, the maximum vertical impact stress was 20.4MPa. The structural integrity of the capsule under a horizontal impact loading was also examined. The mechanical stresses occurred by the pressure difference at the inner and outer surface of cladding and by the coolant pressure at the surface of cladding were 3.1MPa and 43.3MPa, respectively. These stress values were lower than the allowable stress in each case. Therefore, it was ensured that the instrumented capsule for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels met the criteria on the structural integrity during installing and testing the capsule in HANARO. 8 refs., 61 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  16. Out-pile test of non-instrumented capsule for the advanced PWR fuel pellets in HANARO irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Oh, D. S.; Bang, J. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Ryu, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    Non-instrumental capsule were designed and fabricated to irradiate the advanced pellet developed for the high burn-up LWR fuel in the HANARO in-pile capsule. This capsule was out-pie tested at Cold Test Loop-I in KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the non-instrumented capsule of advanced PWR fuel pellet corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 7.45 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the capsule ranges from 13.0 to 32.3 Hz. RMS displacement for non-instrumented capsule of advanced PWR fuel pellet is less than 11.6 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less that 30.5 {mu}m. The flow rate for endurance test were 8.19 kg/s, which was 110% of 7.45 kg/s. And the endurance test was carried out for 100 days and 17 hours. The test results found not to the wear satisfied to the limits of pressure drop, flow rate, vibration and wear in the non-instrumented capsule.

  17. The design, fabrication, and testing of beryllium capsules for resonant ultrasound experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.; Day, R.

    1999-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition targets require smooth and well-characterized deuterium/tritium (DT) ice layers. Los Alamos is developing Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) to measure the internal pressure in the targets at room temperature after filling with DT. RUS techniques also can detect and measure the amplitudes of low modal surface roughness perturbations of the target shell interior. The experiments required beryllium capsules with a nominal inside radius of 1 mm and a spherical outside radius of 3 mm. The capsules have various spherical harmonic contours up to mode 12 machined into their interior surfaces. The capsules are constructed from hemispheres using an epoxy adhesive and then filled to ∼270 atm with helium or deuterium gas. This paper describes the adhesive joint design, machining techniques, and interior geometry inspection techniques. It also describes the fixtures needed to assemble, fill, and pressure test the capsules

  18. Programmed temperature control of capsule in irradiation test with personal computer at JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Uramoto, T.; Fukushima, M.; Obata, M.; Suzuki, S.; Nakazaki, C.; Tanaka, I.

    1992-01-01

    The capsule irradiation facility is one of various equipments employed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The capsule facility has been used in irradiation tests of both nuclear fuels and materials. The capsule to be irradiated consists of the specimen, the outer tube and inner tube with a annular space between them. The temperature of the specimen is controlled by varying the degree of pressure (below the atmospheric pressure) of He gas in the annular space (vacuum-controlled). Beside this, in another system the temperature of the specimen is controlled with electric heaters mounted around the specimen (heater-controlled). The use of personal computer in the capsule facility has led to the development of a versatile temperature control system at the JMTR. Features of this newly-developed temperature control system lie in the following: the temperature control mode for a operation period can be preset prior to the operation; and the vacuum-controlled irradiation facility can be used in cooperation with the heater-controlled. The introduction of personal computer has brought in automatic heat-up and cool-down operations of the capsule, setting aside the hand-operated jobs which had been conducted by the operators. As a result of this, the various requirements seeking a higher accuracy and efficiency in the irradiation can be met by fully exploiting the capabilities incorporated into the facility which allow the cyclic or delicate changes in the temperature. This paper deals with a capsule temperature control system with personal computer. (author)

  19. An Analysis of the Thermal and Structure Behaviour of the UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment of the UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment FR2 Capsule Test Series 5a; Analisis termico y estructural del combustible UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} irradiado en el reactor FR2 dentro del experimento KVE-Vg.5a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.; Helmut, E.

    1981-07-01

    In the Karlsruhe research reactor FR2 nine fuel pins were irradiated within three irradiation capsules in the course of the test series 5a. The pins contained UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} fuel pellets. They reached bump values of about 6, 17 and 47 Mwd/Kg Me with linear rod powers of 400 to 600 W/cm and clad surface temperature between 500 and 700 degree centigree. A detailed analysis of the fuel structuration data (columnar-grain and equiaxed- -grain growth regions) have allowed to determine, with the help of physic-mathematical models, the radii of these regions and the heat transfer through the contact zone between fuel and clad depending on the bump. The results of the analysis showed that the fuel surface temperature rose with increasing burnup. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  1. Out-pile test of the capsule with cone shape bottom structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Son, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Oh, J. M

    2004-01-01

    The design modification of bottom guide structures for the instrumented capsule which is used for the irradiation test in the research reactor, HANARO is done because of the cutting trouble of the bottom guide arm's pin. The previous structure of the 3-pin arm shape is changed into one body of the cone shape. The specimens of the bottom end cap ring with three different sizes ({phi}68mm, {phi}70mm, {phi}72mm) are designed and manufactured. The out-pile test for the capsule with previous 3-pin arm and new three bottom structures of the cone shape is performed using the one-channel flow test facilities. In order to estimate the compatibility with HANARO, the structural stability and integrity of the capsule, the out-pile test such as a loading/unloading test, a pressure drop test, a thermal performance test, a displacement measurement due to a vibration and an endurance test etc. is conducted, and the outer diameter of the bottom end cap ring to meet the HANARO requirements is selected. From out-pile test results the capsule with cone shape bottom structures is evaluated as to have the structural stability and the benefit from the fluid's flow respect. Also the size satisfied various requirements among three kinds of bottom end cap rings is 70mm in diameter. It is expected that the new bottom structures of the cone shape with 70mm in diameter will be applicable to all material and special capsules which will be designed and manufactured for the purpose of irradiation tests in the future.

  2. Design and testing of tubular polymeric capsules for self-healing of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M.; Van Tittelboom, K.; Feiteira, J.; Gruyaert, E.; Chatrabhuti, S.; Raquez, J.-M.; Šavija, B.; Alderete, N.; Schlangen, E.; De Belie, N.

    2017-10-01

    Polymeric healing agents have proven their efficiency to heal cracks in concrete in an autonomous way. However, the bottleneck for valorisation of self-healing concrete with polymeric healing agents is their encapsulation. In the present work, the suitability of polymeric materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as carriers for healing agents in self-healing concrete has been evaluated. The durability of the polymeric capsules in different environments (demineralized water, salt water and simulated concrete pore solution) and their compatibility with various healing agents have been assessed. Next, a numerical model was used to simulate capsule rupture when intersected by a crack in concrete and validated experimentally. Finally, two real-scale self-healing concrete beams were made, containing the selected polymeric capsules (with the best properties regarding resistance to concrete mixing and breakage upon crack formation) or glass capsules and a reference beam without capsules. The self-healing efficiency was determined after crack creation by 3-point-bending tests.

  3. Modeling and preliminary thermal analysis of the capsule for a creep test in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Sohn, Jae Min; Shin, Yoon Taeg; Park, Sung Jae; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    A creep capsule is a device to investigate the creep characteristics of nuclear materials during inpile irradiation tests. To obtain the design data of the capsule through a preliminary thermal analysis, a 2-dimensional model for the cross section of the capsule including the specimens and components is generated, and an analysis using the ANSYS program is performed. The gamma-heating rates of the materials for the HANARO power of 30MW are considered, and the effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimen is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. The temperature by increasing the position of the control rod is decreased

  4. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  5. Irradiation test plan of instrumented capsule(05F-01K) for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro (Revision 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Kim, B. G.; Choi, M. H. (and others)

    2006-09-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in HANARO. The instrumented capsule for measuring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. And then, to verify the design of the instrumented capsule in the test hole, it was successfully irradiated in the test hole of HANARO from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the 03F-05K instrumented fuel capsule were designed and fabricated to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. Now, this capsule was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of HANARO reactor from April 27, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 full power days at 24-30 MW). The capsule and fuel rods have been be dismantled and fuel rods have been examined at the hot cell of IMEF. The instrumented fuel capsule (05F-01K) was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of HANARO.

  6. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1980-02-01

    Objective of the test is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low-level neutron fields. This document provides a fabrication record of the experiment

  7. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  8. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small bowel: development, testing, and first human trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Paul; Iddan, Gavriel J.; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady

    2001-01-01

    Small bowel endoscopy with existing endoscopes is limited by problems of discomfort and the technical difficulty of advancing far into the small-bowel. Our aim has been to develop and test wireless capsule endoscopy. Wireless endoscopes, in the form of capsules (11 x 33 mm), were constructed by Given Imaging. These were powered by silver oxide batteries and each contained a CMOS imaging chip and miniature processor, white light emitting diodes (LEDs), a short focal length lens, and a miniature transmitter and antenna. Two video frames per second were transmitted, using radio-frequency (approx. 410 MHz), to an array of aerials attached to the body. The array of aerials can also be used to calculate the position of the capsule in the body. The images were stored on a portable recorder carried on a belt and subsequently downloaded for analysis. The batteries allow more than 5 hours of recording, although the capsule generally passes through the whole small bowel in under two hours. Clear video images of the human bowel were recorded from the pylorus to the caecum. Wireless endoscopy, for the first time, allows painless optical imaging of the whole of the small bowel.

  9. In situ mechanical-radiation effects test capsule for simulating fusion material environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, K.E.; Bennett, G.A.; Sommer, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions of radiation and simultaneous cyclic stress on materials are inherent in advanced energy source designs such as inertially and magnetically confined controlled thermonuclear reactors. A test capsule capable of applying a cyclic stress to test specimens while they are being irradiated in the 800-MeV proton beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility has been developed. The design and performance of this device are discussed in this report. This machine has facilities for seven pairs of differential samples; one sample of a pair receives an applied cyclic stress and its companion in an identical flux will be the unstressed control. Control of the sample temperature and in situ monitoring of sample elongation and load are provided in the design. Results of an earlier experiment will be discussed, along with those of preliminary bench tests of the redesigned capsule

  10. Investigation of special capsule technologies for material in-pile irradiation test and development plan in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Park, S. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Seo, C. K.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In-pile test for several materials such as Zr alloy, stainless steel, Cr-Ni steel etc. which are used as structural material of the advanced reactor and KNGR(Korea Next Generation Reactor) like SMART, is necessary to produce the design data for developing new reactor materials. Advanced countries like USA, Europe and Japan etc. are not only performing the simple irradiation test for materials, but developing many kinds of special capsule to perform in-pile test having special purpose. For the special test items of fuel rod, fission products, total heat generation, swelling, deformation, sweep gas, temperature ramping and BOCA etc. are being actively concerned. There are capsules measuring creep, fatigue, crack growth, and controlling fluence etc. for special irradiation test of materials. In addition, the advanced countries are developing several instrument technologies suitable for the special capsules. In HANARO, non-instrumented, instrumented material capsules and non-instrumented fuel capsule have been developed and they have been utilized in the irradiation test for users, and creep capsule loading single specimen was made and is planned to test in the reactor soon. For some forthcoming years, special capsules not only measuring creep deformation with multi-specimens, fatigue, controlling fluence but crack propagation and gas sweep considering the requirements of users will be developed in HANARO.

  11. Development of a capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A capsule assembly machine (CAM) for the long term irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor has been designed, developed and demonstrated at the Korea Atomic Energy Reasearch Institute (KAERI). The CAM will provide a technical base for viable re-irradiation servives. This machine will be installed in the reactor service pool of the HANARO reactor. The new assembly technique by using a mockup of the CAM in air demonstrated its suitability for an assembly operation, and for an application of this technique to a reactor. The technique will be upgraded after a commissioning test under water environments. This would be expected to be recommended for a country where an under water canal for transporting irradiated devices and enough space of a hot cell for assembling capsule components are not available.

  12. Verification of dissolution test for doxycycline hyclate in capsules to implement into the pharmacopoeial monograph

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrova, Anna; Golovchenko, Olga; Georgiyants, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    The study of dissolution profiles is important as a cheap and easy supplement to bioequivalence research, and as a variation to such studies. This method is not outlined in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine for the doxycycline capsules. Therefore, according to the current requirements, it was necessary to verify the procedure recommended by the US Pharmacopeia to confirm that this laboratory test will be reproduced correctly, and to use it in our further studies.The aim of our research was t...

  13. Performance test of the I and C system (GSF - 2002) for the irradiation tests using a fuel capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G.; Ahn, D. H

    2004-12-01

    HANARO is a very important facility in Korea. It offers various types of irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials. With the various applications of the HANARO capsule for the academic and industrial applications, new technologies and relevant facilities will become more important especially for the advanced nuclear fuels and materials development. A new I and C system for an irradiation test using an instrumented fuel capsule have been designed and manufactured to provide more qualified data to fuel developer. The performance test which started in 2004, was done to investigate the thermal response of the capsule connected to the gas mixing system of the new I and C system(GSF-2002) in the cold test loop under the HANARO hydraulic operational condition. Main test parameters are mass flow rate of 25, 50 and 100 cc/min of He/Ne gas, gas pressure of 1 to 3 kg/cm{sup 2}, heater power of 1 to 3.4kW and different gas mixing ratios of He to Ne. From the out-pile tests, it was confirmed that the I and C system(GSF-2002) would be feasible for the fuel irradiation tests. Both analytical and test data prepared by this study are directly used for the fuel experiments related to advanced fuel development program.

  14. Drop-in capsule testing of plutonium-based fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Terry, W.K.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Palmer, A.J.; Roesener, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    The most attractive way to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is to use it as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PuO[sub 2]) mixed with urania (UO[sub 2]). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. The proposed weapons-grade MOX fuel is unusual, even relative to ongoing foreign experience with reactor-grade MOX power reactor fuel. Some demonstration of the in- reactor thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release behavior of the prototype fuel will most likely be required in a limited number of test reactor irradiations. The application to license operation with MOX fuel must be amply supported by experimental data. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is capable of playing a key role in the irradiation, development, and licensing of these new fuel types. The ATR is a 250- MW (thermal) LWR designed to study the effects of intense radiation on reactor fuels and materials. For 25 years, the primary role of the ATR has been to serve in experimental investigations for the development of advanced nuclear fuels. Both large- and small-volume test positions in the ATR could be used for MOX fuel irradiation. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. Furthermore, these data can be obtained more quickly by using ATR instead of testing in a commercial LWR. Our previous work in this area has demonstrated that it is technically feasible to perform MOX fuel testing in the ATR. This report documents our analyses of sealed drop-in capsules containing plutonium-based test specimens placed in various ATR positions

  15. Irradiation Test Plan and Safety Analysis of the Fatigue Capsule(05S-05K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Seo, C. K

    2007-01-15

    In this report, the design, fabrication, the out-pile test and the irradiation test plan of the fatigue capsule 05S-05K were described and the safety aspect during the design, fabrication and irradiation test was reviewed. A cyclic load device necessary for the fatigue test was newly designed and manufactured. By using the cyclic load device the performance test and the preliminary fatigue test were performed with STS316L specimen of {phi}1.8 mm x 12.5 mm gage length under the same condition(550 .deg. C) as the temperature of the specimen during the irradiation test. As a result of the test, the fracture of the specimen occurs at a total of 70,120 cycles, at which the displacement was 2.02 mm. The reactivity effect was reviewed and an analysis for the structural and thermal integrity was performed to review the safety of the capsule, which will be irradiated at a temperature higher than 550 .deg. C And the thermal analysis shows that the temperatures of the parts are less than the melting temperatures of the corresponding materials. The structural analysis considering this temperature shows that the combined stress on the outer tube is less than the allowable stress limits and so the structural integrity is maintained.

  16. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  17. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  18. Normed algebras and the geometric series test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kantrowitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to survey a class of normed algebras that share many central features of Banach algebras, save for completeness. The likeness of these algebras to Banach algebras derives from the fact that the geometric series test is valid, whereas the lack of completeness points to the failure of the absolute convergence test for series in the algebra. Our main result is a compendium of conditions that are all equivalent to the validity of the geometric series test for commutative unital normed algebras. Several examples in the final section showcase some incomplete normed algebras for which the geometric series test is valid, and still others for which it is not.

  19. Multi-frac test series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R A; Warpinski, N R; Finley, S J; Shear, R C

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a series of five full-scale tests performed to evaluate various multi-frac concepts. The tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in horizontal boreholes drilled in ash-fall tuff from a tunnel under 1300 ft of overburden.

  20. Fragrance series testing in eyelid dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Kurt S; Ehrlich, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.

  1. Design and fabrication report on capsule (11M 19K for out of pile test) for irradiation testing of research reactor materials at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Yang, S.W.; Park, S.J.; Shim, K.T.; Choo, K.N.; Oh, J.M.; Lee, B.C.; Choi, M.H.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, J.M.; Kang, S.H.; Chun, Y.B.; Kim, T.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2012-05-15

    As a part of the research reactor development project with a plate type fuel, the irradiation tests of graphite (Gr), beryllium (Be), and zircaloy 4 materials using the capsule have been investigating to obtain the mechanical characteristics such as an irradiation growth, hardness, swelling and tensile strength at the temperature below 100 .deg. C and the 30 MW reactor power. Then, A capsule to be able to irradiate materials(graphite, Be, zircaloy 4) under 100 .deg. C at the HANARO was designed and fabricated. After performing out of pile testing in single channel test loop by using the capsule, the final design of the capsules to be irradiated in CT and IR2 test hole of HANARO was approved, and 2 sets of capsule were fabricated. These capsules will be loaded in CT and IR2 test hole of HANARO, and be started the irradiation from the end of June, 2012. After performing the irradiation testing of 2 sets of capsule, PIE (Post Irradiation Examination) on irradiated specimens (Gr, Be, and zircaloy 4) will be carry out in IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility). So, the irradiation testing will be contributed to obtain the characteristic data induced neutron irradiation on Gr, Be, and zircaloy 4. And then, it is convinced that these data will be also contributed to obtain the license for JRTR (Jordan Research and Training Reactor) and new research reactor in Korea, and export research reactors.

  2. Design, fabrication and irradiation test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (03M-06U) for researches of universities in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.

    2005-03-01

    As a part of 2003 project for active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (03M-06U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for the irradiation test of various nuclear materials under irradiation conditions requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of 03M-06U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U and 02M-05U capsules successfully irradiated in HANARO as 2000, 2001 and 2002 projects. However, because of the limited number of specimens and budget of 4 universities, the remained space of the capsule was charged with KAERI specimens for the development of the precise temperature control technology under irradiation. The material of the specimens is mainly Fe-based alloys partially mixed with Zr, Al and Cu-Ag alloys. The capsule is composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and independent electric heater in each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, toughness, electrical resistance specimens were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was firstly irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of 30MW thermal output at 275∼500±10 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.4 x 10 20 (n/cm 2 ) (E>1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users

  3. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on a Verification Capsule (05M-06K) for the Control of a Neutron Irradiation Fluence of Specimens in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Choi, M. H.; Lee, D. S.

    2007-02-15

    As a part of a project for a capsule development and utilization for an irradiation test, a verification capsule (05M-06K) was designed, fabricated and tested for the development of new instrumented capsule technology for a more precise control of the irradiation fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation condition. The basic structure of the 05M-06K capsule was based on the 04M-22K mock-up capsule which was successfully designed and out-pile tested to confirm the various key technologies necessary for the fluence control of a specimen. 21 square and round shaped specimens made of STS 304 were inserted into the capsule. The capsule was constructed in 5 stages with specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. Each of the five specimens which were accommodated in the 1st stage (top) of the capsule can be taken out of the HANARO core during a normal reactor operation. The specimen is extracted by a specimen extraction mechanism using a steel wire. During the out-pile test, the temperatures of the specimens were measured by 12 thermocouples installed in the capsule. The capsule was successfully out-pile tested in a single channel test loop. The obtained results will be used for a safety evaluation of the new irradiation capsule for controlling the irradiation fluence of specimens in HANARO.

  4. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule of SA 533 cl. 1 reactor pressure vessel (1st test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Baik, S. J.; Oh, W. H.; Soong, W. S.; Hong, K. P

    2000-08-01

    The post-irradiated examinations such as impact test, tensile test, composition analysis and etc. were conducted to monitor and to evaluate the radiation-induced changes, so called radiation embrittlement, in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials. Those data should be applied to confirm safety as well as reliability of reactor pressure vessel. The scopes and contents of hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule are as follows; - Capsule transportation, cutting, dismantling and classification - Shim block and Dosimeter cutting and dismantling - Impact test - Tensile test - Composition analysis by EPMA - SEM observation on the fractured surface - Hardness test - Radwaste treatment.

  5. Technical Manual: 2002 Series GED Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelle, Carol; Setzer, J. Carl

    2009-01-01

    This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED Tests, data collection activities, as well as reliability and validity evidence. The purpose of this manual is to provide evidence…

  6. Irradiation data analysis and thermal analysis of the 02M-02K capsule for material irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Kim, Y. J.

    2004-11-01

    In order to evaluate the fracture toughness of RPV materials, the material irradiation test using the instrumented capsule (02M-02K) were carried out in the HANARO in August 2003. Based on the user's requirements the thermal design analysis of the capsule 02M-02K was performed, and the specimens were suitably arranged in each step of the capsule main body. In this report, both the temperature data of specimens measured during irradiation test and the calculated data from the thermal analysis are compared and evaluated. Also, the temperature profile in each step with the HANARO reactor power and helium pressure is reviewed and evaluated. The effects of the gap size such as theoretically calculated from thermal expansion during irradiation test and measured one in the manufacturing of the capsule on the specimen temperature were reviewed. The thermal analysis was performed by using a Finite Element (FE) analysis program, ANSYS. Two-dimensional model for the 1/4 section of the capsule is generated, and the γ-heating rate of the materials used in the capsule at the control rod position of 430 mm is used as input data. The thermal analysis using a 3-dimensional model, which is quite similar to the actual shape of the capsule, is also conducted to obtain the temperature distribution in the axial direction. The analysis results show that the temperature difference between the top and bottom positions of a specimen is found to be smaller than 13.2 .deg. C. The maximum measured and calculated temperature in the step 3 of the capsule is 256 .deg. C and 264 .deg. C, respectively. The measured temperature data are obtained at the reactor power of 24 MW, the heater power of 0 W and the helium pressure of 760 torr. Generally, the temperature data obtained by the FE analysis are slightly lower than those of the measured except the step 1 of the capsule. However, the temperature difference between the measured and the calculated shows a good agreement within 9 percent. It is

  7. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  8. Design and manufacturing of instrumented capsule (02F-06K/02F-11K) for nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, D. S.; Oh, J. M.; Shin, Y.T.; Park, S.J.; Kim, Y. J.; Seo, C.G.; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y. G.

    2003-02-01

    To measure the characteristics of nuclear fuel during irradiation test, it is necessary to develop the instrumented capsule for the nuclear fuel irradiation test. Then considering the requirements for the nuclear fuel irradiation test and the compatibility with OR test hole in HANARO as well as the requirements for HANARO operation and related equipments, the instrumented capsule for the nuclear fuel irradiation test was designed and successfully manufactured. The structural integrity of the capsule design was verified by performing nuclear physics, structural and thermal analyses. And, not only out-of-pile tests such as pressure drop test, vibration test, endurance test, were performed in HANARO design verification test facility, but the mechanical and hydraulic safety of the capsule and the compatibility of the capsule with HANARO was verified

  9. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  10. Development and Testing of a Magnetically Actuated Capsule Endoscopy for Obesity Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nho Do

    Full Text Available Intra-gastric balloons (IGB have become an efficient and less invasive method for obesity treatment. The use of traditional IGBs require complex insertion tools and flexible endoscopes to place and remove the balloon inside the patient's stomach, which may cause discomfort and complications to the patient. This paper introduces a new ingestible weight-loss capsule with a magnetically remote-controlled inflatable and deflatable balloon. To inflate the balloon, biocompatible effervescent chemicals are used. As the source of the actuation is provided via external magnetic fields, the magnetic capsule size can be significantly reduced compared to current weight-loss capsules in the literature. In addition, there are no limitations on the power supply. To lose weight, the obese subject needs only to swallow the magnetic capsule with a glass of water. Once the magnetic capsule has reached the patient's stomach, the balloon will be wirelessly inflated to occupy gastric space and give the feeling of satiety. The balloon can be wirelessly deflated at any time to allow the magnetic capsule to travel down the intestine and exit the body via normal peristalsis. The optimal ratio between the acid and base to provide the desired gas volume is experimentally evaluated and presented. A prototype capsule (9.6mm x 27mm is developed and experimentally validated in ex-vivo experiments. The unique ease of delivery and expulsion of the proposed magnetic capsule is slated to make this development a good treatment option for people seeking to lose excess weight.

  11. Time Series Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Capsule Endoscopy between the Premarketing and Postmarketing Settings: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Iijima

    Full Text Available Clinical studies for assessing the effectiveness and safety in a premarketing setting are conducted under time and cost constraints. In recent years, postmarketing data analysis has been given more attention. However, to our knowledge, no studies have compared the effectiveness and the safety between the pre- and postmarketing settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of the postmarketing data analysis using clinical data.Studies on capsule endoscopy with rich clinical data in both pre- and postmarketing settings were selected for the analysis. For effectiveness, clinical studies published before October 10, 2015 comparing capsule endoscopy and conventional flexible endoscopy measuring the detection ratio of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were selected (premarketing: 4 studies and postmarketing: 8 studies from PubMed (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of Science. Among the 12 studies, 5 were blinded and 7 were non-blinded. A time series meta-analysis was conducted. Effectiveness (odds ratio decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 5.19 [95% confidence interval: 3.07-8.76] vs. postmarketing: 1.48 [0.81-2.69]. The change in odds ratio was caused by the increase in the detection ratio with flexible endoscopy as the control group. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy did not change between pre- and postmarketing settings. Heterogeneity (I2 increased in the postmarketing setting because of one study. For safety, in terms of endoscope retention in the body, data from the approval summary and adverse event reports were analyzed. The incidence of retention decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 0.75% vs postmarketing: 0.095%. The introduction of the new patency capsule for checking the patency of the digestive tract might contribute to the decrease.Effectiveness and safety could change in the postmarketing setting. Therefore, time series meta-analyses could be useful to continuously monitor the

  12. Design and fabrication of irradiation testing capsule for research reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Seung Jae; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Oh, Jong Myeong; Choi, Myeong Hwan; Lee, Byung Chul; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Dae Jong; Chun, Young Bum; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the demand of research reactors is increasing because there are many ageing research reactors in the world. Also, the production of radioisotope related with the medical purpose is very important. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is designing and licensing for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and new type research reactor for export which will be constructed in Amman, Jordan and Busan, Korea, respectively. Thus, It is expected that more research reactors will be designed and constructed by KAERI. To design the research reactor, the irradiation performance and behavior of core structure material are necessary. However, the irradiation behavior of these materials is not yet investigated. Therefore, the irradiation performance must be verified by irradiation test. 11M 20K and 11M 21K irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated to conduct the irradiation test for some candidate core materials, Zircaloy 4, beryllium, and graphite, at HANARO. In this paper, the design and fabrication features of 11M 20K and 11M 21K were discussed

  13. Design and fabrication of irradiation testing capsule for research reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seong Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Seung Jae; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Oh, Jong Myeong; Choi, Myeong Hwan; Lee, Byung Chul; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Dae Jong; Chun, Young Bum; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, the demand of research reactors is increasing because there are many ageing research reactors in the world. Also, the production of radioisotope related with the medical purpose is very important. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is designing and licensing for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and new type research reactor for export which will be constructed in Amman, Jordan and Busan, Korea, respectively. Thus, It is expected that more research reactors will be designed and constructed by KAERI. To design the research reactor, the irradiation performance and behavior of core structure material are necessary. However, the irradiation behavior of these materials is not yet investigated. Therefore, the irradiation performance must be verified by irradiation test. 11M 20K and 11M 21K irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated to conduct the irradiation test for some candidate core materials, Zircaloy 4, beryllium, and graphite, at HANARO. In this paper, the design and fabrication features of 11M 20K and 11M 21K were discussed.

  14. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J M; Choo, K N; Maeng, W Y; Park, D K; Oh, J M; Park, S J; Jung, S H; Park, J S; Kim, T R; Park, J H; Yang, S Y; Jun, Y K; Yang, S H

    1997-08-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  15. Operation and postirradiation examination of ORR capsule OF-2: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Thoms, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    Irradiation capsule OF-2 was a test of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel types under accelerated irradiation conditions in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results showed good irradiation performance of Triso-coated weak-acid-resin fissile particles and Biso-coated fertile particles. These particles had been coated by a fritted gas distributor in the 0.13-m-diam furnace. Fast-neutron damage (E > 0.18 MeV) and matrix-particle interaction caused the outer pyrocarbon coating on the Triso-coated particles to fail. Such failure depended on the optical anisotropy, density, and open porosity of the outer pyrocarbon coating, as well as on the coke yield of the matrix. Irradiation of specimens with values outside prescribed limits for these properties increased the failure rate of their outer pyrocarbon coating. Good irradiation performance was observed for weak-acid-resin particles with conversions in the range from 15 to 75% UC 2

  16. Design of type X-IV atmospheric pressure capsule for irradiation test based on JSME S NC-1 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohkawara, Masami; Shibata, Isao

    2007-02-01

    In NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) experiments, test fuels are inserted in the especial capsule and the capsule will be inserted into the experimental tube which is located in the center of reactor core. In NSRR, there are 17 types of atmospheric pressure capsule, and one of them Type X-IV atmospheric pressure capsule has been produced 6 times under authorization of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Application for the 7th time of authorization was submitted to the MEXT in June 2006. On this application, standard which is used to design was changed to The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) S NC1-2005 from the Notification 501 of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The JSME S NC1-2005 introduced the service condition in addition to the reactor condition which has been used in the Notification 501. In this application, stress limits were calculated based on the service condition. The JSME S NC1-2005 requires estimation of combined stress for Class1 support structures, which was unnecessary in the Notification 501. In this application, combined stresses were calculated and confirmed not to exceed the stress limits. (author)

  17. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests; study on the in-pile creep measuring method of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Lee, Byung Kee; Lee, Jong Jea; Kim, Chang Sik; Kim, B. Hun; Cho, I. Sik [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The final objective of this project is to obtain a design and fabrication technology of an in-pile creep test machine of zirconium alloys. First, design concepts of the in-pile creep test machines of various foreign countries were reviewed and a preliminary design of the equipment was carried. Second, the mock-up of the in-pile creep test machine was fabricated based on the preliminary design. The mock-up consisted of upper and lower grips, a yoke, a pressure chamber including a bellows, a push rod and LVDT. Each part was made of 304 L stainless steel. The average surface roughness of the parts was 1.0-14.7 {mu}m. The mock-up precisely determined an extension of a specimen by gas pressure. Finally, in-pile creep capsule was designed, fabricated and modified. High pure aluminum blocks were put in the capsule. Considering heat transfer coefficients of helium and nitrogen gases, the cooling efficiency is about 4 .deg. C at the condition of 300 .deg. C creep test. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at 300 .deg. C were 335 MPa, 591 MPa, 19.8%, respectively. which were lower than the values at room temperature, 353 MPa, 740 MPa, 12.5%. This study gave an important technology related to design, fabrication and performance tests of the in-pile creep test machine, which is applied to the fabrication of a special capsule and also used for the fundamental data for the fabrication of various in-pile creep capsules. 6 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  19. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  20. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses

  1. Design, Fabrication, Test Report of the Material Capsule(08M-10K) with Double Thermal Media for High-temperature Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G.; Oh, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    To overcome the restriction of the irradiation test at a high temperature of the existing material capsule with Al thermal media, a capsule suitable for the irradiation at the high temperature was developed and the performance test was undertaken. The 08M-10K capsule was designed and fabricated as that with double thermal media to verify the structural and external integrity in the high-temperature irradiation higher than 500 .deg. C. The thermal performance test was undertaken at the out-pile test facility, and the soundness of the double thermal media was confirmed with the naked eye after disassembling the capsule. Though the temperatures of the specimens reach 500±20 .deg. C as a result maintaining the capsule during 5 hours after setting the specimens temperatures in the target range, the high-temperature thermal media with double structure was confirmed to maintain the soundness. And the specimens and the thermal media were heated to 600 .deg. C for about 3 minutes, but the thermal media were maintained sound. Especially, the Al thermal media were heated for 5 hours in range of 500±20 .deg. C and for 3 minutes at the temperature of 600 .deg. C. However, the thermal media were confirmed to maintain the soundness. Whether a capsule has only Al thermal media or the high-temperature thermal media with double structure, any capsule can be used in the range of 500±20 .deg. C as the result of this experiment maintaining the specimens high-temperature

  2. Effect of Heat Flux on the Specimen Temperature of an LBE Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Park, S. J.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Lee, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    For application of high-temperature irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor for Gen IV reactor material development, a number of newly designed LBE capsules have been investigated at KAERI since 2008. Recent study on heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule with a single heater has shown that the specimen temperature of the mock-up increased linearly with an increase of heat input. The work highlighted only the heat transfer capability of an LBE capsule with a single heater as a simulated specimen in a liquid metal medium. Hence, a new LBE capsule with multi specimen sets has been designed and fabricated for the heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule of 11M-01K. In this paper, a series of thermal analyses and heat transfer experiments for a newly designed LBE capsule was implemented to study the effect of an increase in the value of heat input and its influence on temperature distribution in the capsule mock-up

  3. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  4. Design, fabrication, and operation of capsules for the irradiation testing of candidate advanced space reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, K.R.

    1975-04-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments were designed, built, and operated to test uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad in tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8 percent W-2 percent Hf) and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel clad in both tungsten-lined T-111 and tungsten-lined Nb-1 percent Zr. A total of nine fuel pins was irradiated (four containing porous UN, two containing dense, nonporous UN, and three containing dense UO 2 ) at average cladding temperatures ranging from 931 to 1015 0 C. The UN experiments, capsules UN-4 and -5, operated for 10,480 and 10,037 hr, respectively, at an average linear heat generation rate of 10 kW/ft. The UO 2 experiment, capsule UN-6, operated for 8333 hr at an average linear heat generation rate of approximately 5 kW/ft. Following irradiation, the nine fuel pins were removed from their capsules, externally examined, and sent to the NASA Plum Brook Facility for more detailed postirradiation examination. During visual examination, it was discovered that the cladding of the fuel pin containing dense UN in each of capsules UN-4 and -5 had failed, exposing the UN fuel to the NaK in which the pins were submerged and permitting the release of fission gas from the failed pins. A rough analysis of the fission gas seen in samples of the gas in the fuel pin region indicated fission gas release-to-birth rates from these fuel pins in the range of 10 -5 . (U.S.)

  5. Design, fabrication and irradiation test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (05M-07U) for the researches of universities in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Choi, M. H.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.

    2006-09-15

    As a part of the 2005 project for an active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (05M-07U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an irradiation test of various unclear materials under irradiation conditions which was requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of the 05M-07U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U, 03M-06U and 04M-07U capsules which had been successfully irradiated in HANARO as part of the 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 projects. However, because of a limited number of specimens and the budget of one university, the remaining space in the capsule was filled with various KAERI specimens for researches on a nuclear core and SMART materials, and parts of a nuclear fuel assembly of KNFC. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, hardness, compression and growth specimens made of Zr 702, Ti and Ni alloys, Zirlo, Inconel, STS 316L and Cr-Mo alloys were placed in the capsule. Especially, this capsule was designed to evaluate the nuclear characteristics of the parts of a nuclear fuel assembly and the Ti tubes in HANARO. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 270 ∼ 400 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.7 x 10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E >1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related research of the users.

  6. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  7. Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because experience with it is limited and traditional upper endoscopy is widely available. Why it's done Your doctor might recommend a capsule endoscopy procedure to: Find the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have unexplained bleeding in your digestive ...

  8. Development of neutron fluence measurement and evaluation technology for the test materials in the capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, U.; Choi, S. H.; Kang, H. D. [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The four kinds of the fluence monitor considered by self-shielding are design and fabricated for evaluation of neutron irradiation fluence. They are equipped with dosimeters consisting of Ni, Fe and Ti wires and so forth. The nuclear reaction rate is obtained by measurement on dosimeter using the spectroscopic analysis of induced {gamma}-ray. We established the nuetron fluence evaluating technology that is based on the measurement of the reaction rate considering reactor's irradiation history, burn-out, self-shielding in fluence monitor, and the influence of impurity in dosimeter. The distribution of high energy neutron flux on the vertical axis of the capsule shows fifth order polynomial equation and is good agree with theoretical value in the error range of 30% by MCNP/4A code. 22 refs., 50 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  9. Critical values for unit root tests in seasonal time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B. Hobijn (Bart)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present tables with critical values for a variety of tests for seasonal and non-seasonal unit roots in seasonal time series. We consider (extensions of) the Hylleberg et al. and Osborn et al. test procedures. These extensions concern time series with increasing seasonal

  10. Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies that the gauge is functional

  11. Non-instrumented capsule design of HANARO irradiation test for the high burn-up large grain UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Oh, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Non-instrumented capsule was designed to irradiate the large grain UO 2 pellet developed for the high burn-up LWR fuel in the HANARO in-pile capsule. UO 2 pelletes will be irradiated up to the burn-up higher than 70 MWD/kgU in HANARO. To irradiate the UO 2 pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. In addition, to satisfy the safety criteria of HANARO such as prevention of ONB(Onset of Nucleate Boiling), fuel melting and wear damage of the capsule during the long term irradiation, design of the non-instrumented capsule was optimized

  12. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Jones, A.K.; Nimick, K.G.

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10 -5 sec -1 , atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively

  13. Aqueous corrosion in static capsule tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuit of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: manfred.lipa@cea.fr; Blanchet, J.; Feron, D. [CEA/DEN/SCCME, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Cellier, F. [AREVA ANP, Centre Technique, 71380 Saint Marcel (France)

    2008-12-15

    Tore supra (TS) in vessel components represent a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit. Different materials, e.g. stainless steel, copper alloys, nickel, etc., were joined together by fusion welding, brazing and friction. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be set at 230 deg. C/40 bars a special water chemistry of the cooling water loop was suggested in order to prevent eventual water leaks due to corrosion at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, bellows, coils and coolant plant ancillary equipments. Following experiences with water chemistry in Pressurised Water Reactors, an all volatile chemical treatment (AVT) has been defined for the cooling water quality of TS. Since then, a simplified static (no fluid circulation) corrosion test program at relatively high temperature and pressure has been performed using capsule-type samples made of above mentioned multi-metal assemblies.

  14. Testing for intracycle determinism in pseudoperiodic time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Mara C S; Mendes, Eduardo M A M; Aguirre, Luis A

    2008-06-01

    A determinism test is proposed based on the well-known method of the surrogate data. Assuming predictability to be a signature of determinism, the proposed method checks for intracycle (e.g., short-term) determinism in the pseudoperiodic time series for which standard methods of surrogate analysis do not apply. The approach presented is composed of two steps. First, the data are preprocessed to reduce the effects of seasonal and trend components. Second, standard tests of surrogate analysis can then be used. The determinism test is applied to simulated and experimental pseudoperiodic time series and the results show the applicability of the proposed test.

  15. A case series on the use of lavendula oil capsules in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and symptoms of psychomotor agitation, insomnia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fißler, Maria; Quante, Arnim

    2014-02-01

    Symptoms of agitation, anxiety and insomnia are frequent among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) during the first weeks of psychiatric care. But a substantial number of patients declines taking pharmaceutical medication to avoid side effects. Therefore, an alternative herbal medication is needed. Clinical studies demonstrated that lavender oil capsules, termed Lasea®, have an anxiolytic effect comparable to Lorazepam and significantly reduce insomnia and agitation in non-depressed patients. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case series was to analyze the effectiveness of Lasea® for patients with MDD and symptoms of anxiety, insomnia and psychomotor agitation. Eight cases were analyzed retrospectively regarding the dosage, length of treatment, possible side effects and effectiveness of Lasea®. All cases were treated at the Department of Psychiatry at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin in a naturalistic setting. Effectiveness was measured by a change in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) total score and subscores. In 6 cases, the combination of Lasea® and an antidepressant resulted in a reduction of MDD. Lasea® also reduced agitation in 6 cases. Psychological anxiety was reduced in 5, somatic anxiety in 4 cases whereas sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance insomnia improved in 3 cases each. The results demonstrate that Lasea® reduces some of the anxiety related symptoms and sleep disturbances in MDD patients. Furthermore Lasea® significantly reduces psychomotor agitation. Additionally, the results indicate a significant global improvement stemming from the combinational therapy of Lasea® and antidepressant medication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  17. Technology development on production of test specimens from irradiated capsule outer-tube and mechanical evaluation test of stainless steel with high dose carried out by the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shibata, Akira; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Sozawa, Shizuo; Takada, Fumiki; Ohmi, Masao; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    2008-03-01

    The irradiation capsule 74M-52J was irradiated during total 136 cycles at reactor core of JMTR and the maximum neutron dose reached on 3.9x10 26 n/m 2 at the capsule outer-tube made of a type 304 stainless steel. In order to produce mechanical test specimens from the outer-tube, a punching technique was developed as a simple remote-handling method in a hot-cell. From comparison between the punching and the mechanical cutting methods, it was clarified that the punching technique was applicable to practical use. Moreover, an evaluation test of mechanical properties using specimens sampled from the 74M-52 was performed with in-water high temperature condition, less than 288degC. The result shows that the residual elongation is 18% at 150degC and 13% at 288degC. It was confirmed that the type 304 stainless steel irradiated up to such high dose shows enough ductility. (author)

  18. Integrated Test and Evaluation (ITE) Flight Test Series 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The integrated Flight Test 4 (FT4) will gather data for the UAS researchers Sense and Avoid systems (referred to as Detect and Avoid in the RTCA SC 228 ToR) algorithms and pilot displays for candidate UAS systems in a relevant environment. The technical goals of FT4 are to: 1) perform end-to-end traffic encounter test of pilot guidance generated by DAA algorithms; 2) collect data to inform the initial Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for Detect and Avoid systems. FT4 objectives and test infrastructure builds from previous UAS project simulations and flight tests. NASA Ames (ARC), NASA Armstrong (AFRC), and NASA Langley (LaRC) Research Centers will share responsibility for conducting the tests, each providing a test lab and critical functionality. UAS-NAS project support and participation on the 2014 flight test of ACAS Xu and DAA Self Separation (SS) significantly contributed to building up infrastructure and procedures for FT3 as well. The DAA Scripted flight test (FT4) will be conducted out of NASA Armstrong over an eight-week period beginning in April 2016.

  19. Bootstrap Power of Time Series Goodness of fit tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we looked at power of various versions of Box and Pierce statistic and Cramer von Mises test. An extensive simulation study has been conducted to compare the power of these tests. Algorithms have been provided for the power calculations and comparison has also been made between the semi parametric bootstrap methods used for time series. Results show that Box-Pierce statistic and its various versions have good power against linear time series models but poor power against non linear models while situation reverses for Cramer von Mises test. Moreover, we found that dynamic bootstrap method is better than xed design bootstrap method.

  20. Tests for nonlinearity in short stationary time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Sauer, T.; Schiff, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    To compare direct tests for detecting determinism in chaotic time series, data from Henon, Lorenz, and Mackey--Glass equations were contaminated with various levels of additive colored noise. These data were analyzed with a variety of recently developed tests for determinism, and the results compared

  1. Test plan for Series 3 NNWSI spent fuel leaching/dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1986-04-01

    The Series 3 tests will differ from the Series 2 tests in that the Series 3 tests will be run at 85 0 C (J-13 water) in sealed 304 stainless steel (SS) test vessels. The current NNWSI reference spent fuel container material is 304L SS. The candidate NNWSI repository horizon is above the water table, and 95 0 C (boiling temperature at the repository elevation) is the maximum liquid water temperature expected to contact spent fuel in the repository

  2. Capsule safety analysis of PRTF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Power Ramp Test Facility (PRTF) is an irradiation facility used for fuel testing of power reactor. PRTF has a capsule which is a test fuel rod container. During operation, pressurized water of 160 bars flows through in the capsule. Due to the high pressure it should be analyzed the impact of the capsule on reactor core safety. This analysis has purpose to calculate the ability of capsule pressure capacity. The analysis was carried out by calculating pressure capacity. From the calculating results it can be concluded that the capsule with pressure capacity of 438 bars will be safe to prevent the operation pressure of PRTF. (author)

  3. Validation of US3D for Capsule Aerodynamics using 05-CA Wind Tunnel Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several comparisons of computational fluid dynamics to wind tunnel test data are shown for the purpose of code validation. The wind tunnel test, 05-CA, uses a 7.66% model of NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle in the 11-foot test section of the Ames Unitary Plan Wind tunnel. A variety of freestream conditions over four Mach numbers and three angles of attack are considered. Test data comparisons include time-averaged integrated forces and moments, time-averaged static pressure ports on the surface, and Strouhal Number. The applicability of the US3D code to subsonic and transonic flow over a bluff body is assessed on a comprehensive data set. With close comparison, this work validates US3D for highly separated flows similar to those examined here.

  4. Quality evaluation of probiotic capsule prepared from alginate, carrageenan and tofu waste flour based on bacterial activity and organoleptic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardina, V.; Ermaya, D.; Aisyah, Y.; Haryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Probiotic capsule is an innovation in functional food sector. It is used to preserve the living cells of probiotic bacteria during processing and storage. In this research, the improvement of probiotic viability is studied by using two kinds of encapsulating biomaterials and different concentration of tofu waste flour. Extrusion is selected method for encapsulation process. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of probiotic capsule by evaluating the lactic acid bacteria performance and its physical characteristic. The article provides the data of probiotic bacteria activity related to their living cells present in capsule, activity in fermentation media compare to uncapsulated bacteria, and panelists’ preferences of capsule’s physical properties. The data is analyzed statistically by using ANOVA. The result shows that variables in this study affect the number of bacteria, their metabolic activity in producing acid during fermentation, and physical appearance of the capsule. Combination of alginate and tofu waste flour allows the multiplication of bacteria to a high number, and forms elastic, yellow and cloudy capsule, while with carrageenan, it causes the growth of a few numbers of bacteria which affects to a moderate pH and produces elastic, creamy and transparent capsule.

  5. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included

  6. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. This ATP does not set up the gauge for any specific tank, but is generalized to permit testing the gauge prior to installation package preparation

  7. The development of sine vibration test requirements for Viking lander capsule components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.

    1974-01-01

    In connection with the Viking project for exploring the planet Mars, two identical spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander, will be launched in the third quarter of 1975. Upon arrival at the planet, the Viking lander will separate from the Viking orbiter and descend to a soft landing at a selected site on the Mars surface. It was decided to perform a sine vibration test on the Viking spacecraft, in its launch configuration, to qualify it for the booster-induced transient-dynamic environment. It is shown that component-level testing is a cost- and schedule-effective prerequisite to the system-level, sine-vibration test sequences.

  8. Failure analysis of radioisotopic heat source capsules tested under multi-axial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

    In order to qualify small radioisotopic heat sources for a 25-yr design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the structural components of the heat source. The results of these tests indicated that failure predominantly occurred in the middle of the weld ramp-down zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the true cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, impurity concentration in the ramp-down zone. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered. Example welds made with a pulse arc technique did not have this impurity buildup in the ramp-down zone

  9. Regional gastrointestinal transit and pH studied in 215 healthy volunteers using the wireless motility capsule: influence of age, gender, study country and testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Mohammed, S D; Farmer, A D; Wang, D; Zarate, N; Hobson, A R; Hellström, P M; Semler, J R; Kuo, B; Rao, S S; Hasler, W L; Camilleri, M; Scott, S M

    2015-09-01

    The wireless motility capsule (WMC) offers the ability to investigate luminal gastrointestinal (GI) physiology in a minimally invasive manner. To investigate the effect of testing protocol, gender, age and study country on regional GI transit times and associated pH values using the WMC. Regional GI transit times and pH values were determined in 215 healthy volunteers from USA and Sweden studied using the WMC over a 6.5-year period. The effects of test protocol, gender, age and study country were examined. For GI transit times, testing protocol was associated with differences in gastric emptying time (GET; shorter with protocol 2 (motility capsule ingested immediately after meal) vs. protocol 1 (motility capsule immediately before): median difference: 52 min, P = 0.0063) and colonic transit time (CTT; longer with protocol 2: median 140 min, P = 0.0189), but had no overall effect on whole gut transit time. Females had longer GET (by median 17 min, P = 0.0307), and also longer CTT by (104 min, P = 0.0285) and whole gut transit time by (263 min, P = 0.0077). Increasing age was associated with shorter small bowel transit time (P = 0.002), and study country also influenced small bowel and CTTs. Whole gut and CTTs showed clustering of data at values separated by 24 h, suggesting that describing these measures as continuous variables is invalid. Testing protocol, gender and study country also significantly influenced pH values. Regional GI transit times and pH values, delineated using the wireless motility capsule (WMC), vary based on testing protocol, gender, age and country. Standardisation of testing is crucial for cross-referencing in clinical practice and future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nine. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 1.] Tests M1-M13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of the first 13 tests are provided. Skills to be tested include: (1) reading a table; (2) using a biological key; (3) identifying chemical symbols; (4) identifying parts of a human body; (5) reading a line graph; (6) identifying electronic and…

  11. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (Capsule 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin Unit 4 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.306E+18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.918 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.615E+18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 8.478E+18 and 1.673E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin Unit 4 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  12. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (CAPSULE 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.674E 18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.920 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.913E 18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 9.249E 18 and 1.834E 19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  13. Assessment Guide for Educators: A Content Comparison--2002 Series Test and the Current GED® Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    GED Testing Service, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a content comparison for the 2002 Series GED® test and the current GED® for the following test topic areas: (1) Mathematical Reasoning; (2) Reasoning through Language Arts; (3) Science; and (4) Social Studies.

  14. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  15. What we have learned and what to expect from capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Samuel N; Bjarnason, Ingvar

    2012-10-16

    Capsule endoscopy was conceived by Gabriel Iddan and Paul Swain independently two decades ago. These applications include but are not limited to Crohn's disease of the small bowel, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, non steroidal anti inflammatory drug induced small bowel disease, carcinoid tumors of the small bowel, gastro intestinal stromal tumors of the small bowel and other disease affecting the small bowel. Capsule endoscopy has been compared to traditional small bowel series, computerized tomography studies and push enteroscopy. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy has consistently been superior in the diagnosis of small bowel disease compared to the competing methods (small bowel series, computerized tomography, push enteroscopy) of diagnosis. For this reason capsule endoscopy has enjoyed a meteoric success. Image quality has been improved with increased number of pixels, automatic light exposure adaptation and wider angle of view. Further applications of capsule endoscopy of other areas of the digestive tract are being explored. The increased transmission rate of images per second has made capsule endoscopy of the esophagus a realistic possibility. Technological advances that include a double imager capsule with a nearly panoramic view of the colon and a variable frame rate adjusted to the movement of the capsule in the colon have made capsule endoscopy of the colon feasible. The diagnostic rate for the identification of patients with polyps equal to or larger than 6 mm is high. Future advances in technology and biotechnology will lead to further progress. Capsule endoscopy is following the successful modern trend in medicine that replaces invasive tests with less invasive methodology.

  16. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective...... of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  17. FLECHT low flooding rate skewed test series data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosal, E.R.; Conway, C.E.; Krepinevich, M.C.

    1977-05-01

    The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in./sec. and with electrically heated rod bundles which had cosine and top skewed axial power profiles. The top-skewed axial power profile test series has now been successfully completed and is here reported. For these tests the rod bundle was enclosed in a low mass cylindrical housing which would minimize the wall housing effects encountered in the cosine test series. These tests examined the effects of initial clad temperature, variable stepped and continuously variable flooding rates, housing heat release, rod peak power, constant low flooding rates, coolant subcooling, hot and cold channel entrainment, and bundle stored and generated power. Data obtained in runs which met the test specifications are reported here, and include rod clad temperatures, turn around and quench times, heat transfer coefficients, inlet flooding rates, overall mass balances, differential pressures and calculated void fractions in the test section, thimble wall and steam temperatures, and exhaust steam and liquid carryover rates

  18. Cryogenic Infrastructure for Testing of LHC Series Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Axensalva, J; Herblin, L; Lamboy, J P; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Vuillerme, B

    2005-01-01

    The ~1800 superconducting magnets for the LHC machine shall be entirely tested at reception before their installation in the tunnel. For this purpose and in order to reach the reliability and efficiency at the nominal load required for an industrial operation for several years, we have gradually upgraded and retrofitted the cryogenic facilities installed in the early nineties for the testing at CERN of prototypes and preseries magnets. The final infrastructure of the test station, dedicated to check industrially the quality of the series magnets, is now nearly complete. We present the general layout and describe the overall performance of the system.

  19. Status of the material capsule irradiation and the development of the new capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo

    2006-01-01

    A material capsule system including a main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport systems was developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO. 14 irradiation capsules (12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in the HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 5 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of the HANARO utilization for universities. Based on the accumulated irradiation experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, development of new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen irrespective of the reactor operation has been performed in HANARO. (author)

  20. Test plan for Series 2 spent fuel cladding containment credit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1984-10-01

    This test plan describes a second series of tests to be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to evaluate the effectiveness of breached cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release in the NNWSI-proposed geologic repository. These tests will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). A first series of tests, initiated at HEDL during FY 1983, demonstrated specimen preparation and feasibility of the testing concept. The second series tests will be similar to the Series 1 tests with the following exceptions: NNWSI reference groundwater obtained from well J-13 will be used as the leachant instead of deionized water; fuel from a second source will be used; and certain refinements will be made in specimen preparation, sampling, and analytical procedures. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  1. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  2. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Ten. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 2.] Tests M14-M26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 14 through 26 include: (14) calculating an average; (15) identifying parts of the scientific method; (16) reading a geological map; (17) identifying elements, mixtures and compounds; (18) using Ohm's law in calculation; (19) interpreting…

  3. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

  4. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

  5. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  6. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  7. Pin failure modeling of the A series CABRI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.F.; Portugal, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The EXPAND pin fialure model, a research tool designed to model pin failure under prompt burst conditions, has been used to predict failure conditions for several of the A series CABRI tests as part of the United States participation in the CABRI Joint Project. The Project is an international program involving France, Germany, England, Japan, and the United States and has the goal of obtaining experimental data relating to the safety of LMFBR's. The A series, designed to simulate high ramp rate TOP conditions, initially utilizes single, fresh UO 2 pins of the PHENIX type in a flowing sodium loop. The pins are preheated at constant power in the CABRI reactor to establish steady state conditions (480 w/cm at the axial peak) and then subjected to a power pulse of 14 ms to 24 ms duration

  8. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Christopher N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC, but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM. Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1 ESM + SC, 2 ESM + WC and 3 endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012 but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71. Per patient costs ($Canadian were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610

  9. Final Report on Design, Fabrication and Test of HANARO Instrumented Capsule (07M-13N) for the Researches of Irradiation Performance of Parts of X-Gen Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    An instrumented capsule of 07M-13N was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the parts of a X-Gen nuclear fuel assembly for PWR requested by KNF. Some specimens of control rod materials of AP1000 reactor requested by Westinghouse Co. were inserted in this capsule as a preliminary irradiation test and Polyimide specimens requested by Hanyang university were also inserted. 463 specimens such as buckling and spring test specimens of cell spacer grid, tensile, microstructure and tensile of welded parts, irradiation growth, spring test specimens made of HANA tube, Zirlo, Zircaloy-4, Inconel-718, Polyimide, Ag and Ag-In-Cd alloys were placed in the capsule. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 7 sets of neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A new friction welded tube between STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated for 95.19 days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 230 {approx} 420 .deg. C. The specimens were irradiated up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 1.27x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV) and the dpa of the irradiated specimens were evaluated as 1.21 {approx} 1.97. The irradiated specimens were tested to evaluate the irradiation performance of the parts of an X-Gen fuel assembly in the IMEF hot cell and the obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users.

  10. Evaluation of LLTR Series II tests A-1A and A-1B test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoopak, B.F.; Amos, J.C.; Norvell, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    The standard methodology, with minor modifications provides conservative yet realistic predictions of leaksite and other sodium system pressures in the LLTR Series II vessel and piping. The good agreement between predicted and measured pressures indicates that the TRANSWRAP/RELAP modeling developed from the Series I tests is applicable to larger scale units prototypical of the Clinch River steam generator design. Calculated sodium system pressures are sensitive to several modeling parameters including rupture disc modeling, acoustic velocity in the test vessel, and flow rate from the rupture tube. The acoustic velocity which produced best agreement with leaksite pressures was calculated based on the shroud diameter and shroud wall thickness. The corresponding rupture tube discharge coefficient was that of the standard design methodology developed from Series I testing. As found in Series I testing, the Series II data suggests that the leading edge of the flow in the relief line is two phase for a single, doubled-ended guillotine tube rupture. The steam generator shroud acts as if it is relatively transparent to the transmission of radial pressures to the vessel wall. Slightly lower sodium system maximum pressures measured during Test A-1b compared to Test A-1a are attributed to premature failure (failure at a lower pressure) of the rupture disc in contact with the sodium for test A-1b. The delay in failure of the second disc in Test A-1b, which was successfully modeled with TRANSWRAP, is attributed to the limited energy in the nitrogen injection

  11. Final report for the 5th surveillance test of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule Y) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, ByoungChul; Chang, Kee Ok (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X, W and Y are 5.777E+18, 1.5371E+19, 3.7634E+19, 4.3045E+19, and 4.8662E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.953 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.2% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.659E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 13th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 48, 56 and 64EFPY would reach 3.625E+19, 5.293E+19, 6.127E+19 and 6.960E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the Pressurized Thermal Shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  12. The 4th surveillance test and evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule W) of Younggwang nuclear power plant unit1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-08-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 1 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 5.555E+18, 1.662E+19, 3.358E+19, and 4.521E+19 n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement versus calculation, was 0.859 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.80% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.551E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 12th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.929E+19, 4.880E+19, 5.831E+19 and 6.782E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 1 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 4 refs., 41 figs., 35 tabs. (Author)

  13. The 4th surveillance test and evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule W) of Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 5.762E+18, 1.5391E+19, 3.5119E+19, and 4.2610E+19 n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement versus calculation, was 0.899 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12.3% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.357E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 11th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.525E+19, 4.337E+19, 5.148E+19 and 5.960E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 42 tabs. (Author)

  14. Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs

  15. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and and 3. Construction and testing of the capsules and containers VISA - Phase II; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade I ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - II faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Smokovic, Z; Putre, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za reaktorsku eksperimentalnu tehniku, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-06-15

    The task contains studies of materials for constructing capsules, leak tight capsules and containers made of aluminium and stainless steels. This report contains study of welding, leak testing, corrosion problems vacuuming, quality control of welds. Detailed design specifications for fabrication of capsules and needed equipment are part of this report.

  16. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge

  17. Dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and its reuse test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency to the Nuclear Safety Commission was presented on the validity of the dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule and the method of its reuse test. The safety in both aspects of the capsule was confirmed. The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), in which the water-flow capsule is set, is a swimming pool type reactor, fueled with enriched uranium, having heat output of 300 kW in normal operation and maximum instantaneous heat output of 23,000 MW in pulse operation. The type 2 water-flow capsule, with the initial conditions simulating a power generating LWR plant and being appropriately set, is used to acquire the data on fuel behavior and destructive power in pulse irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  18. Dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and its reuse test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency to the Nuclear Safety Commission was presented on the validity of the dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule and the method of its reuse test. The safety in both aspects of the capsule was confirmed. The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), in which the water-flow capsule is set, is a swimming pool type reactor, fueled with enriched uranium, having heat output of 300 kW in normal operation and maximum instantaneous heat output of 23,000 MW in pulse operation. The type 2 water-flow capsule, with the initial conditions simulating a power generating LWR plant and being appropriately set, is used to acquire the data on fuel behavior and destructive power in pulse irradiation.

  19. [The Additional Role of Symptom-Reflux Association Analysis of Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Using Bravo Capsule pH Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-10-25

    Since the development of ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring test to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), several parameters have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess whether using the symptom index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability (SAP), in addition to the DeMeester score (DS), would be useful for interpreting the Bravo pH monitoring test. A retrospective study, which included 68 patients with reflux symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy who underwent a Bravo capsule pH test between October 2006 and May 2015, was carried out. Acid reflux parameters and symptom reflux association parameters were analyzed. The median percent time of total pHvariation in percent time of total pHpH test, diagnosis of GERD, including reflux hypersensitivity, can be improved by performing an analysis of the symptom-reflux association and of the day-to-day variation.

  20. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S. (ed.)

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology.

  1. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology

  2. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge testing in Tank 241-S-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on Tank 241-S-106 (S-106) during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's measuring wire broke. An investigation has been started to determine how the wire broke. This test plan identifies a qualification test that is part of this investigation. This test will also provide evidence as to the location and extent of potential corrosion on the measuring wire due to tank environment. The results from this testing will provide data for better material selections. This test will involve placing the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauge back into service with the same type of measuring wire (316 stainless steel) that originally broke on August 11, 1994. The gauge will be operated for 14 days. At the end of the 14-day test, the wire shall be sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis

  3. Status of Wrought FeCrAl-UO2 Capsules Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harp, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Core, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Candidate cladding materials for accident tolerant fuel applications require extensive testing and validation prior to commercial deployment within the nuclear power industry. One class of cladding materials, FeCrAl alloys, is currently undergoing such effort. Within these activities is a series of irradiation programs within the Advanced Test Reactor. These programs are developed to aid in commercial maturation and understand the fundamental mechanisms controlling the cladding performance during normal operation of a typical light water reactor. Three different irradiation programs are on-going; one designed as a simple proof-of-principle concept, the other to evaluate the susceptibility of FeCrAl to fuel-cladding chemical interaction, and the last to fully simulate the conditions of a pressurized water reactor experimentally. To date, nondestructive post-irradiation examination has been completed on the rodlet deemed FCA-L3 from the simple proof-of-concept irradiation program. Initial results show possible breach of the rodlet under irradiation but further studies are needed to conclusively determine whether breach has occurred and the underlying reasons for such a possible failure. Further work includes characterizing additional rodlets following irradiation.

  4. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  5. Air-water tests in support of LLTR series II Test A-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1980-07-01

    A series of tests injecting air into a tank of stagnant water was conducted in June 1980 utilizing the GE Plenum Mixing Test Facility in San Jose, California. The test was concerned with investigating the behavior of air jets at a submerged orifice in water over a wide range of flow rates. The main objective was to improve the basic understanding of gas-liquid phenomena (e.g., leak dynamics, gas bubble agglomeration, etc.) in a simulated tube bundle through visualization. The experimental results from these air-water tests will be used as a guide to help select the leak size for LLTR Series II Test A-4 because air-water system is a good simulation of water-sodium mixture

  6. Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Jong Kium; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

    2006-01-01

    Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs

  7. Power-Cooling-Mismatch Test Series Test PCM-7. Experiment operating specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, D.T.; Smith, R.H.; Stanley, C.J.

    1979-02-01

    The experiment operating specifications for the Power-Cooling-Mismatch (PCM) Test PCM-7 to be conducted in the Power Burst Facility are described. The PCM Test Series was designed on the basis of a parametric evaluation of fuel behavior response with cladding temperature, rod internal pressure, time in film boiling, and test rod power being the variable parameters. The test matrix, defined in the PCM Experiment Requirements Document (ERD), encompasses a wide range of situations extending from pre-CHF (critical heat flux) PCMs to long duration operation in stable film boiling leading to rod failure

  8. Analysis and Experimental Qualification of an Irradiation Capsule Design for Testing Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daily, Charles R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is currently investigating a number of advanced nuclear fuel cladding concepts to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactors. Alumina-forming ferritic alloys (e.g., FeCrAl) are some of the leading candidates to replace traditional zirconium alloys due to their superior oxidation resistance, provided no prohibitive irradiation-induced embrittlement occurs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed experimental designs to irradiate thin-walled cladding tubes with representative pressurized water reactor geometry in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) under relevant temperatures. These designs allow for post-irradiation examination (PIE) of cladding that closely resembles expected commercially viable geometries and microstructures. The experiments were designed using relatively inexpensive rabbit capsules for the irradiation vehicle. The simplistic designs combined with the extremely high neutron flux in the HFIR allow for rapid testing of a large test matrix, thus reducing the time and cost needed to advanced cladding materials closer to commercialization. The designs are flexible in that they allow for testing FeCrAl alloys, stainless steels, Inconel alloys, and zirconium alloys (as a reference material) both with and without hydrides. This will allow a direct comparison of the irradiation performance of advanced cladding materials with traditional zirconium alloys. PIE will include studies of dimensional change, microstructure variation, mechanical performance, etc. This work describes the capsule design, neutronic and thermal analyses, and flow testing that were performed to support the qualification of this new irradiation vehicle.

  9. Clinical Efficacy of Various Diagnostic Tests for Small Bowel Tumors and Clinical Features of Tumors Missed by Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Wan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic tools such as computerized tomography (CT, small bowel follow-through (SBFT, and capsule endoscopy (CE in diagnosing small bowel tumors (SBTs. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Methods. We retrospectively studied 79 patients with histologically proven SBT. Clinical data were analyzed with particular attention to the efficacy of CT, SBFT, and CE in detecting SBT preoperatively. We also analyzed the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Results. The most common symptoms of SBT were bleeding (43% and abdominal pain (13.9%. Diagnostic yields were as follows: CT detected 55.8% of proven SBTs; SBFT, 46.1%; and CE, 83.3%. The sensitivity for detecting SBTs was 40.4% for CT, 43.9% for SBFT, and 79.6% for CE. Two patients with nondiagnostic but suspicious findings on CE and seven patients with negative findings on CE were eventually found to have SBT. These nine patients were eventually diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (4, small polyps (3, inflammatory fibroid polyp (1, and adenocarcinoma (1. These tumors were located in the proximal jejunum (5, middle jejunum (1, distal jejunum (1, and proximal ileum (1. Conclusion. CE is more efficacious than CT or SBFT for detecting SBTs. However, significant tumors may go undetected with CE, particularly when located in the proximal jejunum.

  10. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4 fuel behavior report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Martinson, Z.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents and discusses results from the final test in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series, Test RIA 1-4, conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Nine preirradiated fuel rods in a 3 x 3 bundle configuration were subjected to a power burst while at boiling water reactor hot-startup system conditions. The test resulted in estimated axial peak, radial average fuel enthalpies of 234 cal/g UO 2 on the center rod, 255 cal/g UO 2 on the side rods, and 277 cal/g UO 2 on the corner rods. Test RIA 1-4 was conducted to investigate fuel coolability and channel blockage within a bundle of preirradiated rods near the present enthalpy limit of 280 cal/g UO 2 established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test design and conduct are described, and the bundle and individual rod thermal and mechanical responses are evaluated. Conclusions from this final test and the entire PBF RIA Test Series are presented

  11. Experiment data report for Test RIA 1-2 (Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, C.L.; White, C.E.; Evans, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for the second of six planned tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series I, Test RIA 1-2. This test, conducted at the Power Burst Facility, had the following objectives: (1) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor hot-startup conditions; and (2) evaluate the effect of rod internal pressure on preirradiated fuel rod response during an RIA event. The data from Test RIA 1-2 are graphed in engineering units and have been appraised for quality and validity. These uninterpreted data are presented for use in the nuclear fuel behavior research field before detailed analysis and interpretation have been completed

  12. Irradiation capsule design capable of continuously monitoring the creepdown of Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, K.R.; Dodd, C.V.; van der Kaa, T.; Hobson, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    An irradiation capsule which permits continuous monitoring of the creepdown of Zircaloy tubing has been designed and given preliminary tests. This design effort is the major element of a cooperative research program between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and is a part of the NRC-sponsored Zircaloy creepdown program. The purpose of the Zircaloy creepdown program is to provide data on the deformation characteristics of Zircaloy tubes, typical of LWR fuel element cladding, under combined axial and tangential compressive stresses. These data will be used to verify and improve the material behavior codes that are used for the description of fuel pin behavior. The first capsule of this series contains a mockup test specimen which was machined with three different diameters, nominally 10.92-mm, 10.54-mm and 11.30-mm (.430-in., .415-in., and .445-in.). This test specimen can be moved axially thereby varying the lift-off and serving as a calibration device for the eddy-current deformation monitoring probes. Fabrication of this capsule has been completed and during out-or-reactor checkout we were able to obtain a resolution of better than 0.01-mm (0.0004-in.). The capsule is scheduled for installation in the HFR on February 8, 1978, for a 26 day irradiation test. The first pressurized capsule, and therefore the first one to monitor in-reactor cladding deformation, will be installed in the HFR on May 3, 1978

  13. Series paralelas al Rorschach: validación en nuestro medio de la serie de Parisi-Pes y del Test de Zulliger Rorschach parallel series: local validation of the Parisi-Pes series and the Z Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Núñez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo surge de la necesidad de validar, en nuestro medio, series paralelas al Test de Rorschach con el fin de poder reemplazarlo en aquellos casos en que se lo requiera. El incremento de la difusión de esta técnica, fuera del ámbito de la comunidad psicológica, puede derivar en un efecto de aprendizaje que dificulte el uso de la herramienta psicodiagnóstica. En esta publicación se realiza un recorrido a través de las diferentes series propuestas como paralelas al Test de Rorschach y se exponen los resultados de dos investigaciones: una de las cuales corresponde a la serie de Parisi-Pes, creada por la Escuela Romana de Rorschach, poco difundida en nuestro medio pero validada en uno con características socioculturales similares al nuestro (Proyecto UBACyT P039; y la otra, el Test de Zulliger, que se aplica con frecuencia en el ámbito laboral, en ambas versiones, individual y colectiva (Proyecto UBACyT P005.This article stems from the need to validate Rorschach parallel series at our social environment, in order to replace it when required. The increase in the dissemination of this technique, outside the psychological community, can lead to a learning effect which may prevent this psychodiagnostic tool from being used. This publication is a journey through the different Rorschach parallel series, and the results from two previous researches are being exposed: the first one of those, belongs to the Parisi-Pes series, created by the Roman Rorschach School, not much locally known but it had been validated in a similar social environment (Project UBACyT P039; the other one, the Z Test, is often used at Labor Psychology in both versions, individual and group administrations (Project UBACyT P005.

  14. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  15. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  16. Posterior capsule opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormstone, I Michael; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Christopher S C

    2009-02-01

    Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO) is the most common complication of cataract surgery. At present the only means of treating cataract is by surgical intervention, and this initially restores high visual quality. Unfortunately, PCO develops in a significant proportion of patients to such an extent that a secondary loss of vision occurs. A modern cataract operation generates a capsular bag, which comprises a proportion of the anterior and the entire posterior capsule. The bag remains in situ, partitions the aqueous and vitreous humours, and in the majority of cases, houses an intraocular lens. The production of a capsular bag following surgery permits a free passage of light along the visual axis through the transparent intraocular lens and thin acellular posterior capsule. However, on the remaining anterior capsule, lens epithelial cells stubbornly reside despite enduring the rigours of surgical trauma. This resilient group of cells then begin to re-colonise the denuded regions of the anterior capsule, encroach onto the intraocular lens surface, occupy regions of the outer anterior capsule and most importantly of all begin to colonise the previously cell-free posterior capsule. Cells continue to divide, begin to cover the posterior capsule and can ultimately encroach on the visual axis resulting in changes to the matrix and cell organization that can give rise to light scatter. This review will describe the biological mechanisms driving PCO progression and discuss the influence of IOL design, surgical techniques and putative drug therapies in regulating the rate and severity of PCO.

  17. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  18. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells

  19. ACER Tests of Basic Skills: Aspects of Literacy, Aspects of Numeracy. Teacher's Manual. Green Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Jan; And Others

    Developed for the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) in New South Wales, Australia, this teacher's manual describes the Green Series 6 of the ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research) Tests of Basic Skills. The two tests in this series, Aspects of Literacy and Aspects of Numeracy, were administered statewide by government school…

  20. ACER Tests of Basic Skills: Aspects of Literacy, Aspects of Numeracy. Teacher's Manual. Blue Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Jan; And Others

    Developed for the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) in New South Wales, Australia, this teacher's manual describes the Blue Series 3 of the ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research) Tests of Basic Skills. The two tests in the series, Aspects of Literacy and Aspects of Numeracy, were administered statewide by government school classroom…

  1. ACER Tests of Basic Skills: Aspects of Literacy, Aspects of Numeracy. Teacher's Manual. Green Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Jan; And Others

    Developed for the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) in New South Wales, Australia, this teacher's manual describes the Green Series 3 of the ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research) Tests of Basic Skills. The two tests in this series, Aspects of Literacy and Aspects of Numeracy, were administered statewide by government school…

  2. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO 2 as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel

  3. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  4. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, D. W.; Yackle, T. R.; Allison, C. M.; Ploger, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m/sup 2/ for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m/sup 2/ produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results.

  5. Testing Non-Stationarity in Selected Macroeconomic Series from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested stationarity in a selected set of macroeconomic variables (some constructed) from Sudan over the period 1969 to 1998. Augmented Dickey Fuller tests were employed to test for presence of unit roots. The study found that unit roots existed in most variables, namely, private investment, public investment, real ...

  6. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, L. C.; Allison, C. M.; Croucher, D. W.; Ploger, S. A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m/sup 2/. After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions.

  7. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. FLECHT low flooding rate cosine test series data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosal, E.R.; Hochreiter, L.E.; McGuire, M.F.; Krepinevich, M.C.

    1975-12-01

    The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in./sec and below. In addition these tests were performed to supplement parametric effects studied in the original FLECHT program, provide data for reflood model development, repeat original FLECHT tests with new instrumentation and data processing techniques, and to provide data to establish test repeatability. These tests examined the effects of low initial clad temperature, variable stepped and continuously variable flooding rates, housing heat release, run peak power, constant low flooding rates, coolant subcooling, hot and cold channel entrainment, and bundle stored and generated power. Data obtained in sixty four runs which met the test specifications are reported, and include rod clad temperatures, turn around and quench times, heat transfer coefficients, inlet flooding rates, overall mass balances, differential pressures and calculated void fractions in the test section, thimble wall and steam temperatures, exhaust steam and liquid carryover rates, and housing total and rate of heat release

  10. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  11. Is South Korea a Case of High-Stakes Testing Gone Too Far? Information Capsule. Volume 1107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's students consistently outperform their counterparts in almost every country in reading and math. Experts have concluded, however, that the South Korean education system has produced students who score well on tests, but fall short on creativity and innovative thinking. They blame these shortcomings on schools' emphasis on rote…

  12. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudhin, Naveen; Zverev, Vladimir I; Keller, Henrik; Pane, Salvador; Egolf, Peter W; Nelson, Bradley J; Tishin, Alexander M

    2017-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a powerful tool for medical screening and diagnosis, where a small capsule is swallowed and moved by means of natural peristalsis and gravity through the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The camera-integrated capsule allows for visualization of the small intestine, a region which was previously inaccessible to classical flexible endoscopy. As a diagnostic tool, it allows to localize the sources of bleedings in the middle part of the gastrointestinal tract and to identify diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), polyposis syndrome, and tumors. The screening and diagnostic efficacy of the WCE, especially in the stomach region, is hampered by a variety of technical challenges like the lack of active capsular position and orientation control. Therapeutic functionality is absent in most commercial capsules, due to constraints in capsular volume and energy storage. The possibility of using body-exogenous magnetic fields to guide, orient, power, and operate the capsule and its mechanisms has led to increasing research in Magnetically Guided Capsule Endoscopy (MGCE). This work shortly reviews the history and state-of-art in WCE technology. It highlights the magnetic technologies for advancing diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities of WCE. Not restricting itself to the GI tract, the review further investigates the technological developments in magnetically guided microrobots that can navigate through the various air- and fluid-filled lumina and cavities in the body for minimally invasive medicine. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Power-cooling mismatch test series. Test PCM-2A; test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawood, G.W.; Holman, G.W.; Martinson, Z.R.; Legrand, B.L.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the results of an in-pile experimental investigation of pre- and postcritical heat flux (CHF) behavior of a single 36-inch-long, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type, UO 2 -fueled, zircaloy-clad fuel rod. The nominal coolant conditions for pressure and temperature were representative of those found in a commercial PWR. Nine separate departures from nucleate boiling (DNB) cycles were performed by either of two different methods: (a) decreasing the coolant flow rate while the fuel rod power was held constant, or (b) increasing the fuel rod power while the coolant flow rate was held constant. DNB was obtained during eight of the nine cycles performed. For the final flow reduction, the mass flux was decreased to 6.1 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 at a constant peak linear heat generation rate of 17.8 kW/ft. The fuel rod was allowed to remain in film boiling for about 210 seconds during this final flow reduction. The fuel rod remained intact during the test. Results of on-line measurements of the fuel rod behavior are presented together with discussion of instrument performance. A comparison of the data with Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient 2 (FRAP-T2) computer code calculations is included

  14. Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Osetek, D.J.; Ploger, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) tests planned for the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are described. Bundles containing 32 zircaloy-clad, PWR-type fuel rods will be subjected to severe overheating transients in a high-pressure, superheated-steam environment. Cladding temperatures are expected to reach 2400 0 K, resulting in cladding ballooning and rupture, severe cladding oxidation, cladding melting, fuel dissolution, fuel rod fragmentation, and possibly, rubble bed formation. An experiment effluent collection system is being installed and the PBF fission product monitoring system is being upgraded to meet the special requirements of the SFD tests. Scoping calculations were performed to evaluate performance of the SFD test design and to establish operational requirements for the PBF loop

  15. Status Report on Irradiation Capsules Designed to Evaluate FeCrAl-UO2 Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-24

    This status report provides the background and current status of a series of irradiation capsules that were designed and are being built to test the interactions between candidate FeCrAl cladding for enhanced accident tolerant applications and prototypical enriched commercial UO2 fuel in a neutron radiation environment. These capsules will test the degree, if any, of fuel cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between FeCrAl and UO2. The capsules are to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory to burn-ups of 10, 30, and 50 GWd/MT with a nominal target temperature at the interfaces between the pellets and clad of 350°C.

  16. PKL-tests, test series IIB (end of blowdown). Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.; Mandl, R.; Nopper, H.; Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    As part of the federally subsidized research project 1500 287/A0, the system behavior of a 1300 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) was investigated during the depressurization phase (end-of-blowdown, EOB), as well as during the refill and reflood phases of a loss of coolant accident involving a large break in the reactor coolant loop. Appropriate modifications to the system and supplementary instrumentation have made it possible to simulate the EOB (as of 26 bar), the refill phase and reflood phase in sequence. This report includes a detailed description of the instrumentation and the data acquisition system used in Test Series PKL IIB. (orig.) With 6 refs., 2 tabs., 60 figs [de

  17. A new approach for helium backfilling and leak testing seal-welded capsules in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasslsund, E.K.; Berger, D.N.

    1992-05-01

    Gamma irradiation sources containing radioactive 137 Cesium Chloride are being produced at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of a Westinghouse Hanford company/Pacific Northwest Laboratory cooperative program. New equipment was developed to leak test the double-encapsulated sources in a hot cell. The equipment, which includes a helium backfill chamber and end cap press , a vacuum chamber, and a helium mass spectrometer, has provided technicians with the capability to detect leaks in sealed sources as small as 1. 0x10 -7 atm cm 3 /S helium

  18. The Third Dryout Fuel Behaviour Test Series in IFA-613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianiri, Raffaella

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the dryout experiment with the instrumented fuel assembly IFA-613 is to provide information on the consequences induced on fuel by short terms dry outs having characteristics similar to those anticipated to occur from pump trips in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). For the third experiment it was planned to test one fresh and two pre-irradiated segments. Unfortunately one of the channels, Channel A developed a leakage and was not suitable for testing anymore. The rig was loaded with only two rods: one fresh PWR rod with a design similar to the fresh rod in IFA-613.1 and one pre-irradiated PWR segment (N1310 with a burn-up of 29 MWd/kgU). Both rods were equipped with a clad extensometer and two clad surface thermocouples (upper and lower position). The rig was loaded during the December 1997 shutdown and the dryout tests were performed on 16th January 1998. Both rods experienced temperature excursions with a target peak clad temperature (PCT) of 650 o C. According to the measured cladding temperatures, the time above the target temperature was about 4-5 s for both rods. The lower thermocouple did not indicate dryout at any occasion. The rig was unloaded immediately after the testing. (author)

  19. Biostatistics series module 2: Overview of hypothesis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  1. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature

  2. Operational Overview for UAS Integration in the NAS Project Flight Test Series 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Steffi B.; Sternberg, Daniel; Marston, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project has conducted a series of flight tests intended to support the reduction of barriers that prevent unmanned aircraft from flying without the required waivers from the Federal Aviation Administration. The 2015 Flight Test Series 3, supported two separate test configurations. The first configuration investigated the timing of Detect and Avoid alerting thresholds using a radar equipped unmanned vehicle and multiple live intruders flown at varying encounter geometries.

  3. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  4. Evaluation of LLTR Series II Test A-3 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, J.C.; Chen, K.; Meyer, R.A.; Odegaard, T.K.; Whipple, J.C.

    1980-11-01

    Of the five secondary tubes failed in Test A-3, two were failed by impingement wastage, and the other three appear to have been caused by overheating possibly augmented by wastage. Since no secondary tube failures occurred during large leak tests, this spports the hypthesis that a small initial leak can create much more damage on neighboring tubes than an initial large leak. The overheating falures occurred in about 20 seconds after a second large hole had been produced in a thin wall (non-prototypical) primary tube. Continued water injection under static or low sodium flow conditions following an initial small leak will produce high temperatures which can result in deformation (bowing) of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steam tubes and interference at the tube-tubespacer interface. The damage caused by either impingement wastage or overheating will occur at or above the elevation plane of the initial leak. If water/steam injection continues after removal of the sodium, water steam blanketing will cool the tubes heated by the SWR. Additional tube failures can be caused by overheating prior to rupture disc operation when leak rate is increased by secondary tube penetrations caused by wastage. Acoustic emission measurement provides a rapid means of leak detection for intermediate size leaks

  5. Test performance of the QSE series of 5 cm aperture quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, B.; Bein, D.; Cunningham, G.; DiMarco, J.; Gathright, T.; Jayakumar, J.; LaBarge, A.; Li, W.; Lambert, D.; Scott, M.

    1994-01-01

    A 5 cm aperture quadrupole design, the QSE series of magnets were the first to be tested in the Short Magnet and Cable Test Laboratory (SMCTL) at the SSCL. Test performance of the first two magnets of the series are presented, including quench performance, quench localization, strain gage readings, and magnetic measurements. Both magnets behaved reasonably well with no quenches below the collider operating current, four training quenches to plateau, and good training memory between thermal cycles. Future magnets in the QSE series will be used to reduce the initial training and to tune out unwanted magnetic harmonics

  6. Test performance of the QSE series of 5 cm aperture quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, B.; Bein, D.; Cunningham, G.; DiMarco, J.; Gathright, T.; Jayakumar, J.; Labarge, A.; Li, W.; Lambert, D.; Scott, M.; Snitchler, G.; Zeigler, R.

    1993-04-01

    A 5 cm aperture quadrupole design, the QSE series of magnets were the first to be tested in the Short Magnet and Cable Test Laboratory (SMCTL) at the SSCL. Test performance of the first two magnets of the series are presented, including quench performance, quench localization, strain gage readings, and magnetic measurements.Both magnets behaved reasonably well with no quenches below the collider operating current, four training quenches to plateau, and good training memory between thermal cycles. Future magnets in the QSE series will be used to reduce the initial training and to tune out unwanted magnetic harmonics

  7. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  8. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  9. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eight. Mastery Testing Program. Series 3 & 4 Supplements to Introduction and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    Continuing a series of short tests aimed at measuring student mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, this supplementary volume includes teachers' notes, a users' guide and inspection copies of test items 27 to 50. Answer keys and test scoring statistics are provided. The items are designed for grades 7 through 10, and a list of the…

  10. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  11. Summary of results from velocity profile tests and wastage tests in support of LLTR series II test A-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following conclusions were drawn from the experimental program conducted in support of LLTR (Large Leak Test Rig) Series II Test A-4: Fabrication technique for making precise slits was developed. Wastage boundary agrees with velocity profile boundary. Circumferential slit angles would have to be 120 0 to ensure adequate coverage of adjacent tubes. 120 0 circumferential slit weakens tubes such that maintaining desired slit dimensions for LLTI application is not considered practical. Use of intermittent slit geometry would be required. 120 0 slits, precisely machined and precisely aligned with target tubes, produced different penetration rates on adjacent tubes. Production of simultaneous failures in LLTI with 120 0 slit or simulated interrupted slit is not considered credible

  12. ACER Tests of Basic Skills: Aspects of Literacy, Aspects of Numercy. Teacher's Manual. Blue Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Jan; And Others

    Developed for the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) in New South Wales, Australia, this teacher's manual describes the ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research) Tests of Basic Skills. The two tests in this series, Aspects of Literacy and Aspects of Numeracy, were administered statewide by government school classroom teachers in August,…

  13. Manufacturing test of large scale hollow capsule and long length cladding in the large scale oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    Mass production capability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel cladding (9Cr) has being evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube (raw materials powder production, mechanical alloying (MA) by ball mill, canning, hot extrusion, and machining) is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel cladding. In this study, the large-sale 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel mother tube which is made with a large-scale hollow capsule, and long length claddings were manufactured, and the applicability of these processes was evaluated. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Manufacturing the large scale mother tube in the dimension of 32 mm OD, 21 mm ID, and 2 m length has been successfully carried out using large scale hollow capsule. This mother tube has a high degree of accuracy in size. (2) The chemical composition and the micro structure of the manufactured mother tube are similar to the existing mother tube manufactured by a small scale can. And the remarkable difference between the bottom and top sides in the manufactured mother tube has not been observed. (3) The long length cladding has been successfully manufactured from the large scale mother tube which was made using a large scale hollow capsule. (4) For reducing the manufacturing cost of the ODS steel claddings, manufacturing process of the mother tubes using a large scale hollow capsules is promising. (author)

  14. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop and test a sub-scale version of the Maraia Entry Capsule on a high altitude balloon. The capsule is released at 100,000 ft. The...

  16. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  17. New significance test methods for Fourier analysis of geophysical time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When one applies the discrete Fourier transform to analyze finite-length time series, discontinuities at the data boundaries will distort its Fourier power spectrum. In this paper, based on a rigid statistics framework, we present a new significance test method which can extract the intrinsic feature of a geophysical time series very well. We show the difference in significance level compared with traditional Fourier tests by analyzing the Arctic Oscillation (AO and the Nino3.4 time series. In the AO, we find significant peaks at about 2.8, 4.3, and 5.7 yr periods and in Nino3.4 at about 12 yr period in tests against red noise. These peaks are not significant in traditional tests.

  18. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashgahi, Bahareh Molazem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening) has any impact on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch. The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional…

  19. A new non-parametric stationarity test of time series in the time domain

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Lei; Wang, Suojin; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Statistical Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. We propose a new double-order selection test for checking second-order stationarity of a time series. To develop the test, a sequence of systematic samples is defined via Walsh

  20. Enraf series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area

  1. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-01-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  2. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements.

  3. Pre-test evaluation of LLTR series II Test A-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A-7 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) in April 1981

  4. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  5. Analyses of copper from a prototype capsule 5 and 6; Analyser av koppar fraan prototypkapsel 5 och 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes; Lundholm, Martin; Persson, Dan; Jakobsson, Dan; Sedlakova, Miroslava; Randelius, Mats; Karlsson, Oskar; Rydgren, Pontus; Kimab, Swerea

    2012-12-15

    'Prototype' is a series of experiments where SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, expose the full scale copper canisters under conditions intended to be representative of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, however, without radioactivity (SKB 2012) . Copper from one of these installations, deposition 5, has been studied for corrosion . Samples were also taken from the capsule that had been exposed in deposition 6. Drill cores across the capsule wall has been documented regarding microstructure. All samples have been exposed for about seven years in the prototype repository. Studies carried out leads to the following conclusions: Regarding the ring on top of the capsule from the deposition 5; There are local corrosion with a depth of 3-5 microns. The general or uniform corrosion that has occurred can not be quantified. The relatively sharp traces of processing of the material before exposure indicates that the general corrosion was minor. Small amounts of corrosion product has been detected in surface analysis. The surface profile on the copper surface, aside from the grooves after processing and areas of local corrosion, are relatively even. Metallographic examination of cross section shows no tendency to pitting or intergranular corrosion. Analysis for hydrogen by melting a quantity of metal does not show any increased hydrogen content. Regarding the material of the capsule from the deposition 6: The capsule has not been specifically tested for corrosion. Cross sections of drill cores through the copper canister has been documented and metallo graphically exhibits nothing remarkable.

  6. Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance Management during the Series Power Tests of LHC Main Lattice Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    Within the LHC magnet program a series production of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles has recently been completed in industry and all magnets were cold tested at CERN. The main features of these magnets are: two-in-one structure, 56 mm aperture, two layer coils wound from 15.1 mm wide Nb-Ti cables, and all-polyimide insulation. This paper reviews the process of the power test quality assurance and performance evaluation, which was applied during the LHC magnet series tests. The main test results of magnets tested in both supercritical and superfluid helium, including the quench training, the conductor performance, the magnet protection efficiency and the electrical integrity are presented and discussed in terms of the design parameters and the requirements of the LHC project.

  7. Orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio test for failure detection and isolation. [for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven R.; Walker, Bruce K.

    1990-01-01

    A new failure detection and isolation algorithm for linear dynamic systems is presented. This algorithm, the Orthogonal Series Generalized Likelihood Ratio (OSGLR) test, is based on the assumption that the failure modes of interest can be represented by truncated series expansions. This assumption leads to a failure detection algorithm with several desirable properties. Computer simulation results are presented for the detection of the failures of actuators and sensors of a C-130 aircraft. The results show that the OSGLR test generally performs as well as the GLR test in terms of time to detect a failure and is more robust to failure mode uncertainty. However, the OSGLR test is also somewhat more sensitive to modeling errors than the GLR test.

  8. Testing independence between two Poisson-generated multinomial variables in case-series and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Mounia; Guillemot, Didier; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2005-12-30

    In case-series or cohort studies, we propose a test of independence between the occurrences of two types of recurrent events (such as two repeated infections) related to an intermittent exposure (such as an antibiotic treatment). The test relies upon an extension of a recent method for analysing case-series data, in the presence of one type of recurrent event. The test statistic is derived from a bivariate Poisson generated-multinomial distribution. Simulations for checking the validity of the test concerning the type I error and the power properties are presented. The test is illustrated using data from a cohort on antibiotics bacterial resistance in schoolchildren. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2007-01-01

    The high heat flux (HHF) testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE SE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. The HHF tests were performed in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. All actively water-cooled elements were tested for about 100 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 (10-15 s pulse duration). Several elements were loaded with even higher cycle numbers (up to 1000) and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . Hot spots were, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems of the CFC. The thermo-mechanical behaviour under HHF loading has been evaluated and compared to the FEM predictions. The measured temperatures and strains confirm the chosen FEM approach. This allows a component optimisation to achieve a successful series production of the W7-X divertor target elements

  10. A general statistical test for correlations in a finite-length time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery A; Yang, Haw

    2008-06-07

    The statistical properties of the autocorrelation function from a time series composed of independently and identically distributed stochastic variables has been studied. Analytical expressions for the autocorrelation function's variance have been derived. It has been found that two common ways of calculating the autocorrelation, moving-average and Fourier transform, exhibit different uncertainty characteristics. For periodic time series, the Fourier transform method is preferred because it gives smaller uncertainties that are uniform through all time lags. Based on these analytical results, a statistically robust method has been proposed to test the existence of correlations in a time series. The statistical test is verified by computer simulations and an application to single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is discussed.

  11. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  12. Pre-test evaluation of LLTR Series II Test A-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.

    1980-11-01

    Purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A6 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Facility (LLTF) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. A6 is part of a test program being conducted to evaluate the effects of leaks produced by a double-ended guillotine rupture of a single tube. A6 will provide data on the CRBR prototypical double rupture disc performance

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological......Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...

  14. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ''Part 71'' (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G's at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G's was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.)

  15. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  16. Factors affecting capsule size and production by lactic acid bacteria used as dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A N; Frank, J F; Shalabi, S I

    2001-02-28

    The effects of sugar substrates on capsule size and production by some capsule-forming nonropy and ropy dairy starter cultures were studied. Test sugars (glucose, lactose, galactose, or sucrose) were used as a sole carbohydrate source and the presence of a capsule and its size were determined by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Nonropy strains produced maximum capsule size when grown in milk. Strains that did not produce capsules in milk did not produce them in any other growth medium. Specific sugars required for capsule production were strain-dependent. Increasing lactose content of Elliker broth from 0.5 to 5% or adding whey protein or casein digest produced larger capsules. Whey protein concentrate stimulated production of larger capsules than did casamino acids or casitone. Some Streptococcus thermophilus strains produced capsules when grown on galactose only. Nonropy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced capsules on lactose, but not on glucose. A ropy strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced a constant capsule size regardless of the growth medium. The ability of some strains of Streptococcus thermophilus to use galactose in capsule production could reduce browning of mozzarella cheese during baking by removing a source of reducing sugar. Media that do not support capsule production may improve cell harvesting.

  17. Test of 6-inch-thick pressure vessels. Series 2. Intermediate test vessels V-3, V-4, and V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Merkle, J.G.; Raftenberg, M.N.; Robinson, G.C.; Smith, J.E.

    1975-11-01

    The second series of intermediate vessel tests were crack initiation fracture tests of 6-in.-thick 39-in.-OD steel vessels with sharp surface flaws approximately 2 1 / 2 in. deep by 8 in. long in the longitudinal weld seams of the test cylinders. Fracture was initiated by means of hydraulic pressurization. One vessel was tested at each of three temperatures: 75, 130, and 190 0 F. Pretest analyses were made to predict the failure pressures and strains. Fracture toughness data obtained by equivalent-energy analysis of precracked Charpy-V tests and compact-tension specimen tests were used in the fracture analyses. The vessels behaved generally as had been expected. Posttest fracture analyses were also performed for each vessel. Detailed discussions of the fracture analysis methods developed in support of the vessel tests described are included. 34 references

  18. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of ≅ 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of ≅ 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon ( 2 ) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced

  19. Development of a Low Temperature Irradiation Capsule for Research Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun

    2013-01-01

    A new capsule design was prepared and tested at HANARO for a neutron irradiation of core materials of research reactors as a part of the research reactor development project. Irradiation testing of the materials including graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 that are supposed to be used as core materials in research reactors was required for irradiation at up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C). Therefore, three instrumented capsules were designed and fabricated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of research reactors. The capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. Therefore, the safety of the new designed capsule should be fully checked before irradiation testing. Out-pile performance and endurance testing before HANARO irradiation testing was performed using a capsule under a 110% condition of a reactor coolant flow amount. The structural integrity of the capsule was analyzed in terms of a vibration-induced fatigue cracking of a rod tip of the capsule that is suspected to be the most vulnerable part of a capsule. Another two capsules were irradiated at HANARO for 4 cycles, and one capsule was transferred to a hot cell to examine the integrity of the rod tip of the capsule. After confirming the soundness of the 4 cycle-irradiated capsule, the remaining capsule was irradiated at up to 8 cycles at HANARO. Based on the structural integrity analysis of the capsule, an improved capsule design will be suggested for a longer irradiation test at HANARO

  20. Postirradiation examination data report for gap conductance test series. Test GC 2-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.A.

    1978-02-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO 2 -fueled rods tested in the Power Burst Facility are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 2-1 which was performed to obtain experimental data from which test fuel rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state ∫kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided in the document will aid in interpreting the experimental data obtained during Test GC 2-1 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure are discussed. Measurements of fuel pellet-cladding gap and fuel crack areas are presented. The fuel structure is analyzed. Test rod instrumentation and power profiles are examined to better evaluate the test conditions

  1. Test of 6-in.-thick pressure vessels. Series 3: intermediate test vessel V-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.G.; Robinson, G.C.; Holz, P.P.; Smith, J.E.; Bryan, R.H.

    1976-08-01

    The test of intermediate test vessel V-7 was a crack-initiation fracture test of a 152-mm-thick (6-in.), 990-mm-OD (39-in.) vessel of ASTM A533, grade B, class 1 steel plate with a sharp outside surface flaw 457 mm (18 in.) long and about 135 mm (5.3 in.) deep. The vessel was heated to 91 0 C (196 0 F) and pressurized hydraulically until leakage through the flaw terminated the test at a peak pressure of 147 MPa (21,350 psi). Fracture toughness data obtained by testing precracked Charpy-V and compact-tension specimens machined from a prolongation of the cylindrical test shell were used in pretest analyses of the flawed vessel. The vessel, as expected, did not burst. Upon depressurization, the ruptured ligament closed so as to maintain static pressure without leakage at about 129 MPa

  2. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  3. Standard test method for exfoliation corrosion susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for constant immersion exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) testing of high-strength 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloys. Note 1—This test method was originally developed for research and development purposes; however, it is referenced, in specific material specifications, as applicable for evaluating production material (refer to Section 14 on Precision and Bias). 1.2 This test method applies to all wrought products such as sheet, plate, extrusions, and forgings produced from conventional ingot metallurgy process. 1.3 This test method can be used with any form of specimen or part that can be immersed in the test solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-28-1 (steam generator tube rupture test series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Coppin, C.E.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 767 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Sixty steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg

  5. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed with a suitable mixture of ... delivered at a constant rate, since the drug effect decreases with time at .... parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed. Rank test for ...

  6. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent...

  7. Annealing effects in low upper-shelf welds (series 9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Ninth Irradiation Series is to evaluate the correlation between fracture toughness and CVN impact energy during irradiation, annealing, and reirradiation (IAR). Results of annealing CVN specimens from the low-USE welds from the Midland beltline and nozzle course welds, as well as HSST plate 02 and HSSI weld 73W are given. Also presented is the effect of annealing on the initiation fracture toughness of annealed material from Midland beltline weld and HSST plate 02. The results from capsule 10-5 specimens of weld 73W confirm those previously obtained on the so-called undersize specimens that were irradiated in the Fifth Irradiation Series, namely that the recovery due to annealing at 343 degrees C (650 degrees F) for 1 week is insignificant. The fabrication of major components for the IAR facility for two positions on the east side of the FNR at the University of Michigan has begun. Fabrication of two reusable capsules (one for temperature verification and the other for dosimetry verification), as well as two capsules for IAR, studies is also under way. The design of a reusable capsule capable of reirradiating previously irradiated and annealed CVN and 1T C(T) specimens is also progressing. The data acquisition and control (DAC) instrumentation for the first two IAR facilities is essentially complete and awaiting completion of the IAR facilities and temperature test capsule for checkout and control algorithm development

  8. Evaluating an Automated Number Series Item Generator Using Linear Logistic Test Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Sheng Loe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the item properties of a newly developed Automatic Number Series Item Generator (ANSIG. The foundation of the ANSIG is based on five hypothesised cognitive operators. Thirteen item models were developed using the numGen R package and eleven were evaluated in this study. The 16-item ICAR (International Cognitive Ability Resource1 short form ability test was used to evaluate construct validity. The Rasch Model and two Linear Logistic Test Model(s (LLTM were employed to estimate and predict the item parameters. Results indicate that a single factor determines the performance on tests composed of items generated by the ANSIG. Under the LLTM approach, all the cognitive operators were significant predictors of item difficulty. Moderate to high correlations were evident between the number series items and the ICAR test scores, with high correlation found for the ICAR Letter-Numeric-Series type items, suggesting adequate nomothetic span. Extended cognitive research is, nevertheless, essential for the automatic generation of an item pool with predictable psychometric properties.

  9. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load

  10. Using exogenous variables in testing for monotonic trends in hydrologic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    1988-01-01

    One approach that has been used in performing a nonparametric test for monotonic trend in a hydrologic time series consists of a two-stage analysis. First, a regression equation is estimated for the variable being tested as a function of an exogenous variable. A nonparametric trend test such as the Kendall test is then performed on the residuals from the equation. By analogy to stagewise regression and through Monte Carlo experiments, it is demonstrated that this approach will tend to underestimate the magnitude of the trend and to result in some loss in power as a result of ignoring the interaction between the exogenous variable and time. An alternative approach, referred to as the adjusted variable Kendall test, is demonstrated to generally have increased statistical power and to provide more reliable estimates of the trend slope. In addition, the utility of including an exogenous variable in a trend test is examined under selected conditions.

  11. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  12. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  13. Power-Cooling-Mismatch Test Series. Test PCM-2: postirradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, S.L.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the postirradiation examination of four 0.91-m long pressurized water reactor (PWR) type, UO 2 -fueled zircaloy-clad fuel rods tested in an in-pile experimental investigation of pre- and post-departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) behavior of previously unirradiated fuel rods. None of the four fuel rods tested failed during testing or during reactor shut down. Visual and metallographic examination of the individual fuel rods indicated that the length of the high temperature zone of film boiling varied from rod to rod. Two of the four fuel rods showed evidence of damage by film boiling, characterized by oxide spalling and cladding collapse. Metallographic examination of these fuel rods showed internal cladding oxidation resulting from fuel-cladding reaction. Cladding embrittlement by oxidation is evaluated. A comparison of the cladding surface temperatures estimated metallographically for the separate fuel rods with cladding surface temperatures measured during testing and calculated from the Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient (FRAP-T) computer code is included

  14. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule and HANARO capsule in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Je; Song, Wung Sup; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2000-01-01

    For the maintenance of integrity and safety of pressurizer of commercial power plant until its life span, it is required by US NRC 10CFR50 APP. G and H and ASTM E185-94 to periodically monitor irradiation embrittlement by neutron irradiation. In order to accomplished the requirement reactor operator has been carrying out the test by extracting the monitoring capsule embeded in reactor during the period of planned preventive maintenance. In relation to this irradiation samples are being used for prediction of reactor vessel life span and reactor vessel's adjusted reference temperature by irradiation of neutron flux enough to reach to end of life span. And also irradiation capsules with and without instrumentation are used for R and D on nuclear materials. Each capsule contains high radioactivity, therefore, post irradiation examination has to be handled by all means in the hot cell. The facility available for this purpose is Irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) to handle such works as capsule receiving, capsule cut and dismantling, sample classification, various examination, and finally development and improvement of examination equipment and instrumentation. (Hong, J. S.)

  15. Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series: Test RIA 1-2. Quick look report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Z.R.; Semken, R.S.; Smith, R.H.; Osetek, D.J.

    1978-12-01

    The primary objectives of Test RIA 1-2 were to (a) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor (BWR) hot-startup conditions for an axial peak pellet surface energy of 200 cal/g UO 2 , and (b) evaluate the effect of internal rod pressure on preirradiated fuel rod response during an RIA event. The test consisted of four, individually shrouded, pressurized water reactor-type fuel rods previously irradiated to burnups of about 4800 MWd/t. In addition to the power calibration and preconditioning, the fuel rods were subjected to a single power burst that deposited a total pellet surface energy of approximately 200 cal/gm UO 2 at the axial peak power location (estimated using the core power chambers to relate steady state and transient powers). The test data indicate that the two irradiated fuel rods prepressurized to 2.41 MPa did not fail. FRAP-T4 calculations had predicted that prompt cladding rupture would occur for pellet surface energy depositions of 206 cal/g or greater. Although the two fuel rods prepressurized to 2.41 MPa did not fail, the data indicate that at least one of the two fuel rods prepressurized to 0.1 MPa did fail. Based on the core power chamber data, this rod failure indicates a threshold for the preirradiated fuel rods near or below 200 cal/g UO 2 total pellet surface energy at the axial flux peak

  16. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth

  17. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Test Series IE-ST-2, Rod IE-002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    A postirradiation examination was conducted on a zircaloy-clad, UO 2 -fueled, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type rod which had been tested in the Power Burst Facility as part of the Irradiation Effects Test Series of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program. The fuel rod, previously irradiated to a burnup of 15,800 MWd/t was subjected to a power ramp from 28 to 55 kW/m peak power at an average ramp rate of 4 kW/m/min. Posttest fuel restructuring and relocation, fission product redistribution, and fuel rod cladding deformation were evaluated and analyzed

  18. Stability analysis of directly driven Nif capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.; McKenty, P.W.; Delettrez, J.A.; Town, R.P.J. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Cherfils-Clerouin, C. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DIF, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model is presented to study perturbation evolution at the ablation and inner surfaces of the imploding shell. The model describes the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset instabilities. The initial conditions for the model are determined by using existing theories of laser imprint, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, 'feed-out' and by performing a series of 2-D ORCHID simulations. The model and simulations show that the direct-drive cryogenic {alpha} = 3 NIF capsules remain intact during the implosion if laser nonuniformities are smoothed by 2-D SSD used in the current direct-drive target designs. (authors)

  19. A new non-parametric stationarity test of time series in the time domain

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Lei

    2014-11-07

    © 2015 The Royal Statistical Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. We propose a new double-order selection test for checking second-order stationarity of a time series. To develop the test, a sequence of systematic samples is defined via Walsh functions. Then the deviations of the autocovariances based on these systematic samples from the corresponding autocovariances of the whole time series are calculated and the uniform asymptotic joint normality of these deviations over different systematic samples is obtained. With a double-order selection scheme, our test statistic is constructed by combining the deviations at different lags in the systematic samples. The null asymptotic distribution of the statistic proposed is derived and the consistency of the test is shown under fixed and local alternatives. Simulation studies demonstrate well-behaved finite sample properties of the method proposed. Comparisons with some existing tests in terms of power are given both analytically and empirically. In addition, the method proposed is applied to check the stationarity assumption of a chemical process viscosity readings data set.

  20. Fabrication and testing of W7-X pre-series target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J; Boeswirth, B; Greuner, H; Grigull, P; Missirlian, M; Plankensteiner, A; Schedler, B; Friedrich, T; Schlosser, J; Streibl, B; Traxler, H

    2007-01-01

    The assembly of the highly-loaded target plates of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor requires the fabrication of 890 target elements (TEs). The plasma facing material is made of CFC NB31 flat tiles bonded to a CuCrZr copper alloy water-cooled heat sink. The elements are designed to remove a stationary heat flux and power up to 10 MW m -2 and 100 kW, respectively. Before launching the serial fabrication, pre-series activities aimed at qualifying the design, the manufacturing route and the non-destructive examinations (NDEs). High heat flux (HHF) tests performed on full-scale pre-series TEs resulted in an improvement of the design of the bond between tiles and heat sink to reduce the stresses during operation. The consequence is the fabrication of additional pre-series TEs to be tested in the HHF facility GLADIS. NDEs of this bond based on thermography methods are developed to define the acceptance criteria suitable for serial fabrication

  1. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  2. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU ll Card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 ATG with SPU-II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and the alarms functionality

  3. Patch and Prick Tests in Hand Eczema: Results of A Sixty Seven Patient Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The patch and prick tests have a place in the management of patients with hand eczema. In this study, we investigated whether some of the clinical features patients with hand eczema could provide us with the predictability of skin test results. Methods: In Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, 67 consecutive patients with hand eczema; evaluated in terms of duration of disease, morphology and severity. All of the patients were undergoes patch tested with the European Standard Series, and needle testing with routine aeroallergens. Results: Patch test with at least one allergen was positive in 46.3% of the patients; wheras this rate was 23.9% for prick test. The likelihood of having a contact sensitivity of patients complaining of hand eczema for at least three years was statistically more significant [odds ratio (OR 0.9]. Although statistically not significant, it is less likely to be sensitized to patients with keratotic and/or licheniform hand eczema (OR 0.3. The severity of hand eczema was not predictive of patch test, there was no indicator of needle test positivity. Conclusion: We strongly recommend patch testing in all patients with prolonged hand eczema.

  4. Approximate k-NN delta test minimization method using genetic algorithms: Application to time series

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, F; Gadea, Rafael; Sovilj, Dusan

    2010-01-01

    In many real world problems, the existence of irrelevant input variables (features) hinders the predictive quality of the models used to estimate the output variables. In particular, time series prediction often involves building large regressors of artificial variables that can contain irrelevant or misleading information. Many techniques have arisen to confront the problem of accurate variable selection, including both local and global search strategies. This paper presents a method based on genetic algorithms that intends to find a global optimum set of input variables that minimize the Delta Test criterion. The execution speed has been enhanced by substituting the exact nearest neighbor computation by its approximate version. The problems of scaling and projection of variables have been addressed. The developed method works in conjunction with MATLAB's Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox. The goodness of the proposed methodology has been evaluated on several popular time series examples, and also ...

  5. Thermal analysis of an instrumented capsule using an ANSYS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Sohn, Jae Min; Kim, Bong Goo

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. To obtain the design data of the instrumented capsule, a thermal analysis is performed using a finite element analysis program, ANSYS. The 2-dimensional model for a cross section of the capsule including the specimens is generated, and a gamma-heating rate of the materials for the HANARO power of 24 or 30 MW is considered as an input force. The effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimens or other components is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. In the case of the material capsule, the maximum temperature for the reactor power of 24 MW is 255degC for an irradiation test and 257degC for a FE analysis at the center stage of the capsule in the axial direction. It is expected that the analysis models using an ANSYS program will be useful in designing the instrumented capsules for an irradiation test and estimating the test results. (author)

  6. Criteria for the spreading of oxide melts: Test series miniKATS-1 to -5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppinger, B.; Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2001-09-01

    In a long series of larger spreading tests with high temperature oxide melts (KATS tests) many parameters have been varied which are influencing the spreading behaviour (viscosity, pouring rate, substratum of spreading surface, presence of water). In spite of an extensive instrumentation using different thermocouples, an infrared camera and several video cameras, only in very few cases the behaviour of the melt front at the very moment of immobilization could be detected in detail. Therefore in the additional miniKATS series five small scale (5 kg) spreading tests with oxide melts have been conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the spreading front in the moment of immobilization. It turned out that in all cases the bulk of the melt at this moment was still liquid at a temperature close to the initial one. Depending on the initial melt properties two distinct phenomena have been observed which control the immobilization of the melt: the first phenomena is the crust formation at the surface, the crusts at the bottom combined with the crust at the surface of the melt. In the other case the whole melt front was still above the liquid temperature at the moment of immobilization. Here the surface tension was controlling the spreading, it was in balance with the driving gravitational force. In none of the test bulk freezing has been detected. (orig.)

  7. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  8. Water Landing Impact of Recovery Space Capsule: A Research Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Eiichiro; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Tanno, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu

    2014-01-01

    For the design of a manned or cargo space capsule, it is important to precisely estimate the Earth landing loads to the crew or cargo, and to limit the loads to within a permissible range. Water landing simulations and scale-model water landing tests with varying conditions for descending velocity, pitch angle, and horizontal velocity during splashdown were conducted to estimate the magnitude of water impact on the recovery space capsule. This paper describes the results of the simulation and...

  9. Fabrication of mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirdjo, Hari; Prasetya, Hendra

    2000-01-01

    A mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller has been fabricated, which has a function to pull the irradiated FPM capsule. The construction of the system consist of driving motor equipped with reduction gear, spindle, and puller wire. The system has puller stroke of 700 mm, therefore the puller will be terminated at the outside of the reactor core. A function test had been done and shows that the system has fulfilled the requirements

  10. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the

  11. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and 3, 3. Procedure for construction and testing the capsules and test-tubes - Phase I (Parts I and II) Part II; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade i ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - I faza (I i II deo), II deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-02-15

    Experiments concerned with Projects VISA-2 and 3 demand construction of hermetization test-tubes, irradiation capsules, experimental devices and reactor channels as well as welding of fuel element claddings. For this purpose special materials as stainless steels, aluminium alloys, pure aluminium, magnesium, zirconium were chosen. these materials demand special procedure for welding. This report includes design and construction data with drawings of the special device for semiautomated circular welding.

  12. Loss-of-coolant accident test series TC-1 experiment operating specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yackle, T.R.

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to specify the experiment operating procedure for the test series TC-1. The effects of externally mounted cladding thermocouples on the fuel rod thermal behavior during LOCA blowdown and reflood cycles will be investigated in the test. Potential thermocouple effects include: (a) delayed DNB, (b) momentary cladding rewets following DNB, (c) premature cladding rewet during a blowdown two-phase slug period, and (d) early cladding rewet during reflood. The two-phase slug period will be controlled by momentarily opening the hot leg valve. The slug will consist of lower plenum liquid that is sent through the flow shrouds and will be designed to quench the fuel rods at a rate that is similar to the slug experienced early in the LOFT L2-2 and L2-3 tests

  13. Results of the first nuclear blowdown test on single fuel rods (LOC-11 Series in PBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.R.; Evans, D.R.; McCardell, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first nuclear blowdown tests (LOC-11A, LOC-11B, LOC-11C) ever conducted. The Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Test Series is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objective of the LOC-11 tests was to obtain data on the behavior of pressurized and unpressurized rods when exposed to a blowdown similar to that expected in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a hypothesized double-ended cold-leg break. The data are being used for the development and verification of analytical models that are used to predict coolant and fuel rod pressure during a LOCA in a PWR

  14. Modular nuclear fuel element, modular capsule for a such element and fabrication process for a modular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotard, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear fuel rod is made by a tubular casing closed at both ends and containing a series of modular capsules with little play with the casing and made by a jacket closed by porous plugs at both ends and containing a stack of fuel pellets [fr

  15. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  16. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility

  17. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  18. Lyral has been included in the patch test standard series in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Pirker, Claudia; Frosch, Peter J

    2002-05-01

    Lyral 5% pet. was tested in 3245 consecutive patch test patients in 20 departments of dermatology in order (i) to check the diagnostic quality of this patch test preparation, (ii) to examine concomitant reactions to Lyral and fragrance mix (FM), and (iii) to assess the frequency of contact allergy to Lyral in an unselected patch test population of German dermatological clinics. 62 patients reacted to Lyral, i.e. 1.9%. One third of the positive reactions were + + and + + +. The reaction index was 0.27. Thus, the test preparation can be regarded a good diagnostic tool. Lyral and fragrance mix (FM) were tested in parallel in 3185 patients. Of these, 300 (9.4%) reacted to FM, and 59 (1.9%) to Lyral. In 40 patients, positive reactions to both occurred, which is 13.3% of those reacting to FM, and 67.8% of those reacting to Lyral. So the concordance of positive test reactions to Lyral and FM was only slight. Based on these results, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) decided to add Lyral 5% pet. to the standard series.

  19. Automatic Management Systems for the Operation of the Cryogenic Test Facilities for LHC Series Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Herblin, L; Lamboy, J P; Vullierme, B

    2006-01-01

    Prior to their final preparation before installation in the tunnel, the ~1800 series superconducting magnets of the LHC machine shall be entirely tested at reception on modular test facilities. The operation 24 hours per day of the cryogenic test facilities is conducted in turn by 3-operator teams, assisted in real time by the use of the Test Bench Priorities Handling System, a process control application enforcing the optimum use of cryogenic utilities and of the "Tasks Tracking System", a web-based e-traveller application handling 12 parallel 38-task test sequences. This paper describes how such computer-based management systems can be used to optimize operation of concurrent test benches within technical boundary conditions given by the cryogenic capacity, and how they can be used to study the efficiency of the automatic steering of all individual cryogenic sub-systems. Finally, this paper presents the overall performance of the cryomagnet test station for the first complete year of operation at high produ...

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzuol, J.M.

    1976-06-01

    Selected experimental thermal-hydraulic data from the recent Semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series are analyzed from an experimental viewpoint with emphasis on explaining those phenomena which influence core fluid behavior. Comparisons are made between the trends measured by the system instrumentation and the trends predicted by the RELAP4 computer code to aid in obtaining an understanding of the interactions between phenomena occurring in different parts of the system. The analyses presented in this report are valuable for evaluating the adequacy and improving the predictive capability of analytical models developed to predict the system response of a pressurized water reactor during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident

  1. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

  2. Failure of the capsule for coated particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Jikei; Nomura, Yasushi; Nagamatsuya, Takaaki; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1975-10-01

    During operation cycle No. 27 of the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) on May 20, 1974, leakage of the fission product gas occurred from the capsule 72F-7A, which contained coated particles for the irradiation; the coated particles are for the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas cooled reactor. The capsule was designed for heat 1600 0 C. Three nickel plates as the heat reflector were sandwiched in between the plates of titanium and zirconium, which were adsorbents for the impurity gases in the cladding tube (Nb-1%Zr). Temperatures of the plates were about 1000 0 C under the irradiation, so one metal diffused into the other metal through interfaces, resulting in the formation of an alloy. Its melting point was lower than those of metals in the capsule. The cladding material Nb-1%Zr was melted by the alloy and finally a pin hole developed through the cladding. The process of failure, design of the capsule, post-irradiation test of the capsule and the failure-reproducing experiment with a mock-up capsule are described. (auth.)

  3. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110 0 C to 175 0 C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from 0 C to approx. 80 0 C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing

  4. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Test Program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source(GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 PuO 2 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the third test (DIT-3), a full GPHS module was impacted at 58 m/s and 930 0 C. The module impacted the target at an angle of 30 0 to the pole of the large faces. The four capsules used in DIT-3 survived impact with minimal deformation; no internal cracks other than in the regions indicated by Savannah River Plant (SRP) preimpact nondestructive testing were observed in any of the capsules. The 30 0 impact orientation used in DIT-3 was considerably less severe than the flat-on impact utilized in DIT-1 and DIT-2. The four capsules used in DIT-1 survived, while two of the capsules used in DIT-2 breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 μg) of 238 PuO 2 was released from the capsules breached in the DIT-2 impact. All of the capsules used in DIT-1 and DIT-2 were severely deformed and contained large internal cracks. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-3 test components are described, with emphasis on weld structure and the behavior of defects identified by SRP nondestructive testing

  5. High performance capsule implosions on the OMEGA Laser facility with rugby hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.-S.; Town, R. P. J.; Milovich, J. L.; Doeppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.; Strozzi, D. J.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Liberatore, S.; Monteil, M.-C.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly driven capsule implosions. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. In this paper, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D 2 -filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. The rugby hohlraums demonstrated 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, and the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided ≅20x more deuterium (DD) neutrons than any previous indirectly driven campaign on OMEGA and ≅3x more than ever achieved on NOVA [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy. This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history and imaging of the neutron core shapes in an indirectly driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D 3 He rather than D 2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in very good agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl, P. Amendt, R. L. Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)].

  6. High performance capsule implosions on the OMEGA Laser facility with rugby hohlraumsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.-S.; Town, R. P. J.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.; Strozzi, D. J.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Liberatore, S.; Monteil, M.-C.; Séguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2010-05-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly driven capsule implosions. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. In this paper, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. The rugby hohlraums demonstrated 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, and the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided ≈20× more deuterium (DD) neutrons than any previous indirectly driven campaign on OMEGA and ≈3× more than ever achieved on NOVA [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy. This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history and imaging of the neutron core shapes in an indirectly driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D H3e rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in very good agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl, P. Amendt, R. L. Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)].

  7. High Performance Capsule Implosions on the Omega Laser Facility with Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Harry F.

    2009-11-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly-driven capsule implosions [1]. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. In this talk, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. Not only did the rugby hohlraums demonstrate 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, but the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided 20X more DD neutrons than any previous indirectly-driven campaign on Omega (and 3X more than ever achieved on Nova implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy). This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history of an indirectly-driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D^3He rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in excellent agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller NIF-like laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility. [4pt] [1] P. Amendt, C. Cerjan, D. E. Hinkel, J. L. Milovich, H.-S. Park, and H. F. Robey, ``Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement'', Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008).

  8. Operation and control strategies in pre-series testing of cold circulating pumps for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Srinivas, M.; Choukekar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-distribution system of ITER is responsible for the distribution and control of forced-flow supercritical helium for cooling of the superconducting magnets and the cryo-pumps. The requirements of cold circulating pumps (CCP) for mass flow rates and performance are much higher than presently existing and commercially available one used at 4.0 K helium. Design up-scaling with pre-series test of CCP has been proposed including test infrastructure. Operation and control strategies for the test distribution box (TDB) of test infrastructure have been developed and analyzed using steady state and dynamic process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs. Off-normal scenario with CCP inlet pressure variation is an important concern, dynamic process responses during such scenario have been evaluated to verify the operability of CCP. The paper describes process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs along with evaluation of off-normal scenario to verify the operability of CCP. (author)

  9. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  10. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC 2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO 2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  11. C5 capsule operation modes analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, Mirela; Stefan, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of the Nuclear Research Institute Program 13 dedicated to 'TRIGA Research Reactor performance enhancing' and its objective is improving the engineering of the structural materials irradiation. The paper raises the knowledge level on C5 capsule irradiation modes and utilizes previous results in order to increase C5 performances. In the paper the irradiation modes to test zirconium yttrium sample are assessed. These tests are proposed by AECL. There are presented the C5 initial conditions and models. Also. there are presented the thermal hydraulic conditions during normal and accidental operation. The results will be used in the C5 safety report. (authors)

  12. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-01-01

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer

  13. A Cryogenic Test Set-Up for the Qualification of Pre-Series Test Cells for the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line

    CERN Document Server

    Livran, J; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Rybkowski, D; Veillet, N

    2000-01-01

    Three pre-series Test Cells of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) [1], manufactured by three European industrial companies, will be tested in the year 2000 to qualify the design chosen and verify the thermal and mechanical performances. A dedicated test stand (170 m x 13 m) has been built for extensive testing and performance assessment of the pre-series units in parallel. They will be fed with saturated liquid helium at 4.2 K supplied by a mobile helium dewar. In addition, LN2 cooled helium will be used for cool-down and thermal shielding. For each of the three pre-series units, a set of end boxes has been designed and manufactured at CERN. This paper presents the layout of the cryogenic system for the pre-series units, the calorimetric methods as well as the results of the thermal calculation of the end box test.

  14. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group. In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study. Therefore, any

  15. Short-circuit testing of monofilar Bi-2212 coils connected in series and in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polasek, A; Dias, R; Serra, E T; Filho, O O; Niedu, D

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SCFCL's) are one of the most promising technologies for fault current limitation. In the present work, resistive SCFCL components based on Bi-2212 monofilar coils are subjected to short-circuit testing. These SCFCL components can be easily connected in series and/or in parallel by using joints and clamps. This allows a considerable flexibility to developing larger SCFCL devices, since the configuration and size of the whole device can be easily adapted to the operational conditions. The single components presented critical current (Ic) values of 240-260 A, at 77 K. Short-circuits during 40-120 ms were applied. A single component can withstand a voltage drop of 126-252 V (0.3-0.6 V/cm). Components connected in series withstand higher voltage levels, whereas parallel connection allows higher rated currents during normal operation, but the limited current is also higher. Prospective currents as high as 10-40 kA (peak value) were limited to 3-9 kA (peak value) in the first half cycle.

  16. Pre-series and testing route for the serial fabrication of W7-X target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H.; Mendelevitch, B.; Boeswirth, B.; Schlosser, J.; Smirnow, M.; Stadler, R.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of the actively cooled high-heat flux divertor of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X stellarator (W7-X) requires the delivery of 890 target elements, which are designed to withstand a stationary heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The organization of the manufacturing and testing route for the serial fabrication is the result of the pre-series activities. Flat CFC Sepcarb NB31 tiles are bonded to CuCrZr copper alloy cooling structure in consecutive steps. A copper layer is active metal cast to CFC tiles, and then an OF-copper layer is added by hot isostatic pressing to produce bi-layer tiles. These tiles are bonded by electron beam welding onto the cooling structure, which was manufactured independently. The introduction of the bi-layer technology proved to be a significant improvement of the bond reliability under thermal cycling loading. This result is also the consequence of the improved bond inspections throughout the manufacturing route performed in the ARGUS pulsed thermography facility of PLANSEE. The repairing process by electron beam welding of the bonding was also qualified. The extended pre-series activities related to the qualification of fabrication processes with the relevant non-destructive examinations aim to minimize the risks for the serial manufacturing and to guarantee the steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor.

  17. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  18. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs

  19. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative

  20. Bowman Capsulitis Predicts Poor Kidney Allograft Outcome in T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Chon, W James; Josephson, Michelle A; Cunningham, Patrick N; Henriksen, Kammi J; Chang, Anthony

    2018-02-28

    Acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is an important cause of renal allograft loss. The Banff classification for tubulointerstitial (type I) rejection is based on the extent of both interstitial inflammation and tubulitis. Lymphocytes may also be present between parietal epithelial cells and Bowman capsules in this setting, which we have termed "capsulitis." We conducted this study to determine the clinical significance of capsulitis. We identified 42 patients from the pathology archives at the University of Chicago with isolated Banff type I TCMR from 2010-2015. Patient demographic data, Banff classification, and graft outcome measurements were compared between capsulitis and non-capsulitis groups using Mann-Whitney U test. Capsulitis was present in 26 (62%), and was more frequently seen in Banff IB than IA TCMR (88% vs 44%, P=.01). Patients with capsulitis had a higher serum creatinine at biopsy (4.6 vs 2.9mg/dL, P=.04) and were more likely to progress to dialysis (42% vs 13%, P=.06) with fewer recovering their baseline serum creatinine (12% vs 38%, P=.08). Patients with both Banff IA TCMR and capsulitis have clinical outcomes similar or possibly worse than Banff IB TCMR compared to those with Banff IA and an absence of capsulitis. Capsulitis is an important pathologic parameter in the evaluation of kidney transplant biopsies with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the setting of TCMR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Illustration of the WPS benefit through BATMAN test series: Tests on large specimens under WPS loading configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuritzinn, T.; Ferry, L.; Chapuliot, S.; Mongabure, P.; Moinereau, D.; Dahl, A.; Gilles, P.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of warm pre-stressing on the toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel, the 'Commissariat a l Energie Atomique', in collaboration with 'Electricite de France' and AREVA-NP, has made a study combining modeling and a series of experiments on large specimens submitted to a thermal shock or isothermal cooling. The tests were made on 18MND5 ferritic steel bars, containing a short or large fatigue pre-crack. The effect of 'warm pre-stressing' was confirmed, in the two cases of a fast thermal shock creating a gradient across the thickness of the bar and for gradual uniform cooling. In both cases, no propagation was observed during the thermal transient. Fracture occurred under low temperature conditions, at the end of the test when the tensile load was increased. The failure loads recorded were substantially higher than during pre-stressing. To illustrate the benefit of the WPS effect, numerical interpretations were performed using either global approach or local approach criteria. WPS effect and capability of models to predict it were then clearly shown. (authors)

  2. Petrous bone fractures violating otic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario; Iannella, Giannicola; Artico, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study presents our experience with a series of patients suffering from petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule who underwent subtotal petrosectomy combined with eustachian tube, middle ear, and mastoid obliteration, with the goal of preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and meningitis. This study enrolled 26 patients between 1997 and 2011. The clinical symptoms, otoscopy, and preoperative and postoperative audiometry and facial function, as well as CSF leak or meningitis, were evaluated in each patient. The entire group underwent a subtotal petrosectomy using the technique described in detail by Fisch. In addition, each patient was interviewed using a questionnaire to evaluate the impact on quality of life. Intraoperatively, we found significant CSF leaks in 14 patients (42.5%). No patient reported other episodes of CSF leak or meningitis after the surgery. The patients' responses of facial nerve function were slightly worse than the House-Brackmann evaluation (50% versus 42.3%; p < 0.05). The vast majority (88.5%) of the patients experienced no social impact. Our findings suggest the importance of not underestimating the risk for CSF leak in the petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule. Preoperative counseling regarding the various troublesome complications must adequately motivate candidates to undergo surgery by pointing out the positive impact of the proposed treatment.

  3. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  4. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials

  5. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s. in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C, a placebo (solvent vehicle, and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD choice test and the open-field (OF exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.

  7. Experimental analysis of the power curve sensitivity test series at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Iriko, M.; Yonomoto, T.; Tasaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral LOCA and ECCS tests. Seven recirculation pump suction line break LOCA experiments were conducted at the ROSA-III facility in order to examine the effect of the initial stored heat of a fuel rod on the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The break size was changed from 200% to 5% in the test series and a failure of a high pressure core spray (HPCS) diesel generator was assumed. Three power curves which represented conservative, realistic and zero initial stored heat, respectively, were used. In a large break LOCA such as 200% or 50% breaks, the initial stored heat in a fuel rod has a large effect on the cladding surface temperature because core uncovery occurs before all the initial stored heat is released, whereas in a small break LOCA such as a 5% break little effect is observed because core uncovery occurs after the initial stored heat is released. The maximum PCTs for the conservative initial stored heat case was 925 K, obtained in the 50% break experiment, and that for the realistic initial stored heat case was 835 K, obtained in the 5% break experiment. (orig./HP)

  8. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF 137 Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found

  9. Welding iridium heat-source capsules for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A remote computer-controlled welding station was developed to encapsulate radioactive PuO 2 in iridium. Weld quench cracking caused an interruption in production of capsules for upcoming space missions. Hot crack sensitivity of the DOP-26 iridium alloy was associated with low melting constituents in the grain boundaries. The extent of cracking was reduced but could not be eliminated by changes to the welding operation. An ultrasonic test was developed to detect underbead cracks exceeding a threshold size. Production was continued using the ultrasonic test to reject capsules with detectable cracks

  10. Analysis of L test series of ACE (Advanced Containment Experiments) project with modified corcon UW code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna Velasco, H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experimental tests (so call L, Large scale) have been performance under sponsored of many research institutions around the world and management by Electric Power Research Institute at U.S.A. The goal of these tests is to analyze the phenomena of core-concrete interaction at the same conditions as severe accident in light water nuclear reactor. Results of these tests provides experimental data about thermohydraulic phenomenon and aerosol and fission products release. With these results, improves many codes that already have been developed to simulate core-concrete interaction during severe accident ; in case of CORCON.UW code is a improved version developed in University of Wisconsin at CORCON MOD 2. Scope of this work is shown results obtained from CORCON.UW improved. The improves consist of add data about BaSiO 3 , Ba 2 SiO 4 , BaZrO 3 , SrSiO 4 and SrZrO 3 , append Kutateladze's heat transfer correlation, and finally make more efficient the resolution of energy equations system through use a better algorithm. The results obtained by this improved code to the downward power and H 2 , H 2 O, CO and CO 2 release are agree with experimental results, and also it saved 40% of C.P.U. consumption during execution, due improve of energy equation system. Conclusions are, the increase of thermodynamics data in CORCON.UW produce a well results comparative with experimental results and update heat transfer correlations and algorithm brings a versatile code and reliable results. (Author)

  11. A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-06-01

    The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results.

  12. Improvement and utilization of irradiation capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo; Lee, Cheol-Yong; Yang, Sung-Woo; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Jung, Hoan-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Several improvements of irradiation capsule technology regarding irradiation test parameters, such as temperature and neutron flux/fluence, and regarding instrumentation have progressed at HANARO since the last KAERI-JAERI joint seminar held in 2008. The standard HANARO capsule technology that was developed for use in a commercial power plant temperature of about 300degC was improved to apply to a temperature range of 100-1000degC for the irradiation test of materials of new research reactors and future nuclear systems. Low-flux and long-term irradiation technologies have been developed at HANARO. As a beginning step of the localization of capsule instrumentation technology, the irradiation performance of a domestically produced thermocouple and LVDT will be examined at HANARO. The accuracy of an evaluation of neutron fluence and precise welding technology are also being examined at HANARO. Based on these accumulated capsule technologies, a HANARO irradiation capsule system is being actively utilized for the national R and D programme on commercial nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea. HANARO has recently started the irradiation support of R and D relevant to future nuclear systems including SMART, VHTR, and SFR, and HANARO is preparing new support relevant to new research and Fusion reactors. (author)

  13. Orion Versus Poseidon: Understanding How Nasa's Crewed Capsule Survives Nature's Fury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Flight Test (EFT)-1. This design must address the natural environment to which the capsule and launch vehicle are exposed during all mission phases. In addition, the design must, to the best extent possible, implement the same process and data to be utilized on launch day. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  14. FY 2013 Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy-4 Samples in Target Capsules and Initiation of Bending Fatigue Testing for Used Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Richard H [ORNL; Yan, Yong [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    This report documents ongoing work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), and satisfies the deliverable for milestone M2FT-13OR0805041, “Data Report on Hydrogen Doping and Irradiation in HFIR.” This work is conducted under WBS 1.02.08.05, Work Package FT-13OR080504 ST “Storage and Transportation-Experiments – ORNL.” The objectives of work packages that make up the S&T Experiments Control Account are to conduct the separate effects tests (SET) and small-scale tests that have been identified in the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Data Gap Prioritization (FCRD-USED-2012-000109). In FY 2013, the R&D focused on cladding and container issues and small-scale tests as identified in Sections A-2.9 and A-2.12 of the prioritization report.

  15. Validity, Reliability, and Inertia of Four Different Temperature Capsule Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Daanen, Hein A M; Bogerd, Cornelis P; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2018-01-01

    Telemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively noninvasive, and easily applicable in field conditions and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e., CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp, and VitalSense). Ten temperature capsules were examined for each system in a temperature-controlled water bath during three trials. The water bath temperature gradually increased from 33°C to 44°C in trials 1 and 2 to assess the validity and reliability, and from 36°C to 42°C in trial 3 to assess the inertia characteristics of the temperature capsules. A systematic difference between capsule and water bath temperature was found for CorTemp (0.077°C ± 0.040°C), e-Celsius (-0.081°C ± 0.055°C), myTemp (-0.003°C ± 0.006°C), and VitalSense (-0.017°C ± 0.023°C; P 0.05). Comparable inertia characteristics were found for CorTemp (25 ± 4 s), e-Celsius (21 ± 13 s), and myTemp (19 ± 2 s), whereas the VitalSense system responded more slowly (39 ± 6 s) to changes in water bath temperature (P inertia were observed between capsule systems, an excellent validity, test-retest reliability, and inertia was found for each system between 36°C and 44°C after removal of outliers.

  16. A Cryogenic Test Station for the Pre-series 2400 W @ 1.8 K Refrigeration Units for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Gully, P; Jäger, B; Millet, F; Roussel, P; Tavian, L

    2002-01-01

    The cooling capacity below 2 K for the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will be provided by eight refrigeration units at 1.8 K, each of them coupled to a 4.5 K refrigerator. The supply of the series units is linked to successful testing and acceptance of the pre-series delivered by the two selected vendors. To properly assess the performance of specific components such as cold compressors and some process specificities a dedicated test station is necessary. The test station is able to process up to 130 g/s between 4.5 & 20 K and aims at simulating the steady and transient operational modes foreseen for the LHC. After recalling the basic characteristics of the 1.8 K refrigeration units and the content of the acceptance tests of the pre-series, the principle of the test cryostat is detailed. The components of the test station and corresponding layout are described. The first testing experience is presented as well as preliminary results of the pre-series units.

  17. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and 3, 3. Construction and testing of the capsules and containers VISA - Phase I (Part I and II), Vol. I; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade i ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - I faza (I i II deo), I deo, Album I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Putre, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za reaktorsku eksperimentalnu tehniku, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-02-15

    The task contains studies of materials for constructing capsules, leak tight capsules and containers made of aluminium and stainless steels. Special attention is devoted to study of welding the closures and claddings of the capsules as well as thermocouples.

  18. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  19. Formulating and testing a method for perturbing precipitation time series to reflect anticipated climatic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Georgiadis, Stylianos; Gregersen, Ida Bülow

    2017-01-01

    Urban water infrastructure has very long planning horizons, and planning is thus very dependent on reliable estimates of the impacts of climate change. Many urban water systems are designed using time series with a high temporal resolution. To assess the impact of climate change on these systems......, similarly high-resolution precipitation time series for future climate are necessary. Climate models cannot at their current resolutions provide these time series at the relevant scales. Known methods for stochastic downscaling of climate change to urban hydrological scales have known shortcomings...... in constructing realistic climate-changed precipitation time series at the sub-hourly scale. In the present study we present a deterministic methodology to perturb historical precipitation time series at the minute scale to reflect non-linear expectations to climate change. The methodology shows good skill...

  20. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Probing cell internalisation mechanics with polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Ping, Yuan; Suma, Tomoya; Cavalieri, Francesca; Besford, Quinn A; Chen, George; Braunger, Julia A; Caruso, Frank

    2016-10-06

    We report polymer capsule-based probes for quantifying the pressure exerted by cells during capsule internalisation (P in ). Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules with tuneable mechanical properties were fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly. The P in was quantified by correlating the cell-induced deformation with the ex situ osmotically induced deformation of the polymer capsules. Ultimately, we found that human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells exerted up to approximately 360 kPa on the capsules during internalisation.

  2. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  3. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenwen; Yan, Guozheng; He, Shu; Ke, Quan; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Pingping

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro. (paper)

  4. Testing for Stationarity and Nonlinearity of Daily Streamflow Time Series Based on Different Statistical Tests (Case Study: Upstream Basin Rivers of Zarrineh Roud Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Fathian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Time series models are one of the most important tools for investigating and modeling hydrological processes in order to solve problems related to water resources management. Many hydrological time series shows nonstationary and nonlinear behaviors. One of the important hydrological modeling tasks is determining the existence of nonstationarity and the way through which we can access the stationarity accordingly. On the other hand, streamflow processes are usually considered as nonlinear mechanisms while in many studies linear time series models are used to model streamflow time series. However, it is not clear what kind of nonlinearity is acting underlying the streamflowprocesses and how intensive it is. Materials and Methods: Streamflow time series of 6 hydro-gauge stations located in the upstream basin rivers of ZarrinehRoud dam (located in the southern part of Urmia Lake basin have been considered to investigate stationarity and nonlinearity. All data series used here to startfrom January 1, 1997, and end on December 31, 2011. In this study, stationarity is tested by ADF and KPSS tests and nonlinearity is tested by BDS, Keenan and TLRT tests. The stationarity test is carried out with two methods. Thefirst one method is the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF unit root test first proposed by Dickey and Fuller (1979 and modified by Said and Dickey (1984, which examinsthe presence of unit roots in time series.The second onemethod is KPSS test, proposed by Kwiatkowski et al. (1992, which examinesthestationarity around a deterministic trend (trend stationarity and the stationarity around a fixed level (level stationarity. The BDS test (Brock et al., 1996 is a nonparametric method for testing the serial independence and nonlinear structure in time series based on the correlation integral of the series. The null hypothesis is the time series sample comes from an independent identically distributed (i.i.d. process. The alternative hypothesis

  5. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  6. Development of target capsules for muon catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Jones, S.E.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of Muon Catalyzed Fusion experiments has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility to determine how many fusion reactions one muon would catalyze under various temperature, pressure, contamination, and tritium concentration conditions. Target capsules to contain deuterium and tritium at elevated temperatures and pressures were engineered for a maximum temperature of 540 K (512 0 F) and a maximum pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig). Experimental data collected with these capsules indicated that the number of fusion reactions per muon continued to increase with temperature up to the 540-K design limit. Theory had indicated that the reaction rate should peak at approximately 540 K, but this was not confirmed during the experiments. A second generation of capsules which have a maximum design temperature of 800 K (980 0 F) and a maximum design pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig) has now been engineered. These new capsules will be used to further study the muon catalysis rate versus deuterium-tritium mixture temperature

  7. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  8. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn?s dise...

  9. Generic Delivery of Payload of Nanoparticles Intracellularly via Hybrid Polymer Capsules for Bioimaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Haider; Maparu, Auhin K.; Kumar, Ashok; Sivakumar, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the ‘as prepared’ nanoparticles without ‘further surface modification’ in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles) in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells), without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb3+ was observed after internalization of LaF3:Tb3+(5%) nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery) without the need of individual cargo design/modification. PMID:22649489

  10. Generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly via hybrid polymer capsules for bioimaging applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Sami

    Full Text Available Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the 'as prepared' nanoparticles without 'further surface modification' in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells, without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb(3+ was observed after internalization of LaF(3:Tb(3+(5% nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery without the need of individual cargo design/modification.

  11. Postirradiation examination of capsules P13R and P13S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.B.; Harmon, D.P.; Holzgraf, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Capsules P13R and P13S were the seventh and eighth in a series of irradiation tests conducted under the ERDA-sponsored HTGR Fuels and Core Development Program. Reference type LHTGR fuel fabricated with a broad spectrum of property and process variables was irradiated to extreme temperature and fluence conditions. Postirradiation examination revealed that the bonded fuel rods exhibited good stability after irradiation to fast neutron fluences of 12.4 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.18 MeV), which is 55 percent beyond the LHTGR peak design fast neutron fluence of 8.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 . Thermal cycling to high temperatures did not adversely affect fuel rod integrity. Particle batches with coating designs representative of the design requirements envisioned for the LHTGR exhibited excellent irradiation performance. Ten batches of fissile and fertile particles were irradiated without coating failure to fast neutron exposures which exceeded the LHTGR peak design exposure by 35 to 52 percent. Capsules P13R and P13S were considered to be very successful qualification tests of LHTGR fuel components. These results provided a substantial data base for the LHTGR Fuel Product Specification and Performance Models used in HTGR core design studies, and demonstrated the excellent irradiation performance of reference LHTGR fuel to well beyond peak design exposures

  12. Effects of lipophilic components on the compatibility of lipid-based formulations with hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jing; Etzler, Frank M; Ubben, Johanna; Birch, Amy; Zhong, Li; Schwabe, Robert; Dudhedia, Mayur S

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lipophilic components on the compatibility of propylene glycol (PG)-containing lipid-based drug delivery system (LBDDS) formulations with hard gelatin capsules. The presence of a lipophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (log P approximately 6.1) and an additional lipophilic excipient (Capmul MCM) significantly affected the activity of PG in the fills and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. These changes in activity and equilibrium of PG were furthermore correlated to the mechanical and thermal properties of the liquid-filled capsules and subsequently linked to the shelf-life of the capsules on stability with respect to capsule deformation. The present study also investigated the mechanism by which lipophilic component(s) might affect the activity of PG in the fill formulations and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. The activities of PG in two series of "binary" mixtures with Capmul MCM and with Cremophor EL were measured, respectively. The mixtures of PG containing Capmul MCM were found to be more nearly ideal than those containing Cremophor EL. The observed negative deviation from Rauolt's law indicates that the excess free energies of mixing are less then zero indicating favorable interaction between PG and the other component. It is speculated that enhanced hydrogen bonding opportunities with Cremophor EL are responsible for the decreased excess free energy of mixing. Replacement of Cremophor EL with lipophilic API also reduces the hydrogen bonding opportunities for PG in the mixtures. This hypothesis may further explain the increased activity of PG in the fills and the shifted equilibrium of PG toward the capsule shells. Activity determination utilizing headspace gas chromatography (GC) using short 30 min incubation time seems to be a time-efficient approach for assessing capsule-fill compatibility. Direct measurements of PG migration and other physical properties of

  13. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-03-01

    The currently used fragrance mix in the European baseline patch test series (baseline series) fails to detect a substantial number of clinically relevant fragrance allergies. To investigate whether it is justified to include hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) and fragrance mix 2 containing hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, citral, farnesol, coumarin, citronellol, and alpha-hexyl cinnamal in the European baseline patch test series. Survey of the literature on reported frequencies of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis from fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) as well as reported results of experimental provocation test. Fragrance mix 2 has been demonstrated to be a useful additional marker of fragrance allergy with contact allergy rates up to 5% when included in various national baseline patch test series. Of the fragrance substances present in fragrance mix 2, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde is the most common sensitizer. Contact allergy rates between 1.5% and 3% have been reported for hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde in petrolatum (pet.) at 5% from various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn Chamber technique, a dose of 20 mg pet. preparation is recommended. Whenever there is a positive reaction to fragrance mix 2, additional patch testing with the 6 ingredients, 5 if there are simultaneous positive reactions to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and fragrance mix 2, is recommended.

  14. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-01-01

    various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn...

  15. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussinovitch, A., E-mail: amos.nussi@mail.huji.ac.il; Dagan, O.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate core were produced. • Capsules demonstrated highest efficiency adsorption of ∼300 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g alginate. • Regeneration was carried out by suspending capsules in 1 M HNO{sub 3} for 24 h. • Adsorption capacities of the capsules followed the order: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan–alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules’ ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations – copper (Cu{sup 2+}), cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) and nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) – was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation’s affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1 M nitric acid suspension for 24 h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  16. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L.) Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Herlina; Annisa Amriani; Indah Solihah; Rizky Sintya

    2018-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L.) rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest), negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%), positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB), and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB). Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can b...

  17. Testing for seasonal unit roots in monthly panels of time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Kunst (Robert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of testing for seasonal unit roots in monthly panel data. To this aim, we generalize the quarterly CHEGY test to the monthly case. This parametric test is contrasted with a new nonparametric test, which is the panel counterpart to the univariate RURS test that

  18. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material

  19. NASPGHAN Capsule Endoscopy Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Joel A; Liu, Quin Y; Sahn, Benjamin; Kooros, Koorosh; Walsh, Catharine M; Kramer, Robert E; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Khlevner, Julie; McOmber, Mark; Kurowski, Jacob; Giefer, Matthew J; Pall, Harpreet; Troendle, David M; Utterson, Elizabeth C; Brill, Herbert; Zacur, George M; Lirio, Richard A; Lerner, Diana G; Reynolds, Carrie; Gibbons, Troy E; Wilsey, Michael; Liacouras, Chris A; Fishman, Douglas S

    2017-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. Because this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding CE is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics.

  20. Effect of preparation conditions on properties and permeability of chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, N; Hunkeler, D

    2001-01-01

    Capsules were obtained by interpolymer complexation between chitosan (polycation) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SMP, oligoanion). The effect of the preparation conditions on the capsule characteristics was evaluated. Specifically, the influence of variables such as pH, ionic strength, reagent concentration, and additives on the capsule permeability properties was investigated using dextran as a model permeant. The capsule membrane permeability was found to increase by decreasing the chitosan/SMP ratio as well as adding mannitol to the oligoanion recipient bath. Increasing the ionic strength or the pH of the initial chitosan solution was also found to enhance the membrane permeability, moving the membrane exclusion limit to higher values. Generally, the capsules prepared tinder all tested conditions had a relatively low permeability which rarely exceeded a molecular cut-off of 40 kD based on dextran standards. Furthermore, the diffusion rate showed a strong temporal dependence, indicating that the capsules prepared under various conditions exhibit different apparent pore size densities on the surface. The results indicated that, in order to obtain the desired capsule mass-transfer properties, the preparation conditions should be carefully considered and adjusted. Adding a polyol as well as low salt amount (less than 0.15%) is preferable as a means of modulating the diffusion characteristics, without disturbing the capsule mechanical stability.

  1. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic radio pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.; Morcos, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved pharmaceutical radioactive capsule consisting of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contact with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract is described. Each capsule is provided with filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract. The capsule is preferably of gelatin, methyl cellulose or polyvinyl alcohol and the filler is a polyethylene glycol. The radioactive compound may be iodine e.g. sodium radioiodide I-131 or 123. The capsule may also contain a reducing agent e.g. sodium thiosulphate, sulphite, or bisulphite. (author)

  3. Visualization of and Software for Omnibus Test Based Change Detected in a Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Based on an omnibus likelihood ratio test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and a factorization of this test statistic with associated p-values, change analysis in a time series of multilook polarimetric SAR data...... in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change occurs. Using airborne EMISAR and spaceborne RADARSAT-2 data this paper focuses on change detection based on the p-values, on visualization of change at pixel as well as segment level......, and on computer software....

  4. Application of Bio-digestion for Capsule Gelatin-- From the Pharmaceutical Wastes to the Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Huang, S.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to bio-digest the capsule gelatin from the waste of pharmaceutical processes such as cutting and stamping for capsule shells producing. We screened soil bacterial flora for capsule gelatin biolysis, and found the most competent one named Yuntech-7. A 15% (w/w) of capsule gelatin could fully digested by Yuntech-7 for 3 days growth with an N-limited medium in a 37°C incubator. In order to recycle and reuse the gelatin waste, the different percentages of capsule gelatin were co-composted with the vegetable residues to produce manure in an anaerobic fermentation by an extra Yuntech-7 inoculation. After 14 days incubation, we collected the filtrate to examine the contents of N, P, and K. The data shows that the P and K keep the same value by roughly between the blank and the control sets, but the total N values were approximately a 5-fold increase in 20% and a 10-fold increase in 40% of capsule gelatin integrated. We suggested that the capsule gelatin was majorly decomposed by Yuntech-7, because the total N value was no observable change in the capsule gelatin and vegetable residues co-compost with a Yuntech-7-free condition. We also performed some field tests using the capsule gelatin generated liquid manure, and the preliminary test shows the plants got great benefits on culture size and in environmental resistance. In conclusion, the process in bio-digestion of waste capsule gelatin by soil bacteria, Yuntech-7, was produced a valuable manure not only aliment the plants but also complement the soil bacterial populations.

  5. Recommendation to test limonene hydroperoxides 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodek, C; Penfold, C M; Bourke, J F; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; Johnston, G A; Mughal, A A; Reckling, C; Sabroe, R A; Stone, N M; Thompson, D; Wilkinson, S M; Buckley, D A

    2017-12-01

    There is a significant rate of sensitization worldwide to the oxidized fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool. Patch testing to oxidized terpenes is not routinely carried out; the ideal patch test concentration is unknown. To determine the best test concentrations for limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, added to the British baseline patch test series, to optimize detection of true allergy and to minimize irritant reactions. During 2013-2014, 4563 consecutive patients in 12 U.K. centres were tested to hydroperoxides of limonene in petrolatum (pet.) 0·3%, 0·2% and 0·1%, and hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0%, 0·5% and 0·25% pet. Irritant reactions were recorded separately from doubtful reactions. Concomitant reactions to other fragrance markers and clinical relevance were documented. Limonene hydroperoxide 0·3% gave positive reactions in 241 (5·3%) patients, irritant reactions in 93 (2·0%) and doubtful reactions in 110 (2·4%). Linalool hydroperoxide 1·0% gave positive reactions in 352 (7·7%), irritant reactions in 178 (3·9%) and doubtful reactions in 132 (2·9%). A total of 119 patients with crescendo reactions to 0·3% limonene would have been missed if only tested with 0·1% and 131 patients with crescendo reactions to 1·0% linalool would have been missed if only tested with 0·25%. In almost two-thirds of patients with positive patch tests to limonene and linalool the reaction was clinically relevant. The majority of patients did not react to any fragrance marker in the baseline series. We recommend that limonene hydroperoxides be tested at 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides at 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Testing the structure of earthquake networks from multivariate time series of successive main shocks in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorozoglou, D.; Kugiumtzis, D.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2018-06-01

    The seismic hazard assessment in the area of Greece is attempted by studying the earthquake network structure, such as small-world and random. In this network, a node represents a seismic zone in the study area and a connection between two nodes is given by the correlation of the seismic activity of two zones. To investigate the network structure, and particularly the small-world property, the earthquake correlation network is compared with randomized ones. Simulations on multivariate time series of different length and number of variables show that for the construction of randomized networks the method randomizing the time series performs better than methods randomizing directly the original network connections. Based on the appropriate randomization method, the network approach is applied to time series of earthquakes that occurred between main shocks in the territory of Greece spanning the period 1999-2015. The characterization of networks on sliding time windows revealed that small-world structure emerges in the last time interval, shortly before the main shock.

  7. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915 0 C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC 2 , UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO 2 , zirconium-buffered UO 2 (referred to in this report as UO 2 /sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O 2 with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO 2 with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of 2 /sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO 2 particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios

  8. Stochastic Capsule Endoscopy Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule endoscopy, which uses a wireless camera to take images of the digestive tract, is emerging as an alternative to traditional colonoscopy. The diagnostic values of these images depend on the quality of revealed underlying tissue surfaces. In this paper, we consider the problem of enhancing the visibility of detail and shadowed tissue surfaces for capsule endoscopy images. Using concentric circles at each pixel for random walks combined with stochastic sampling, the proposed method enhances the details of vessel and tissue surfaces. The framework decomposes the image into two detailed layers that contain shadowed tissue surfaces and detail features. The target pixel value is recalculated for the smooth layer using similarity of the target pixel to neighboring pixels by weighting against the total gradient variation and intensity differences. In order to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of the proposed method, we used clinical subjective evaluation with a rank order on selected KID image database and compared it to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The result showed that the proposed method provides a better result in terms of diagnostic image quality and objective quality contrast metrics and structural similarity index.

  9. Design and manufacturing of instrumented capsule(03F-05K) for nuclear fuel irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T. [and others

    2004-06-01

    An instrumented capsule is being developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in HANARO. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. The instrumented capsule includes three test fuel rods installed thermocouple to measure fuel centerline temperature and three SPNDs (self-powered neutron detector) to monitor the neutron flux. Its stability was verified by out-of-pile performance test, and its safety evaluation was also shown that the safety requirements were satisfied. And then, to verify the design of the instrumented capsule in the test hole, it was successfully irradiated in the test hole of HANARO from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.8 full power days at 24 MWth). During irradiation, the centerline temperature of PWR UO{sub 2} fuel pellets fabricated by KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company and the neutron flux were continuously measured and monitored. In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and fabricated to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule is being irradiated in the test hole OR5 of HANARO reactor from April 26, 2004.

  10. Final report on development and operation of instrumented irradiation capsules for creep experiments on nuclear fuels at FR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.; Philipp, K.; Blumhofer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The capsule test rig No. 154 removed from FR2 in April 1979 was the last irradiation rig in a long series of creep experiments. The target of the irradiation tests, started exactly ten years ago, was to investigate the creep behaviour of various ceramic nuclear fuels under different in-pile irradiation conditions. An irradiation test rig had been developed for this purpose which allowed the continuous measurement of changes in length of fuel specimens. A total of 28 capsule test rigs each containing two packages of creep specimens have been irradiated in FR2 during this decade. They included 23 specimen stacks of UO 2 , 16 specimen stacks of UO 2 -PuO 2 , 4 specimen stacks of UN, 10 specimen stacks of (U,Pu) C, and 13 reference specimens of molybdenum. Besides the description of the test facility, the report provides above all a survey of the operation data applicable to the specimens and of the operating experience gathered as well as of the findings obtained in post-irradiation examinations. (orig.) [de

  11. Fragmentation of Solid Materials Using Shock Tubes. Part 2: First Test Series in a Large Diameter Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    series used improved experimental techniques to reduce obscuration due to smoke and fire which, again, increased the number of observed fragments (iii...minimally-reinforced concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall, and one 8-ft x 8-ft reinforced concrete panel, each carefully fabricated and mounted to replicate...develops a vertical compressive force that resists horizontal flexure. Figure 4. A view of CMU sample set-up used in Test 20. 6 Figure 5

  12. Development of remote welding techniques for in-pile IASCC capsules and evaluation of material integrity on capsules for long irradiation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A.; Nakano, J.; Ohmi, M.; Kawamata, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Tsukada, T.

    2012-03-01

    To simulate irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior by in-pile experiments, it is necessary to irradiate specimens up to a neutron fluence that is higher than the IASCC threshold fluence. Pre-irradiated specimens must be relocated from pre-irradiation capsules to in-pile capsules. Hence, a remote welding machine has been developed. And the integrity of capsule housing for a long term irradiation was evaluated by tensile tests in air and slow strain rate tests in water. Two type specimens were prepared. Specimens were obtained from the outer tubes of capsule irradiated to 1.0-3.9 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 1 MeV). And specimens were irradiated in a leaky capsule to 0.03-1.0 × 1026 n/m2. Elongation more than 15% in tensile test at 423 K was confirmed and no IGSCC fraction was shown in SSRT at 423 K which was estimated as temperature at the outer tubes of the capsule under irradiation.

  13. Development of remote welding techniques for in-pile IASCC capsules and evaluation of material integrity on capsules for long irradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, A.; Nakano, J.; Ohmi, M.; Kawamata, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Tsukada, T.

    2012-01-01

    To simulate irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior by in-pile experiments, it is necessary to irradiate specimens up to a neutron fluence that is higher than the IASCC threshold fluence. Pre-irradiated specimens must be relocated from pre-irradiation capsules to in-pile capsules. Hence, a remote welding machine has been developed. And the integrity of capsule housing for a long term irradiation was evaluated by tensile tests in air and slow strain rate tests in water. Two type specimens were prepared. Specimens were obtained from the outer tubes of capsule irradiated to 1.0–3.9 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 1 MeV). And specimens were irradiated in a leaky capsule to 0.03–1.0 × 10 26 n/m 2 . Elongation more than 15% in tensile test at 423 K was confirmed and no IGSCC fraction was shown in SSRT at 423 K which was estimated as temperature at the outer tubes of the capsule under irradiation.

  14. 77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Plants, Cyanobacteria, and Terrestrial Soil Core Microcosm. Group F--Field Test Data Reporting Guidelines...'' to ``Terrestrial and Aquatic Plants, Cyanobacteria, and Terrestrial Soil Core Microcosm Test... 850.5400) and OCSPP 850.4900 ``Terrestrial Soil-Core Microcosm Test'' (Public Draft OPPTS 850.2450...

  15. Adhesive capsulitis: contrast-enhansed shoulder MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokalp, Gokhan; Yildirim, Nalan; Yazici, Zeynep; Algin, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Evaluation of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) findings in cases clinically diagnosed as adhesive capsulitis (AC). CE-MRI images of 12 cases diagnosed as AC (13 shoulder joints) and nine control cases were retrospectively evaluated. AC diagnosis was establlished based on the history and clinical symptoms. MR signal intensity changes in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior posterior capsules were analysed with regard to the presence of abnormal soft tissue and contrast enhancement. Capsular and synovial thickening were measured in the axillary recess and rotator interval on coronal oblique CE T1-weighted images. Patient and control groups were compared by Fisher's exact and McNemar tests in terms of signal intensity changes and contrast enhancement in the described areas. Results: Comparison of the group with AC and the control group regarding intensity changes showed a statistically significant difference in the axillary pouch (P 0.05). Comparison of AC and control groups in terms of contrast enhancement revealed statistically significant differences in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior-posterior capsules (P < 0.001). A significant difference was determined between the AC and control groups with regard to thickening in axillary pouch and rotator interval (P < 0.001). CE studies are useful for diagnosis of AC as it demonstrates thickening of specific soft-tissue areas like joint capsule and synovium.

  16. Nuevos tests para contrastar la bondad de modelos arma y marma de series temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Hervás Martínez, César

    1985-01-01

    La presente memoria consta de 3 capítulos en donde se realizan estudios de los problemas de contraste de hipótesis acerca de la bondad de modelos ARMA y MARMA de series temporales. ... Nuestro trabajo se ha centrado en el problema del contraste del modelo, donde da la complejidad del mismo los métodos habituales no son siempre fáciles de aplicar, adaptándose métodos estadísticos generales y desarrollando otros originales.En el capítulo primero se estudian los estadísticos del tipo portmanteau...

  17. Structure and selectivity trends in crystalline urea-functionalized anion-binding capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Custelcean, Radu [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A tripodal trisurea receptor (L1) persistently self-assembles with various divalent oxoanion salts M{sub n}X (M = Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cd; X = SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) into isomorphous series of crystalline frameworks in three different compositions: MX(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6} (M = Mg, Ca, Cd) (1), Na{sub 2}X(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} (2) and K{sub 2}X(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (3). Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that all three series of structures adopt a NaCl-type topology, consisting of alternating anionic X(L1){sub 2}{sup 2-} capsules and M(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+}, Na{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{sup 2+} or K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{sup 2+} hydrated cations. The capsules provide a complementary environment to tetrahedral oxoanions via 12 hydrogen bonds from six urea groups lining the cavities of the capsules. The persistent formation of the capsules facilitated the investigation of structural trends and structure-selectivity relationships across series 1-3. First, it was found that the size of the capsules is relatively unresponsive to the change in the encapsulated anion, resulting in good shape and size recognition in the separation of anions by competitive crystallizations. Second, it was found that the size of the capsules varies linearly with the size of the external cation, which provides a way for tuning the anion encapsulation selectivity. However, no straightforward dependence was found between the size of the capsules and the relative selectivity for different-sized tetrahedral oxoanions in competitive crystallizations.

  18. A novel diagnostic tool for detecting functional patency of the small bowel: the Given patency capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Spera, G; Riccioni, M; Biancone, L; Petruzziello, L; Tringali, A; Familiari, P; Marchese, M; Onder, G; Mutignani, M; Perri, V; Petruzziello, C; Pallone, F; Costamagna, G

    2005-09-01

    The current visualization of small-bowel strictures using traditional radiological methods is associated with high radiation doses and false-negative results. These methods do not always reveal small-bowel patency for solids. The aim is to assess the safety of the Given patency system and its ability to detect intestinal strictures in patients with strictures that are known or suspected radiologically. The Given patency capsule is composed of lactose, remains intact in the gastrointestinal tract for 40-100 hours post ingestion, and disintegrates thereafter. A total of 34 patients with small-bowel stricture were prospectively enrolled; 30 had a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease, three had adhesion syndrome and in one ischemic enteritis was suspected. Of the patients, 15 (44.1 %) had previously undergone surgery. Following ingestion, the capsule was monitored for integrity and transit time, using a specially designed Given scanner and also radiologically. Seventeen patients had been enrolled with the intent of using the patency capsule as a preliminary test in patients with small-bowel strictures before undergoing video capsule endoscopy. 30 patients (88.2 %) retrieved the capsule in the stool; it was intact in 20 (median transit time 22 hours), and disintegrated in 10 patients (median transit time 53 hours). Six patients complained of abdominal pain which disappeared within 24 hours. The scanner successfully indicated the presence of the capsule in 94 % of cases. Ten patients underwent video capsule endoscopy following the patency capsule examination; in all of these the video capsule passed through the small-bowel stricture. This feasibility study has shown that the Given patency capsule is a safe, effective, and convenient tool for assessment of functional patency of the small bowel. It can indicate functional patency even in cases where traditional radiology indicates stricture.

  19. Influence of different excipients on the properties of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min., while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.. Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release.

  20. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  1. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  2. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85 degree C and 25 degree C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...... testing. Those without a history of dermatitis should not be tested unless considerable concern exists. Regarding post-implant testing, a subset of patients with metal hypersensitivity may develop cutaneous or systemic reactions to implanted metals following implant. For symptomatic patients, a diagnostic...

  4. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing

  5. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  6. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  7. Patch test reactions associated with sunscreen products and the importance of testing to an expanded series: retrospective analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Wang, Michael Z; Maibach, Howard I; Belsito, Donald V; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Mathias, C G Toby; Sasseville, Denis; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J

    2013-01-01

    Both active and inactive ingredients in sunscreen may cause contact dermatitis. This study aimed to describe allergens associated with a sunscreen source. A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 2001 and 2010 was performed. Of 23,908 patients patch tested, 219 (0.9%) had sunscreen coded as an allergen source. Patients who were male, with occupational dermatitis, or older (older than 40 years) had significantly lower rates of allergic reactions to sunscreens; the most commonly affected areas were the face and exposed sites (P Contact Dermatitis Group screening series of 65 to 70 allergens. A supplemental antigen series is important in detecting allergy to sunscreens.

  8. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2001-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics

  9. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  10. Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

    The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in…

  11. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  12. Handbook for the Release of Test Data. The Office of Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    Several questions are frequently asked by parents and news media regarding the purpose, content, and interpretation of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS)--the achievement battery currently used in South Carolina assessment programs. Proper interpretation of the CTBS, or any school district testing program, requires a sound…

  13. Standard test method for determining the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of 5XXX series Aluminum alloys by mass loss after exposure to nitric acid (NAMLT Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for constant immersion intergranular corrosion testing of 5XXX series aluminum alloys. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to wrought products. 1.3 This test method covers type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Testing the Effectiveness of Cognitive Analytic Therapy for Hypersexuality Disorder: An Intensive Time-Series Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Simmonds-Buckley, Mel; Totterdell, Peter

    2017-08-18

    The evidence base for treatment of hypersexuality disorder (HD) has few studies with appropriate methodological rigor. This study therefore conducted a single case experiment of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) for HD using an A/B design with extended follow-up. Cruising, pornography usage, masturbation frequency and associated cognitions and emotions were measured daily in a 231-day time series. Following a three-week assessment baseline (A: 21 days), treatment was delivered via outpatient sessions (B: 147 days), with the follow-up period lasting 63 days. Results show that cruising and pornography usage extinguished. The total sexual outlet score no longer met caseness, and the primary nomothetic hypersexuality outcome measure met recovery criteria. Reduced pornography consumption was mediated by reduced obsessionality and greater interpersonal connectivity. The utility of the CAT model for intimacy problems shows promise. Directions for future HD outcome research are also provided.

  15. Pesticide patch test series for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis among banana plantation workers in panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagos, Homero; Ruepert, Clemens; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2004-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are frequent among agricultural workers and require targeted interventions. Patch testing is necessary for differential diagnosis, but patch testing with pesticides is uncommon. This study explores the frequency of ACD and sensitization to pesticides among highly exposed banana plantation workers. Frequently and recently used pesticides on banana plantations in Divala, Panama, were documented. A pesticide patch test tray specific for this population was prepared. A structured interview was administered to 366 participants, followed by a complete skin examination. The pesticide patch test series, as well as a standard patch test series, was applied to 37 workers with dermatoses likely to be pesticide related and to 23 control workers without dermatoses. The pesticide patch tests identified 15 cases (41%) of ACD (20 positive reactions) among the 37 workers diagnosed with pesticide dermatosis. Three controls had allergic reactions to pesticides (4 positive reactions). The pesticides were carbaryl (5 cases), benomyl (4 cases), ethoprophos (3), chlorothalonil (2), imazalil (2), glyphosate (2), thiabendazole (2), chlorpyrifos (1), oxyfluorfen (1), propiconazole (1), and tridemorph (1). Ethoprophos and tridemorph had not been previously identified as sensitizers. Thus, the prevalence of ACD was 0.03 (15 of 366). On the basis of observed prevalences of positive patch-test reactions among the subgroups with and without dermatoses, we estimated that > or = 16% of the entire population may be sensitized to pesticides. Sensitization to pesticides among banana plantation workers is a frequent occupational health problem. Pesticide patch test trays should be used in assessing skin diseases in highly exposed workers.

  16. Power measurement in the boiling capsules in R2 using delayed neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennberg, G.

    1979-03-01

    LWR fuel testing is performed in the R2 reactor by irradiation in both loops and so-called boiling capsules. The loops have forced cooling, and the power can be measured calorimetrically by conventional instrumentation. The boiling capsules have convection cooling, and it has therefore been necessary to develop a special technique for power measurement, the delayed neutron detector (DND). The DND is a pneumatic rabbit system, which activates small uranium samples in the boiling capsules and counts the delayed neutrons for determination of the fission rate. This report describes the equipment used, the procedure of measurement, and the method of evaluation. (atuhor)

  17. Evaluation of aluminum capsules according to ISO 9978 to irradiation of gaseous samples in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Souza, Daiane C.B.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Henrique B.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gas irradiation in research nuclear reactors is an important way to produce radionuclides. Although some nuclear reactors centers offer this type of service, there are few publications about capsules to irradiation of gaseous samples. This paper describes a method to fabricate and evaluate aluminum capsules to irradiate gaseous samples in nuclear reactor. A semi-circular slotted die from a hydraulic press head was modified to seal aluminum tubes. The aluminum capsules were subjected to leak detection tests, which demonstrated the accordance with standard ISO 9978. (author)

  18. Test of 6-in.-thick pressure vessels. Series 3: intermediate test vessel V-7A under sustained loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Cate, T.M.; Holz, P.P.; King, T.A.; Merkle, J.G.; Robinson, G.C.; Smith, G.C.; Smith, J.E.; Whitman, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    HSST intermediate test vessel V-7 was repaired after being tested hydrostatically to leakage and was retested pneumatically as vessel V-7A. Except for the method of applying the load, the conditions in both tests were nearly identical. In each case, a sharp outside surface flaw 547 mm long (18 in.) by about 135 mm deep (5.3 in.) was prepared in the 152-mm-thick (6-in.) test cylinder of A533, grade B, class 1 steel. The inside surface of vessel V-7A was sealed in the region of the flaw by a thin metal patch so that pressure could be sustained after rupture. Vessel V-7A failed by rupture of the flaw ligament without burst, as expected. Rupture occurred at 144.3 MPa (20.92 ksi), after which pressure was sustained for 30 min without any indication of instability. The rupture pressure of vessel V-7A was about 2 percent less than that of vessel V-7

  19. Two-dimensional interaction of oxidic corium with concretes: The VULCANO VB test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Christophe [CEA, DEN, STRI/LMA, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr; Piluso, Pascal; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Boccaccio, Eric; Saldo, Valerie; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Malaval, Sophie; Carenini, Laure [CEA, DEN, STRI/LMA, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Brissonneau, Laurent [CEA, DEN, STPA/LPC, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2009-10-15

    Three two-dimensional Molten Core-Concrete Interaction tests have been conducted in the VULCANO facility with prototypic oxidic corium. The major finding is that for the two tests with silica-rich concrete, the ablation was anisotropic while it was isotropic for limestone-rich concrete. The cause of this behaviour is not yet well understood. Post Test Examinations have indicated that for the silica-rich concrete, the corium melt mixed specifically with mortar, while, for limestone-rich concretes, the analysed samples were in accordance with a corium-concrete mixing. The experimental results are described and compared to numerical codes. Separate Effect Tests with Artificial Concretes and prototypic corium are proposed to understand the phenomena governing the ablation geometry.

  20. Two-dimensional interaction of oxidic corium with concretes: The VULCANO VB test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Christophe; Piluso, Pascal; Haquet, Jean-Francois; Boccaccio, Eric; Saldo, Valerie; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Malaval, Sophie; Carenini, Laure; Brissonneau, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Three two-dimensional Molten Core-Concrete Interaction tests have been conducted in the VULCANO facility with prototypic oxidic corium. The major finding is that for the two tests with silica-rich concrete, the ablation was anisotropic while it was isotropic for limestone-rich concrete. The cause of this behaviour is not yet well understood. Post Test Examinations have indicated that for the silica-rich concrete, the corium melt mixed specifically with mortar, while, for limestone-rich concretes, the analysed samples were in accordance with a corium-concrete mixing. The experimental results are described and compared to numerical codes. Separate Effect Tests with Artificial Concretes and prototypic corium are proposed to understand the phenomena governing the ablation geometry.

  1. Studies of TNA and results of field tests of Kayenta`s advanced series compensation; Estudos do TNA e resultados dos testes de campo da compensacao serie avancada de Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, W.; Weiss, S.; Capellin, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Lemes, M.N. [Siemens S.A., XX (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the studies carried out in the TNA and the field tests performed. They confirmed the advanced series compensation behavior as predicted in the digital studies. Such studies included different ways of operating and controlling the installation, in other words, controlling the impedance, the current and the thyristor-switched reactor. Besides that, it has been studied fault cases and it has been corroborated a reduction in the nominal values of lightning arresters and in circuit breakers requests. Damping studies of sub-synchronous resonance have also been carried out and the conclusions are shown 4 refs., 9 figs.

  2. The postirradiation examination of the DC [Dry Capsule] melt dynamics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, C.P.; Hitchcock, J.T.

    1988-07-01

    The Dry Capsule experiment series investigates the coolability of dry fast reactor core debris through nuclear heating of actual reactor materials in order to obtain the thermal properties of dry debris, the nature of the transition from a debris bed to a molten pool, and the thermal and kinetic behavior of molten pools. The purpose is to develop a data base in support of model development. The work is jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC, Japan), and Joint Research Centre, Ispra (EURATOM). This report provides a brief description of the two experiments in the Dry Capsule series and presents the results of the postirradiation examination. These tests investigated dry debris beds (/approximately/2kg) composed of pure UO 2 and mixed UO 2 and stainless steel. The beds were taken into melt to observe the growth of a molten pool in the UO 2 bed and the agglomeration and migration of steel in a composite bed. The peak measured temperature in the UO 2 bed was above 3100/degree/C. Approximately 50 percent of the urania formed a molten pool. Surrounding the molten pool and an overlying void was a high density urania crust. Lenticular pore formation and migration caused by urania vapor transport in the strong thermal gradient were seen in the urania crust. In the mixed UO 2 and steel bed, the peak measured temperature was 2600/degree/ C. All of the steel had been molten. Steel and urania migration were observed; both were thought to be caused by vapor transport mechanisms

  3. Test Series 3: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E C and D LCU-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the third in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium C and D LCU-13 cells from the North Anna Nuclear Power Station operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company. The C and D cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of seven electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the seven cells failed in the first stage tests during the actual seismic test up to the 1.5 g ZPAs imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests showed that while these cells suffered some loss of discharge capacity, all cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. When two of the same cells were exposed to the second stage, higher g-level tests, both cells again provided instantaneous uninterrupted power. Subsequent capacity tests showed both of these cells to have capacities well below the accepted standard of 80%. Four of the cells were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The examination showed that all plates and separators were in very good condition

  4. Results from Cycles 1 and 2 of NNWSI Series 2 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1987-05-01

    PWR spent fuel rod segments from the H.B. Robinson Unit 2 and Turkey Point Unit 3 reactors were leach tested in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) reference J-13 water under ambient hot cell conditions. The test matrix included bare fuel plus the cladding, rod segments with artificially induced cladding defects, and undefected rod segments. Radionuclide release results are presented and discussed. The actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np appear to have been released congruently as the UO 2 oxide fuel matrix dissolved. Preferential U release measured in certain tests may be related to dissolution of oxidized UO/sub 2+x/ from the fuel surface, and/or greater solubility (and mobility) of U relative to the other actinides within defected cladding specimens. Uranium solubility measured in the J-13 water was much greater then that measured in deionized water in previous tests. All of the principal fission products analyzed ( 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc and 90 Sr) were released preferentially relative to the actinides. Preferential release of activation product 14 C was also measured, with a portion of the 14 C release appearing to originate from the cladding exterior surface. Much greater fractional fuel dissolution appeared to have occurred with bare fuel particles than from fuel contained in defected cladding. Actinide release from test specimens containing small (∼200 μm) laser-drilled holes through the cladding was not significantly greater than from undefected specimens

  5. WESF cesium capsule behavior at high temperature or during thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Gray, W.J.; Shippell, R.J.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1985-06-01

    Double-walled stainless steel (SS) capsules prepared for storage of radioactive 137 Cs from defense waste are now being considered for use as sources for commercial irradiation. Cesium was recovered at B-plant from the high-level radioactive waste generated during processing of defense nuclear fuel. It was then purified, converted to the chloride form, and encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The molten cesium chloride salt was encapsulated by pouring it into the inner of two concentric SS cylinders. Each cylinder was fitted with a SS end cap that was welded in place by inert gas-tungsten arc welding. The capsule configuration and dimensions are shown in Figure 1. In a recent review of the safety of these capsules, Tingey, Wheelwright, and Lytle (1984) indicated that experimental studies were continuing to produce long-term corrosion data, to reaffirm capsule integrity during a 90-min fire where capsule temperatures reached 800 0 C, to monitor mechanical properties as a function of time, and to assess the effects of thermal cycling due to periodic transfer of the capsules from a water storage pool to the air environment of an irradiator facility. This report covers results from tests that simulated the effects of the 90-min fire and from thermal cycling actual WESF cesium capsules for 3845 cycles over a period of six months. 11 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-05-30

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 h, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Postirradiation gamma scans of GCFR capsule GB-10 at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1977-11-01

    The Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor capsule GB-10 was examined by gamma spectroscopy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory after fuel rod irradiation tests. The short-lived iodine fission products concentrated at the upper fuel-blanket interface, and cesium fission products concentrated at the fuel-blanket interfaces and in the charcoal trap. High concentrations of ruthenium isotopes were observed in the same positions at which neutron radiographs showed inclusions in the central void

  8. Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Clark Y Biplane Cellules with Special Reference to Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Richard W

    1933-01-01

    The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing.

  9. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  10. Short-wavelength and three-dimensional instability evolution in National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.; Cook, A. W.; Edwards, M. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Koning, J. M.; Marinak, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and, most recently, experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as 2000, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to 200 on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode 1200 have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  11. Remote-welding technique for assembling in-pile IASCC capsule in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Kazuo; Ishii, Toshimitsu; Kanazawa, Yoshiharu; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Ohmi, Masao; Shimizu, Michio; Matsui, Yoshinori; Saito, Jun-ichi; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate behavior of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) caused by the simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and high temperature water environment in such a light water reactor (LWR), it is necessary to perform crack growth tests in an in-pile IASCC capsule irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The development of the remote-welding technique is essential for remotely assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule installing the pre-irradiated CT specimens. This report describes a new remote-welding machine developed for assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule. The remote-welding technique that the capsule tube is rotated light under the fixed torch was applied to the machine for the welding of thick and large-diameter tubes. The assembly work of four in-pile IASCC capsules having pre-irradiated CT specimens in the hot cell was succeeded for performing the crack growth test under the neutron irradiation in JMTR. The irradiation test of two capsules has been already finished in JMTR without problems. (author)

  12. Review of safety issues that pertain to the use of WESF cesium chloride capsules in an irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Lytle, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    Since the recovery of the fission product cesium-137 began in 1967, about 1500 capsules, each containing an average of about 50,000 curies of cesium chloride, have been produced. These capsules were designed to safely store this gamma-emitting fission product, but they are now considered to be a valuable source for irradiators. The capsules were designed to have a large margin of safety in their mechanical properties. Impact, percussion, and thermal tests have been conducted that demonstrate their ability to meet anticipated licensing requirements. Although this document is not intended to develop or evaluate accident scenarios, an examination of the effects of heating a capsule to 800 0 C for up to 90 min was completed. At 800 0 C, the salt volume would be expected to exceed the initial capsule volume in a few (up to 1/3) of the WESF capsules. Under these conditions, the inner capsule would expand to accommodate the salt volume and the gas pressure. The strength and ductility of the capsule are more than adequate to permit this expansion with a safety margin of at least a factor of three. Capsules have now been stored in the WESF pool for 10 years, and 15 capsules have been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids facility for nearly 5 years without any capsule failure. This experience, along with available laboratory and production data, gives reasonable assurance that the capsules can be safely used in properly designed commercial irradiators. This is especially the case when one considers current and future evaluation programs designed to assess the long-term effects of corrosion and mechanical properties degradation

  13. A retrospective study of 2585 patients patch tested with the European standard series in Hong Kong (1995-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sun; Chan, Loi Yuen; Ho, Stanley Ching Kong; Chong, Lai Yin; So, Win Han; Wong, Tze Wai

    2008-02-01

    Data on patch test findings in Hong Kong are scarce, with the last survey performed more than 10 years ago. A retrospective analysis of results from all patch tests performed on patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis from January 1995 to December 1999 in the Social Hygiene Service, which provides a public dermatology service in Hong Kong, was undertaken. We aimed to explore the demographic data associated with positive reactions and the profile of contact sensitizing allergens in Hong Kong. A total of 2585 patients were patch tested with the European standard series during the period. Most were Chinese, with a female-to-male ratio of 3 : 2. One or more positive responses were noted in 1415 patients (54.7%). The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (24.4%), followed by fragrance mix (13.7%), cobalt chloride (8.7%), p-phenylenediamine (6.0%), and balsam of Peru (5.7%). Nickel sensitivity was more common in female patients, and dichromate sensitivity was more common in male patients (P history were significant risk factors for nickel sensitivity. This study provides a profile of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the public dermatology service in Hong Kong. A prospective study, using a larger panel of allergens, involving patients from both the private and public sectors, would provide a more comprehensive profile of contact allergens in Hong Kong and contribute to the establishment of a local standard series.

  14. Testing for a Common Volatility Process and Information Spillovers in Bivariate Financial Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chen (Jinghui); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe paper considers the problem as to whether financial returns have a common volatility process in the framework of stochastic volatility models that were suggested by Harvey et al. (1994). We propose a stochastic volatility version of the ARCH test proposed by Engle and Susmel (1993),

  15. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  16. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate Definitions Abrasion - wearing away...ER D C SR -1 6- 2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2...ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies ERDC SR-16-2 April 2016

  17. Comments on "Testing for nonlinear structure and chaos in economic time series"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.; Manzan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This short paper is a comment on "Univariate tests for nonlinear structure" by Catherine Kyrtsou and Apostolos Serletis. We summarize their main results and discuss some of their conclusions concerning the role of outliers and noisy chaos. In particular, we include some new simulations to

  18. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2013-10-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre-processing Landsat time series, each method has shortcomings, particularly for mapping forest changes under varying illumination, data availability and atmospheric conditions. Based on the requirements of mapping forest changes as defined by the United Nations (UN) Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) program, the accurate reporting of the spatio-temporal properties of these changes is necessary. We compared the impact of three fundamentally different radiometric preprocessing techniques Moderate Resolution Atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN), Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and simple Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) on mapping forest changes using Landsat time series data. A modification of Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) monitor was used to jointly map the spatial and temporal agreement of forest changes at test sites in Ethiopia and Viet Nam. The suitability of the pre-processing methods for the occurring forest change drivers was assessed using recently captured Ground Truth and high resolution data (1000 points). A method for creating robust generic forest maps used for the sampling design is presented. An assessment of error sources has been performed identifying haze as a major source for time series analysis commission error.

  19. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3.07.9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

    1982-05-01

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers

  20. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L. Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Herlina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L. rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest, negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%, positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB, and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB. Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can be stated as diabetes when >200 mg/dL. Preprandial blood glucose levels are measured using DTN-410-K photometer, on day 0, 5, 10, and 15. The average result of AUC0-15 and percentage of decreasing blood glucose level for positive control group are 2732,5 and 37,43%, and 3 treatment groups (65 mg/kgBB, 130 mg/kgBB, and 260 mg/kgBB 3105 and 28,90%; 2962,5 and 32,16%; 2810 and 35,66%. This point indicated that the ethanol extract of seri leave has an antidiabetic activity and there is no significant difference compared with glibenclamide (p<0,05. Percentage of blood glucose decrease level the third treatment group there is no significant difference compare with positive control group. According to the relation between percentage of blood glucose decrease level with dose, value of ED50 of ethanol extract of seri leave is 692,424 mg/kgBB.

  1. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25 degree C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 129 I were continuously released at rates between about 5 x 10 -5 and 1 x 10 -4 of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which 14 C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs

  2. Analysis of mechanical property data obtained from nuclear pressure vessel surveillance capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A typical pressure vessel surveillance capsule examination program provides mechanical property data from tensile, Charpy V-notch impact, and, in some cases, fracture mechanics specimens. This data must be analyzed in conjunction with the unirradiated baseline mechanical property data to determine the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In the case of Charpy impact specimens, for example, irradiation typically causes an increase in the transition temperature, and a decrease in the upper shelf energy level. The results of the Charpy impact and other mechanical specimen tests must be evaluated to determine if property changes are occurring in the manner expected when the reactor was put into service. The large amount of data obtained from surveillance capsule examinations in recent years enables one to make fairly good predictions. After the changes in the mechanical properties of specimens from a particular surveillance capsule have been experimentally determined and evaluated, they must be related to the reactor pressure vessel. This requires a knowledge of the neutron fluence of the surveillance capsule, and the ratio of the surveillance capsule fluence to the pressure vessel wall fluence. This ratio is frequently specified by the reactor manufacturer, or can be calculated from a knowledge of the geometry and materials of the reactor components inside the pressure vessel. A knowledge of the exact neutron fluence of the capsule specimens and the capsule to vessel wall neutron fluence ratio is of great importance, since inaccuracies in these numbers cause just as serious a problem as inaccuracies in the mechanical property determinations. A further area causing analysis difficulties is problems encountered in recent capsule programs relating to capsule design, construction, operation, and dismantling. (author)

  3. H2 gas pressure calculation of FPM capsule failure at RSG-GAS reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastuti, Endiah Puji; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2002-01-01

    RSG-GAS has been irradiated FPM capsule for 236 times, one of those i.e. capsule number 228 has failure. The one of root cause of failure possibility is radiolysis reaction can be occurred in FPM capsule when it is filled with water during irradiation in the reactor core. The safety analysis of the radiolysis reaction in the capsule has been done. The oc cumulative hydrogen gas production can cause high pressure in the capsule then a mechanical damage occurred. The analysis was done at 10 MW of reactor power which equivalent with neutron flux of 0,6929 x 10 1 4 n/cm 2 sec and γ dose rate of 0,63x10 9 rad/hour. The assumption is the capsule is filled with water at maximum volume, i.e. 176.67 ml. The results of calculation showed that radiolysis reaction with γ and neutron produce hydrogen gas for nominal flow rate each are 494 atm and 19683 atm for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. H 2 gas pressure for 5% flow rate each are 723 atm. and 25772 atm., for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. The changing of the operation condition due to radiolysis together with one way valve' phenomena, can be produce hydrogen gas from water during irradiation in the reactor core and can be the one of root cause of capsule failure. This analysis recommended the FPM capsule preparation must be guaranteed no water or/and there is no possibility of water immersion in the capsule during irradiation in the core by more accurate leak test

  4. Preparation of functions of computer code GENGTC and improvement for two-dimensional heat transfer calculations for irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Someya, Hiroyuki; Ito, Haruhiko.

    1992-11-01

    Capsules for irradiation tests in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor), consist of irradiation specimens surrounded by a cladding tube, holders, an inner tube and a container tube (from 30mm to 65mm in diameter). And the annular gaps between these structural materials in the capsule are filled with liquids or gases. Cooling of the capsule is done by reactor primary coolant flowing down outside the capsule. Most of the heat generated by fission in fuel specimens and gamma absorption in structural materials is directed radially to the capsule container outer surface. In thermal performance calculations for capsule design, an one(r)-dimensional heat transfer computer code entitled (Generalyzed Gap Temperature Calculation), GENGTC, originally developed in Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S.A., has been frequently used. In designing a capsule, are needed many cases of parametric calculations with respect to changes materials and gap sizes. And in some cases, two(r,z)-dimensional heat transfer calculations are needed for irradiation test capsules with short length fuel rods. Recently the authors improved the original one-dimensional code GENGTC, (1) to simplify preparation of input data, (2) to perform automatic calculations for parametric survey based on design temperatures, ect. Moreover, the computer code has been improved to perform r-z two-dimensional heat transfer calculation. This report describes contents of the preparation of the one-dimensional code GENGTC and the improvement for the two-dimensional code GENGTC-2, together with their code manuals. (author)

  5. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s

  6. SATCAP: a program for thermal-hydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki.

    1988-02-01

    For material irradiation tests at JMTR, user's technical requirements are gradually becoming more rigid, permitting only a small temperature deviation from the desired during irradiation of test materials. As specimen temperature control equipment, several conception were proposed and some of them were translated into actual machines with the capsule having electrical seath heaters in it. This system is highly reliable unless the integrity of the heaters is threatened. However, in a test with the object of achieving a high exposure of specimen to neutrons, the break of a heater or deterioration of a heater caused by irradiation lowers the reliability of the system. To cope with this drawback, as a part of the irradiation technique improvement program, ''Satulated Temperature Capsule'' has been developing. This type capsule, in which the water suplied is boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature facilitates the temperature control. Though there are various types of capsules employed at JMTR, the experience of the capsule into which the coolant is injected lacks. In designing, thermal performances have to fully understood. Therefore, a program was compiled to evaluate the thermal behavior in the capsule. The present report describes the calculation procedure and guides of input and output for the program. (author)

  7. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  8. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  9. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic...

  10. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  12. Adhesive capsulitis: review of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Guy; Bou-Haider, Pascal; Harris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder; however, early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Treatment is most effective when commenced prior to the onset of capsular thickening and contracture; consequently, the role of imaging is increasing. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the typical imaging appearances of adhesive capsulitis and to examine some of the evidence regarding each of these imaging modalities. An evaluation of the various management options available to the clinician is also presented.

  13. Radioactive gas-containing polymeric capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Lewis, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A disposable ventilation study system for dispensing a single patient dosage of gaseous radioisotopes to patients for pulmonary function studies is disclosed. A gas impermeable capsule encloses the gaseous radioisotope and is stored within a radioactivity shielding body of valve means which shears the capsule to dispense the radioisotope to the patient. A breathing bag receives the patient's exhalation of the radioisotope and permits rebreathing of the radioisotope by the patient. 18 claims, 7 drawing figures

  14. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  15. Singular Spectrum Analysis for Astronomical Time Series: Constructing a Parsimonious Hypothesis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G.; Kondrashov, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Ghil, M.; Branchesi, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Stratta, G.; Ciszak, M.; Marino, F.; Ortolan, A.

    We present a data-adaptive spectral method - Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis (MC-SSA) - and its modification to tackle astrophysical problems. Through numerical simulations we show the ability of the MC-SSA in dealing with 1/f β power-law noise affected by photon counting statistics. Such noise process is simulated by a first-order autoregressive, AR(1) process corrupted by intrinsic Poisson noise. In doing so, we statistically estimate a basic stochastic variation of the source and the corresponding fluctuations due to the quantum nature of light. In addition, MC-SSA test retains its effectiveness even when a significant percentage of the signal falls below a certain level of detection, e.g., caused by the instrument sensitivity. The parsimonious approach presented here may be broadly applied, from the search for extrasolar planets to the extraction of low-intensity coherent phenomena probably hidden in high energy transients.

  16. In vitro evaluation of extemporaneously compounded slow-release capsules containing morphine sulfate or oxycodone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowiak, Dana L; Green, Julie L; Bowman, Bill J

    2005-01-01

    , and only one preparation showed statistically significant interbatch variation, indicating reproducible and robust formulation. Even though changing the quantity of the formulation ingredients altered the release characteristics of the slow-release capsules, which also varied from that of equivalent strength-controlled release tablets, their release profiles were similar. Further testing is needed to determine whether these diffences are clinically significant.

  17. Status for development of a capsule and instruments for high-temperature irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Lee, Chul Yong; Yang, Seong Woo; Shim, Kyue Taek; Chung, Hwan-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    As the reactors planned in the Gen-IV program will be operated at high temperature and under high neutron flux, the requirements for irradiation of materials at high temperature are recently being gradually increased. The irradiation tests of materials in HANARO up to the present have been performed usually at temperatures below 300degC at which the RPV materials of the commercial reactors are being operated. To overcome the restriction for high-temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule with double thermal media composed of two kinds of materials such as Al-Ti and Al-graphite was designed and fabricated as a more advanced capsule than the single thermal media capsule. (author)

  18. Power ramping test in the JMTR for PCI study of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Kanbara, M.; Ichikawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Power ramping test is essential for PCI study of water reactor fuel. Boiling water capsules have been used for the tests in the JMTR. Heat generation of fuel rod in the capsule can be changed by the He-3 power control facility during reactor operation. Four specially designed fuel rods have been ramped to about 41-43 kW/m; two of them have small gaps filled with iodine, the other two are equipped with centerline temperature thermocouple. Fuel rod elongation detector is equipped to each capsule. For the fuel rods with small gap, unique contraction followed by ordinary fuel relaxation behaviour was observed right after the fast ramping. None of them failed. Future programme includes a series of tests of fuel rods irradiated in the high-pressure water loop at the JMTR and a verification test of remedy fuel which allows daily-load-following operation of BWRs. (author)

  19. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in consecutiv...

  20. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos; Fernandez-Vozmediano, José M; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Bauer, Andrea; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magda; Zmudzinska, Maria; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; García-Gavín, Juan; Fernández-Redondo, Virginia; Gawkrodger, David J; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Jolanki, Riitta; Pesonen, Maria; King, Clodagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Larese, Francesca; Mahler, Vera; Ormerod, Anthony D; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Sansom, Jane E; Silvestre, Juan Fco; Simon, Dagmar; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Statham, Barry N; Stone, Natalie; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in

  1. Magnetic control system targeted for capsule endoscopic operations in the stomach--design, fabrication, and in vitro and ex vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Gi-Shih; Liu, Chih-Wen; Jiang, Joe-Air; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Teng, Ming-Tsung

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a novel solution of a hand-held external controller to a miniaturized capsule endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Traditional capsule endoscopes move passively by peristaltic wave generated in the GI tract and the gravity, which makes it impossible for endoscopists to manipulate the capsule endoscope to the diagnostic disease areas. In this study, the main objective is to present an endoscopic capsule and a magnetic field navigator (MFN) that allows endoscopists to remotely control the locomotion and viewing angle of an endoscopic capsule. The attractive merits of this study are that the maneuvering of the endoscopic capsule can be achieved by the external MFN with effectiveness, low cost, and operation safety, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. In order to study the magnetic interactions between the endoscopic capsule and the external MFN, a magnetic-analysis model is established for computer-based finite-element simulations. In addition, experiments are conducted to show the control effectiveness of the MFN to the endoscopic capsule. Finally, several prototype endoscopic capsules and a prototype MFN are fabricated, and their actual capabilities are experimentally assessed via in vitro and ex vivo tests using a stomach model and a resected porcine stomach, respectively. Both in vitro and ex vivo test results demonstrate great potential and practicability of achieving high-precision rotation and controllable movement of the capsule using the developed MFN.

  2. A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The minimum energy needed to ignite an inertial confinement fusion capsule is of considerable interest in the optimization of an inertial fusion driver. Recent computational work investigating this minimum energy has found that it depends on the capsule implosion history, in particular, on the capsule drive pressure. This dependence is examined using a series of LASNEX simulations to find ignited capsules which have different values of the implosion velocity, fuel adiabat and drive pressure. It is found that the main effect of varying the drive pressure is to alter the stagnation of the capsule, changing its stagnation adiabat, which, in turn, affects the energy required for ignition. To account for this effect a generalized scaling law has been devised for the ignition energy, E ign ∝α if 1.88±0.05 υ -5.89±0.12 P -0.77±0.03 . This generalized scaling law agrees with the results of previous work in the appropriate limits. (author)

  3. SATCAP-B: a program for thermal-hydraulic design of 'Saturated Temperature Capsule'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Niimi, Motoji

    1989-11-01

    As an advanced irradiation technique, the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) project is developing a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' which water is injected in and boiled. When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature. This type capsule is based on the conception of keeping the coolant to the saturated temperature and using the temperature control. In designing the capsule in which the inner coolant is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. Then, a program (named SATCAP) was compiled to graps the thermal performance within the capsule. On the other hand, a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' was made and irradiated in the JMTR core. It was indicated from supplied water temperatures recorded by thermo-couples attached in the capsule that heat transfer coefficients prefered models due to natural convection to models incorporated in the initial version of the program. Then, the program was revised by adding mainly heat transfer model based on natural convection. The present report describes the calculation procedure and guides of input and output for the revised program (SATCAP version-B). (author)

  4. Development of Multiple Capsule Robots in Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Swallowable capsule robots which travel in body cavities to implement drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and diagnosis have provided great potential for medical applications. However, the space constraints of the internal environment and the size limitations of the robots are great challenges to practical application. To address the fundamental challenges of narrow body cavities, a different-frequency driven approach for multiple capsule robots with screw structure manipulated by external electromagnetic field is proposed in this paper. The multiple capsule robots are composed of driven permanent magnets, joint permanent magnets, and a screw body. The screw body generates a propulsive force in a fluidic environment. Moreover, robots can form new constructions via mutual docking and release. To provide manipulation guidelines for active locomotion, a dynamic model of axial propulsion and circumferential torque is established. The multiple start and step-out frequencies for multiple robots are defined theoretically. Moreover, the different-frequency driven approach based on geometrical parameters of screw structure and the overlap angles of magnetic polarities is proposed to drive multiple robots in an identical electromagnetic field. Finally, two capsule robots were prototyped and experiments in a narrow pipe were conducted to verify the different motions such as docking, release, and cooperative locomotion. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of the driven approach for multiple capsule robots in narrow body cavities.

  5. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  6. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W J; Horsfield, C J; Gales, S G; Leatherland, A E; Rubery, M S; Coltman, J E; Meadowcroft, A E; Rice, S J; Simons, A J; Woolhead, V E

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 10 9 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling. (paper)

  7. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  8. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.; Hirshfeld, N.; Canfi, A.; Melamud, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  9. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  10. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  11. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  12. Analysis of the necessity for inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV to monitor material fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2007-01-01

    In association with monitoring of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fracture toughness, surveillance capsule test specimens have been used to monitor the material property of nuclear reactor vessel. As far as Kori Unit 1 is concerned, 6 capsules were put into the vessel before commercial operation of the plant. Up to now, all the six capsules have been withdrawn to test and monitor the fracture toughness of RPV material. The last capsule has been withdrawn on June this year, and the Kori unit 1 has been shut downed since July 2007 and will be shut downed until December this year for about 6 months, preparing the life extension of the plant to operate the plant 10 more years. With the situation that all the surveillance capsules have been withdrawn, public ask the following question, 'To extend the life of Kori Unit 1 more than 10 years, is it necessary to insert new surveillance capsules into the Kori Unit 1 to monitor RPV material fracture toughness?' In connection with this issue, planning project have been carried out since spring this year. In this paper, it is described that inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV has some meaning in some public acceptance point of view and is not necessary in material engineering point of view

  13. Biomechanical Effects of Acromioplasty on Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Supraspinatus Tendon Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Kahn, Timothy; Goldberg, Iliya; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-01-01

    Acromioplasty is increasingly being performed for both reparable and irreparable rotator cuff tears. However, acromioplasty may destroy the coracoacromial arch, including the coracoacromial ligament, consequently causing a deterioration in superior stability even after superior capsule reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acromioplasty on shoulder biomechanics after superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears. The hypothesis was that acromioplasty with superior capsule reconstruction would decrease the area of subacromial impingement without increasing superior translation and subacromial contact pressure. Controlled laboratory study. Seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were evaluated using a custom shoulder testing system. Glenohumeral superior translation, the location of the humeral head relative to the glenoid, and subacromial contact pressure and area were compared among 4 conditions: (1) intact shoulder, (2) irreparable supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty, and (4) superior capsule reconstruction with acromioplasty. Superior capsule reconstruction was performed using the fascia lata. Compared with the intact shoulder, the creation of an irreparable supraspinatus tear significantly shifted the humeral head superiorly in the balanced muscle loading condition (without superior force applied) (0° of abduction: 2.8-mm superior shift [P = .0005]; 30° of abduction: 1.9-mm superior shift [P = .003]) and increased both superior translation (0° of abduction: 239% of intact [P = .04]; 30° of abduction: 199% of intact [P = .02]) and subacromial peak contact pressure (0° of abduction: 308% of intact [P = .0002]; 30° of abduction: 252% of intact [P = .001]) by applying superior force. Superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty significantly decreased superior translation (0° of abduction: 86% of intact [P = .02]; 30° of abduction: 75

  14. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  16. Physics of ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The implosion of an ICF capsule must accomplish both compression of the main fuel to several hundred grams per cubic centimeter and heating and compression of the central region of the fuel to ignition. This report discusses the physics of these conditions

  17. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  18. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S. G.; MacFarlane, T. W.; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  19. Hands-On Approach to Structure Activity Relationships: The Synthesis, Testing, and Hansch Analysis of a Series of Acetylcholineesterase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Tran, Hue; Codd, Rachel; Allan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This series of three practical sessions centers on drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholineesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the inactivation of acetylcholine and has been the target of drugs to treat glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease and for a number of insecticides and warfare agents. These sessions relate to a series of carbamate…

  20. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Wheeler, D.L.; Church, B.W.; Quinn, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953

  1. Fracture toughness shifts in high-copper weldments (series 5 and 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The specific activities to be performed in this task are the: (1) continuation of Phase 2 of the Fifth Irradiation Series, and (2) completion of the Sixth Irradiation Series, including testing nine irradiated Italian crack-arrest specimens. The test results of the Italian crack-arrest specimens are being analyzed, and full details will be published in a NUREG report currently in preparation. The crack-mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was measured at a distance greater than that prescribed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) open-quotes Test for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K la , of Ferritic Steelsclose quotes (E 1221-88). A method for adjusting the CMOD to account for this has been developed and is presented. The correction was ∼4% for small specimens and ∼2% for the larger ones. As part of this task, irradiation of HSSI weld 73W to a high fluence [5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 ( > 1 MeV)] will be performed to determine whether the K Jc curve shape change observed in the Fifth HSSI Series is exacerbated. The design and fabrication of the temperature and dosimetry verification capsules are performed under this task, but for purposes of continuity, their progress will be reported under Task 6, where the design of the new irradiation facilities and capsules is performed

  2. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  3. The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J D; Adler, B

    2000-06-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121-134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode proteins involved in capsule export, and region 2 contains genes proposed to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In order to construct a mutant impaired in capsule export, the final gene of region 1, cexA, was disrupted by insertion of a tetracycline resistance cassette by allelic replacement. The genotype of the tet(M) OmegacexA mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The acapsular phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and the strain could be complemented and returned to capsule production by the presence of a cloned uninterrupted copy of cexA. Wild-type, mutant, and complemented strains were tested for virulence by intraperitoneal challenge of mice; the presence of the capsule was shown to be a crucial virulence determinant. Following intraperitoneal challenge of mice, the acapsular bacteria were removed efficiently from the blood, spleen, and liver, while wild-type bacteria multiplied rapidly. Acapsular bacteria were readily taken up by murine peritoneal macrophages, but wild-type bacteria were significantly resistant to phagocytosis. Both wild-type and acapsular bacteria were resistant to complement in bovine and murine serum.

  4. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained

  6. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Analytical Model for the Probability Characteristics of a Crack Penetrating Capsules in Capsule-Based Self-Healing Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LV

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing using pre-embedded capsules containing healing agent is becoming a promising approach to restore the strength of damaged structures. In addition to the material properties, the size and volume fraction of capsules influence crack healing in the matrix. Understanding the crack and capsule interaction is critical in the development and design of structures made of capsule-based self-healing materials. Continuing our previous study, in this contribution a more practical rupturing mode of capsules characterizing the rupturing manner of capsules fractured by cracks in cementitious materials is presented, i.e., penetrating mode. With the underlying assumption that a crack penetrating capsules undoubtedly leads to crack healing, geometrical probability theory is employed to develop the quantitative relationship between crack size and capsule size, capsule concentration in capsule-based self-healing virtual cementitious material. Moreover, an analytical expression of probability of a crack penetrating with randomly dispersed capsules is developed in two-dimensional material matrix setup. The influences of the induced rupturing modes of capsules embedded on the self-healing efficiency are analyzed. Much attention is paid to compare the penetrating probability and the hitting probability, in order to assist the designer to make a choice of the optimal rupturing modes of capsules embedded. The accuracy of results of the theoretical model is also compared with Monte-Carlo numerical analysis of crack interacting with capsules. It shows that the developed probability characteristics of a crack interaction with capsules for different rupturing modes is helpful to provide guidelines for designer working with capsule-based self-healing cementitious materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16888

  8. Capsules with evolving brittleness to resist the preparation of self-healing concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruyaert, E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsules for self-healing concrete have to possess multifunctional properties and it would be an enormous advantage in the valorization process when they could also be mixed in. Therefore, we aimed to develop capsules with evolving brittleness. Capsules with high initial flexibility were prepared by adding a plasticizer to an ethyl cellulose matrix. During hardening of the concrete, the plasticizing agent should leach out to the moist environment yielding more brittle capsules which break upon crack appearance. The tested capsules could easily be mixed in during concrete production. However, incompatibility issues between the capsule wall and the inner polymeric healing agent appeared. Moreover, the capsules became insufficiently brittle and the bond strength to the cementitious matrix was too weak. Consequently, multilayer capsules were tested. These capsules had a high impact resistance to endure concrete mixing and were able to break upon crack formation.Las cápsulas para la auto-reparación del hormigón tienen que poseer propiedades multifuncionales. Una enorme ventaja en el proceso para su valorización se obtendría si aquellas pudieran resistir con éxito el mezclado. Por lo tanto, nos propusimos desarrollar cápsulas cuya fragilidad evoluciona. Cápsulas con una alta flexibilidad inicial se prepararon mediante la adición de un plastificante a una matriz de etil celulosa. Durante el endurecimiento del hormigón, el agente plastificante debe filtrarse hacia el medio ambiente húmedo produciendo cápsulas más frágiles que se rompen con el surgimiento de fisuras. Las cápsulas pudieron ser fácilmente mezcladas durante la producción de hormigón. Sin embargo, aparecieron problemas de incompatibilidad entre la pared de la cápsula y el agente de curación polimérico interior. Por otra parte, las cápsulas se comportaron insuficientemente frágiles y con una baja adherencia hacia la matriz cementicia. En consecuencia, se probaron las c

  9. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  10. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-20

    Jan 20, 2015 ... The brainstem, cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, internal capsule, thalamus and spinal cord were involved in forty four, thirty one, thirty, twenty nine, seventeen and four patients, respectively. The cerebral peduncle was the brainstem structure mainly involved with thirty cases followed by the pons with, ...

  11. Anti-proliferative effect of olmesartan on Tenon's capsule fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the inhibitive effect of olmesartan to fibroblast proliferation and the anti-scarring effect in Tenon’s capsule, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human primary Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, treated with up titrating concentrations of olmesartan. The rate of inhibition was tested with methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT method. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze changes in mRNA expressions of the fibrosis-related factors: matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1,2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Thirty rabbits were divided into 5 groups (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28d. A rabbit conjunctiva flap model was created in each eye. Olmesartan solution was injected subconjunctivally and then evaluated its anti-proliferation and anti-fibrosis effects through the histological morphology and immunohistochemistry of MMP-2 and PCNA in each group. Only the 7d group was treated with Masson’s trichrome to compare the neovascularization in the subconjunctiva area. RESULTS: In vitro, cultured Tenon's capsule human fibroblasts showed a dose dependent inhibition by olmesartan in MTT. Olmesartan reduced mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA but increased mRNA expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In vivo, the rabbit eyes treated with olmesartan at 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days demonstrated a significant reduced expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA compared with control eye, no significant difference observed in 28th day group. The cellular proliferation and neovascularization was suppressed by olmesartan in Masson’s trichrome observation. CONCLUSION: By inhibiting fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, olmesartan prevents the proliferation and activity of fibroblasts in scar tissue formation, which might benefit glaucoma filtering surgery.

  12. Change detection in a time series of polarimetric SAR data by an omnibus test statistic and its factorization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Allan A.; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Test statistics for comparison of real (as opposed to complex) variance-covariance matrices exist in the statistics literature [1]. In earlier publications we have described a test statistic for the equality of two variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution with an associated p-value [2]. We showed their application to bitemporal change detection and to edge detection [3] in multilook, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in the covariance matrix representation [4]. The test statistic and the associated p-value is described in [5] also. In [6] we focussed on the block-diagonal case, we elaborated on some computer implementation issues, and we gave examples on the application to change detection in both full and dual polarization bitemporal, bifrequency, multilook SAR data. In [7] we described an omnibus test statistic Q for the equality of k variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution. We also described a factorization of Q = R2 R3 … Rk where Q and Rj determine if and when a difference occurs. Additionally, we gave p-values for Q and Rj. Finally, we demonstrated the use of Q and Rj and the p-values to change detection in truly multitemporal, full polarization SAR data. Here we illustrate the methods by means of airborne L-band SAR data (EMISAR) [8,9]. The methods may be applied to other polarimetric SAR data also such as data from Sentinel-1, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, ALOS, and RadarSat-2 and also to single-pol data. The account given here closely follows that given our recent IEEE TGRS paper [7]. Selected References [1] Anderson, T. W., An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis, John Wiley, New York, third ed. (2003). [2] Conradsen, K., Nielsen, A. A., Schou, J., and Skriver, H., "A test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution and its application to change detection in polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41(1): 4-19, 2003. [3] Schou, J

  13. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  14. As(III) oxidation by MnO{sub 2} coated PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Alessandra, E-mail: a.criscuoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Majumdar, Swachchha [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Figoli, Alberto, E-mail: a.figoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Sahoo, Ganesh C. [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Bafaro, Patrizia [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Drioli, Enrico [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules coated by MnO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preliminary tests of As(III) oxidation carried out in batch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete oxidation obtained for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. - Abstract: PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules were prepared by the phase inversion technique and used as support for the coating of a manganese dioxide layer. The coating was done by a chemical treatment of the capsules followed by a thermal one. The presence of the MnO{sub 2} layer was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), back scattering electron (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The produced capsules were, then, tested for As(III) oxidation in batch. The experiments consisted in treating 165 ml of As(III) solution with 1 g of coated capsules at fixed temperature (15 Degree-Sign C) and pH (5.7-5.8). In particular, the efficiency of the system was investigated for different As(III) concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.7 and 1 ppm). For feeds at lower As(III) content (0.1-0.3 ppm), tests lasted for 8 h, while prolonged runs (up to 48 h) were carried out on more concentrated solutions (0.7 and 1 ppm). The produced capsules were able to oxidize As(III) into As(V) leading to complete conversion after 3 and 4 h for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm, respectively.

  15. An empirical study of the toxic capsule crisis in China: risk perceptions and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan

    2014-04-01

    The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Identifying ambiguous prostate gland contours from histology using capsule shape information and least squares curve fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Rania [DigiPen Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Engineering, Redmond, WA (United States); McKenzie, Frederic D. [Old Dominion University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    To obtain an accurate assessment of the percentage and depth of extra-capsular soft tissue removed with the prostate by the various surgical techniques in order to help surgeons in determining the appropriateness of different surgical approaches. This can be enhanced by an accurate and automated means of identifying the prostate gland contour. To facilitate 3D reconstruction and, ultimately, more accurate analyses, it is essential for us to identify the capsule boundary that separates the prostate gland tissue from its extra-capsular tissue. However, the capsule is sometimes unrecognizable due to the naturally occurring intrusion of muscle and connective tissue into the prostate gland. At these regions where the capsule disappears, its contour can be arbitrarily created with a continuing contour line based on the natural shape of the prostate. We utilize an algorithm based on a least squares curve fitting technique that uses a prostate shape equation to merge previously detected capsule parts with the shape equation to produce an approximated curve that represents the prostate capsule. We have tested our algorithm using three different shapes on 13 histologic prostate slices that are cut at different locations from the apex. The best result shows a 90% average contour match when compared to pathologist-drawn contours. We believe that automatically identifying histologic prostate contours will lead to increased objective analyses of surgical margins and extracapsular spread of cancer. Our results show that this is achievable. (orig.)

  17. Identifying ambiguous prostate gland contours from histology using capsule shape information and least squares curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Rania; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain an accurate assessment of the percentage and depth of extra-capsular soft tissue removed with the prostate by the various surgical techniques in order to help surgeons in determining the appropriateness of different surgical approaches. This can be enhanced by an accurate and automated means of identifying the prostate gland contour. To facilitate 3D reconstruction and, ultimately, more accurate analyses, it is essential for us to identify the capsule boundary that separates the prostate gland tissue from its extra-capsular tissue. However, the capsule is sometimes unrecognizable due to the naturally occurring intrusion of muscle and connective tissue into the prostate gland. At these regions where the capsule disappears, its contour can be arbitrarily created with a continuing contour line based on the natural shape of the prostate. We utilize an algorithm based on a least squares curve fitting technique that uses a prostate shape equation to merge previously detected capsule parts with the shape equation to produce an approximated curve that represents the prostate capsule. We have tested our algorithm using three different shapes on 13 histologic prostate slices that are cut at different locations from the apex. The best result shows a 90% average contour match when compared to pathologist-drawn contours. We believe that automatically identifying histologic prostate contours will lead to increased objective analyses of surgical margins and extracapsular spread of cancer. Our results show that this is achievable. (orig.)

  18. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  19. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Pawel, J.E.; Heatherly, D.W.; Sitterson, R.G.; Wallace, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB * capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400 degrees C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60 degrees C capsule, where the test specimens were in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a thin gap region between the specimen holder outer sleeve and containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330 degrees C capsules, which started on July 17, 1990, was completed on November 14, 1992, after 24 cycles of irradiation to an incremental damage level of approximately 10.9 displacements per atom (dpa). Assembly of the follow-up 200 and 400 degrees C capsules was completed in November 1992, and their planned 20-cycle irradiation to approximately 9.1 incremental dpa was started on November 21, 1992. As of February 11, 1993, the 200 and 400 degrees C capsules had successfully completed three cycles of irradiation to approximately 1.4 incremental dpa

  20. White matter alterations in the internal capsule and psychomotor impairment in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew P; Perry, Alistair; Breakspear, Michael; Wen, Wei; Parker, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants. Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were derived for anterior, posterior, and retrolenticular limbs of the internal capsule and compared between groups. Neuropsychological (reaction time) and psychomotor functioning were assessed and correlated against FA. Fractional anisotropy was distinctly increased, whilst RD was decreased, in the right anterior internal capsule in those with melancholia, compared to controls. The right anterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with clinical ratings of psychomotor disturbance, and reduced psychomotor speed was associated with increased FA values in the right retrolenticular limb in those with melancholia. Our findings highlight a distinct disturbance in the local white matter arrangement in specific regions of the internal capsule in melancholia, which in turn is associated with psychomotor dysfunction. This study clarifies the contribution of structural brain integrity to the phenomenology of melancholia, and may assist future efforts seeking to integrate neurobiological markers into depression subtyping.

  1. Revision washout decreases implant capsule tissue culture positivity: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gerard D; Carson, Culley C; Wilson, Steven K; Wiygul, Jeremy; Tornehl, Chris; Cleves, Mario A; Simmons, Caroline J; Donatucci, Craig F

    2008-01-01

    Positive cultures, visible biofilm and confocal micrography confirm bacterial presence on clinically uninfected inflatable penile prostheses at revision surgery. Salvage irrigation has been proved to rescue patients with clinically infected inflatable penile prostheses. Similar washout at revision for noninfectious reasons significantly lowers subsequent infection rates. We investigated a larger series of patients for positive culture rates and evaluated implant capsule tissue culture rates before and after revision washout. At 4 institutions a total of 148 patients with inflatable penile prostheses underwent revision surgery for noninfectious reasons between June 2001 and September 2005. Swab cultures of the fluid around the pump and visible biofilm were obtained. Also, in 65 patients a wedge of tissue from the capsule that forms around the pump was cultured. After implant removal revision washout of the implant spaces was performed and a second wedge of tissue was cultured. Of the 148 patients 97 (66%) had positive bacterial swab cultures of the fluid around the pump or biofilm. A total of 124 isolates were cultured. Of the 65 implant capsule tissue cultures obtained before washout 28 (43%) were positive for bacteria, while 16 (25%) obtained after revision washout were positive. Positive cultures and visible bacterial biofilm are present on clinically uninfected inflatable penile prostheses at revision surgery in most patients. Revision washout appears to decrease the bacterial load on implant capsule tissue at revision surgery of inflatable penile prostheses for noninfectious reasons.

  2. Fabrication of thin cadmium cylinder coated with aluminum for neutron irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Tomonori; Chiba, Masaaki

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate the irradiation capsule screened thermal neutron, a thin cadmium cylinder coated with aluminum was developed. The capsule is used for the fast neutron irradiation test. Requested specification of the cylinder are the thickness of 5.5 mm, the inner diameter of 23 mm, the length of 750 mm and the coated thickness of aluminum of 0.75 mm. Moreover, cadmium and aluminum adhere to each other. The cylinder was developed and fabricated by means of casting. The a new vacuum chamber in which solving and casting work is possible was fabricated to prevent cadmium oxidation and work safely from poison of cadmium. (author)

  3. 3D magnetic-resonance-coupling (MRC) localization of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Yongming; Zhang, Lihui; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2016-01-01

    ) technique, which has been widely developed for efficient wireless power transfer, is introduced. It is proposed that the distance dependent signal strength in a MRC system can be beneficially used for 3D localization. The new 3D-MRC localization system consists of three orthogonal emitting coils which......Wireless Capsule Endoscope (WCE) enables developing actively controlled capsule for potential complex surgeries, imaging, and new medicine tests. These tasks of WCE need safe, efficient, and precise 3D localization techniques. In this paper, a new application of the magnetic resonance coupling (MRC...... are powered by a battery in the capsule, and three pairs of orthogonal receiving coils which are placed outside human body. The distances between the WCE and the receiving coils can be estimated with good accuracy by studying the signal strengths in individual receiving coils. The proposed new 3D...

  4. Simulation of fuel rod irradiation capsules in water loops by electric heater rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.; Montes, M.; Serrano, J.; Haefner, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The out of pile simulation of irradiation devices was carried out by J.E.N. in the frame of the KfK-JEN joint experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods (IVO-FR2-Vg7). A typical single-wall-Nak (22% Na, 78% K) electrical heated capsule was fabricated and hydraulical tests were done. The capsule was instrumented with 10 thermocouples in order to obtain the radial temperature profile into the capsule in function of the electrical rod power (max. 215 w/cm), flow rate (max. 2,4 m 3 /h) and coolant temperature (max. 60degC). The experimental values are compared to the Tecap-Code results. (author)

  5. Effect of a controlled-release albendazole capsule on parasitism and productivity of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I; Legény, J; Juris, P; Veselý, L

    1991-11-01

    The efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (ABZ) capsules (Profitril-Captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity were studied in 300 ewes infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Coprological tests revealed that treated animals remained negative for 10 weeks after the administration of capsules. Contamination of pasture with nematode larvae was significantly reduced during the whole experiment. Necropsy of 14 animals (seven treated and seven untreated) showed 96.9-99.2% efficacy against the nematodes Nematodirus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris ovis, while efficacy was 88.5% against D. dendriticum. During the 6 month pasture season (May-October 1989), treated ewes produced on average 2.56 kg cheese and 0.6 kg wool per ewe more than untreated controls. Our study confirms the reliability of the ABZ slow-release capsules over 90 days and the positive effect of treatment on nematode contamination of pasture and ewe productivity.

  6. Radiation research of materials using irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are briefly characterized of radiation experiments on the WWR-S research reactor. The irradiation capsule installed in the reactor including the electronic instrumentation is described. Irradiated samples temperature is stabilized by an auxiliary heat source placed in the irradiation space. The electronic control equipment of the system is automated. In irradiation experiments, experimental and operating conditions are recorded by a digital measuring centre with electric typewriter and paper tape data recording and by an analog compensating recorder. The irradiation experiment control system controls irradiated sample temperature, the supply current size and the heating element temperature of the auxiliary stabilizing source, inert and technological pressures of the capsule atmosphere and the thermostat temperature of the thermocouple junctions. (O.K.)

  7. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, I.; Sulík, L.; Bureš, J.; Krejcar, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-8, č. článku 126007. ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Automatic blood detection * capsule endoscopy video Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.530, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466936.pdf

  8. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  9. The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstein, B A; Nightingale, R W; Richardson, W J; Myers, B S

    2000-05-15

    Cervical facet capsular strains were determined during bending and at failure in the human cadaver. To determine the effect of an axial pretorque on facet capsular strains and estimate the risk for subcatastrophic capsular injury during normal bending motions. Epidemiologic and clinical studies have identified the facet capsule as a potential site of injury and prerotation as a risk factor for whiplash injury. Unfortunately, biomechanical data on the cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury are not available. Cervical spine motion segments were tested in a pure-moment test frame and the full-field strains determined throughout the facet capsule. Motion segments were tested with and without a pretorque in pure bending. The isolated facet was then elongated to failure. Maximum principal strains during bending were compared with failure strains, by paired t test. Statistically significant increases in principal capsular strains during flexion-extension loading were observed when a pretorque was applied. All measured strains during bending were significantly less than strains at catastrophic joint failure. The same was true for subcatastrophic ligament failure strains, except in the presence of a pretorque. Pretorque of the head and neck increases facet capsular strains, supporting its role in the whiplash mechanism. Although the facet capsule does not appear to be at risk for gross injury during normal bending motions, a small portion of the population may be at risk for subcatastrophic injury.

  10. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  11. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Silvestre, Juan F; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Data of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. The 'basic markers' were tested on 51 477 [fragrance mix II (FM II)] to 57 123 [Myroxylon pereirae, balsam of Peru] patients, and yielded positive reactions as follows: fragrance mix I 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae 5.4%, FM II 3.8%, colophonium 2.6%, and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde 1.7%, with some regional differences. Prevalences with TRUE Test(®) allergens were lower. Additional fragrances were tested on 3643 (trimethylbenzenepropanol) to 14 071 (oil of turpentine) patients, and yielded between 2.6% (Cananga odorata) and 0.7% (trimethylbenzenepropanol) positive reactions. Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR capsule HT-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Robbins, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    Irradiation capsule HT-33 was a cooperative effort between General Atomic Company (GA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this capsule ThO 2 particles (fabricated by GA), low-enriched uranium particles, inert carbon particles, and various fuel rod matrices were tested under accelerated irradiation in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Visual examination showed good irradiation behavior for fuel rods with slug-injected matrices (using a pitch binder) and warm-molded matrices (using a thermosetting resin binder). Rod debonding improved somewhat with fuel rods that used GLCC H-451 ground graphite shim particles rather than Speer fluid coke shim particles. Measurements of permeability (by inert gas intrusion) of the pyrocarbon on the inert particles showed that the disorder created by the neutron flux did not increase the inert gas permeability. Metallographic examination of Triso-coated particles irradiated both with and without an outer pyrocarbon coating revealed that the outer coating is necessary to suppress SiC degradation at temperatures above approximately 1375 0 C. The fission product behavior (determined by the electron microprobe) was similar in both low-enriched and high-enriched uranium particles made from weak-acid resins. Furthermore, fission product palladium caused severe SiC corrosion at time-averaged temperatures above 1400 0 C

  13. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed......: Computation of colorectal length from capsule passage was possible in 60 of the 67 3D-Transit recordings. Length of the colorectum measured with MRI and 3D-Transit was respectively 95 cm (75-153 cm) and 99 cm (77-147 cm), P = 0.15. Coefficient of variation (CV) between MRI and 3D-Transit was 7.8%. Apart from...... the cecum / ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). Length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 cm (73-119 cm) and 103 cm (75-123 cm), P = 0.67. CV...

  14. Motion analysis for duplicate frame removal in wireless capsule endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been intensively researched recently due to its convenience for diagnosis and extended detection coverage of some diseases. Typically, a full recording covering entire human digestive system requires about 8 to 12 hours for a patient carrying a capsule endoscope and a portable image receiver/recorder unit, which produces 120,000 image frames on average. In spite of the benefits of close examination, WCE based test has a barrier for quick diagnosis such that a trained diagnostician must examine a huge amount of images for close investigation, normally over 2 hours. The main purpose of our work is to present a novel machine vision approach to reduce diagnosis time by automatically detecting duplicated recordings caused by backward camera movement, typically containing redundant information, in small intestine. The developed technique could be integrated with a visualization tool which supports intelligent inspection method, such as automatic play speed control. Our experimental result shows high accuracy of the technique by detecting 989 duplicate image frames out of 10,000, equivalently to 9.9% data reduction, in a WCE video from a real human subject. With some selected parameters, we achieved the correct detection ratio of 92.85% and the false detection ratio of 13.57%.

  15. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  16. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data of patie......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data...... of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  17. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the U.S. Capsules in the AGR-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybeck, Nancy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Einerson, Jeffrey J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hawkes, Grant L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN-3636). The AGR-2 test was inserted in the B-12 position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in June 2010 and successfully completed irradiation in October 2013, resulting in irradiation of the TRISO fuel for 559.2 effective full power days (EFPDs) during approximately 3.3 calendar years. The AGR-2 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) (Pham and Einerson 2014). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as-run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of four AGR-2 U.S. capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in (Hawkes 2014). The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume-average fuel temperature and peak fuel temperature in each capsule. This thermal model involves complex physical mechanisms (e.g., graphite holder and fuel compact shrinkage) and properties (e.g., conductivity and density). Therefore, the thermal model predictions are affected by uncertainty in input parameters and by incomplete knowledge of the underlying physics leading to modeling assumptions. Therefore, alongside with the deterministic predictions from a set of input thermal conditions, information about prediction uncertainty is instrumental for the ART

  18. In Vivo Characterization of a Wireless Telemetry Module for a Capsule Endoscopy System Utilizing a Conformal Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Julia; Cummins, Gerard; Pavuluri, Sumanth Kumar; Record, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian R Ayastuy; Lay, Holly S; McPhillips, Rachael; Cox, Benjamin F; Connor, Ciaran; Gregson, Rachael; Clutton, Richard Eddie; Khan, Sadeque Reza; Cochran, Sandy; Desmulliez, Marc P Y

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, packaging, and performance characterization of a conformal helix antenna created on the outside of a capsule endoscope designed to operate at a carrier frequency of 433 MHz within human tissue. Wireless data transfer was established between the integrated capsule system and an external receiver. The telemetry system was tested within a tissue phantom and in vivo porcine models. Two different types of transmission modes were tested. The first mode, replicating normal operating conditions, used data packets at a steady power level of 0 dBm, while the capsule was being withdrawn at a steady rate from the small intestine. The second mode, replicating the worst-case clinical scenario of capsule retention within the small bowel, sent data with stepwise increasing power levels of -10, 0, 6, and 10 dBm, with the capsule fixed in position. The temperature of the tissue surrounding the external antenna was monitored at all times using thermistors embedded within the capsule shell to observe potential safety issues. The recorded data showed, for both modes of operation, a low error transmission of 10 -3 packet error rate and 10 -5 bit error rate and no temperature increase of the tissue according to IEEE standards.

  19. Using Page’s cumulative sum test on MODIS time series to detect land-cover changes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available by natural vegetation using 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer time-series satellite data. The method is a sequential per-pixel change alarm algorithm that can take into account positive detection delay, probability of detection, and false...

  20. Breast implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Daniel L; Keeney, Gary L; Chen, Beiyun; Visscher, Daniel W; Carter, Jodi M

    2017-09-01

    The use of prosthetic implants for breast augmentation has become commonplace. Although implants do not increase the risk of conventional mammary carcinoma, they are rarely associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We report 2 cases of breast implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma with poor clinical outcomes. Both patients (56-year-old woman and 81-year-old woman) had long-standing implants (>25 years) and presented with acute unilateral breast enlargement. In both cases, squamous cell carcinoma arose in (focally dysplastic) squamous epithelium-lined breast implant capsules and widely invaded surrounding breast parenchyma or chest wall. Neither patient had evidence of a primary mammary carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma at any other anatomic site. Within 1 year, one patient developed extensive, treatment-refractory, locoregional soft tissue metastasis, and the second patient developed hepatic and soft tissue metastases and died of disease. There are 2 prior reported cases of implant-associated squamous cell carcinoma in the plastic surgery literature; one provides no pathologic staging or outcome information, and the second case was a capsule-confined squamous cell carcinoma. Together, all 4 cases share notable commonalities: the patients had long-standing breast implants and presented with acute unilateral breast pain and enlargement secondary to tumors arising on the posterior aspect of squamous epithelialized implant capsules. Because of both its rarity and its unusual clinical presentation, implant capsule-associated squamous cell carcinoma may be underrecognized. The aggressive behavior of the tumors in this series underscores the importance of excluding malignancy in patients with long-standing breast implants who present with acute unilateral breast pain and enlargement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of polysaccharide capsule of the microalgae Staurastrum iversenii var. americanum on diffusion of charged and uncharged molecules, using EPR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Nordi, Cristina S.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.; Vieira, Armando A.H.; Nakaie, Clovis R.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a mucilaginous envelope, sheath or capsule is usual in many desmids, but few data concerning its function are available. Previous studies of the transport function and permeation of molecules through the algae capsules were done using the algae Spondylosium panduriforme and Nephrocytium lunatum, the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique, and different spin labels. The results suggested that the capsule functions as a selective diffusion medium. In the present work charged and uncharged molecules (spin labels group A) and Staurastrum iversenii var. americanum (Desmids),whose alga presents a great mucilaginous capsule, were used. Charged nitroxide molecules similar to amino acids (spin labels group B) were also used allowing a better understanding of the electrostatic effect in the permeation process across the capsule. The role of the cell capsule in the solute diffusion was evaluated by determining the capsulated and decapsulated cell permeation times. The permeation times for all spin labels tested in the cells lacking capsules were always shorter than those containing this physical barrier. The decay times of spin labels group A observed for S. iversenii were compared to other studied algae. The results regarding the diffusion of charged spin labels group B suggested that the interaction of cell capsule occurs more strongly with negatively charged molecules than with positively charged ones. The results obtained in this work with spin labels group A confirm that the capsule is an essential structure for the cell, and that due to the polar interactions with the spin labels, it plays an important role in the selection of small molecules. Several parameters, mainly those of electrostatic nature, seem to control the permeation across the algal capsules of spin labels group B, showing that structures which are similar to amino acids could diffuse across the interior of the algal cell. (author)

  2. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P<0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P=0.0003. The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P<0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P<0.00001 or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P<0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P<0.00001. 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension.

  3. On-the-fly detection of images with gastritis aspects in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

    2011-03-01

    Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.

  4. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  5. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  6. Temporal gene expression profiling of the rat knee joint capsule during immobilization-induced joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kayleigh; Sun, Fangui; Trudel, Guy; Sebastiani, Paola; Laneuville, Odette

    2015-05-26

    Contractures of the knee joint cause disability and handicap. Recovering range of motion is recognized by arthritic patients as their preference for improved health outcome secondary only to pain management. Clinical and experimental studies provide evidence that the posterior knee capsule prevents the knee from achieving full extension. This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic changes of the joint capsule transcriptome during the progression of knee joint contractures induced by immobilization. We performed a microarray analysis of genes expressed in the posterior knee joint capsule following induction of a flexion contracture by rigidly immobilizing the rat knee joint over a time-course of 16 weeks. Fold changes of expression values were measured and co-expressed genes were identified by clustering based on time-series analysis. Genes associated with immobilization were further analyzed to reveal pathways and biological significance and validated by immunohistochemistry on sagittal sections of knee joints. Changes in expression with a minimum of 1.5 fold changes were dominated by a decrease in expression for 7732 probe sets occurring at week 8 while the expression of 2251 probe sets increased. Clusters of genes with similar profiles of expression included a total of 162 genes displaying at least a 2 fold change compared to week 1. Functional analysis revealed ontology categories corresponding to triglyceride metabolism, extracellular matrix and muscle contraction. The altered expression of selected genes involved in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway; AGPAT-9, and of the genes P4HB and HSP47, both involved in collagen synthesis, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression in the knee joint capsule was sensitive to joint immobility and provided insights into molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of knee flexion contractures. Capsule responses to immobilization was dynamic and characterized by modulation of at least three

  7. A Look at Computer-Assisted Testing Operations. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 12e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiznieks, Viktors; Dennis, J. Richard

    In computer assisted test construction (CATC) systems, the computer is used to perform the mechanical aspects of testing while the teacher retains control over question content. Advantages of CATC systems include question banks, decreased importance of test item security, computer analysis and response to student test answers, item analysis…

  8. Capsule-odometer: a concept to improve accurate lesion localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2013-09-21

    In order to improve lesion localisation in small-bowel capsule endoscopy, a modified capsule design has been proposed incorporating localisation and - in theory - stabilization capabilities. The proposed design consists of a capsule fitted with protruding wheels attached to a spring-mechanism. This would act as a miniature odometer, leading to more accurate lesion localization information in relation to the onset of the investigation (spring expansion e.g., pyloric opening). Furthermore, this capsule could allow stabilization of the recorded video as any erratic, non-forward movement through the gut is minimised. Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology was used to build a capsule prototype. Thereafter, miniature wheels were also 3-D printed and mounted on a spring which was attached to conventional capsule endoscopes for the purpose of this proof-of-concept experiment. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with porcine small-bowel are presented herein. Further experiments have been scheduled.

  9. Design and test of a 40-kV, 80-A, 10-msec, neutral-beam power supply series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    To meet neutral-beam source requirements, a combination series switch/regulator system has been developed that can provide up to 40-kV at 80A output for 10-ms from the continuously decaying voltage of a charged capacitor bank. The system uses 100% feedback control of a series hard tube regulator. This feedback regulator is able to maintain a 40-kV output level for 100% load variations while the source voltage for the capacitor bank is drained from an initial 55-kV down to as low as 43-kV during a 10-ms pulse. In addition to controlling the output voltage, the series regulator tube also serves the dual role of a disconnect or interrupt switch at the end of each pulse and during the frequent occurrence of a neutral-beam source fault. In the interrupt mode, complete disconnect is achieved in less than 2-μs after first observance of a fault condition; recovery times to normal operation of less than 10-μs after fault clearance can be attained if desired

  10. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  11. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  12. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Mark A.; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  13. CPAS Preflight Drop Test Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Megan E.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Romero, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) drop test program, the CPAS Analysis Team has developed a simulation and analysis process to support drop test planning and execution. This process includes multiple phases focused on developing test simulations and communicating results to all groups involved in the drop test. CPAS Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series drop test planning begins with the development of a basic operational concept for each test. Trajectory simulation tools include the Flight Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) for single bodies, and the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulation for the mated vehicle. Results are communicated to the team at the Test Configuration Review (TCR) and Test Readiness Review (TRR), as well as at Analysis Integrated Product Team (IPT) meetings in earlier and intermediate phases of the pre-test planning. The ability to plan and communicate efficiently with rapidly changing objectives and tight schedule constraints is a necessity for safe and successful drop tests.

  14. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness ΔR. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules

  15. Welding of iridium heat source capsule components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaleski, T.M.; Yearwood, J.C.; Burgan, C.E.; Green, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Interplanetary spacecraft have long used radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) to produce power for instrumentation. These RTG produce electrical energy from the heat generated through the radioactive decay of plutonium-238. The plutonium is present as a ceramic pellet of plutonium oxide. The pellet is encapsulated in a containment shell of iridium. Iridium is the material of choice for these capsules because of its compatibility with the plutonium dioxide. The high-energy beam welding (electron beam and laser) processes used in the fabrication of the capsules has not been published. These welding procedures were originally developed at the Mound Laboratories and have been adapted for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The work involves joining of thin material in small sizes to exacting tolerances. There are four different electron beam welds on each capsule, with one procedure being used in three locations. There is also a laser weld used to seal the edges of a sintered frit assembly. An additional electron beam weld is also performed to seal each of the iridium blanks in a stainless steel waster sheet prior to forming. In the transfer of these welding procedures from one facility to another, a number of modifications were necessary. These modifications are discussed in detail, as well as the inherent problems in making welds in material which is only 0.005 in. thick. In summary, the paper discusses the welding of thin components of iridium using the high energy beam processes. While the peculiarities of iridium are pertinent to the discussion, much of the information is of general interest to the users of these processes. This is especially true of applications involving thin materials and high-precision assemblies

  16. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  17. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-08-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  18. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jianfa, E-mail: gu-jianfa@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zhensheng, E-mail: dai-zhensheng@iapcm.ac.cn; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  19. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements - experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2006-01-01

    The HHF testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. The finally 890 divertor target elements are made of an actively water-cooled CuCrZr heat sink covered with flat tiles of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. Due to the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion for CFC and CuCrZr - resulting in high residual stresses as well as high operation-induced stresses - the bonding zone between CFC and CuCrZr was detected to be the most critical issue for the operational behaviour of the target elements. To achieve a sufficiently high manufacturing quality together with a high lifetime during operation thermal testing of full scale mockups was performed in combination with extensive FEM analyses. In both cases heat loads were applied similar to the expected heat loads in W7-X. All pre-series elements were tested in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. The elements were tested with 100 cycles of 10 MW/m 2 and several elements with even higher cycle numbers and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . The instrumentation of the targets (thermocouples, strain gages) and the infrared camera observation of the heat loaded surface allow an experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the tested elements. The main result is a good agreement between experimental data and numerically computed predictions. Hot spots were, however, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems. Therefore, a programme of fully 3D nonlinear thermal-mechanical FEM calculations was started to evaluate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the target elements with special focus on the optimization of the stress situation in the bonding zone between the CFC and the CuCrZr heat sink. This

  20. Profile of collagen gene expression in the glenohumeral capsule of patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santoro Belangero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the expression of the genes COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1 and COL5A1 in the glenohumeral capsule of patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder.Methods:Samples from the glenohumeral capsule of 18 patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated. Male patients with a positive grip test and a Bankart lesion seen on magnetic resonance imaging were included. All the patients had suffered more than one episode of shoulder dislocation. Samples were collected from the injured glenohumeral capsule (anteroinferior region and from the macroscopically unaffected region (anterosuperior region of each patient. The expression of collagen genes was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription with quantitative analysis (qRT-PCR.Results:The expression of COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL3A1 did not differ between the two regions of the shoulder capsule. However, it was observed that the expression of COL5A1 was significantly lower in the anteroinferior region than in the anterosuperior region (median ± interquartile range: 0.057 ±0.052 vs. 0.155 ±0.398; p = 0.028 of the glenohumeral capsule.Conclusion:The affected region of the glenohumeral capsule in patients with shoulder instability presented reduced expression of COL5A1.

  1. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Yasuichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Niimi, Motoji; Harayama, Yasuo

    1990-11-01

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  3. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules...

  5. Diagnostic and therapeutic capsules and method of producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.A.; Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    An article of manufacture comprising a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule formed essentially of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contract with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract, and having a filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract said filler material being supported by said capsule. And a method of filling a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule comprising providing filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound and transporting said filler material carrying a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound into the chamber of said capsule

  6. Measurement of the volume of internal capsule in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yuan; Guo Yulin; Zhu Kai; Lai Yanbo; Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhu Yan; Chen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of internal capsules in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, body habitus, and craniocerebral volume. Methods: One thousand healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 80 years) were divided into 5 groups according to their age; Group A (18 to 30 years old), group B (31 to 40 years), group C (41 to 50 years), group D (51 to 60 years), and group E (61 to 80 years). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. MR imaging was performed in all of the volunteers using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. After three dimension data reconstruction, the volumes of bilateral internal capsules were manually measured. The volumes of bilateral internal capsules were compared by paired sample t test. The internal capsule volumes were compared between male and female by independent sample t test, and the differences among 5 age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationship between the volumes of internal capsule and age, body habitus or cerebral volume were analyzed using bivariate correlation. Results: The left and right internal capsule volumes were (2809 ± 393) and (2677 ± 343 ) mm 3 respectively. The left internal capsule volumes were significantly larger than that of right (t=12.078, P<0.05). The left and right side of internal capsule volumes in male were (2863 ± 396) and (2744 ±358) mm 3 respectively, and (2754 ±385) and (2609 ±314) mm 3 in female. The left and right internal capsule volumes were larger in males than in female (t=1.982, 2.851; P<0.05). The left internal capsule volume of the 5 age groups were (3273 ± 361), (2943 ± 299), (2777 ± 255), (2607 ± 199), (2444 ±213) mm 3 , and the right were (2993 ± 361), (2814 ± 270), (2682 ± 239), (2543 ± 219), (2351 ±210) mm 3 . There were significant differences among 5 age groups between left and right internal capsule volume (F=55.244, 34.493; P<0

  7. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  8. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  9. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  10. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  11. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  12. Gamma dose estimation to the gastric wall after administration of a capsule containing a large dose of /sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamada, H; Fukukita, H; Kawai, H; Nagaiwa, K [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kawachi, K

    1980-05-01

    Gamma dose to the gastric wall from a capsule containing 1.85 GBq (50 mCi) of /sup 131/I was estimated in 6 patients who had received total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma some years before. The tests were done with a 37 MBq (1 mCi) capsule each in 5 patients and with a 185 MBq (5 mCi) capsule in one patient. All the patients were requested to fast in the morning. The capsule was given with a glass of water (200 ml). Then, the patient kept supine position under the scintillation camera for a period of one hour except one patient on whom the test was suspended at 30 minutes because of early clearance of the radioactivity from the stomach. In one of 5 patients who were tested for a period of one hour, serial scinticamera images showed almost no movement and minimum dissolution of the capsule. The remaining 4 patients showed slight to moderate movements of the capsules with a variety of dissolution speeds. Data processing were done by Scintipac-1200. The estimated doses at the distance of 0.5 cm from the source were 3.820, 2.074, 1.445, 1.154 and 1.462 grays (382.0, 207.4, 144.5, 115.4 and 146.2 rads) per initial one hour and 375 mGy (37.5 rad) per initial 30 minutes, respectively. From these data, it is thought to be wise to advise the patient to rotate or shake the body on bed occasionally after swallowing the capsules containing a large dose of /sup 131/I for the treatment of thyroid cancer. It is also desirable to recommend the patient to walk around even though the controlled patient's room is small. Additional water may be also meaningful to avoid unnecessary irradiation to the gastric wall.

  13. Seismic analysis for shroud facility in-pile tube and saturated temperature capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Koichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro

    2009-07-01

    At Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the plan of repairing and refurbishing Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) has progressed in order to restart JMTR operation in the fiscal 2011. As a part of effective use of JMTR, the neutron irradiation tests of LWR fuels and materials has been planned in order to study their soundness. By using Oarai Shroud Facility (OSF-1) and Fuel Irradiation Facility with the He-3 gas control system for power lamping test using Boiling Water Capsules (BOCA Irradiation Facility), the irradiation tests with power ramping will be carried out to study the soundness of fuel under LWR Transient condition. OSF-1 is the irradiation facility of shroud type that can insert and eject the capsule under reactor operation, and is composed of 'In-pile Tube', 'Cooling system' and 'Capsule exchange system'. BOCA Irradiation Facility is the facility which simulates irradiation environment of LWR, and is composed of 'Boiling water Capsule', 'Capsule control system' and 'Power control system by He-3'. By using Saturated temperature Capsules and the water environment control system, the material irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition of LWR will be carried out to clarify the mechanism of IASCC. In JMTR, these facilities are in service at the present. However, the detailed design for renewal or remodeling was carried out based on the new design condition in order to be correspondent to the irradiation test plan after restart JMTR operation. In this seismic analysis of the detailed design, each equipment classification and operating state were arranged with 'Japanese technical standards of the structure on nuclear facility for test research' and 'Technical guidelines for seismic design of nuclear power plants on current, and then, stress calculation and evaluation were carried out by FEM piping analysis code 'SAP' and structure analysis code 'ABAQUS'. About the stress of the seismic force, it was proven

  14. Effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on renal function of healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N.; Darmawan, E.; Nurani, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa contains flavonoid, triterpenoid, anthocyanin which function as immunostimulant. H. sabdariffa is considered safe for animal renal; nonetheless, there are known side effects of which need to be further investigated for human renal. This research aims to investigate the effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa for renal function of healthy male and female for 30 days period by monitoring Scr and Clcr component in their blood samples. The method of this experimental research was by pre and post-treatment by involving 20 healthy volunteers who have met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The volunteers have completed the informed consent for this experiment. Furthermore, volunteers were divided into two groups (10 male and 10 female). Each group was given orally 500 mg of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa per day for 30 days period. Blood tests were taken on day 0, day 30 after consuming the capsule and day 45 (15 days after the last day of capsule intake) in order to measure the Scr and Clcr concentration in the blood samples by using Jaffe dan Cockcroft-Gault method. The results of each sampling day were further analyzed statistically and compared using Repeated ANOVA dan Friedman test. The results suggest that there was a difference in the renal function on day 0, 30 and 45 samplings. However, there was no significant difference in Scr dan Clcr concentrations on female and male volunteers (p>0.05). Specifically, the type of gender affects Scr concentration (p0.05). In addition, age and Body Mass Index (BMI) does not affect Scr and Clcr concentrations (p>0.05). The side effects discovered through the monitoring increased in mixturition and bloatedness. Calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa does not affect on renal function of healthy volunteers.

  15. Design of a video capsule endoscopy system with low-power ASIC for monitoring gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Lu, Li

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a state-of-the-art tool to examine disorders of the human gastrointestinal tract painlessly. However, system miniaturization, enhancement of the image-data transfer rate and power consumption reduction for the capsule are still key challenges. In this paper, a video capsule endoscopy system with a low-power controlling and processing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated. In the design, these challenges are resolved by employing a microimage sensor, a novel radio frequency transmitter with an on-off keying modulation rate of 20 Mbps, and an ASIC structure that includes a clock management module, a power-efficient image compression module and a power management unit. An ASIC-based prototype capsule, which measures Φ11 mm × 25 mm, has been developed here. Test results show that the designed ASIC consumes much less power than most of the other WCE systems and that its total power consumption per frame is the least. The image compression module can realize high near-lossless compression rate (3.69) and high image quality (46.2 dB). The proposed system supports multi-spectral imaging, including white light imaging and autofluorescence imaging, at a maximum frame rate of 24 fps and with a resolution of 400 × 400. Tests and in vivo trials in pigs have proved the feasibility of the entire system, but further improvements in capsule control and compression performance inside the ASIC are needed in the future.

  16. Effects of alga polysaccharide capsule shells on in-vivo bioavailability and disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Guo, Shuju; Ma, Lin; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin has been used in hard capsule shells for more than a century, and some shortcomings have appeared, such as high moisture content and risk of transmitting diseases of animal origin to people. Based on available studies regarding gelatin and vegetable shells, we developed a new type of algal polysaccharide capsule (APPC) shells. To test whether our products can replace commercial gelatin shells, we measured in-vivo plasma concentration of 12 selected volunteers with a model drug, ibuprofen, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by calculating the relative bioavailability of APPC and Qualicaps® referenced to gelatin capsules and assessing bioequivalence of the three types of shells, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters with the software DAS 2.0 (China). The results show that APPC shells possess bioequivalence with Qualicaps® and gelatin shells. Moreover, the disintegration behavior of four types of shells (APPC, Vegcaps®, Qualicaps® and gelatin shells) with the content of lactose and radioactive element (99mTc) was observed via gamma-scintigraphic images. The bioavailability and gamma-scintigraphic studies showed that APPC was not statistically different from other vegetable and gelatin capsule shells with respect to in-vivo behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that APPCs are exchangeable with other vegetable and gelatin shells.

  17. Exploding a myth: the capsule dehiscence mechanism and the function of pseudostomata in Sphagnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Jeffrey G; Pressel, Silvia; P'ng, Ken M Y; Renzaglia, Karen S

    2009-01-01

    The nineteenth century air-gun explanation for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum has never been tested experimentally. Similarly, the function of the numerous stomata ubiquitous in the capsule walls has never been investigated. Both intact and pricked Sphagnum capsules, that were allowed to dry out, all dehisced over an 8-12 h period during which time the stomatal guard cells gradually collapsed and their potassium content, measured by X-ray microanalysis in a cryoscanning electron microscope, gradually increased. By contrast, guard cell potassium fell in water-stressed Arabidopsis. The pricking experiments demonstrate that the air-gun notion for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum is inaccurate; differential shrinkage of the capsule walls causes popping off the rigid operculum. The absence of evidence for a potassium-regulating mechanism in the stomatal guard cells and their gradual collapse before spore discharge indicates that their sole role is facilitation of sporophyte desiccation that ultimately leads to capsule dehiscence. Our novel functional data on Sphagnum, when considered in relation to bryophyte phylogeny, suggest the possibility that stomata first appeared in land plants as structures that facilitated sporophyte drying out before spore discharge and only subsequently acquired their role in the regulation of gaseous exchange.

  18. Pharmaceutical 3D printing: Design and qualification of a single step print and fill capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick M; Kapoor, Yash; Klinzing, Gerard R; Procopio, Adam T

    2018-06-10

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) has a potential to change how we envision manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. A more common utilization for FDM 3DP is to build upon existing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology where the drug is dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, reliable manufacturing of drug-containing filaments remains a challenge along with the limitation of active ingredients which can sustain the processing risks involved in the HME process. To circumvent this obstacle, a single step FDM 3DP process was developed to manufacture thin-walled drug-free capsules which can be filled with dry or liquid drug product formulations. Drug release from these systems is governed by the combined dissolution of the FDM capsule 'shell' and the dosage form encapsulated in these shells. To prepare the shells, the 3D printer files (extension '.gcode') were modified by creating discrete zones, so-called 'zoning process', with individual print parameters. Capsules printed without the zoning process resulted in macroscopic print defects and holes. X-ray computed tomography, finite element analysis and mechanical testing were used to guide the zoning process and printing parameters in order to manufacture consistent and robust capsule shell geometries. Additionally, dose consistencies of drug containing liquid formulations were investigated in this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bo, E-mail: yebo@hubu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002 (China); Sun, Zhen-jun [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo, Lin [School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, HuBei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Deng, Chao [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Ya-qi [Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhang, Hong-hai [School of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Sheng [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application. - Highlights: • A new magnetic control method for spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope is proposed. • Wireless capsule endoscope rotates synchronously with external permanent magnet. • The method controls the wireless capsule endoscope well in porcine small intestine. • Long control distance makes the method may be used in future medical application. • Experimental setup has great advantages: high cost performance and easy operation.

  20. Return of isotope capsules to the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Cesium-137 and strontium-90 isotopes were removed from Hanford Site high-level tank wastes, and were encapsulated at the Hanford Site's Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF), beginning in 1974. Over the past several years, radioactive isotope capsules have been sent to other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-controlled sites to be used for research and development applications, as well as leased to a number of commercial facilities for commercial applications (e.g., sterilization of medical supplies). Due to uncertainty regarding the cause of the release of a small quantity of cesium-137 to an isolated water basin from a WESF cesium-137 capsule in a commercial facility in Decatur, Georgia, the DOE has determined that it needs to return leased capsules from IOTECH, Incorporated (IOTECH), Northglenn, Colorado; Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington; and the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO), Lynchburg, Virginia; to the WESF Facility on the Hanford Site, to ensure safe management and storage, pending final disposition. All of these capsules located at the commercial facilities were successfully tested during Calendar Year 1993, and none showed any indication of off-normal specifications. Storage at the WESF will continue under the actions selected in the Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington