WorldWideScience

Sample records for capsule parametric design

  1. Parametrics in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    real influence on the process of urban space design. This is due to a number of factors. Lots of money, influence and power is vested in the design of urban space. The classical definition of urban planning as the question of regulating who gets what, where, why, when and how, states this very clearly......The design of urban space has always been contested. Whether imposed by autocratic rulers, emerged as a result of market forces, or implemented as a result of democratic planning processes, urban space design shapes the lives of urban dwellers. Yet rarely does the average urban dweller have any...... the given time and resource limits. And again, the lay person, whether she is a resident, a local business person, or a NGO representative, is left with little influence, when it comes to the design of urban space. With the advent of parametric design tools, this need no longer be the case. Rather than...

  2. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  3. Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....

  4. A parametric study on ice formation inside a spherical capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Silva, T.M. da [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos - FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP, Campinas (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica - DEMEC, UFPE, CEP 50740-530, PE, Recife (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a numerical study on the heat transfer during the process of solidification of water inside a spherical capsule. The governing equations of the problem and associated boundary conditions were formulated and solved using a finite difference approach and a moving grid scheme. The model was optimized and the numerical predictions were validated by comparison with experimental results realized by the authors. The model was also used to investigate the effects of the size and material of the shell, initial temperature of the phase change material and the external temperature of the spherical capsule on the solidified mass fraction and the time for the complete solidification. (authors)

  5. Design of parametric software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify......The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... Modelling projects....

  6. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... especially concerning implementation of consequences of the latest development of the building technology, where low-energy windows and step-noise damping give rise to changes of the design fires....

  7. Parametric Thinking in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    the application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...

  8. Development of capsule design support subprograms for 3-dimensional temperature calculation using FEM Code NISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, Masahiro; Matsui, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Prediction of irradiation temperature is one of the important issues in the design of the capsule for irradiation test. Many kinds of capsules with complex structure have been designed for recent irradiation requests, and three-dimensional (3D) temperature calculation becomes inevitable for the evaluation of irradiation temperature. For such 3D calculation, however, many works are usually needed for input data preparation, and a lot of time and resources are necessary for parametric studies in the design. To improve such situation, JAERI introduced 3D-FEM (finite element method) code NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for System Analysis) and developed several subprograms, which enabled to support input preparation works in the capsule design. The 3D temperature calculation of the capsule are able to carried out in much easier way by the help of the subprograms, and specific features in the irradiation tests such as non-uniform gamma heating in the capsule, becomes to be considered. (author)

  9. Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...

  10. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  11. Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...... relevant in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some...

  12. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  13. PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF DELTA ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Gürgen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a sophisticated determination and presentation of a workspace volume for a delta robot, with consideration of its kinematic behavior. With the help of theoretical equations, optimization is performed with the aid of the stiffness and dexterity analysis. Theoretical substructure is coded in Matlab and three-dimensional (3D data for delta robot are developed in computer-aided design (CAD environment. In later stages of the project, both 3D and theoretical data are linked together and thus, with the changing design parameter of the robot itself, the Solidworks CAD output adapts and regenerates output with a new set of parameters. To achieve an optimum workspace volume with predefined parameters, a different set of robot parameters are iterated through design optimization in Matlab, and the delta robot design is finalized and illustrated in the 3D CAD environment, Solidworks. This study provides a technical solution to accomplish a generic delta robot with optimized workspace volume.

  14. Collaborative design of parametric sustainable architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hubers, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable architecture is complex. Many aspects, differently important to many stakeholders, are to be optimized. BIM should be used for this. Building Information Modellingis a collaborative process where all stakeholders integrate and optimize their information in a digital 3D model. Sometimes it is called Green BIM. But what exactly is that? Is the International Standard Organization IFC standard useful for this? And is it compatible with new developments in parametric design? Advantages...

  15. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    of the generic qualities of proposed designs. Yet, in any collaborative urban design process, some aspects – or parameters – are more likely to be relevant to deliberate than others. And they are not likely to be the same for different design cases. In one case, density and building style may be topical, while...... design students were asked to develop different design strategies for an urban renewal area and subsequently to script design scenarios which reflected the strategies. By means of role playing, the students took on views of different stakeholders. Hence, three different approaches were adopted...

  16. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  17. Parametric design and gridding through relational geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, John S., Jr.; Shook, D. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Relational Geometric Synthesis (RGS) is a new logical framework for building up precise definitions of complex geometric models from points, curves, surfaces and solids. RGS achieves unprecedented design flexibility by supporting a rich variety of useful curve and surface entities. During the design process, many qualitative and quantitative relationships between elementary objects may be captured and retained in a data structure equivalent to a directed graph, such that they can be utilized for automatically updating the complete model geometry following changes in the shape or location of an underlying object. Capture of relationships enables many new possibilities for parametric variations and optimization. Examples are given of panelization applications for submarines, sailing yachts, offshore structures, and propellers.

  18. Parametric control systems design with applications in missile control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN GuangRen; YU HaiHua; TAN Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers parametric control of high-order descriptor linear systems via proportional plus derivative feedback.By employing general parametric solutions to a type of so-called high-order Sylvester matrix equations,complete parametric control approaches for high-order linear systems are presented.The proposed approaches give simple complete parametric expressions for the feedback gains and the closed-loop eigenvector matrices,and produce all the design degrees of freedom.Furthermore,Important special cases are particularly treated.Based on the proposed parametric design approaches,a parametric method for the gain-scheduling controller design of a linear time-varying system is proposed and the design of a BTT missile autopilot is carried out.The simulation results show that the method is superior to the traditional one in sense of either global stability or system performance.

  19. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  20. Parametric Collaborative Design of Network-based Mechanical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shu-fang; YU Guo-jun; WANG Zong-yan; SU Tie-xiong; QIN Hui-bin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of low-level information sharing, slow transmission and repetitive work in the designing process of product series, the internet-oriented parametric collaborative design method is proposed, in which the problems of sharing conflict and network heterogeneous in the distributed collaborative design are analyzed, and the construction method of collaborative design platforms based on PDMWorks Workgroup is put forward. Through studying the mechanism of roles distribution and function allocation and data concurrency control, the communication mechanism of internet-oriented collaborative design is formulated. On the basis of structure features of overhead travelling crane, through combining parametric variant design with collaborative design, internet-oriented parametric collaborative design system of overhead travelling crane is developed and verified through main girder design. In the paper, the internet-oriented parametric collaborative design method is proposed, aiming to solve the problems of low-level information sharing, slow transmission and repetitive work in the designing process of product series. The problems of sharing conflict and network heterogeneous in the distributed collaborative design are analyzed. The construction method of collaborative design platforms based on PDMWorks Workgroup is put forward. The communication mechanism of internet-oriented collaborative design is formulated, through studying the mechanism of roles distribution and function allocation and data concurrency control. On the basis of structure features of overhead travelling crane, through combining parametric variant design with collaborative design, internet-oriented parametric collaborative design system of overhead travelling crane is developed and verified through main girder design.

  1. A Parametric Urban Design Approach to Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    -designer professionals can provide input and evaluate the spatial effects instantly in the context of participatory design processes. Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth, while formal urban planning is absent in large parts, resulting in large-scale informal and unplanned development. A parametric...... in the course of participatory processes, as the consequences of changing different parameters cannot easily be evaluated by means of traditional design tools. In recent years, new parametric design tools have opened up new possibilities for dynamic scenario building in urban design. By way of a parametric...... design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three-dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up completely new possibilities for participatory design, as both lay stakeholders and non...

  2. Design criteria for ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, C.; Cerullo, G.

    2016-10-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) exploit second-order nonlinearity to transfer energy from a fixed frequency pump pulse to a variable frequency signal pulse, and represent an easy way of tuning over a broad range the frequency of an otherwise fixed femtosecond laser system. OPAs can also act as broadband amplifiers, transferring energy from a narrowband pump to a broadband signal and thus considerably shortening the duration of the pump pulse. Due to these unique properties, OPAs are nowadays ubiquitous in ultrafast laser laboratories, and are employed by many users, such as solid state physicists, atomic/molecular physicists, chemists and biologists, who are not experts in ultrafast optics. This tutorial paper aims at providing the non-specialist reader with a self-consistent guide to the physical foundations of OPAs, deriving the main equations describing their performance and discussing how they can be used to understand their most important working parameters (frequency tunability, bandwidth, pulse energy/repetition rate scalability, control over the carrier-envelope phase of the generated pulses). Based on this analysis, we derive practical design criteria for OPAs, showing how their performance depends on the type of the nonlinear interaction (crystal type, phase-matching configuration, crystal length), on the characteristics of the pump pulse (frequency, duration, energy, repetition rate) and on the OPA architecture.

  3. Design of Efficient Tunable Terahertz-Wave Parametric Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIDDIQUE Muhammad; ZHANG Wei; LI Zhuo; YANG Su-hui

    2006-01-01

    An efficient widely tunable terahertz(THz)-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) has been designed based on the basic principle of optical parametric oscillator. The design of TPO comprises the theoretical calculations for wavelength dependent refractive index dependent wavelength when the frequency is in the far infrared region, the low-loss parametric gain has been discussed as a same form as the parametric gain in the optical region, realized the non-collinear phase-matching con ditions of the terahertz optical parametric oscillator and structure of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) for TPO. The tunable spectrum range of terahertz-wave has been achieved. To increase THz output, a cut exit was made at the corner of the Li NbO3 crystal.

  4. Variable Relation Parametric Model on Graphics Modelon for Collaboration Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-de; ZHAO Han; LI Yan-feng

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to variable relation parametric model for collaboration design based on the graphic modelon has been put forward. The paper gives a parametric description model of graphic modelon, and relating method for different graphic modelon based on variable constraint. At the same time, with the aim of engineering application in the collaboration design, the autonmous constraint in modelon and relative constraint between two modelons are given. Finally, with the tool of variable and relation dbase, the solving method of variable relating and variable-driven among different graphic modelon in a part, and doubleacting variable relating parametric method among different parts for collaboration are given.

  5. A Generic Synthesis Algorithm for Well-Defined Parametric Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotborgh, W.O.; Kokkeler, F.G.M.; Tragter, H.; Bomhoff, M.J.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to improve the way synthesis tools can be built by formalizing: 1) the design artefact, 2) related knowledge and 3) an algorithm to generate solutions. This paper focuses on well-defined parametric engineering design, ranging from machine elements to industrial products. A design art

  6. Design and fabrication of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and fabrication of four High Flux Isotope Reactor-magnetic fusion energy removable beryllium capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400/C) to accommodate magnetic fusion energy specimens preirradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. These capsule designs incorporate provisions for removal, examination, and re-encapsulation of the MFE specimens at intermediate exposure levels en route to a target exposure level of 30 displacements per atom (dpa). With the exception of the 600C capsule, where the test specimens will be in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, the specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) will be controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a small gap region between the specimen holder and the containment tube. Hafnium sleeves will be used to tailor the neutron spectrum to closely match the helium production-to-atom displacement ratio (14 appm/dpa) expected in a fusion reactor first wall. Design and preparation of fabrication drawing for the 60 and 3300C capsules and all generic capsule components and support facilities have now been completed. Assembly of the 600C capsule is complete and the 3300C capsule is nearing completion. The irradiation of both capsules will begin when the HFIR returns to full power operation. Design and preparation of fabrication drawings for the 200 and 4000C capsules will be completed in 1988, and operation of these two capsules will follow the first two (60 and 3300C). 5 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  7. Design of polymeric capsules for autonomous healing of cracks in cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    HILLOULIN, Benoit; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Gruyaert, Elke; LOUKILI, Ahmed; De Belie, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Now, most of the capsules used to contain polymeric healing agents in self-healing concrete, are made of glass. However, glass capsules cannot be mixed in concrete and are therefore placed manually into the moulds during concrete casting in laboratory tests. This represents a major drawback for an eventual industrialisation. In this study, polymeric capsules were designed to meet three requirements: breakage upon crack appearance, compatibility with the polymeric healing agent and survival...

  8. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  9. Design of capsules capable of argon-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the use of polycarbosilane capsules as fuel container in inertial confinement fusion experiments was analyzed in the paper. Primary study indicates that the polycarbosilane capsules can be filled with argon by means of diffusion and possess reasonable retention time for deuterium. (author)

  10. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  11. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license 90SrF2 heat sources - specifically the 90SrF2 capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF 90SrF2 capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements

  12. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  13. Parametric design of air powered car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, T.M.; Kumar, B.P.; Suresh, R. [Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An air-powered car was described with particular reference to its thermodynamic properties. The car was based on an external combustion engine. Air suction occurred in a piston and cylinder assembly through an air vent, where it was then compressed to higher pressures. The compressed air then entered a multi-stage reciprocating single-acting air compressor where the air was further compressed. Power for the compressor was provided by a double-battery system and a relay circuit to trigger the battery connection. Compressed air was stored in a compressed air tank and controlled by valves. The valves were controlled by a contour profile of an overhead camshift. Design specifications were included for the cylinder and cylinder liner; the pistons; the connecting rod; crank; valve gear mechanism; and the compressor. Results of the thermodynamic analysis indicated that the air-powered car is technologically feasible. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Design and fabrication of a capsule for a material irradiation in an OR hole of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the design of a capsule for a material irradiation that is supposed to be loaded in an OR test hole in HANARO. Nuclear characteristics for the test holes of HANARO were analyzed for this purpose. A test for a pressure drop and a vibration of this capsule was performed before manufacturing a material capsule suitable for an OR hole in HANARO. In the basic design, capsules with an outside diameter of 50, 52, 54, 56 mm were reviewed theoretically to establish if they met the hydraulic requirements in HANARO. It was estimated that the diameter of a capsule for an OR holes should be more than 49 mm by an evaluation of the flow rate and pressure drop in theory. After a pressure drop test, the capsules with a diameter of 54 and 56 mm were selected and the flow rates were measured in the HANARO operation conditions. Using the velocity data measured at the single channel test loop of the outer core test facility, the heat transfer coefficient was reviewed and the temperature on the surface of the capsule was evaluated to confirm that it was less than the ONB temperature. Finally, a thermal performance test was performed using a mock-up capsule made with the out-pile test results. (author)

  15. Parametric design study of ``power stick'' and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper addresses some major concerns about the Power Stick concept proposed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) personnel, and describes parametric studies of derivative designs to determine to what extent those concerns can be alleviated. The Power Stick and its derivatives are based on the use of the 1-watt(t) Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU) to power a thermoelectric multicouple. Our study concludes that: (a) while the RHU has been safety-qualified as a low-temperature heater, additional reentry analyses and test would be needed to qualify it as a higher temperature heat source for the Power Stick, (b) even after parametric design optimization, the efficiency of the Power Stick and its derivatives is only 2.2%, and, (c) all generators based on the 1-watt heat source require a thermoelectric multicouple with a large number of extremely thin legs, of very doubtful fabricability.

  16. Introduction to the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

    CERN Document Server

    Strain, Jeff; Miller, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The definitive guide to the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL), the command language for the ANSYS Mechanical APDL product from ANSYS, Inc. PADT has converted their popular "Introduction to APDL" class into a guide so that users can teach themselves the APDL language at their own pace. Its 12 chapters include reference information, examples, tips and hints, and eight workshops. Topics covered include: - Parameters - User Interfacing - Program Flow - Retrieving Database Information - Arrays, Tables, and Strings - Importing Data - Writing Output to Files - Menu Customization

  17. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected to a parametric study of the impact of changes in input parameters relating to the design and the use of the building.

  18. PARAMETRIC MODELING, CREATIVITY, AND DESIGN: TWO EXPERIENCES WITH ARCHITECTURE’ STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Florio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reflect on the use of the parametric modeling in two didactic experiences. The first experiment involved resources of the Paracloud program and its relation with the Rhinoceros program, that resulted in the production of physical models produced with the aid of the laser cutting. In the second experiment, the students had produced algorithms in the Grasshopper, resulting in families of structures and coverings. The study objects are both the physical models and digital algorithms resultants from this experimentation. For the analysis and synthesis of the results, we adopted four important assumptions: 1. the value of attitudes and environment of work; 2. the importance of experimentation and improvisation; 3. understanding of the design process as a situated act and as a ill-defined problem; 4. the inclusion of creative and critical thought in the disciplines. The results allow us to affirm that the parametric modeling stimulates creativity, therefore allowing combination of different parameters, that result in unexpected discoveries. Keywords: Teach-Learning, Parametric Modeling, Laser Cutter, Grasshopper, Design Process, Creativity.

  19. Parametric Approach in Designing Large-Scale Urban Architectural Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Riekstiņš

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When all the disciplines of various science fields converge and develop, new approaches to contemporary architecture arise. The author looks towards approaching digital architecture from parametric viewpoint, revealing its generative capacity, originating from the fields of aeronautical, naval, automobile and product-design industries. The author also goes explicitly through his design cycle workflow for testing the latest methodologies in architectural design. The design process steps involved: extrapolating valuable statistical data about the site into three-dimensional diagrams, defining certain materiality of what is being produced, ways of presenting structural skin and structure simultaneously, contacting the object with the ground, interior program definition of the building with floors and possible spaces, logic of fabrication, CNC milling of the proto-type. The author’s developed tool that is reviewed in this article features enormous performative capacity and is applicable to various architectural design scales.Article in English

  20. Investigation and design of the dismantling process of irradiation capsules containing tritium. 2. Detailed design and trial fabrication of capsule dismantling apparatus and investigation of glove box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-pile functional tests of breeding blankets have been planned by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), using a test blanket module (TBM) which will be loaded in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In preparation for the in-pile functional tests, JAEA has been performing irradiation experiments of lithium titanate (Li2TiO3), which is the first candidate of solid breeder materials for the blanket of the demonstration reactor (DEMO) under designing in Japan. The present report describes 1) results of a detailed design and trial fabrication tests of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules which were used in irradiation experiments by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAEA, and 2) results of a preliminary investigation of a glove box facility for post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). In the detailed design of the dismantling apparatus, detailed specifications and the installation methods were examined, based on results of a conceptual design and basic design which were carried out before the present work. In the trial fabrication, cutting tests were curried out by making a mockup of a cutting component, which is a key component of the dismantling apparatus, as well as some simulated JMTR irradiation capsules. Good cutting performance was attained by optimizing the cutting speed, through repeated reviews of the results of the trial fabrication tests. In addition, improvement of the capsule clamping mechanism brought a prospect for feasibility of the apparatus in terms of operational convenience such as setting and removal, respectively, of the capsule before and after the cutting. Furthermore, a preliminary investigation of a glove box facility was carried out in order to secure a facility for PIE work after the capsule dismantling, which revealed a technical feasibility. (author)

  1. A Prototype Design of a Wireless Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as intestinal bleeding and ulceration, are very common. To determine the location of the disease, as well as to diagnose the problem, endoscopy is performed. A wireless capsule endoscope is a pill-sized device that is easily swallowed by the patient. It is equipped with a camera and a wireless transmitter so that as it travels through the patient's gastrointestinal tract, it takes pictures or video images of the tract and transmits the information out of the patient's body. This article discusses the possible solutions and challenges of a wireless capsule endoscope in terms of the choice of wireless frequency and circuit components. A prototype is built with commercially available components to demonstrate the concept of the device.

  2. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  3. Introduction to the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

    CERN Document Server

    Strain, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The definitive guide to the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL), the command language for the ANSYS Mechanical APDL product from ANSYS, Inc. PADT has converted their popular "Introduction to APDL" class into a guide so that users can teach themselves the APDL language at their own pace. Its 14 chapters include reference information, examples, tips and hints, and eight workshops. Topics covered include: - Parameters - User Interfacing - Program Flow - Retrieving Database Information - Arrays, Tables, and Strings - Importing Data - Writing Output to Files - Menu Customization - APDL Math - Using APDL in ANSYS Mechanical

  4. Design of on-demand wireless capsule endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Eric W Able; Peng Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    An on-demand wireless capsule endoscope with full-digital and bidirectional communication is presented,aiming at fulfilling the requirements of micromation and micropower consumption of modern wireless endoscope.The proposed multifunctional operation and unique radio transmission system cuts down the power consumption efficiently and on-demand bidirectional communication in vitro improves the detection rate of focus.Meanwhile,gray dilatation is introduced in a bit plane that optimizes the distortion rate in the process of image recording and transmission.

  5. Capsule design for irradiation of fatigue crack propagation specimens in ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsule has been designed to allow the irradiation of fatigue crack propagation specimens with the 0.5T compact tension (0.5T CT) geometry at elevated temperatures in the high-flux region of the ORR core. Temperature control will be achieved by a balance between gamma heat generation in the specimens and heat loss to the reactor cooling water through an externally controlled variable gas gap. The design of the ORR capsule has been derived from NRL capsules used to irradiate reactor pressure vessel steels in a number of research reactors, with modifications to the geometry to allow for the high gamma heating rate encountered in the core of ORR. The first assembly of this design will be irradiated as experiment MFE-3, scheduled for insertion in ORR by the end of FY 78

  6. Proposed pushered single shell capsule design for the investigation of mid/high Z mix on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert; Graziani, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The CD Mix campaign has given a detailed explination of the mix mechanics in the current ignition capsule designs by investigating the relationship between material mixing, shell-fuel interfaces, and the change in thermonuclear yield given a deuterated layer in the capsule. Alternative ignition scenarios include the use of double shell designs that incorporate high-Z material in the capsule. Simulations are conducted on a proposed capsule platform using the ARES code on a scaled capsule design using a partially reduced glass capsule design. This allows for the inclusion of deuterium on the inner surface of the pusher layer similar to the CD mix experiments. The presence of silicon dioxide allows for the investigation of the influence of higher Z material on the mixing characteristics.

  7. Short-wavelength and three-dimensional instability evolution in National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and, most recently, experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as 2000, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to 200 on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode 1200 have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  8. Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.

  9. Design approach of irradiated sample/capsule dismantling machine for use in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main job of designing a machine for purpose boils down to a selection process from the available tools/techniques satisfactory to the five issues noted above. The paper deals with the dismantling of a typical irradiated capsule of 50R/hr

  10. Design and trial fabrication of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules of solid tritium breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: hayashi.kimio@jaea.go.jp; Nakagawa, T.; Onose, S.; Ishida, T.; Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan); Takatsu, H. [Fusion Energy and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, M.; Noguchi, T. [Kaken, Inc., 873-3 Shikada, Hokota-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1416 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Irradiation experiments of solid breeder materials including Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} have been being carried out in preparation for a test blanket module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The present paper deals with design and trial-fabrication works for developing a dismantling apparatus for the irradiation capsules. The dismantling process leads to release of tritium which is left in free volumes of the capsule or in the breeder specimens. In the design of the dismantling apparatus, the released tritium is recovered safely by a purge-gas system during the cutting of the irradiation capsule by a band saw, and then the tritium is consolidated into a radioactive waste. Furthermore, an inner-box enclosing the dismantling apparatus works as a countermeasure of possible release of tritium in accidental events. Good performance of a trial fabrication model of the dismantling apparatus has been demonstrated by preliminary cutting runs using some mockups simulating the irradiation capsules. Thus, the present design of the apparatus, together with the trial mock-up runs, will contribute to the design of the TBM structure and to the planning of the dismantling process of the TBM.

  11. Design and trial fabrication of a dismantling apparatus for irradiation capsules of solid tritium breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation experiments of solid breeder materials including Li2TiO3 have been being carried out in preparation for a test blanket module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The present paper deals with design and trial-fabrication works for developing a dismantling apparatus for the irradiation capsules. The dismantling process leads to release of tritium which is left in free volumes of the capsule or in the breeder specimens. In the design of the dismantling apparatus, the released tritium is recovered safely by a purge-gas system during the cutting of the irradiation capsule by a band saw, and then the tritium is consolidated into a radioactive waste. Furthermore, an inner-box enclosing the dismantling apparatus works as a countermeasure of possible release of tritium in accidental events. Good performance of a trial fabrication model of the dismantling apparatus has been demonstrated by preliminary cutting runs using some mockups simulating the irradiation capsules. Thus, the present design of the apparatus, together with the trial mock-up runs, will contribute to the design of the TBM structure and to the planning of the dismantling process of the TBM.

  12. Development and Implementation of a Novel Parametrization Technique for Multidisciplinary Design Initialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, M.H.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Voskuijl, M.; Vos, R.

    2010-01-01

    A new parametrization method for aircraft shapes is presented to enhance shape optimization for aircraft design. This parametrization method was implemented in a tool that creates feasible initial solutions for multidisciplinary design optimization problems. The tool combines all aspects of the aero

  13. Integrating acoustic analysis in the architectural design process using parametric modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how parametric modeling techniques can be used to provide architectural designers with a better understanding of the acoustic performance of their designs and provide acoustic engineers with models that can be analyzed using computational acoustic analysis software. Architects...... parametric modeling, acoustic performance can inform the geometry and material logic of the design. In this way, the architectural design and the acoustic analysis model become linked........ This can provide a method by which architects and engineers can work together more efficiently and communicate better. This research is illustrated through the design of an architectural project, a new school in Copenhagen, Denmark by JJW Architects, where parametric modeling techniques have been used...

  14. Interactive flutter analysis and parametric study for conceptual wing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1995-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate the flutter instability boundary of a flexible cantilever wing, when well defined structural and aerodynamic data are not available, and then study the effect of change in Mach number, dynamic pressure, torsional frequency, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, taper ratio, center of gravity, and pitch inertia, to guide the development of the concept. The software was developed on MathCad (trademark) platform for Macintosh, with integrated documentation, graphics, database and symbolic mathematics. The analysis method was based on nondimensional parametric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on torsional stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravity location and pitch inertia radius of gyration. The plots were compiled in a Vaught Corporation report from a vast database of past experiments and wind tunnel tests. The computer program was utilized for flutter analysis of the outer wing of a Blended Wing Body concept, proposed by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Using a set of assumed data, preliminary flutter boundary and flutter dynamic pressure variation with altitude, Mach number and torsional stiffness were determined.

  15. Optimal Design of Experiments for Parametric Identification of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    Optimal Systems of experiments for parametric identification of civil engineering structures is investigated. Design of experiments for parametric identification of dynamic systems is usually done by minimizing a scalar measure, e.g the determinant, the trace ect., of an estimated parameter...

  16. Comparison of Three Common Experimental Designs to Improve Statistical Power When Data Violate Parametric Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew C.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the small sample goodness of fit and statistical power of several nonparametric tests and their parametric analogues when applied to data which violate parametric assumptions. The motivation was to facilitate choice among three designs, simple random assignment with and without a concomitant variable…

  17. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Efficient design optimization of complex electromagnetic systems using parametric macromodeling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ferranti, Francesco; Antonini, Giulio; Dhaene, Tom; Knockaert, Luc; SCOGNA, Antonio Ciccomancini

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new parametric macromodeling technique for complex electromagnetic systems described by scattering parameters, which are parameterized by multiple design variables such as layout or substrate feature. The proposed technique is based on an efficient and reliable combination of rational identification, a procedure to find scaling and frequency shifting system coefficients, and positive interpolation schemes. Parametric macromodels can be used for efficient and accurate design space...

  19. Investigation and design of the dismantling process for irradiation capsules containing tritium. 1. Conceptual investigation and basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-pile functional tests of tritium breeding blankets for fusion reactors have been planned by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), using a test blanket module (TBM) which will be loaded in ITER. In preparation for the in-pile functional tests, JAEA has been being performed irradiation experiments of solid breeder materials including Li2TiO3, which is the first candidate of tritium breeder materials for the blanket of the demonstration reactor (DEMO) in a water-cooled solid-breeder design concept in Japan. The present report describes conceptual investigation and basic design of the dismantling process for irradiation capsules which were used in irradiation experiments by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAEA. An irradiation capsule to be dismantled is comprised of a cylindrical outer-container (65mm in outer diameter) and an inner-container which is loaded with Li2TiO3 pebbles. In the present design, the irradiation capsule is cut by a band saw; the released tritium is recovered safely by a purge-gas system, and is consolidated into a radioactive waste form. Furthermore, an inner-box enclosing the dismantling apparatus has been designed as a safety countermeasure of possible tritium release from the dismantling apparatus in accidental events. The adoption of the inner-box has brought a prospect to be able to utilize an existing hot cell (β γ cell) equipped with usual wall material permeable to tritium, without extensive refurbishing of the cell. Thus, the present study has indicated the feasibility of the dismantling process for the irradiated JMTR capsules containing tritium. The results of the present investigation and design will contribute to the design of the TBM structure and to the planning of the dismantling process of the TBM. (author)

  20. Parametric Approach for the Normal Luenberger Function Observer Design in Second-order Descriptor Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhou; Guang-Ren Duan; Yun-Li Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the normal Luenberger function observer design for second-order descriptor linear systems is considered. It is shown that the main procedure of the design is to solve a so-called second-order generalized Sylvester-observer matrix equation. Based on an explicit parametric solution to this equation, a parametric solution to the normal Luenberger function observer design problem is given. The design degrees of freedom presented by explicit parameters can be further utilized to achieve some additional design requirements.

  1. A design study for the addition of higher order parametric discrete elements to NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of discrete elements to NASTRAN poses significant interface problems with the level 15.1 assembly modules and geometry modules. Potential problems in designing new modules for higher-order parametric discrete elements are reviewed in both areas. An assembly procedure is suggested that separates grid point degrees of freedom on the basis of admissibility. New geometric input data are described that facilitate the definition of surfaces in parametric space.

  2. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  3. Systematic parametric design/calculation of the piston rod unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacani, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this article a modern and economic method for the strength calculation of the piston rod unit and its components under different operating conditions will be presented. Herefore the commercial FEA - Software will be linked with the company-owned calculation tools. The parametric user input will be followed by an automatic Pre- and Postprocessing. Afterwards the strength calculation is processed on all critical points of the piston rod connection, assisted by an extra module, based on general standards and special codes for reciprocating compressors. In this process most arrangements of the piston rod unit as well as the special geometries of the single-components (piston, piston rod and piston nut) can be considered easily. In this article the modeling of the notches, especially on the piston rod, piston as well as the piston nut will be covered in detail.

  4. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  5. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-institutional TITAN study has examined the physics, technology, safety, and economics issues associated with the operation of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion reactor at high power density. A comprehensive system and trade study have been conducted as an integral and ongoing part of the reactor assessment. Attractive design points emerging from these parametric studies are subjected to more detailed analysis and design integration, the results of which are used to refine the parametric systems model. The design points and tradeoffs for two TITAN/RFP reactor embodiments are discussed. 14 refs

  6. Research on Variable Structure Parametric Design System of Ceramic Tile Mould Based on Modular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiao-bo; DONG Yu-de; QIN Lei

    2014-01-01

    To solve the existing problems during the ceramic mold enterprises product design and development process, the variable structure parametric design system based on modular of ceramic mold has been developed. The system uses the object-oriented technology and top-down design concept as a guide, establishes a ceramic mold parametric design process, divides the process of ceramic mold design into modules of different levels and creates a component model library based on the functional analysis. Expanding modular thinking to parts structure design level is an effective solution to the difficulty of changing the structure during the product design process. Examples show that the system can achieve a ceramic mold product design, improve design efficiency.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on HANARO Instrumented Capsule (04M-17U) for the Researches of Universities in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of 2004 project for active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (04M-17U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for the irradiation test of various nuclear materials under irradiation conditions requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of 04M-17U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U and 03M-06U capsules successfully irradiated in HANARO as 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 projects. However, because of the limited number of specimens and budget of 4 universities, the remained space of the capsule was charged with various KAERI specimens for the researches of nuclear core material, fracture toughness and irradiation damage. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, SP(small punch) specimens made of Fe, Zr, Ti, Ni, Al and Cu were inserted in the capsule. The capsule is composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and independent electric heater in each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of 30MW thermal output at 260∼350 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 6.0x1020(n/cm2) (E>1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users

  8. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-08-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  9. Parametric design and analysis framework with integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    of building energy and indoor environment, are generally confined to late in the design process. Consequence based design is a framework intended for the early design stage. It involves interdisciplinary expertise that secures validity and quality assurance with a simulationist while sustaining autonomous...

  10. Design of tensegrity structures using parametric analysis and stochastic search

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos, L.; H. Jain; Kripakaran, P.; Smith, I.F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Tensegrity structures are lightweight structures composed of cables in tension and struts in compression. Since tensegrity systems exhibit geometrically nonlinear behavior, finding optimal structural designs is difficult. This paper focuses on the use of stochastic search for the design of tensegrity systems. A pedestrian bridge made of square hollow-rope tensegrity ring modules is studied. Two design methods are compared in this paper. Both methods aim to find the minimal cost solution. The ...

  11. Parametric fuselage design: Integration of mechanics and acoustic & thermal insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krakers, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a fuselage is a very complex process, which involves many different aspects like strength and stability, fatigue, damage tolerance, fire resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation but also inspection, maintenance, production and repair aspects. It is difficult to include all design aspect

  12. Parametric study for the fire safety design of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiuti, Riccardo; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge on the behaviour of structures in fire and the development of new design tools for fire safety, current prescriptive regulations and design procedures present several shortcomings. These are mostly due to an oversimplification of the problem, in order to allow for...

  13. Design of Optimal Directional Parametric Acoustic Arrays in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Glenwood, III

    The nonlinear interaction of propagating acoustic waves in air is exploited as a means of generating highly directional sound beams at both audio frequencies and ultrasonic frequencies. A solution for the third-order intermodulation (IM3) products generated by the nonlinearity of air with a two-tone source waveform is derived by using cascaded secondorder nonlinearities. This method is applied to collinear sources as well as noncollinear sources. With collinear sources, the third-order interaction of two ultrasonic primary tones, where one is approximately the second harmonic of the other, produces an IM3 tone in the audio band. This IM3 tone is shown both theoretically and experimentally to have greater directivity than the difference tone produced by a traditional parametric array which utilizes second-order effects. With noncollinear sources, the third-order interaction of two ultrasonic primary tones closely spaced in frequency produces IM3 upper and IM3 lower tones that are also closely spaced in frequency to the primary tones. The IM3 upper and IM3 lower tones are shown both theoretically and experimentally to have greater directivity than either of the primary tones. Third-order intermodulation distortion generated by the electronic amplifiers and piezoelectric transducers is also shown to contribute to the third-order intermodulation products generated by air. The nonlinear contributions of the amplifier and transducer are modeled using power series expansions and measurements are performed to determine the power series coefficients. A new geometry for the optimum placement of ultrasonic transducers in a multi-element array is derived using the genetic algorithm and results in sparsely packed transducer elements. For primary ultrasonic tones closely spaced in frequency, the sparsely packed array is shown both theoretically and experimentally to produce a difference tone with greater directivity than obtained with a traditional densely packed hexagonal array

  14. Parametric design strategies: robotic building in academic architectural research and education

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric design strategies employing design-to-robotic-production (D2RP) approaches are relative new in architecture. They require trans-disciplinary research that at Hyperbody, TUD is experimentally tested in academic education and research. This paper presents and discusses trans-disciplinary approaches employing strategies that cross several disciplinary boundaries such as architectural design, structural engineering, material sciences, and robotics in order to create a holistic approach.

  15. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  16. Design and fabrication of irradiation testing capsule for research reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seong Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Seung Jae; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Oh, Jong Myeong; Choi, Myeong Hwan; Lee, Byung Chul; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Dae Jong; Chun, Young Bum; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, the demand of research reactors is increasing because there are many ageing research reactors in the world. Also, the production of radioisotope related with the medical purpose is very important. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is designing and licensing for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and new type research reactor for export which will be constructed in Amman, Jordan and Busan, Korea, respectively. Thus, It is expected that more research reactors will be designed and constructed by KAERI. To design the research reactor, the irradiation performance and behavior of core structure material are necessary. However, the irradiation behavior of these materials is not yet investigated. Therefore, the irradiation performance must be verified by irradiation test. 11M 20K and 11M 21K irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated to conduct the irradiation test for some candidate core materials, Zircaloy 4, beryllium, and graphite, at HANARO. In this paper, the design and fabrication features of 11M 20K and 11M 21K were discussed.

  17. Status Report on Irradiation Capsules Designed to Evaluate FeCrAl-UO2 Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-24

    This status report provides the background and current status of a series of irradiation capsules that were designed and are being built to test the interactions between candidate FeCrAl cladding for enhanced accident tolerant applications and prototypical enriched commercial UO2 fuel in a neutron radiation environment. These capsules will test the degree, if any, of fuel cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between FeCrAl and UO2. The capsules are to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory to burn-ups of 10, 30, and 50 GWd/MT with a nominal target temperature at the interfaces between the pellets and clad of 350°C.

  18. Parametrically excited MEMS vibration energy harvesters with design approaches to overcome the initiation threshold amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant-based vibration harvesters have conventionally relied upon accessing the fundamental mode of directly excited resonance to maximize the conversion efficiency of mechanical-to-electrical power transduction. This paper explores the use of parametric resonance, which unlike the former, the resonant-induced amplitude growth, is not limited by linear damping and wherein can potentially offer higher and broader nonlinear peaks. A numerical model has been constructed to demonstrate the potential improvements over the convention. Despite the promising potential, a damping-dependent initiation threshold amplitude has to be attained prior to accessing this alternative resonant phenomenon. Design approaches have been explored to passively reduce this initiation threshold. Furthermore, three representative MEMS designs were fabricated with both 25 and 10 μm thick device silicon. The devices include electrostatic cantilever-based harvesters, with and without the additional design modification to overcome initiation threshold amplitude. The optimum performance was recorded for the 25 μm thick threshold-aided MEMS prototype with device volume ∼0.147 mm3. When driven at 4.2 ms−2, this prototype demonstrated a peak power output of 10.7 nW at the fundamental mode of resonance and 156 nW at the principal parametric resonance, as well as a 23-fold decrease in initiation threshold over the purely parametric prototype. An approximate doubling of the half-power bandwidth was also observed for the parametrically excited scenario. (paper)

  19. Observer design for matrix second order linear systems with uncertain disturbance input-a parametric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yunli; Li Zhibin; Duan Guangren

    2006-01-01

    A simple parametric approach to design a full-order observer for matrix second-order linear systems with uncertain disturbance input in the matrixsecond-order framework is proposed. The basic idea is to minimize the H2 norm of the transfer function from disturbance to estimation error using the design degrees of freedom provided by a parametric approach in the observer design. Besides the design parameters, the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are also optimized within desired regions on the left-half of the complex plane. Using the proposed approach, additional specifications can be easily achieved. A spring-mass system is using to show the effect of the proposed approaches.

  20. Design, development and test of a compact lightweight capsule recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, G.; De Pascale, F.; Kruijff, M.; Mironov, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports about the development and test of a recovery system for small capsules, originally developed for the YES2 satellite launched in 2007, that included a miniature re-entry capsule, Fotino. The system includes a beacon and parachute, an activation system, and a compact spring-based pa

  1. Non-parametric Estimation of a Survival Function with Two-stage Design Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang; Tseng, Chi-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The two-stage design is popular in epidemiology studies and clinical trials due to its cost effectiveness. Typically, the first stage sample contains cheaper and possibly biased information, while the second stage validation sample consists of a subset of subjects with accurate and complete information. In this paper, we study estimation of a survival function with right-censored survival data from a two-stage design. A non-parametric estimator is derived by combining data from both stages. W...

  2. Parametric study of turbine NGV blade lean and vortex design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shaowen; David G. MacManus; Luo Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blade lean and vortex design on the aerodynamics of a turbine entry nozzle guide vane (NGV) are considered using computational fluid dynamics. The aim of the work is to address some of the uncertainties which have arisen from previous studies where conflicting results have been reported for the effect on the NGV. The configuration was initially based on the energy efficient engine turbine which also served as the validation case for the computational method. A total of 17 NGV configurations were evaluated to study the effects of lean and vortex design on row efficiency and secondary kinetic energy. The distribution of mass flow ratio is introduced as an additional factor in the assessment of blade lean effects. The results show that in the turbine entry NGV, the secondary flow strength is not a dominant factor that determines NGV losses and therefore the changes of loading distribution due to blade lean and the associated loss mecha-nisms should be regarded as a key factor. Radial mass flow redistribution under different NGV lean and twist is demonstrated as an addition key factor influencing row efficiency.

  3. Parametric study of turbine NGV blade lean and vortex design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shaowen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blade lean and vortex design on the aerodynamics of a turbine entry nozzle guide vane (NGV are considered using computational fluid dynamics. The aim of the work is to address some of the uncertainties which have arisen from previous studies where conflicting results have been reported for the effect on the NGV. The configuration was initially based on the energy efficient engine turbine which also served as the validation case for the computational method. A total of 17 NGV configurations were evaluated to study the effects of lean and vortex design on row efficiency and secondary kinetic energy. The distribution of mass flow ratio is introduced as an additional factor in the assessment of blade lean effects. The results show that in the turbine entry NGV, the secondary flow strength is not a dominant factor that determines NGV losses and therefore the changes of loading distribution due to blade lean and the associated loss mechanisms should be regarded as a key factor. Radial mass flow redistribution under different NGV lean and twist is demonstrated as an addition key factor influencing row efficiency.

  4. Superelastic leg design optimization for an endoscopic capsule with active locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays Nitinol structures are accepted and highly exploited in the medical field. Therefore, studying the mechanical properties of this material—which is not trivial by considering the thermal behaviour of the alloy—is very important in order to get quantitative data for a reliable design of novel Nitinol components. In particular, this study focuses on the design optimization of superelastic Nitinol legs to be integrated into an endoscopic capsule for biomedical applications. The leg is provided with an elastic knee that adds a passive degree of freedom to the structure; this solution allows us to achieve a good locomotion adaptability in the unstructured environment of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by different diameters. First, the mechanical behaviour of Nitinol was analysed. Tensile tests were carried on in order to extract the peculiar stress–strain curve of the material. The hysteretic behaviour was observed through 100 loading–unloading cycles. The acquired data were used to model the leg design by finite element methods (FEM) and to estimate the stress–strain internal state during the operative work. These data were used to optimize the leg, which was finally fabricated and tested, demonstrating an improvement of five times regarding the number of cycles before leg failure

  5. Parametric Design Optimization Of A Novel Permanent Magnet Coupling Using Finite Element Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    A parametric design optimization routine has been applied to a novel magnetic coupling with improved recyclability. Coupling designs are modeled in a 3-D finite element environ- ment, and evaluated by three design objectives: pull-out torque, torque density by magnet mass, and torque density...... by total mass. Magnet and outer core thicknesses are varied discretely, whereas outer dimensions and air-gap length are kept constant. Comparative trends as a function of pole number and dimensions are depicted. A compromise exist between the design objectives, in which favoring one might reduce the other...

  6. Chamber Hall Threshold Design and Acoustic Surface Shaping with Parametric Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Garber, Emily Ann

    2011-01-01

    The architectural opportunity to develop the sound and light lock of a performance venue as a space that engages and prepares the audience for a performance is one that is sadly missing from most halls. I have explored the development of this threshold as a true architectural space, one that enhances the overall experience for the audience members. And by introducing a parametric process into the architectural and acoustic development, have proposed a unique process for the design of concert ...

  7. Parametric design of an electrorheological shock absorber with the mixed-mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ling; DENG Zhaoxiang; LI Yinong

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model based on an electrorheological (ER) shock absorber with the mixed-mode is presented. Its application to the parametric design of an electrorheological fluid shock absorber with the simulation calculation performed by program MATLAB demonstrates that the model can predict the behavior of ER shock absorbers satisfactorily, shorten the design period of an electrorheological shock absorber, and reduce the cost in the prototype manufacturing. The strength analysis based on a three-dimensional finite element model for the electrorheological shock absorber confirm that the structure design of the ER shock absorber is reasonable, and the stress distribution is uniform.

  8. Parametric design of a Francis turbine runner by means of a three-dimensional inverse design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkah, K.; Zangeneh, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present paper describes the parametric design of a Francis turbine runner. The runner geometry is parameterized by means of a 3D inverse design method, while CFD analyses were performed to assess the hydrodymanic and suction performance of different design configurations that were investigated. An initial runner design was first generated and used as baseline for parametric study. The effects of several design parameter, namely stacking condition and blade loading was then investigated in order to determine their effect on the suction performance. The use of blade parameterization using the inverse method lead to a major advantage for design of Francis turbine runners, as the three-dimensional blade shape is describe by parameters that closely related to the flow field namely blade loading and stacking condition that have a direct impact on the hydrodynamics of the flow field. On the basis of this study, an optimum configuration was designed which results in a cavitation free flow in the runner, while maintaining a high level of hydraulic efficiency. The paper highlights design guidelines for application of inverse design method to Francis turbine runners. The design guidelines have a general validity and can be used for similar design applications since they are based on flow field analyses and on hydrodynamic design parameters.

  9. Design, fabrication and test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (02M-02K) for the evaluation of fracture toughness of irradiated RPV(Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of fracture toughness of irradiated RPV(Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials, an instrumented capsule (02M-02K) was designed, fabricated and irradiated in HANARO. The basic structure of 02M-02K capsule was based on that of the 00M-02K and 01M-05U capsules successfully irradiated in HANARO. 02M-02K capsule was designed to have a standard 4-hole structure for the irradiation of RPV material at 290±10 .deg. C. The capsule is composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and independent electric heater in each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. Various types of specimens such as PCVN, Charpy, Hv, SP, ST, ABI, TEM, BN, UT, PA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of 24MW thermal output at 290±10 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 0.64x1020(n/cm2) (E>1.0MeV). The irradiated specimens will be evaluated for the irradiation damage and the obtained results will also be very valuable for the improvement of irradiation damage evaluation technology of RPV materials

  10. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2013-01-01

    of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy....

  11. A Parametric Study for High-Efficiency Gas-Liquid Separator Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A gas liquid centrifugal separator is widely used in industry on account of its simple geometry and little maintenance. These separators have considerable advantages over filters, scrubbers or precipitators in term of compact design, lower pressure drop and higher capacity. A gas liquid centrifugal separator is a device that utilizes centrifugal forces and low pressure caused by rotational motion to separate liquid from gas by density differences.Efficient and reliable separation is required for the optimum operation. These separators axe often operated at less than peak efficiency due to the entrainment of separated liquid through an outlet pipe which is closely associated with the very complicated flow phenomena involved. Design parameters such as length of the separation space,vane exit angle, inlet to outlet diameter ratio, models for separation efficiency and pressure drop as a function of physical dimensions are not available in literature. This leaves the designer with very little to go on except known designs and experimentation. The aim of present study is to perform a parametric study to get higher efficiency for gas-liquid separator. A parametric study has been carried out with the help of CFD tools to analyze a separation performance of a centrifugal separator by varying the length of separator space. The best design parameters are analyzed based upon obtained results, tangential velocities, vortices, total pressure losses. From the present study several attempts are made to improve the performance of conventional centrifugal separators.

  12. Brayton power conversion system parametric design modelling for nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Thomas L.; Otting, William D.

    1993-11-01

    The parametrically based closed Brayton cycle (CBC) computer design model was developed for inclusion into the NASA LeRC overall Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) end-to-end systems model. The code is intended to provide greater depth to the NEP system modeling which is required to more accurately predict the impact of specific technology on system performance. The CBC model is parametrically based to allow for conducting detailed optimization studies and to provide for easy integration into an overall optimizer driver routine. The power conversion model includes the modeling of the turbines, alternators, compressors, ducting, and heat exchangers (hot-side heat exchanger and recuperator). The code predicts performance to significant detail. The system characteristics determined include estimates of mass, efficiency, and the characteristic dimensions of the major power conversion system components. These characteristics are parametrically modeled as a function of input parameters such as the aerodynamic configuration (axial or radial), turbine inlet temperature, cycle temperature ratio, power level, lifetime, materials, and redundancy.

  13. Design and fabrication report on instrumented capsule (99M-01K.02H) for korean reactor pressure vessel material made by HANJUNG (Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumented capsules (99M-01K·02H) was designed and fabricated. The purpose of the capsules were to evaluate the nuclear irradiation performance of the Korean nuclear reactor pressure vessel material, SA508 class 3 steel, fabricated by HANJUNG Co for Yonggwang Units 4,5 and Ulchin Unit 4. There are 5 stages having specimens and independent electric heaters in the capsule mainbody. 12 K-type thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe and sapphire neutron Fluence Monitors were also inserted in the apsule. Various types of specimens, such as round compact tension, Charpy insert, pre-cracked v-notch (PCVN), tensile, small punch (SP), magnetic Barkhausen effect (MBE), and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) specimens, were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was fabricated at DAEWOO Precision Co. according to KAERI detailed design specifications. This report describes the details of the design, fabrication and inspection of the 99M-01K and 99M-02H capsule. The capsules were irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 290±10 deg C up to the fast neutron fluence (E>1.0 MeV) of 3.0x1019 (n/cm2)

  14. Design and fabrication report on instrumented capsule (99M-01K.02H) for korean reactor pressure vessel material made by HANJUNG (Co)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T

    2000-09-01

    The instrumented capsules (99M-01K{center_dot}02H) was designed and fabricated. The purpose of the capsules were to evaluate the nuclear irradiation performance of the Korean nuclear reactor pressure vessel material, SA508 class 3 steel, fabricated by HANJUNG Co for Yonggwang Units 4,5 and Ulchin Unit 4. There are 5 stages having specimens and independent electric heaters in the capsule mainbody. 12 K-type thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe and sapphire neutron Fluence Monitors were also inserted in the apsule. Various types of specimens, such as round compact tension, Charpy insert, pre-cracked v-notch (PCVN), tensile, small punch (SP), magnetic Barkhausen effect (MBE), and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) specimens, were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was fabricated at DAEWOO Precision Co. according to KAERI detailed design specifications. This report describes the details of the design, fabrication and inspection of the 99M-01K and 99M-02H capsule. The capsules were irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 290{+-}10 deg C up to the fast neutron fluence (E>1.0 MeV) of 3.0x10{sup 19} (n/cm{sup 2})

  15. Generative and Participatory Parametric Frameworks for Multi-player Design Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the phenomenon of emergence explored within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques.These techniques have been informing participatory urban design modalities, which are investigated in this paper by critically reviewing theories, practices, and (software applications that explore multi-player online urban games, with respect to not only their abilities to facilitate online trans-disciplinary expert collaboration and user participation but also to support implementation of democratic ideals in design practice.The assumption is that even if generative and participatory parametric frameworks for multi-player design games may not replace politics as a discipline concerned with the study of government and policies of government, they may reduce the bureaucratic apparatus supporting government by establishing a direct interface between experts such as politicians, urban planners, designers, and users.

  16. Design of micro-optical parametric oscillators based on third-order nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiaoge

    2013-01-01

    We propose optimal designs for optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in microcavities. We show that optimal designs in general call for different external coupling for pump and signal/idler resonances, and we provide a number of normalized performance metrics including threshold pump power and maximum achievable conversion efficiency for OPOs with and without two-photon (TPA) and free-carrier absorption (FCA). We find that the maximum achievable conversion efficiency is bound to an upper limit by nonlinear and free-carrier losses independent of pump power, while linear losses only increase the pump power required to achieve a certain conversion efficiency. The results of this work suggest unique advantages in on-chip implementations that allow explicit engineering of resonances, mode field overlaps, dispersion, and wavelength- and mode-selective coupling. We provide universal design curves that yield optimum designs, and give example designs of microring-resonator-based OPOs in...

  17. Design and Use of a Novel Apparatus for Measuring Capsule Fill Hole Conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seugling, R M; Nederbragt, W W; Klingmann, J L; Edson, S; Reynolds, J; Cook, R

    2006-11-27

    Description and results of a novel apparatus for determining the flow conductance through a laser drilled hole in a spherical shell for inertial confinement fusion experiments are described. The instrument monitors the pressure of an enclosed volume containing the laser pressure drilled capsule as air bleeds through the hole into the shell. From these measurements one obtains the conductance of the fill hole. This system has proven to be a valuable tool for verifying the conduct conductance into the capsule in a timely and nondestructive manner.

  18. Unified parametric approaches for high-order integral observer design for matrix second-order linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangren DUAN; Yunli WU

    2006-01-01

    A type of high-order integral observers for matrix second-order linear systems is proposed on the basis of generalized eigenstructure assignment via unified parametric approaches. Through establishing two general parametric solutions to this type of generalized matrix second-order Sylvester matrix equations, two unified complete parametric methods for the proposed observer design problem are presented. Both methods give simple complete parametric expressions for the observer gain matrices. The first one mainly depends on a series of singular value decompositions, and is thus numerically simple and reliable; the second one utilizes the right factorization of the system, and allows eigenvalues of the error system to be set undetermined and sought via certain optimization procedures. A spring-mass-dashpot system is utilized to illustrate the design procedure and show the effect of the proposed approach.

  19. Design, fabrication and irradiation test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (05M-07U) for the researches of universities in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Choi, M. H.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.

    2006-09-15

    As a part of the 2005 project for an active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (05M-07U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an irradiation test of various unclear materials under irradiation conditions which was requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of the 05M-07U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U, 03M-06U and 04M-07U capsules which had been successfully irradiated in HANARO as part of the 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 projects. However, because of a limited number of specimens and the budget of one university, the remaining space in the capsule was filled with various KAERI specimens for researches on a nuclear core and SMART materials, and parts of a nuclear fuel assembly of KNFC. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, hardness, compression and growth specimens made of Zr 702, Ti and Ni alloys, Zirlo, Inconel, STS 316L and Cr-Mo alloys were placed in the capsule. Especially, this capsule was designed to evaluate the nuclear characteristics of the parts of a nuclear fuel assembly and the Ti tubes in HANARO. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 270 ∼ 400 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.7 x 10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E >1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related research of the users.

  20. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  1. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  2. A Conceptual Wing Flutter Analysis Tool for Systems Analysis and Parametric Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate flutt er instability boundaries of a typical wing, when detailed structural and aerodynamic data are not available. Effects of change in key flu tter parameters can also be estimated in order to guide the conceptual design. This userfriendly software was developed using MathCad and M atlab codes. The analysis method was based on non-dimensional paramet ric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on wing torsion stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, taper ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravit y location and pitch-inertia radius of gyration. These parametric plo ts were compiled in a Chance-Vought Corporation report from database of past experiments and wind tunnel test results. An example was prese nted for conceptual flutter analysis of outer-wing of a Blended-Wing- Body aircraft.

  3. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  4. Space capsule recovery—Evaluation of risk factors, safety plans and procedures and design of experiments for systems qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaiah, N.; Varaprasad, R.; Seshagiri Rao, V.; Krishnamurty, V.; Sanyal, M. K.

    2009-11-01

    The Indian Space capsule (SRE-1) launched aboard PSLV-C7 rocket, was recovered successfully in the Bay of Bengal on January 22, 2007 after its orbital sojourn of 12 days. Apart from serving as a platform for micro-gravity experiments, SRE-1 demonstrated ISRO's capability in the field of orbital reentry and recovery technologies. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC SHAR), the Spaceport of India was given the prime responsibility of assessment of mission risk, formulation and execution of safety plans and procedures, design and conduct of trials for validating the mission-critical sub-systems as well as the physical recovery of the capsule. To achieve these objectives, a number of drop tests were designed and conducted by SDSC SHAR involving real time computer network, ground-based tracking and telemetry stations, communication systems, safety and material handling systems, target identification and recovery systems. Dissemination of relevant information and coordination with multiple external organizations such as Indian Coast Guard, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy is an important aspect of these experiments. This paper delineates the methodologies designed and implemented at SDSC SHAR for validating those critical systems whose functionality finally culminated in the success of the mission, enabling India to join the elite group of nations with reentry module recovery capability.

  5. Performance Driven Design and Design Information Exchange: Establishing a computational design methodology for parametric and performance-driven design of structures via topology optimization for rough structurally informed design models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Morales Beltran, M.G.; Biloria, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a performance driven computational design methodology through introducing a case on parametric structural design. The paper describes the process of design technology development and frames a design methodology through which engineering, -in this case structural- aspects of archi

  6. Design optimization of heat exchanger used in cryopump cooling circuit for a typical fusion machine: a parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical helium (SHe) is typically used for cooling the cryopanels of cryopumps employed in large applications like fusion machine. The heat absorbed by SHe is dumped to liquid helium (LHe) in the heat exchanger. The typical SHe to LHe heat exchanger for such an application of 5.18 KW has been designed. The optimization of heat exchanger design has been carried out by performing the parametric study to investigate the effect of various design specific parameters on the size and weight of the heat exchanger. The objective of design optimization was to minimize the weight of heat exchanger respecting all design requirements. The design has been also optimized by selecting standard components and materials. The results have been analyzed considering the economics of heat exchanger. The paper discusses about the thermo-hydraulic and mechanical design of heat exchanger as well as parametric study performed for design optimization. (author)

  7. Body Bias usage in UTBB FDSOI designs: A parametric exploration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschini, Diego; Rodas, Jorge; Beigne, Edith; Altieri, Mauricio; Lesecq, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Some years ago, UTBB FDSOI has appeared in the horizon of low-power circuit designers. With the 14 nm and 10 nm nodes in the road-map, the industrialized 28 nm platform promises highly efficient designs with Ultra-Wide Voltage Range (UWVR) thanks to extended Body Bias properties. From the power management perspective, this new opportunity is considered as a new degree of freedom in addition to the classic Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS), increasing the complexity of the power optimization problem at design time. However, so far no formal or empiric tool allows to early evaluate the real need for a Dynamic Body Bias (DBB) mechanism on future designs. This paper presents a parametric exploration approach that analyzes the benefits of using Body Bias in 28 nm UTBB FDSOI circuits. The exploration is based on electrical simulations of a ring-oscillator structure. These experiences show that a Body Bias strategy is not always required but, they underline the large power reduction that can be achieved when mandatory. Results are summarized in order to help designers to analyze how to choose the best dynamic power management strategy for a given set of operating conditions in terms of temperature, circuit activity and process choice. This exploration contributes to the identification of conditions that make DBB more efficient than DVS, and vice versa, and when both methods are mandatory to optimize power consumption.

  8. Conceptual design of sub-exa-watt system by using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, J.; Tsubakimoto, K.; Yoshida, H.; Fujioka, K.; Fujimoto, Y.; Tokita, S.; Jitsuno, T.; Miyanaga, N.; Gekko-EXA Design Team

    2016-03-01

    A 50 PW ultrahigh-peak-power laser has been conceptually designed, which is based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). A 250 J DPSSL and a flash- lamp-pumped kJ laser are adopted as new repeatable pump source. The existed LFEX-laser with more than ten kilo joules are used in the final amplifier stage and the OPCPA with the 2x2 tiled pump beams in random phase has been proposed with several ten centimeter aperture. A pulse duration of amplified pulses is set at less than 10 fs. A broadband OPCPA with ∼500 nm of the gain spectral width near 1 μm is required. A partially deuterated KDP (p-DKDP) crystal is one of the most promising nonlinear crystals and our numerical calculation ensured such ultra-broad gain width. p-DKDP crystals with several deuteration ratio have been successfully grown.

  9. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic

  10. Frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear systems based on Volterra series expansion a parametric characteristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Xingjian

    2015-01-01

    This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain.  The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...

  11. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  12. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  13. Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module ℱ over the polynomial algebra [Formula: see text] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring [Formula: see text] of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module [Formula: see text] and of quotient behaviors [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior

  14. Parametric Optimal Design of a Parallel Schönflies-Motion Robot under Pick-And-Place Trajectory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the parametric optimum design of a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot, named "Ragnar", designed for fast and flexible pick-and-place applications. The robot architecture admits a rectangular workspace, which can utilize the shop-floor space efficiently. In this work, the......-front is obtained, which provides optimal solutions to the robot design. Robot prototyping work based on the optimal results is described....

  15. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  16. Design of vibratory energy harvesters under stochastic parametric uncertainty: a new optimization philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-05-01

    Vibratory energy harvesters as potential replacements for conventional batteries are not as robust as batteries. Their performance can drastically deteriorate in the presence of uncertainty in their parameters. Parametric uncertainty is inevitable with any physical device mainly due to manufacturing tolerances, defects, and environmental effects such as temperature and humidity. Hence, uncertainty propagation analysis and optimization under uncertainty seem indispensable with any energy harvester design. Here we propose a new modeling philosophy for optimization under uncertainty; optimization for the worst-case scenario (minimum power) rather than for the ensemble expectation of the power. The proposed optimization philosophy is practically very useful when there is a minimum requirement on the harvested power. We formulate the problems of uncertainty propagation and optimization under uncertainty in a generic and architecture-independent fashion, and then apply them to a single-degree-of-freedom linear piezoelectric energy harvester with uncertainty in its different parameters. The simulation results show that there is a significant improvement in the worst-case power of the designed harvester compared to that of a naively optimized (deterministically optimized) harvester. For instance, for a 10% uncertainty in the natural frequency of the harvester (in terms of its standard deviation) this improvement is about 570%.

  17. Parametric analysis and design equation of ultimate capacity for unstiffened overlapped CHS K-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A finite element model simulating an experiment on unstiffened,overlapped circular hollow structure (CHS)K-joints was generated and validated by comparing the ultimate capacities,deformation processes and failure modes of the experimental results.Using this model,the stress distribution,propagation of plasticity and the failure modes of overlapped joints with through-brace-in-compression and welded hidden seams were analyzed.The effect of geometric parameters,with or without hidden welds,and the loading hierarchy reversal of braces on the ultimate capacity of the joints were also studied.The results of finite element parametric analysis indicate that the brace-tochord thickness ratio has relatively large effects on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of overlapped joints.It was also found that the absence of hidden welds has less significance on the ultimate capacity of through-brace-incompression joints than through-brace-in tension joints.Finally,based on the design equation of gap joints,a formula predicting the ultimate capacity of overlapped CHS K-joints was derived by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results from the proposed design equation are consistent with experimental results.

  18. Development of a design space and predictive statistical model for capsule filling of low-fill-weight inhalation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, E; Llusa, M; Wahl, P R; Paudel, A; Lawrence, S; Biserni, S; Calzolari, V; Khinast, J G

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a predictive statistical model for low-fill-weight capsule filling of inhalation products with dosator nozzles via the quality by design (QbD) approach and based on that to create refined models that include quadratic terms for significant parameters. Various controllable process parameters and uncontrolled material attributes of 12 powders were initially screened using a linear model with partial least square (PLS) regression to determine their effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA; fill weight and weight variability). After identifying critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) that influenced the CQA, model refinement was performed to study if interactions or quadratic terms influence the model. Based on the assessment of the effects of the CPPs and CMAs on fill weight and weight variability for low-fill-weight inhalation products, we developed an excellent linear predictive model for fill weight (R(2 )= 0.96, Q(2 )= 0.96 for powders with good flow properties and R(2 )= 0.94, Q(2 )= 0.93 for cohesive powders) and a model that provides a good approximation of the fill weight variability for each powder group. We validated the model, established a design space for the performance of different types of inhalation grade lactose on low-fill weight capsule filling and successfully used the CMAs and CPPs to predict fill weight of powders that were not included in the development set. PMID:26023991

  19. Formulation of a parametric systems design framework for disaster response planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mma, Stephanie Weiya

    The occurrence of devastating natural disasters in the past several years have prompted communities, responding organizations, and governments to seek ways to improve disaster preparedness capabilities locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A holistic approach to design used in the aerospace and industrial engineering fields enables efficient allocation of resources through applied parametric changes within a particular design to improve performance metrics to selected standards. In this research, this methodology is applied to disaster preparedness, using a community's time to restoration after a disaster as the response metric. A review of the responses from Hurricane Katrina and the 2010 Haiti earthquake, among other prominent disasters, provides observations leading to some current capability benchmarking. A need for holistic assessment and planning exists for communities but the current response planning infrastructure lacks a standardized framework and standardized assessment metrics. Within the humanitarian logistics community, several different metrics exist, enabling quantification and measurement of a particular area's vulnerability. These metrics, combined with design and planning methodologies from related fields, such as engineering product design, military response planning, and business process redesign, provide insight and a framework from which to begin developing a methodology to enable holistic disaster response planning. The developed methodology was applied to the communities of Shelby County, TN and pre-Hurricane-Katrina Orleans Parish, LA. Available literature and reliable media sources provide information about the different values of system parameters within the decomposition of the community aspects and also about relationships among the parameters. The community was modeled as a system dynamics model and was tested in the implementation of two, five, and ten year improvement plans for Preparedness, Response, and Development

  20. Design of Raman-parametric fiber amplifier for wavelength division multiplex transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Jiang; Chun Jiang; Xiaoming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We optimize the novel configuration of a hybrid fiber amplifier-Raman assisted-fiber-based optical parametric amplifier (R-FOPA), in which the parametric gain and Raman gain profiles are combined to achieve a flat composite gain profile.The pump powers and the fiber length in the hybrid amplifier are effectively optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) scheme.The optimization results indicate that the R-FOPA can achieve a 200-nm flat bandwidth spectrum with the gain of 20 dB and ripple of less than 4 dB.

  1. Design and Application of Variable Temperature Environmental Capsule for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Gases and Liquids at Ambient Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S.; Jie ZHANG; Li, Jianbo; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanoscale objects in their native conditions and at different temperatures are of critical importance in revealing details of their interactions with ambient environments. Currently available environmental capsules are equipped with thin electron transparent membranes and allow imaging the samples at atmospheric pressure. However these capsules do not provide the temperature control over the sample. Here we developed and tested a thermoelectric cooling / ...

  2. A new design methodology of obtaining wide band high gain broadband parametric source for infrared wavelength applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Partha Sona; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we have presented a new design methodology of obtaining wide band parametric sources based on highly nonlinear chalcogenide material of As2S3. The dispersion profile of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been engineered wisely by reducing the diameter of the second air-hole ring to have a favorable higher order dispersion parameter. The parametric gain dependence upon fiber length, pump power, and different pumping wavelengths has been investigated in detail. Based upon the nonlinear four wave mixing phenomenon, we are able to achieve a wideband parametric amplifier with peak gain of 29 dB with FWHM of ≈2000 nm around the IR wavelength by proper tailoring of the dispersion profile of the PCF with a continuous wave Erbium (Er3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 μm as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. The new design methodology will unleash a new dimension to the chalcogenide material based investigation for wavelength translation around IR wavelength band.

  3. Stabilization of Parametric Roll Resonance with Active U-Tanks via Lyapunov Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Fossen, Thor Inge;

    2009-01-01

    Parametric ship roll resonance is a phenomenon where a ship can rapidly develop high roll motion while sailing in longitudinal waves. This effect can be described mathematically by periodic changes of the parameters of the equations of motion, which lead to a bifurcation. In this paper, the contr...

  4. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-21

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g(-1). The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials. PMID:24906180

  5. Novel 3D modeling methods for virtual fabrication and EDA compatible design of MEMS via parametric libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröpfer, Gerold; Lorenz, Gunar; Rouvillois, Stéphane; Breit, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of the state-of-the-art of MEMS-specific modeling techniques and describes the validation of new models for a parametric component library. Two recently developed 3D modeling tools are described in more detail. The first one captures a methodology for designing MEMS devices and simulating them together with integrated electronics within a standard electronic design automation (EDA) environment. The MEMS designer can construct the MEMS model directly in a 3D view. The resulting 3D model differs from a typical feature-based 3D CAD modeling tool in that there is an underlying behavioral model and parametric layout associated with each MEMS component. The model of the complete MEMS device that is shared with the standard EDA environment can be fully parameterized with respect to manufacturing- and design-dependent variables. Another recent innovation is a process modeling tool that allows accurate and highly realistic visualization of the step-by-step creation of 3D micro-fabricated devices. The novelty of the tool lies in its use of voxels (3D pixels) rather than conventional 3D CAD techniques to represent the 3D geometry. Case studies for experimental devices are presented showing how the examination of these virtual prototypes can reveal design errors before mask tape out, support process development before actual fabrication and also enable failure analysis after manufacturing.

  6. Novel 3D modeling methods for virtual fabrication and EDA compatible design of MEMS via parametric libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief summary of the state-of-the-art of MEMS-specific modeling techniques and describes the validation of new models for a parametric component library. Two recently developed 3D modeling tools are described in more detail. The first one captures a methodology for designing MEMS devices and simulating them together with integrated electronics within a standard electronic design automation (EDA) environment. The MEMS designer can construct the MEMS model directly in a 3D view. The resulting 3D model differs from a typical feature-based 3D CAD modeling tool in that there is an underlying behavioral model and parametric layout associated with each MEMS component. The model of the complete MEMS device that is shared with the standard EDA environment can be fully parameterized with respect to manufacturing- and design-dependent variables. Another recent innovation is a process modeling tool that allows accurate and highly realistic visualization of the step-by-step creation of 3D micro-fabricated devices. The novelty of the tool lies in its use of voxels (3D pixels) rather than conventional 3D CAD techniques to represent the 3D geometry. Case studies for experimental devices are presented showing how the examination of these virtual prototypes can reveal design errors before mask tape out, support process development before actual fabrication and also enable failure analysis after manufacturing.

  7. Capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. The advent of CE in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases of the small intestine, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, polyposis syndromes, etc. CE has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of most diseases of the small bowel. Lately this technique has also been used for esophageal and colonic diseases.

  8. Parametric study of variation in cargo-airplane performance related to progression from current to spanloader designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made to investigate the relationship between current cargo airplanes and possible future designs that may differ greatly in both size and configuration. The method makes use of empirical scaling laws developed from statistical studies of data from current and advanced airplanes and, in addition, accounts for payload density, effects of span distributed load, and variations in tail area ratio. The method is believed to be particularly useful for exploratory studies of design and technology options for large airplanes. The analysis predicts somewhat more favorable variations of the ratios of payload to gross weight and block fuel to payload as the airplane size is increased than has been generally understood from interpretations of the cube-square law. In terms of these same ratios, large all wing (spanloader) designs show an advantage over wing-fuselage designs.

  9. Experimental investigation into biomechanical and biotribological properties of a real intestine and their significance for design of a spiral-type robotic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Alici, Gursel; Than, Trung D; Li, Weihua

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the results and implications of our experimental investigation into the biomechanical and biotribological properties of a real intestine for the optimal design of a spiral-type robotic capsule. Dynamic shear experiments were conducted to evaluate how the storage and loss moduli and damping factor of the small intestine change with the speed or the angular frequency. The sliding friction between differently shaped test pieces, with a topology similar to that of the spirals, and the intestine sample was experimentally determined. Our findings demonstrate that the intestine's biomechanical and biotribological properties are coupled, suggesting that the sliding friction is strongly related to the internal friction of the intestinal tissue. The significant implication of this finding is that one can predict the reaction force between the capsule with a spiral-type traction topology and the intestine directly from the intestine's biomechanical measurements rather than employing complicated three-dimensional finite element analysis or an inaccurate analytical model. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted with bar-shaped solid samples to determine the sliding friction between the samples and the small intestine. This sliding friction data will be useful in determining spiral material for an optimally designed robotic capsule. PMID:24519417

  10. 基于Visual LISP的凸轮参数化设计%Cam Parametric Design based on Visual Lisp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟建; 刘猛

    2012-01-01

    The parametric drawing program of cam is discussed based on Visual lisp in AutoCAD. Cam parameters input using dialog box,modular design of rise and return profile curve and cam drawing automatic generation are developed. It provides an effective method for similar product design to improve design efficiency.%在AutoCAD平台上,利用Visual lisp语言开发了凸轮参数化绘图程序.实现了凸轮参数的对话框输入,推程、回程曲线的模块化设计,凸轮图形的自动生成.为同类产品实现参数化设计与绘图提供了一种提高设计效率的方法.

  11. Design of Luenberger function observer with disturbance decoupling for matrix second-order linear systems-a parametric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yunli; Duan Guangren

    2006-01-01

    A simple method for disturbance decoupling for matrix second-order linear systems is proposed directly in matrix second-order framework via Luenberger function observers based on complete parametric eigenstructure assignment.By introducing the H2 norm of the transfer function from disturbance to estimation error, sufficient and necessary conditions for disturbance decoupling in matrix second-order linear systems are established and are arranged into constraints on the design parameters via Luenberger function observers in terms of the closed-loop eigenvalues and the group of design parameters provided by the eigenstructure assignment approach. Therefore, the disturbance decoupling problem is converted into an eigenstructure assignment problem with extra parameter constraints. A simple example is investigated to show the effect and simplicity of the approach.

  12. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  13. Parametric Design of Chain Based on Pro/E%基于Pro/E的链条参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文菡; 蹇兴东; 史庆春; 孙江艳

    2011-01-01

    阐述了使用Pro/E参数化设计链条的方法.巧妙地运用了尺寸阵列命令,选择好阵列方法和定义好阵列驱动尺寸,快速准确地生成特征,并使用现代的设计方法,对参数进行优化设计.在链条的设计中实现优化设计目标,解决了阵列后出现的一些问题,提高了设计效率和设计质量.最后设计链节零件,完成装配,获得了完整的链条造型.%It expounds the method of using parametric to design chain based on Pro/E, cleverly use size array orders Choose array method and defined the array driven dimensions, quickly and accurately formation characteristics, and use modern design method, generated characteristic parameter optimization in the design of chain, reach optimization design goal, solve the problems appeared after array, improved the design efficiency and quality of design. At last, design chain section parts and complete assembly, obtain a complete chain model.

  14. Diseño paramétrico de pinzas de fricción // Parametric Design a Gripper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Marrero-Osorio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se expone una forma de realizar el diseño depurado de máquinas mediante el empleode la tecnología paramétrica. Para resolver el problema de diseño se utiliza un modelo deingeniería que abarca geometría, materiales, cargas, resistencia, tecnología y aspectos económicosentre otros. Con el mismo fin se hace uso del método de los grafos dicromáticos, que facilitaconsiderablemente el manejo del modelo matemático, el planteamiento del problema de diseño,su caracterización y su resolución. Todo se ejemplifica a través de una máquina relativamentesencilla: una pinza de fricción utilizable en la manipulación de losas prefabricadas.Palabras claves: diseño paramétrico, modelo matemático, grafos dicromáticos, pinzas manipuladoras,prefabricado.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper a way of making a detailed design of machines by the use of Parametric Technology isexposed. To solve the design task, an engineering model that covers geometry, materials, loads,stresses, manufacture, economy and other aspects is used. With the same objective theDichromatic Graphs Method is used, which considerably facilitates the mathematical model'shandling, the definition of the design problem, and its characterization and solution. An example ofdesign in a relative easy machine illustrates the process: a friction gripper used in the manipulationof light prefabricated elements.Key words: parametric design, mathematical model, Dichromatic Graphs, fristion grippers, prefabricatedelements.

  15. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  16. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A. R.; Mansell, G. L.; McRae, T. G.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10-6 mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.

  17. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.

  18. Optimisation of a Horizontal Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Cylindrical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Kollar, Laszlo; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    Pipelines carrying fluids and slurries are quite common. The third-generation pipelines carrying spherical or cylindrical capsules (hollow containers) filled with minerals or other materials including hazardous liquids are rather a new concept. These pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline results in minimum pressure drop in the pipeline. This corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. This study uses a rigorous approach to predict pumping cost based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and hence optimize the design of the capsule transporting pipelines. Pressure drop relationship developed has been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. Based on the least-cost principle, a methodology has been developed for the determination of the optimal diameter of cylindrical capsule carrying hydraulic pipeline. This procedure can be applied to obtain the optimal size of the capsule pipeline for minimum pumping and capital costs.

  19. Design of a lossless image compression system for video capsule endoscopy and its performance in in-vivo trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq H; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE) is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI) with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression. PMID:25375753

  20. Design of a Lossless Image Compression System for Video Capsule Endoscopy and Its Performance in In-Vivo Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq H. Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI and narrow band imaging (NBI with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression.

  1. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a vacuum thermionic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaohang, E-mail: chenxh@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Jincan [Fujian Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials and Applications and Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin, Bihong [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2016-01-18

    A model of the vacuum thermionic solar cell (VTSC) consisting of a solar concentrator, an emitter, and a collector is proposed, in which the various heat losses including the far- and near-field thermal radiation are taken into account. Formula for the overall efficiency of the system is analytically derived. For given values of the ratio of the front surface area of the absorber to that of the emitter and the vacuum gap between the emitter and the collector, the operating temperatures of the emitter and collector are determined by solving the energy balance equations. The maximum efficiency of the VTSC are calculated for given values of the work functions of the emitter and collector materials, and some key parameters such as the net current density of the VTSC, operating temperatures of the emitter and collector, vacuum gap between the emitter and the collector, and area ratio of the absorber to the emitter are optimally determined. Furthermore, the effects of the work functions and the concentration ratio of the solar irradiation on the performance of the VTSC are discussed and several parametric selection criteria are obtained.

  2. Parametric design-based modal damped vibrational piezoelectric energy harvesters with arbitrary proof mass offset: Numerical and analytical validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumentut, Mikail F.; Howard, Ian M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the primary development of novel numerical and analytical techniques of the modal damped vibration energy harvesters with arbitrary proof mass offset. The key equations of electromechanical finite element discretisation using the extended Lagrangian principle are revealed and simplified to give matrix and scalar forms of the coupled system equations, indicating the most relevant numerical technique for the power harvester research. To evaluate the performance of the numerical study, the analytical closed-form boundary value equations have been developed using the extended Hamiltonian principle. The results from the electromechanical frequency response functions (EFRFs) derived from two theoretical studies show excellent agreement with experimental studies. The benefit of the numerical technique is in providing effective and quick predictions for analysing parametric designs and physical properties of piezoelectric materials. Although analytical technique provides a challenging process for analysing the complex smart structure, it shows complementary study for validating the numerical technique.

  3. Interactive tool that empowers structural understanding and enables FEM analysis in a parametric design environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an interactive tool developed to integrate structural analysis in the architectural design environment from the early conceptual design stage. The tool improves exchange of data between the design environment of Rhino Grasshopper and the FEM analysis of Autodesk Robot Struct...

  4. Integration of capturing design intent and parametric design%设计意图捕捉与参数化设计集成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜少飞; 陈帅; 鲁聪达; 黄敬猛

    2011-01-01

    为实现意图捕捉、建模和求解,并且使求解结果可直接作为参数化设计的输入,提出了意图域、载体域和信息域三个概念.从需求的角度分解设计意图,形成意图域;在意图域的指导下,对产品进行结构划分,形成载体域.用意图域映射载体域,形成含有设计信息的信息域.信息域中每个信息单元为一个独立的物理模型,应用优化理论求解模型,得到参数化设计中的主参数.以叉车设计过程为例验证了所提方法的有效性.%In order to capture, model and solve design intent, three domain including intent domain, construction domain and information domain were proposed.The solution to design intent was taken as the input of parametric design system.Intent domain was obtained via decomposing design intent from the perspective of demand, according to its instructions, construction domain was generated by decomposing the structure of product.Then, information domain was produced by mapping the intent domain to the construction domain。 The information domain was a kind of physical structure with design information.Each unit in information domain was an independent physical model.It was solved by optimization method and the main parameter in parametric design was obtained.Finally, the forklift design process validated the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Estrategia para el diseño paramétrico basado en modelos. // Strategy for model-based parametric design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Marrero Osorio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone una manera de diseñar paramétricamente utilizando los programas de computadora (CAD,CAE, PMS difundidos entre los diseñadores durante los últimos 20 años. La propuesta se basa en modelos matemáticosque consideran el conocimiento sobre la ingeniería del objeto de diseño y lo relacionado con la confección de su modelovirtual tridimensional, planos y otro aspectos; utilizando el Método de los Grafos Dicromáticos para resolver los problemascomputacionales que se presentan en el diseño paramétrico. Se analizan los puntos de vista de diferentes autores en relacióncon el proceso general de diseño y es ubicado dentro del mismo el diseño paramétrico, realizándose una explicación formalque permite arribar a conclusiones interesantes.Palabras claves: Diseño paramétrico, diseño asistido por computadoras (CAD, ingeniería asistida porcomputadoras (CAE, software para el modelado paramétrico (PMS, resolución de problemas._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The present article exposes a way to design parametrically applying programs (CAD, CAE, PMS accepted by designers along thelast 20 years. The proposal is based on mathematical models that ponder the knowledge on the engineering of the design object andthe building of its three-dimensional virtual models, blueprints and another aspects; using the dichromatic graph method to solvecomputational problems in parametric design. The points of view of different authors are analyzed in connection with the generalprocess of design, locating parametric design inside it, carrying out a formal explanation which arrives to interesting conclusions.Key words: Parametric design, computer aided design (CAD, computer aided engineering (CAE,parametric modeling software (PMS, problem solving.

  6. Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    1999-01-01

    networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among......The present thesis consists of ten research papers published in the period 1996-1999 together with a summary report. The thesis deals with different aspects of mathematical modelling of systems using data and, if possible, partial knowledge about the systems. In the first part of the thesis....... For this purpose non-parametric methods together with additive models are suggested. Also, a new approach specifically designed to detect non-linearities is introduced. Confidence intervals are constructed by use of bootstrapping. As a link between non-parametric and parametric methods a paper dealing with neural...

  7. A parametric physics based creep life prediction approach to gas turbine blade conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcus Edward Brockbank

    The required useful service lives of gas turbine components and parts are naturally one of the major design constraints limiting the gas turbine design space. For example, the required service life of a turbine blade limits the firing temperature in the combustor, which in turn limits the performance of the gas turbine. For a cooled turbine blade, it also determines the necessary cooling flow, which has a strong impact on the turbine efficiency. In most gas turbine design practices, the life prediction is only emphasized during or after the detailed design has been completed. Limited life prediction efforts have been made in the early design stages, but these efforts capture only a few of the necessary key factors, such as centrifugal stress. Furthermore, the early stage prediction methods are usually hard coded in the gas turbine system design tools and hidden from the system designer's view. The common failure mechanisms affecting the service life, such as creep, fatigue and oxidation, are highly sensitive to the material temperatures and/or stresses. Calculation of these temperatures and stresses requires that the geometry, material properties, and operating conditions be known; information not typically available in early stages of design. Even without awareness of the errors, the resulting inaccuracy in the life prediction may mislead the system designers when examining a design space which is bounded indirectly by the inaccurate required life constraints. Furthermore, because intensive creep lifing analysis is possible only towards the end of the design process, any errors or changes will cost the engine manufacturer significant money; money that could be saved if more comprehensive creep lifing predictions were possible in the early stages of design. A rapid, physics-based life prediction method could address this problem by enabling the system designer to investigate the design space more thoroughly and accurately. Although not meant as a final decision

  8. Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nijmeijer, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...

  9. Experimental and Parametric Design of Petroleum Back-pressured Hydraulic Impactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guang-jie; YAO Zhen-qiang; CHEN Ping; HUANG Wan-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Percussive-rotary drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. It is a key for popularizing this technology on a large scale to design and make an impactor with excellent performance. This paper presents a suit of method to design the percussive parameters for the oil or gas field by introducing the working principle of back-pressured impactor, dividing the working periods of impactor into three phases and establishing the computer emulational model of percussive parameters. It draws a comparison between the results of model calculation and experiment on the basis of analyzing the experiment results of impactor.The conclude provides credible foundation for designing and further ameliorating the impactor.

  10. Design of an ignition target for the laser megajoule, mitigating parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser plasma interaction (LPI) is a critical issue in ignition target design. Based on both scaling laws and two-dimensional calculations, this article describes how we can constrain a laser megajoule (LMJ) [J. Ebrardt and J. M. Chaput, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 032005 (2008)] target design by mitigating LPI. An ignition indirect drive target has been designed for the 2/3 LMJ step. It requires 0.9 MJ and 260 TW of laser energy and power, to achieve a temperature of 300 eV in a rugby-shaped Hohlraum and give a yield of about 20 MJ. The study focuses on the analysis of linear gain for stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatterings. Enlarging the focal spot is an obvious way to reduce linear gains. We show that this reduction is nonlinear with the focal spot size. For relatively small focal spot area, linear gains are significantly reduced by enlarging the focal spot. However, there is no benefit in too large focal spots because of necessary larger laser entrance holes, which require more laser energy. Furthermore, this leads to the existence, for a given design, of a minimum value for linear gains for which we cannot go below.

  11. Facilitating Performance Optimization of RF PCB Designs by using Parametric Finite-Element Component Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2012-01-01

    such as antennas and PCB traces. The models presented are benchmarked against real-life measurements and conventional circuit models. Furthermore, two example parallel-resonance circuits are designed based on interpolation of the results and validated by measurements in order to demonstrate the accuracy...

  12. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  13. Esophageal capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Raul Armendariz; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is now considered as the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Esophageal capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected esophageal disorders is feasible and safe,and could be also an alternative procedure in those patients refusing upper endoscopy.Although large-scale studies are needed to confirm its utility in GERD and cirrhotic patients,current results are encouraging and open a new era in esophageal examination.

  14. DESIGN AND PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWERED BY SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the simulation and performance analysis of a regenerative and superheated Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. To this scope, anew simulation model has been developed. The model is based on zero-dimensional energy and mass balances for all the components of the system. Shell and tube heat expanders with single shell and double tube pass have been chosen. Pump and expander have been considered only form a thermodynamic point of view, with constant compressor and expansion efficiency. The simulations have been carried out in order to find different optimization criteria to use as preliminary design tools, especially for the organic fluid choice and the heat exchanger design. Firstly, the ORC performances have been evaluated for different organic medium, varying the temperature of the heat source. The global efficiency of the plant, the net electric power generation and the volumetric expansion ratio has been considered as evaluation parameters. The simulation results show that two hydrocarbons demonstrate good performance for low, medium and high heat source, namely Isobutene, n-Butene; R245fa can add to them for the exploitation of heat source up to 170°C. Additional simulations have been carried out to discover an optimization criterion for the heat exchanger design. The plant performances have been first evaluated varying one by one the following parameters: tube length, tube number and shell diameter. Then a global optimization was also performed using the Golden Search technique. The total cost of the plant has been considered as objective functions. With respect to the objective function, higher the boiling heat transfer area higher the electric power generation and the economical benefit. The optimal configuration, compared to the initial one, shows an increase of incomes and mechanical power equal to 60.1 and 48.2% respectively, against a decrease of global efficiency equal to 10.9%.

  15. Origami-inspired building block and parametric design for mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Yan, Leilei; Wang, Jiafu; Wang, Jun; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-08-01

    An origami-based building block of mechanical metamaterials is proposed and explained by introducing a mechanism model based on its geometry. According to our model, this origami mechanism supports response to uniaxial tension that depends on structure parameters. Hence, its mechanical properties can be tunable by adjusting the structure parameters. Experiments for poly lactic acid (PLA) samples were carried out, and the results are in good agreement with those of finite element analysis (FEA). This work may be useful for designing building blocks of mechanical metamaterials or other complex mechanical structures.

  16. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  17. Floating-roof steel tanks under harmonic settlement: FE parametric study and design criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Large vertical steel tanks for fluid storage are usually constructed on soft foundations, so it is not surprising that the tank wall will settle unevenly with the settlement of the foundation, thus inducing deformations and stresses in the tank. This work investigates the linear static behavior of floating-roof tanks under harmonic settlement through finite element (FE) analyses. The influences of the radius-to-thickness ratio, the height-to-radius ratio and the wind girder stiffness on the structural behavior are first analyzed. Comparisons between the circumferential stresses in the wind girder and the vertical stresses in the tank bottom are then made. The displacement and the stress along the tank height are also discussed, and the concept of tank division along its height is presented. Finally, a design approximation for the radial displacement at the tank top is developed based on FE results, and a settlement criterion based on the top radial displacement is proposed which can be used in practical design.

  18. Shock Wave Observation in Narrow Tubes for a Parametric Study on Micro Wave Rotor Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Okamoto; Mikiya Araki

    2008-01-01

    Wave rotor is expected to improve the performance of micro gas turbines drastically. In the wave rotor design, the rotor speed is determined principally by the tube length. Therefore, a longer tube is preferable for miniaturized wave rotors to avoid the difficulty in bearings and lubrication system, while it may yield thicker wall boundary layer, shock wave dissipation and so on. In the present study, an experimental apparatus was built to visualize the wave rotor internal flow dynamics in a narrow tube by schlieren method and Laser Doppler Anemometry. In addition, different lengths of the tube were adopted and compared to investigate the effect of wall friction. Finally, 2D numerical simulation was performed and the results were compared with those of experiments.

  19. 离心泵叶轮的参数化设计%Parametric design of centrifugal pump impellers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张人会; 郑凯; 杨军虎; 李仁年

    2012-01-01

    The problems in the optimization design of centrifugal pump impeller were elaborated and it was found that the implicit relation between the hydraulic performance and the complicated geometry shape of impeller passages was a main obstacle. The existing parametric design methods for centrifugal pump impellers, such as the NURBS surface method, free-surface deformation method and partial differential equation method were introduced in detail. To reduce the computational cost, a partial differential equations method was used to control the geometry shape of centrifugal impellers parametrically, the boundary conditions of the equations were parameterized as well. Suppose the parameters a(u,v) are constant and the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the design of centrifugal pump impellers, a 2nd order polynomial response surface was constructed according to the trial results. Unfortunately, it was identified that a 2nd order polynomial fails to present the complicated nonlinear relation between the objective function and the control variables. So the partial differential e-quations had to be proposed to construct the hypersurface response of objective function. Then a boundary-value problem of hyperspace was numerically solved. Eventually, an optimal design of pump impellers was achieved. The result of the optimized design case shows that the proposed theory and method are reasonable.%对离心泵叶轮优化设计存在的问题进行了详细的阐述,离心泵叶轮优化设计的主要困难在于复杂的内流道形状及其与泵水力性能间复杂的隐式关系,对基于NURBS的曲面设计方法、基于自由曲面变形方法及偏微分方程方法3种离心泵叶轮参数化设计方法的研究进行了详细的介绍,为了减少计算量,采用偏微分方程方法对离心泵叶片几何形状进行参数化控制,参数化控制偏微分方程的边界条件,假定方程中的控制参数a(u,v)为常量1,采用响应面方

  20. Parametric Flutter Analysis of the TCA Configuration and Recommendation for FFM Design and Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Myles; Lenkey, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The current HSR Aeroelasticity plan to design, build, and test a full span, free flying transonic flutter model in the TDT has many technical obstacles that must be overcome for a successful program. One technical obstacle is the determination of a suitable configuration and point in the sky to use in setting the scaling point for the ASE models program. Determining this configuration and point in the sky requires balancing several conflicting requirements, including model buildability, tunnel test safety, and the ability of the model to represent the flutter mechanisms of interest. As will be discussed in detail in subsequent sections, the current TCA design exhibits several flutter mechanisms of interest. It has been decided that the ASE models program will focus on the low frequency symmetric flutter mechanism, and will make no attempt to investigate high frequency flutter mechanisms. There are several reasons for this choice. First, it is believed that the high frequency flutter mechanisms are similar in nature to classical wing bending/torsion flutter, and therefore there is more confidence that this mechanism can be predicted using current techniques. The low frequency mode, on the other hand, is a highly coupled mechanism involving wing, body, tail, and engine motion which may be very difficult to predict. Second, the high frequency flutter modes result in very small weight penalties (several hundred pounds), while suppression of the low frequency mechanism inside the flight envelope causes thousands of pounds to be added to the structure. In order to successfully test the low frequency flutter mode of interest, a suitable starting configuration and point in the sky must be identified. The configuration and point in the sky must result in a wind tunnel model that (1) represents the low-frequency wing/body/engine/empennage flutter mechanisms that are unique to HSCT configurations, (2) flutters at an acceptably low frequency in the tunnel, (3) flutters at an

  1. Parametric (On-Design) Cycle Analysis for a Separate-Exhaust Turbofan Engine With Interstage Turbine Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.; Siow, Y. K.; Marek, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Today s modern aircraft is based on air-breathing jet propulsion systems, which use moving fluids as substances to transform energy carried by the fluids into power. Throughout aero-vehicle evolution, improvements have been made to the engine efficiency and pollutants reduction. The major advantages associated with the addition of ITB are an increase in thermal efficiency and reduction in NOx emission. Lower temperature peak in the main combustor results in lower thermal NOx emission and lower amount of cooling air required. This study focuses on a parametric (on-design) cycle analysis of a dual-spool, separate-flow turbofan engine with an Interstage Turbine Burner (ITB). The ITB considered in this paper is a relatively new concept in modern jet engine propulsion. The ITB serves as a secondary combustor and is located between the high- and the low-pressure turbine, i.e., the transition duct. The objective of this study is to use design parameters, such as flight Mach number, compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, fan bypass ratio, and high-pressure turbine inlet temperature to obtain engine performance parameters, such as specific thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption. Results of this study can provide guidance in identifying the performance characteristics of various engine components, which can then be used to develop, analyze, integrate, and optimize the system performance of turbofan engines with an ITB. Visual Basic program, Microsoft Excel macrocode, and Microsoft Excel neuron code are used to facilitate Microsoft Excel software to plot engine performance versus engine design parameters. This program computes and plots the data sequentially without forcing users to open other types of plotting programs. A user s manual on how to use the program is also included in this report. Furthermore, this stand-alone program is written in conjunction with an off-design program which is an extension of this study. The computed result of a selected design

  2. 微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计与实现%Design and realization of micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄育锋; 翟宇

    2013-01-01

    The design method for a micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system is proposed, which can transport and classify capsules in turn and acquire the quality of the capsules. A kind of kinetic model for the dynamic weighing of capsule is established. The model is based on energy conservation principle and considers the influences of sliding chute parameters, sensor parameters and other factors. The movement process of the capsules with different weights is analyzed. MATLAB is adopted to simulate the analysis results. During the process of transporting and classifying the capsules,the weighing transducer is used to measure the weight of the capsule. The A/D converter, which is linked to the weighing transducer, sends the capsule weight data to the subsequent ARM processor. The ARM processor sends data to MCU that controls the movement of the electric motor through serial communication and the observing and controlling process is completed. Meanwhile, a graphic user interface is developed based on miniGUI, with which the ARM processor can display the capsule weight information in real time. The simulation and experiment results indicate that when the threshold of the sensor signal is 0. 195 V and the time interval of the weighing process is 1.46 s, the dynamic capsule weighing process can be realized successfully. The design for capsule weighing unit has completed the process of capsules weighing effectively and improves the reliability and high efficiency of capsule dynamic condition weighing.%提出了一种微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计方法,可依次完成药品单元的传送和分拨,并统计药品单元的质量情况.建立了药品单元动态称重的动力学模型,模型以能量守恒原理为基础,考虑了滑槽截面参数、传感器参数等因素,对不同质量药品单元的运动过程进行了分析,并利用MATLAB对分析结果进行了仿真.系统对药品单元的传送、分拨控制过程是利用称重传感

  3. Parametric Design of Safety Door with Inventor Parameterization%基于 Inventor 参数化的安全门设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      从外购件的选用和机加件的设计阐述了自动化生产线安全门的设计思路。利用Inventor强大的参数化功能,依据各零件之间的装配关系,在Excel表格中建立各零件之间的数学关联式,并导入Inventor软件中建立安全门参数化模型,为其他类似机构设计提供了参考。参数化模型方法简单、方便、有助于提高设计效率和生产周期,并可以为模块化设计提供依据。%A design idea of safety door in automatic production line was described in aspects of parchased part selection and machined part design .Based on the assembly relationship of parts ,the mathematical relationship of parts was set up in Excel and imported into Inventor ,then the parametric model of the safety door was established by the powerful parametric function of Inventor .This work will provide some reference for the design of other similar mechanism .The method of parametric modeling is simple ,convenient and helping to improve the design efficiency and production cycle .

  4. 通用离心风机参数化设计系统的开发%Development of a Parametric Design System for Centrifugal Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐; 许敏; 陈雷

    2014-01-01

    Based on parametric design theory of fan, the parametric modeling and drawing software modules for main parts of fan is developed with the combination of SolidWorks and Visual Basic, which realized the CAD system for fan with combination of parametric 3D modeling and 2D engineering drawing. The system has characteristics of good generalization, simple operation and good maintainability, friendly interface and easy to operate. It can significantly shorten the research and development cycle, improve fan design efficiency and realize fan design automation.%以通风机参数化设计理论为基础,结合三维建模软件 SolidWorks 和面向对象的 Visual Basic语言开发出通风机主要零部件的参数化造型和制图软件模块,实现了通风机参数化三维造型与二维工程图纸绘制相结合的通风机CAD系统。该系统通用性强,可维护性好,界面友好,操作方便,可显著缩短风机研发周期,提高风机设计效率,实现风机设计自动化。

  5. Development of Cubic Bezier Curve and Curve-Plane Intersection Method for Parametric Submarine Hull Form Design to Optimize Hull Resistance Using CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deddy Chrismianto; Ahmad Fauzan Zakki; Berlian Arswendo; Dong Joon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio (L/H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS DesignModeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient (Ct). The minimum Ct was obtained. The calculated difference in Ct values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the Ct of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius (rn) and higher L/H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail (rt) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  6. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  7. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  8. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  9. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  10. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerouin, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Poggi, F; Seytor, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DAM-Ile de France, BP 12 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)], E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.fr

    2008-05-15

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress.

  11. Process in Application of Parametric Design and Its Inspiration to Landscape Design%参数化设计的应用进展及其对景观设计的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池志炜; 谌洁; 张德顺

    2012-01-01

    Parametric design sets off a practice boom in architecture and urban design and is gradually applied in landscape design nowadays. This article aims to sum up the definition of parametric design, analyze the progress of the domestic and foreign applications and summarize the four major problems encountered by the landscape parametric design; namely a short application time, limited scope, the problem of monolithic design and absence of parametric design software. Based on the knowledge of landscape parametric design and the algorithm, the article puts forward the construction of landscape parametric design system, which consists of design process, landscape parameters, rules matrix method, design research, planning and layout, construction and form, and building and management.%参数化设计,作为建筑及城市设计领域的一股热潮,如今逐渐在景观设计中得到应用.明确了参数化设计的概念,分析了建筑设计中参数、规则和软件平台的应用现状及景观参数化设计的实践进展,总结出景观参数化设计面临的四大问题:应用时间短、范围较窄、整体式景观参数化设计难度大、缺乏专用的景观参数化软件平台.提出了由景观学科和计算机为基础、设计流程、景观参数、规则矩阵法为核心思想.设计研究、规划与布局、营建与形态、施工与管理为具体应用内容,这3个部分组成的景观参数化设计体系.

  12. 基于 UG 的牙种植体参数化设计与实现%Parametric design and implementation of dental implants by using unigraphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林天赐; 张鹏; 黄达鸿; 欧阳江林; 张春雨; 陈贤帅; 张弓

    2015-01-01

    参数化设计技术已成为产品设计过程中一种最重要的设计方法之一,基于 UG 的参数化建模功能,采用表达式生成方法,通过多组参数和约束定义牙种植体的形状特征,对基台、种植体、内螺丝等进行了参数化设计,实现了牙种植体的三维参数化建模。对于新型牙种植体的开发以及根据不同患者牙根实际情况设计出最合适的个性化牙种植体,具有重要意义。%Parametric design technology has become one of the most important design methods in the process of product design. Using the expression and through the multiple sets of parameters and constraints to define the shape feature of dental implants, parametric design was put forward for abutment, implant and screw by means of the Unigraphics software, and a three-dimensional parametric modeling of dental implants was created as well. It was provided with great significance for the development of a new type of dental implants, and the design of the most appropriate custom-made dental implants depended on the actual situation of tooth root for different patients.

  13. 含有谐衍射面的单片式胶囊内窥镜光学设计%Optical Design of the Single-Chip Capsule Endoscopt with Harmonic Diffraction Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军华; 卢景红; 徐敏

    2012-01-01

    A design method of the single-chip capsule endoscope with harmonic diffraction surface is introduced with the system working band of 0. 486 — 0. 656 μm and the field-of-view angle of 116. 2°. And the total length of the optical system is 2. 4 mm. Additionally, a capsule endoscope with three spherical lenses and a single-chip capsule endoscope with aspherical surface are designed, and a comparison is made between them and the single-chip capsule endoscope with harmonic diffraction surface. It is found that the single-chip capsule endoscope with harmonic diffraction surface can achieve the image quality of the capsule endoscope with three spherical lenses, and its construction is as simple as the single-chip capsule endoscope with aspherical surface. Its modulation transfer function is greater than 0. 6 at the frequency of 40 lp/mm.%介绍了含有谐衍射面的单片式胶囊内窥镜的设计方法.系统工作波段为0.486~0.656 μm,视场角为116.2°,光学系统总长为2.4 mm.另外,设计了含有3个球面透镜的胶囊内窥镜和含有非球面的单片式胶囊内窥镜,并和含有谐衍射面的单片式胶囊内窥镜进行了比较.结果表明,含有谐衍射面的单片式胶囊内窥镜可以达到含有3个球面透镜的胶囊内窥镜的成像质量,外形结构和含有非球面的单片式胶囊内窥镜一样简单.系统在频率40 lp/mm处的调制传递函数大于0.6.

  14. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  15. Parametric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Allan C.

    1998-01-01

    Parametric mapping (PM) lies midway between older and proven artificial landmark based guidance systems and yet to be realized vision based guidance systems. It is a simple yet effective natural landmark recognition system offering freedom from the need for enhancements to the environment. Development of PM systems can be inexpensive and rapid and they are starting to appear in commercial and industrial applications. Together with a description of the structural framework developed to generically describe robot mobility, this paper illustrates clearly the parts of any mobile robot navigation and guidance system and their interrelationships. Among other things, the importance of the richness of the reference map, and not necessarily the sensor map, is introduced, the benefits of dynamic path planners to alleviate the need for separate object avoidance, and the independence of the PM system to the type of sensor input is shown.

  16. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neviaser, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive cri...

  17. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  18. Pneumatic capsule pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Partyka, J.; Rudd, L. [Laurentian Univ., School of Engineering, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    With the rising cost of transporting ores and concentrates, alternatives to the traditional means of transportation by rail, trucks and hoists are being actively sought, as a means of reducing operating costs. Pneumatic encapsulated pipeline (PCP) transportation of raw, processed, or waste materials is being looked upon as a potentially viable alternative for material handling in the mining industry. There are several operating PCP systems in Europe and in Japan, although there are as yet no similar applications in North America. To evaluate the viability of pneumatic capsule pipeline systems, a 600 mm diameter, 70 m long pilot PCP plant, made of rigid fibreglass, was constructed at Laurentian University and several tests have already been conducted. It was found that any bulk material can be transported by PCP safely, with relatively small amounts of power, over long distances, and at a significantly reduced cost, while maintaining complete control. Both underground as well as surface applications appear to be viable. This paper concentrates on the results of experiments designed to test the energy requirements of a PCP system. Future studies should focus on exploring and improving the ability of PCP systems to transport vertically which would be a great advantage to hauling ore from underground mines to the surface. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  19. F.E.M. of PWR`s control rod cluster. Parametrical study of vibrating behavior by an Experiment Design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosselut, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Regnier, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Soulier, B. [DER Mecanique Pole Universitaire Leonard de Vinci, 92 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-01

    Some finite element models have been performed at EDF to simulate the vibrations of rod cluster and to analyse the wear phenomenon of rods using parametrical studies. In the first part, one of the finite element models is presented. The location of excitation sources is described. The calculated values are: rod displacement in the guiding cards, shock forces on the guiding cards and wear power produced. In the second part, a parametrical study is presented for a given computer experiment domain with an Experimental Design method. The building of the computer experiment design is described. The used polynomial model has all linear, quadratic and interactive terms for each of the 6 parameters (26 coefficients), 34 polynomials have been built to approach the effective shock forces and the mean wear power at each of the 17 guiding points. In the last part, the influence of parameters on calculated mean wear power is shown along rods and some responses surfaces are visualized. Systematism and closeness of experiment design technique is underlined. Easy simulation of all the response domain by polynomial approach, allows comparison with experiment feedback. (author) 9 refs.

  20. Reduced models and design principles for half-harmonic generation in synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamerly, Ryan; Jankowski, Marc; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We develop reduced models that describe half-harmonic generation in a synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator above threshold, where nonlinearity, dispersion, and group-velocity mismatch are all relevant. These models are based on (1) an eigenmode expansion for low pump powers, (2) a simulton-like sech-pulse ansatz for intermediate powers, and (3) dispersionless box-shaped pulses for high powers. Analytic formulas for pulse compression, degenerate vs. nondegenerate operation, and stability are derived and compared to numerical and experimental results.

  1. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-03-23

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  3. Parametric logic: Foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林作铨; 李未

    1995-01-01

    Parametric logic is introduced. The language, semantics and axiom system of parametric logic are defined. Completeness theorem of parametric logic is provided. Parametric logic has formal ability powerful enough to capture a wide class of logic as its special cases, and therefore can be viewed as a uniform basis for modern logics.

  4. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Debbie (LLNL); Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert (KTech); Nikroo, A. (General Atomics); Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace (Schafer); Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon (Schafer); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-11-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  5. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  6. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule. PMID:19550023

  7. Comparative Study and Improvement Design on Aerodynamic Charac-teristics of Typical Reentry Capsules%典型再入返回器气动特性对比与改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹慧玲; 陈冰雁; 刘周; 周伟江

    2013-01-01

    返回器气动特性研究对宇宙飞船的研制起着先导和制约作用。文章对 Apollo、CEV 和类Soyuz这3种典型的轴对称钝头体再入返回器气动布局进行了气动特性的对比分析,发现与Apollo、CEV相比,类Soyuz外形的升阻比偏小,无法满足以第二宇宙速度载人空间再入返回的要求。在此基础上研究了几何参数(包括倒锥角和球冠半径)变化对类Soyuz外形返回器气动性能的影响规律,从中得到类Soyuz 外形的改进方向,提出了一种以类 Soyuz 外形为基础的改进设计外形,并对该外形的升阻特性、稳定性和配平特性等相关气动特性进行了分析。研究表明通过对几何外形参数的调整优化来提高类Soyuz外形的升阻比,从而达到以第二宇宙速度再入返回的升阻比要求,这样的技术途径是可行的。%The aerodynamic characteristics investigation of reentry capsule plays an important role in the design of spacecraft. Comparative analysis of the aerodynamics between Soyuz and Apollo/CEV configurations is accomplished in this paper. The lift-to-drag ratio of Soyuz which is lower than that of Apollo/CEV cannot meet the requirement of manned capsule reentry at second cosmic velocity from space. The influence of geo-metric parameters, including after-body angle and heat shield radius, on the aerodynamic characteristics of Soyuz configuration is analyzed. And a modified configuration is suggested on the basis of Soyuz. The aerody-namic characteristics of the modified configuration are analyzed, including lift-to-drag ratio, stability, and trim characteristics. The results show that adjusting and optimizing the geometric parameters of Soyuz re-entry capsule is a feasible way for designing a capsule configuration to meet the high lift-to-drag ratio requirement of manned capsule reentry at second cosmic velocity.

  8. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Mata; J Llach; JM Bordas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new technique that allows complete exploration of the small bowel without external wires. Its role has been analyzed in many small bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease and gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes with promising results. Studies on other pathologies (I.e. Small bowel tumour, celiac disease) are under evaluation to define the role of this technique.

  9. Development of Parametric Design System for Mortar Base Plate%迫击炮座板参数化设计系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤军; 高跃飞; 柯彪

    2014-01-01

    The base plate is an important part of mortar .In order to meet the design requirements ,the designer also need to test it and improve the design many times .So ,the cost of it is very high ,and the developing period is very long .A parametric design system for mortar base plate was established based on ABAQUS customized development technology by use of Python programming language and ABAQUS GUI Toolkit ,after the ABAQUS customized development technology was analyzed .The design system will finish the modeling and simulation analysis after the user inputting the parameters of base plate and setting the working condition of it .The system can judge the design plan according to the simulation result .The parametric design system is of significant importance to shortening the period of developing mortar base plate ,improving design efficiency and quality .%座板是迫击炮的重要组成部分,针对其在设计阶段往往需要经过反复的试验和修改才能达到设计要求而造成的研发成本高、周期长的问题,在对有限元软件ABAQUS的定制开发技术进行研究分析的基础上,提出应用Python脚本语言和ABAQUS GUI Toolkit联合开发技术,开发迫击炮座板参数化设计系统的方法。应用该系统,设计人员只需在定制的交互对话框中修改结构尺寸参数并设定工况,就能自动完成座板的快速建模和仿真,从而对设计方案进行检验,提高了设计效率。

  10. Design, Validation, Simulation and Parametric Evaluation of a Novel Protocol for Locating Mobile Agents in Multiregion Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are processes that can be dispatched from source computer and be transported to remote servers for execution, have been widely argued to be an important enabling technology for future systems. Location management is a necessity for locating mobile agents in a network of mobile agent hosts for controlling, monitoring and communication during processing and it still represents an open research issue. The cost of location management strategies mainly depends on the cost of search and update. We concentrated on reducing the cost of update and improving the speed of processing of the agents. We proposed a location management technique applicable for multi-region environment in which mobile agent did not update its location at every migration. The technique named as Broadcasting with Search by Path Chase (BSPC. We used the tool time Petri net analyzer TINA to model, analyze and to simulate BSPC. We found that the BSPC behaves as expected and free from any deadlock. We measured the efficiency of BSPC and compared with some existing location management techniques by parametric evaluation. BSPC provided better scalability, location updating availability and interaction fault rate with theoretical considerations of network usage and network fault rate. It gave its best performance for applications of low CMR and having high migration rate of mobile agents within birth region.

  11. 滤棒加香胶囊添加装置的设计与实现%Design of Device for Distributing Flavor Capsules into Filter Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁多; 黄溢清; 黄富; 梅小明; 姚建文; 尚勇; 袁重阳; 邓鹏

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the production efficiency of filter rod with embedded flavor capsules, a device incorporating servo control and digital signal processing technologies was developed, it was composed of a control unit, a feeding hopper, an actuating mechanism, and a suction fan. The signal of production speed of filter rod maker was collected by the control unit, the main roller and auxiliary roller in the actuating mechanism were driven by a servo motor for distributing capsules in filter rod, and the filter rods with capsule missing or not properly distributed were rejected. The results showed that the device was good in stability and convenient in operation, the circumference, draw resistance, hardness, roundness of the combined filter rod containing flavor capsules met technical requirements. The capsules in filter rod was uniformly spaced, the filter rods and combined filter rods in which the flavor capsules were not properly positioned accounted for 0.04%and 0.01%, respectively; and none of these two kinds of filter rod was found where the capsule was absent. The batch production of combined filter rod containing flavor capsules was realized, and the production of normal filter rod was not influenced.%为提高加香胶囊滤棒的生产效率,采用伺服控制和数据信号处理技术研制了滤棒加香胶囊添加装置。该装置由控制单元、供给料斗、执行机构、负压风机等部分组成,通过控制单元采集机组生产速度信号,由伺服电机带动执行机构的主辊和副辊旋转,以满足胶囊在滤棒中的间距分布要求,同时对胶囊缺失及胶囊间距不合格滤棒进行剔除。结果表明:该装置运行稳定,操作方便,生产的加香胶囊复合滤棒的圆周、吸阻、硬度、圆度等指标均达到工艺要求。滤棒中的胶囊排列均匀,间距稳定,加香胶囊滤棒和加香胶囊复合滤棒中胶囊缺失支数均为零,胶囊间距不合格支数分别为4

  12. 新型易拉罐式啤酒瓶盖的设计与加工%Design and Machining of New Type of Beer Pull-Top Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛

    2001-01-01

    The new type of beer pull-top capsule is a new product in China. This paper introduces its die design and reasonable mould structure. The key technology in process is also discussed.%新型易拉罐式瓶盖用于啤酒瓶封口,在国内是一项新产品。介绍了这一新型易拉罐式啤酒瓶盖模具的设计要点,合理的模具结构,加工工艺要领。

  13. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  14. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  15. Capsule-train stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  16. Parametric programming of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulczyński Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.

  17. Parametric Design Based on PROE for Stamping Mold%基于PROE的冲压模架参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丽雅

    2016-01-01

    采用Pro/TOOLKIT应用程序,以VC++6.0为工具,应用同步模式开发基于Pro/ENGINEER冲压模架的参数化设计程序,使用动态链接库与Pro/ENGINEER连接,设计滑动导向型冲压模架菜单,对话框及相关应用程序。从而实现冲压模架的标准化和参数化,可节约冲压模具的设计时间,提高设计效率。%This article introduces how to make use of Pro/TOOLKIT application program as well as the VC+ + 6 . 0 program to apply to the parametric punch mold,which is based on the parameterized software of punch mold. It has also applied the connection between Pro/ENGINEER and DLL( dynamic link library)to the design. It in-cludes the menu of the design of sliding punch mold,dialogue and relevant applications. This helps realize the standardization and parameterization of punch mold. In addition,it can make sure the design process of punch mold is less time-consuming and thus the efficiency could be improved.

  18. Parametric Design of Bevel Gear Box Based on Pro/Engineer%基于Pro/Engineer的锥齿轮箱参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 王崴

    2012-01-01

    为缩短复杂零部件模型的设计周期,提高生产效率,对机械CAD软件Pro/Engineer二次开发技术进行了研究,并以复杂零部件模型锥齿轮箱的设计为例,以Pro/Toolkit作为核心技术对Pro/Engineer进行了二次程序的开发,实现了产品的参数化设计.运用Pro/Engineer基于坐标的装配技术与自动装配模块,快速完成锥齿轮箱的设计与建模.%In order to shorten the design cycle of complex parts modeling and enhance the production efficiency, it researches the secondary development technology of the mechanical CAD software Pro/Engineer. Taking the complex parts model bevel gear box as an example, it realizes the product parametric designing. Based on the coordinate assembly technology and automatic assembly module in Pro/E, this method can complete the designing and modeling of the bevel gear box.

  19. Parametric design for gear box of boat based on Pro/E%基于Pro/E的船用齿轮箱的参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦红玲; 周新聪; 袁松

    2011-01-01

    基于Pro/E,利用Pro/Toolkit和VC++ 6.0,编写了Pro/Program,并通过动态链接库的方式实现了Pro/E、Pro/Toolkit和Pro/Program三者之间的通信,开发了船用齿轮箱三维参数化设计系统.该系统仅通过改变零件的相关参数就能快速实现模型再生,完成齿轮箱的设计与装配,从而极大的提高设计效率.实践表明,该系统可满足工程设计要求,且可推广应用于一般齿轮箱的参数化设计.%Based on Pro/E,by means of VC ++6.0 and Pro/Toolkit,Pro/Program is developed.First communications among Pro/E 、Pro/Toolkit and Pro/Program are carried out by DLL in the aid of Pro/Pro-gram,and then a 3D parametric design for gear box of boat is developed.With this system, we can renew the models of elements and assembling them only through modifying some parameters.Therefore the efficiency is improved-Practice indicates that the system can meet the need of engineering design and can be applied in design of common gear boxes.

  20. Orthogonal Design Method for Screening of Extraction Process of Keganyu Capsule%评《硫酸软骨素》一书

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岫美

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the optimal extraction conditions for Keganyu Capsule and ensure energy-saving production process and environmental protection. Methods With the content of chlorogenic acid as the index, the optimal extraction process was selected by investigating three main influential factors of water volume, decocting time and alcohol concentration with an L9(34) orthogonal test. Results The optimal extraction process was as follows: extracting twice with water, 10 times of amount of water for 2 h each time, 70% alcohol. Conclusion This process can be suitable for the industrialized production because it is reasonable, reliable, and has simple operation, low cost, as well as less emission pollutants.

  1. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  2. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.

  3. Conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae biorefineries: Parametric analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and techno-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada, John; Brentner, Laura; Ramirez, Andrea; Patel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study covers four main aspects of the conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae-based biorefineries using flue gas from CO2-intensive industries (i.e. 100% CO2): i) screening of technologies (4 options for cultivation, 3 for culture dewatering, 3 for cell disruption, 4 for lipids e

  4. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient- friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease.

  5. Design and parametric optimization of thermal management of lithium-ion battery module with reciprocating air-flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕平; 欧阳陈志; 江清柏; 梁波

    2015-01-01

    Single cell temperature difference of lithium-ion battery (LIB) module will significantly affect the safety and cycle life of the battery. The reciprocating air-flow module created by a periodic reversal of the air flow was investigated in an effort to mitigate the inherent temperature gradient problem of the conventional battery system with a unidirectional coolant flow with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Orthogonal experiment and optimization design method based on computational fluid dynamics virtual experiments were developed. A set of optimized design factors for the cooling of reciprocating air flow of LIB thermal management was determined. The simulation experiments show that the reciprocating flow can achieve good heat dissipation, reduce the temperature difference, improve the temperature homogeneity and effectively lower the maximal temperature of the modular battery. The reciprocating flow improves the safety, long-term performance and life span of LIB.

  6. Design and parametric study on energy harvesting from bridge vibration using tuned dual-mass damper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kouichi; Sasaki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A bridge vibration energy harvester has been proposed in this paper using a tuned dual-mass damper system, named hereafter Tuned Mass Generator (TMG). A linear electromagnetic transducer has been applied to harvest and make use of the unused reserve of energy the aforementioned damper system absorbs. The benefits of using dual-mass systems over single-mass systems for power generation have been clarified according to the theory of vibrations. TMG parameters have been determined considering multi-domain parameters, and TMG has been tuned using a newly proposed parameter design method. Theoretical analysis results have shown that for effective energy harvesting, it is essential that TMG has robustness against uncertainties in bridge vibrations and tuning errors, and the proposed parameter design method for TMG has demonstrated this feature.

  7. Implementing a parametric maximum flow algorithm for optimal open pit mine design under uncertain supply and demand

    OpenAIRE

    M W A Asad; R Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Conventional open pit mine optimization models for designing mining phases and ultimate pit limit do not consider expected variations and uncertainty in metal content available in a mineral deposit (supply) and commodity prices (market demand). Unlike the conventional approach, a stochastic framework relies on multiple realizations of the input data so as to account for uncertainty in metal content and financial parameters, reflecting potential supply and demand. This paper presents a new met...

  8. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  9. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. PMID:19163990

  10. Hybrid Integration of Taguchi Parametric Design, Grey Relational Analysis, and Principal Component Analysis Optimization for Plastic Gear Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Mizamzul Mehat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal processing parameters is an important practice in the plastic injection moulding industry because of the significant effect of such parameters on plastic part quality and cost. However, the optimization design of injection moulding process parameters can be difficult because more than one quality characteristic is used in the evaluation. This study systematically develops a hybrid optimization method for multiple quality characteristics by integrating the Taguchi parameter design, grey relational analysis, and principal component analysis. A plastic gear is used to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed hybrid optimization method in controlling all influential injection moulding processing parameters during plastic gear manufacturing. To minimize the shrinkage behaviour in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle of moulded gear, the optimal combination of different process parameters is determined. The case study demonstrates that the proposed optimization method can produce plastic-moulded gear with minimum shrinkage behaviour of 1.8%, 1.53%, and 2.42% in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle, respectively; these values are less than the values in the main experiment. Therefore, shrinkage-related defects that lead to severe failure in plastic gears can be effectively minimized while satisfying the demand of the global plastic gear industry.

  11. Wireless capsule endo bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratz DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 67 year-old man presents 10 days after swallowing a capsule endoscopy camera that was never retrieved. The wireless capsule was swallowed asymptomatically for evaluation of heme positive stools after negative upper and lower endoscopies. Patient noted that the evening after swallowing the camera he developed mild shortness of breath and cough. The cough and shortness of breath were persistent and worsened while lying down and when moving positions. He denied prior issues with swallowing or aspiration. Review of Systems Negative other than what is noted above. PMH, SH, and FH Past medical history: coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, hyperlipidemia Surgical history: femoral-popliteal bypass, previous shoulder and back surgery Social history: 1 pack/day of cigarettes for 50 years, prior alcohol usage but not current, no illicit drugs Family history: no pulmonary diseases Physical Exam Vital signs: temperature 36.7º C, heart rate 86 beats per minute ...

  12. Patency(C) and agile(C) capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    àngel Caunedo-àlvarez; Javier Romero-Vazquez; Juan M Herrerias-Gutierrez

    2008-01-01

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods.The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract,in a non-invasive manner.The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency(C) capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel,and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy,despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction.Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency(C) capsule,four of them needed surgery.So,a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile(C) capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion.This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  13. Design of digital parametric equalizer based on function prototype%基于原型法的数字参量均衡器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟峰; 刘济林; 王兴国

    2001-01-01

    在音频处理中,均衡器可以改变音频信号的频响特性,它是由多个峰值滤波器组成的,并且它要求每个滤波器的通带可在0dB上下变化,以实现系统的滤波特性,如通过在整个频段中的某几个频段进行提升或削减一定的分贝数,以达到满意的听觉效果。由于参量均衡器对滤波器的频响要求及参数调节方法有其特殊性,因此它的设计方法也有其自身的特点。采用双二阶函数作为滤波器的原型函数,通过简单的双线性变换,得到数字参量均衡器的各个系数。在实际应用中这些系数可以在事先计算好,需要时将它们加载到DSP中去。%In audio signal processing, equalizer can adjust the responsecharacteristic of amplitude to frequency of audio signal, equalizer consists of multiple bandpass filters. The passband of each filter of equalizers can be varied about the 0 dB level ,thereby realizing a filter system capable of boosting or cutting an input signal at the prescribed decibel within multiple frequency bands, therefore, a good effect will be produced. The design of parametric equalizer has its peculiarity because of its particular amplitude to frequency feature and its parameters adjustment way. Analyzing the characteristics of biquadratic function, a biquadratic function acted as peak-filter prototype, we apply a bilinear transformation to it, and then get all coefficients of digital parametric equalizers. In practical application, these coefficients can be calculated in advance, and can be download to DSP in demand.

  14. Three-dimensional tracking of sensor capsules mobilised by fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for simultaneously measuring particle trajectories and temperature in fluids using specially designed light-emitting sensor capsules/particles is reported. The sensor capsules each contain a microcontroller (with integrated temperature sensor), uniquely coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs), a battery, and other components. When inserted into a fluid, the sensor capsules are mobilised by fluid flow. As they emit light they can be readily tracked and their 3D position over time measured, using an externally positioned camera along with a planar mirror in a calibrated set-up. The capsules can also take intra-fluid temperature measurements and transmit encoded data by modulating their LEDs whilst moving. Controlled experiments with a sensor capsule placed on a rotating turntable and unconstrained fluid-driven motion of multiple sensor capsules placed in a mixing tank are reported. The results demonstrate how the pathlines of capsules (and instantaneous velocities) and temperature can be simultaneously measured. (paper)

  15. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 2000C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented

  16. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data.

  17. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  18. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a Ø3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 °C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within ±0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.599-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  19. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. PMID:26299419

  20. Controlling Parametric Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2012-01-01

    Parametric resonance is a resonant phenomenon which takes place in systems characterized by periodic variations of some parameters. While seen as a threatening condition, whose onset can drive a system into instability, this chapter advocates that parametric resonance may become an advantage if t...

  1. Circuit Design and Operation of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Driven by External Magnetic-field%外磁场驱动无线胶囊式内窥镜的电路设计与操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福丽; 史贵连

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用外磁场驱动无线胶囊式内窥镜,可以使患者吞服的无线肠胃内窥镜在医生的控制下做多自由度的移动,使内窥镜的摄像头直接在可疑区域做有针对性的检查,大大增加了检查的成功率.方法:依靠3组线圈产生的磁场可以对处在任意位置、任意方向的附带有磁性材料的无线胶囊式内窥镜产生作用力.通过改变线圈内电流的大小和方向,操控胶囊内窥镜在人体内的位置以及指向.结果:设计出简单的操作装置,实现线圈的操作,进而实现对无线胶囊式内窥镜的控制.结论:外磁场驱动的无线胶囊式内窥镜减小了内窥镜的整体体积和质量,减轻了肠胃检查时的痛苦,缩短了医生的检查时间,使医生控制其移动更为容易和灵活.%Objective To drive the wireless capsule endoscopy that could be swallowed by the patients by extemal magnetic field so that it could move freely under the control of doctors, which made the vidicon of endoscopy work purposefully in the duhitahle area, and improved the efficiency of check greatly. Methods The magnetic field from three sets of coils could create effect to wireless capsule endoscopy with magnetic material. By controlling coil's circuit and its direction. the wireless endoscopy in body could move to any places and point to any direction. Results The design of operating device controlling coils was given in this paper, and came to realize the aim controlling the moving of wireless endoscopy.Conclusion The wireless capsule endoscopy driven by external magnetic field makes the size and weight of endoscopy less,which alleviates pain in gastroscopy and improves the working efficiency of doctors. [Chinese Medical Equipment Joumal,2011 ,32(4) :28-30

  2. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  3. Parametric uncertainty reduction in robust multivariable control

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, David Lawrence.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This dissertation presents a method for reducing the number of parametric uncertainties used in the design of a robust H-infinity controller. The resulting controller is shown to meet robust stability and performance requirements in the presence of all the modeled uncertainties. The approach used involves grouping parametric variations affecting the same open loop eigenvalue, then scaling one or more of these variations to accommodate...

  4. On the Feasibility of Steering Swallowable Microsystem Capsules Using Computer-Aided Magnetic Levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Billy; Mintchev, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Swallowable capsule endoscopy is used for non-invasive diagnosis of some gastrointestinal (GI) organs. However, control over the position of the capsule is a major unresolved issue. This study presents a design for steering the capsule based on magnetic levitation. The levitation is stabilized with the aid of a computer-aided feedback control system and diamagnetism. Peristaltic and gravitational forces to be overcome were calculated. A levitation setup was built to analyze the fe...

  5. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue ther...

  6. Parametric Design on Rollers of Large-diameter Three-roller Cold-rolling Pipe Mill%大直径三辊冷轧管机轧辊的参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾其苏; 双远华; 张志娜; 张志武

    2014-01-01

    Roller is the core of groove design for large-diameter three-roller cold-rolling pipe mill. This paper takes Solidworks as the secondary development platform to carry out parametric design on rollers of large-diameter three-roller cold-rolling pipe mill by using C#,and introduces the basic principles and the key developing progress of par-ametric design. The design is connected with groove design software of large-diameter three-roller cold-rolling pipe mill. The design can model the roller rapidly,accelerate development cycles of groove design and strengthen com-petitive power of product.%轧辊是大直径三辊冷轧管机孔型设计的核心。以三维造型软件Solidworks为开发平台,使用C#语言对大直径三辊冷轧管机的轧辊进行参数化设计,阐述参数化建模的基本原理和开发过程。该设计对接大直径三辊冷轧管机特有的孔型设计软件,实现轧辊模型的快速设计,缩短孔型研发周期,提高产品竞争力。

  7. The study of Parametric Design for Body of Organization based on Skeleton Model by Pro/E%曲柄摇杆机构的骨架模型法参数化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润

    2012-01-01

    The top- down design mode accords with the design process for product. The skeleton model design is one of the method that top - down designs in pro/E. The skeleton model of Pro/E reflects the total structure and design project of product. The skeleton model promises scientific product design and the accuracy of assemble. With Pro/Engineer parametric design, a new method of skeleton model for body of organization is proposed. By skeleton model method, the parts of organization body is designed. The Parametric designs and the series designs is finished with change of the parameter of skeleton model. This system provides a simple and convenient modeling method, which is helpful to improve the designing quality and working efficiency and shorten the design cycle. The model can be applied to other similar parts of the design process.%自顶向下的设计模式符合产品的设计思路,Pro/E软件在组件模式下的骨架模型设计是自顶向下设计的方法之一。该法可以使设计信息在整个组件中顺利地传达,保证了产品设计合理性和装配的准确性,从而确保稳妥的设计。结合Pro/E参数化建模思路,在组件模式下设计了曲柄摇杆机构的参数化骨架模型,并通过该骨架模型创建了机构零件,通过改变机构骨架模型参数,实现了曲柄摇杆机构的参数化和系列化设计。

  8. 基于Pro/E的齿轮减速器参数化系统设计%The design of three-dimension parametric system for reducer based on Pro/E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩衍昭; 刘爱敏; 于丽虹

    2012-01-01

    减速器产品的系列化和相似性程度很高,为提高设计效率和质量,开发系列化产品的三维参数化系统显得尤为必要.在充分利用Pro/E强大的三维处理功能及参数化设计的基础上而研究的,结合二次开发工具Pro/TOOLKIT,利用Visual C++做为计算机开发工具,采用模块化设计思想,实现了减速器系列产品各零部件的三维参数化设计和虚拟装配.该系统的开发在缩短产品设计周期、提高工作效率方面有显著的作用,对减速器系列化产品的设计开发工作有普遍的适应性和扩展性.%The similarity and serial of reducer are very high.Developing the three-dimension parametric system for serial production is very necessary in order to improve the design efficiency and quality. By fully used the three-dimensional function and parametric design of Pro/E and Visual C++ as computer development tool,based on Pro/TOOLKIT tool and the principle of modular design,it has realized the parametric design and virtual assembly of gear reducer's component.This system had notable role on shortening the period of products plan and raising working efficiency,which would have universal adaptability and development for the serial product of gear reducer.

  9. Synchronization of chaos in non-identical parametrically excited systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idowu, B.A. [Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo (Nigeria)], E-mail: babaidowu@yahoo.com; Vincent, U.E. [Department of Physics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B 2002, Ago-Iwoye (Nigeria)], E-mail: ue_vincent@yahoo.com; Njah, A.N. [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of non-identical parametrically excited oscillators. The active control technique is employed to design control functions based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria so as to achieve global chaos synchronization between a parametrically excited gyroscope and each of the parametrically excited pendulum and Duffing oscillator. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.

  10. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Pennazio; Emanuele Rondonotti; Roberto de Franchis

    2008-01-01

    Until recently,diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques.An array of new methods has recently been developed,increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage.Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ,since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized.Highquality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and fiat lesions recognized,without exposure to radiation.Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range,1.6%-2.4%)and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant;many were unsuspected and not found by other methods.However,it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance.Despite its limitations,CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management.Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms,ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings,remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  11. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  12. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  13. 矩阵二阶线性系统的观测器设计:一种参数化方法%Observer design for matrix second-order linear systems:a parametric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武云丽; 段广仁

    2004-01-01

    The issue of designing a type of generalized Luenberger observers for matrix secondorder linear (MSOL) systems was addressed in the matrix second-order framework. By introducing the concept of stable matrix pair for MSOL systems, sufficient and necessary conditions for the design of the type of generalized Luenberger observers were given under the assumption of controllability and observability of the MSOL system. Based on the proposed conditions and the right coprime factorization of the system, a parametric approach to the design of such type of observers was presented. The proposed approach provides all the degrees of design freedom, which can be further utilized to achieve additional system specifications. A spring-mass system was utilized to show the effect of the proposed method.

  14. About Bifurcational Parametric Simplification

    CERN Document Server

    Gol'dshtein, V; Yablonsky, G

    2015-01-01

    A concept of "critical" simplification was proposed by Yablonsky and Lazman in 1996 for the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum catalyst using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The main observation was a simplification of the mechanism at ignition and extinction points. The critical simplification is an example of a much more general phenomenon that we call \\emph{a bifurcational parametric simplification}. Ignition and extinction points are points of equilibrium multiplicity bifurcations, i.e., they are points of a corresponding bifurcation set for parameters. Any bifurcation produces a dependence between system parameters. This is a mathematical explanation and/or justification of the "parametric simplification". It leads us to a conjecture that "maximal bifurcational parametric simplification" corresponds to the "maximal bifurcation complexity." This conjecture can have practical applications for experimental study, because at points of "maximal bifurcation complexity" the number of independent sys...

  15. DWPF Welder Parametric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current

  16. DWPF Welder Parametric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current.

  17. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  18. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro. (paper)

  19. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  20. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  1. Capsule endoscopy in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) for the investigation of the small bowel is an approved technique both in adults and children (more than 10 years old). The present review provides data on the indications, diagnostic yield, adverse events and limitations of the WCE technique in children and tries to predict the future of WCE usage in this population of patients.

  2. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  3. Capsule Performance Optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2009-10-13

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  4. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2011-01-01

    in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  5. On the Best Parametrization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical solution to a system of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations with several parameters is examined in the framework of the parametric continuation method. Necessary and sufficient conditions are proved for choosing the best parameters, which provide the best condition number f

  6. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  7. Parametric Design Based on SolidWorks for Industrial Sewing Machine Casing%基于 SolidWorks 的工业平缝机机壳参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹; 曹巨江; 张科宇

    2016-01-01

    以面向对象的VB 6.0为开发平台,结合Access建立的标准数据库,控制服务端SolidWorks二次开发接口的A PI函数,调用对象、属性、方法,实现对工业平缝机机壳参数化模块的二次开发。用该方法可以快速、准确、高效地设计出符合用户要求的工业平缝机机壳的三维模型。%The paper proposes a parametric design method of industrial sewing machine casing by use of SolidWorks .This method is based on the object-oriented VB language platform and the standard database established by Access ,to accomplish the secondary development of the parametric design module of the industrial sewing machine casing through controlling API function offered by secondary development interface of server SolidWorks and calling object ,attribute and method .The proposed method can quickly establish the three-dimensional model of the industrial sewing machine casing and it is accurate and efficient to meet the requirements of the user .

  8. 基于Pro/E减速器的设计及机构仿真%Assembly and Motion Simulation Based on Pro/E Secondary Parametric Design Spur Gear Reducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋红; 马海龙; 赵刚刚

    2014-01-01

    利用Pro/E实现减速器各零件的精确三维建模和参数化设计。首先计算出减速器主要零件的尺寸,包括减速器齿轮副的尺寸、各轴的尺寸以及箱体与箱盖的尺寸,进而选择轴承、轴承端盖、轴承挡圈以及连接螺栓等,最后根据已知尺寸,对减速器进行参数化设计。%The use of Pro/E to achieve accurate 3D modeling and parametric design of each part reducer. First, calculate the size reducer major parts, including the deputy’s size reducer gears, size and dimensions of the box with the lid of each ax-is, and then select the bearing, the bearing cap, bearing retainer and bolts, Finally, according to the known size of reducer, parametric design.

  9. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2014-01-01

    Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will conver...

  10. Parametric Amplification For Detecting Weak Optical Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Chien; Chakravarthi, Prakash

    1996-01-01

    Optical-communication receivers of proposed type implement high-sensitivity scheme of optical parametric amplification followed by direct detection for reception of extremely weak signals. Incorporates both optical parametric amplification and direct detection into optimized design enhancing effective signal-to-noise ratios during reception in photon-starved (photon-counting) regime. Eliminates need for complexity of heterodyne detection scheme and partly overcomes limitations imposed on older direct-detection schemes by noise generated in receivers and by limits on quantum efficiencies of photodetectors.

  11. Parametric design and development of the air and screen cleaning mechanism based on UG%基于UG的风筛式清选装置参数化系统二次开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丰旭; 李耀明; 徐立章

    2011-01-01

    阐述了利用UG的建模功能构建风筛式清选装置三维参数化模型的过程,以VC++为开发工具,利用UG/Open API进行风筛式清选装置参数化系统的二次开发,设计MenuScript菜单和UIStyler对话框及其控制程序;在UG环境下,选择风筛式清选装置参数化设计下拉菜单,在弹出的对话框中输入其设计主参数,系统可按设计要求自动生成或更新风筛式清选装置三维模型,大大缩短了产品的开发周期.%The process of creating the three-dimensional model of the air and screen cleaning mechanism was described by using the parametric modeling of UG;UG was used as developing platform and VC++ was used as development tool,using UG/Open API to make a secondary development about the parameter part,and by taking the air and screen cleaning mechanism as an example, the development method was introduced.The MenuScript menus, UIStyler dialog boxes and control procedures were designed by using UG/Open API applications secondary-development function,then the parametric modeling system was built up.In the environment of UG,the man-machine interact dialog-box would popup when selected the user-defined pull-down menu.Users can input the main parameters of the air and screen cleaning mechanism in the dialog-box and then the parametric system will automatically update the model or generate a new one ,which will abbreviate the model periods vastly by this way.

  12. Optimization of noncollinear optical parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, D. N.; Rothardt, J.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-02-01

    Noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) - pumped with the green light of a frequency doubled Yb-doped fiber-amplifier system 1, 2 - permit convenient generation of ultrashort pulses in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) 3. The broad bandwidth of the parametric gain via the noncollinear pump configuration allows amplification of few-cycle optical pulses when seeded with a spectrally flat, re-compressible signal. The short pulses tunable over a wide region in the visible permit transcend of frontiers in physics and lifescience. For instance, the resulting high temporal resolution is of significance for many spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, the high magnitudes of the peak-powers of the produced pulses allow research in high-field physics. To understand the demands of noncollinear optical parametric amplification using a fiber pump source, it is important to investigate this configuration in detail 4. An analysis provides not only insight into the parametric process but also determines an optimal choice of experimental parameters for the objective. Here, the intention is to design a configuration which yields the shortest possible temporal pulse. As a consequence of this analysis, the experimental setup could be optimized. A number of aspects of optical parametric amplifier performance have been treated analytically and computationally 5, but these do not fully cover the situation under consideration here.

  13. Failure of the capsule 74F-2A for fuel compacts irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsule 74F-2A is for irradiation at 16000C for VHTR fuel compacts in JMTR. However, an irradiation with the capsule was suspended and the capsule was taken out, because the compacts temperature suddenly rose when the reactor power had reached to 40 MW and FPs gas was released from the compacts container during a reactor power decrease about 1-hour after the temperature rise. Subsequent examinations showed that the trouble was caused by sudden gas evolution from the flame-sprayed molybdenum coating on a graphite sleeve containing fuel compacts when the sleeve temperature exceeded a certain level. Described are the situation of temperature rise and FPs gas release, the abnormal phenomena viewed in design, fabrication and inspection of the capsule, the results of its dismounting in a hot cell, the gas releases from various capsule structural materials at elevated temperatures, and the cause as above revealed, and countermeasures to be taken in future. (author)

  14. Thermal analysis of an irradiation capsule for high-temperature materials to be used in future nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kim, Sung Ryul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Neutron Application Technology

    2016-05-15

    The requirement of irradiation of materials at high temperature are gradually increasing with the development of Gen-IV (Generation-IV) reactors, which will be operated at high temperatures and under a high neutron flux. To overcome the restrictions for the high temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule was designed and fabricated. Through the irradiation test, the structural integrity and safety of the capsule during irradiation at high temperature were confirmed.

  15. Review of safety issues that pertain to the use of WESF cesium chloride capsules in an irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, G.L.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Lytle, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    Since the recovery of the fission product cesium-137 began in 1967, about 1500 capsules, each containing an average of about 50,000 curies of cesium chloride, have been produced. These capsules were designed to safely store this gamma-emitting fission product, but they are now considered to be a valuable source for irradiators. The capsules were designed to have a large margin of safety in their mechanical properties. Impact, percussion, and thermal tests have been conducted that demonstrate their ability to meet anticipated licensing requirements. Although this document is not intended to develop or evaluate accident scenarios, an examination of the effects of heating a capsule to 800/sup 0/C for up to 90 min was completed. At 800/sup 0/C, the salt volume would be expected to exceed the initial capsule volume in a few (up to 1/3) of the WESF capsules. Under these conditions, the inner capsule would expand to accommodate the salt volume and the gas pressure. The strength and ductility of the capsule are more than adequate to permit this expansion with a safety margin of at least a factor of three. Capsules have now been stored in the WESF pool for 10 years, and 15 capsules have been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids facility for nearly 5 years without any capsule failure. This experience, along with available laboratory and production data, gives reasonable assurance that the capsules can be safely used in properly designed commercial irradiators. This is especially the case when one considers current and future evaluation programs designed to assess the long-term effects of corrosion and mechanical properties degradation.

  16. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Relational Parametricity for Computational Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2009-01-01

    According to Strachey, a polymorphic program is parametric if it applies a uniform algorithm independently of the type instantiations at which it is applied. The notion of relational parametricity, introduced by Reynolds, is one possible mathematical formulation of this idea. Relational parametricity provides a powerful tool for establishing data abstraction properties, proving equivalences of datatypes, and establishing equalities of programs. Such properties have been well studied in a pure functional setting. Many programs, however, exhibit computational effects, and are not accounted for by the standard theory of relational parametricity. In this paper, we develop a foundational framework for extending the notion of relational parametricity to programming languages with effects.

  18. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Maeng, W. Y.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Jung, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Jun, Y. K.; Yang, S. H.

    1997-08-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  19. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  20. Family love time capsule preview

    CERN Document Server

    Musgrave, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Create your own family time capsule online using EMRE Publishing's ePub3 Creator Studio. With our storage plans, your family videos, music playlists and mysteries can be preserved for coming generations to add to, embellish, and communicate using our Family Forum inside the Embellisher eReader for multimedia ""enhanced"" eBooks. Just like the ""American Sniper"" enhanced eBook, you can pay tribute to your fallen heroes and other family members who have distinguished themselves in life.

  1. The research on parametric design system of wheel set in bridge crane%桥式起重机车轮组参数化设计系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹超; 仲梁维

    2014-01-01

    在大规模定制化的条件下,为了提高起重机生产企业对市场变化的快速响应能力,通过运用广义模块化设计理论,并根据桥式起重机车轮组的结构功能特征进行模块的划分,建立各个模块的模版,结合参数化的设计方法,开发了起重机车轮组的参数化设计系统,并结合实例进行了验证。该设计系统缩短了起重机车轮组的开发周期,提高了设计效率和质量,能够对市场多样化、个性化的需求做出快速响应。%Under the condition of mass customization ,in order to improve the crane production enterprises capacity of rapid re-sponse to market changes .By using the theory of generalized modular design ,and according to the division of the module structure and characteristic of wheel set ,set up each module of the template ,combined with the parametric design method ,parametric de-sign system was developed for crane wheel group ,with examples for verification .To shorten the development cycle of the crane wheel set ,and improves the efficiency and quality of design ,can make a rapid response to the market diversification ,personalized needs .

  2. 卷烟包装设备专用零件参数化CAD系统开发%Development of a parametric designing CAD system for parts special for cigarette packing equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭; 何霄峰; 甘蔚钰

    2009-01-01

    在Pro/E软件环境下,利用二次开发工具Pro/Tookit结合Pro/E的布局功能开发了一套针对卷烟包装设备的专用零件参数化CAD系统.该系统具有便捷的用户菜单,通过修改布局文件中烟包、烟条规格参数,可以对卷烟包装设备专用零件进行自动参数化设计,并输出相应的三维零件图、三维装配图和二维工程图.同时,系统实现了零件的自动设计和装配检验,大大缩短了产品的开发时间,提高了设计效率.%Based on Pro/Engineering software, a parametric designing CAD system for parts specially used in cigarette packaging equipment had been developed by Pro/Toolkit and the Layout function. A user-friendly menu was provided in the system. The parametric part de-signing for the parts could be conducted by changing the parameters in the layout. And the 3D part models, 3D assembly models and 2D engineering drawings could also be output. Au-tomatic part designing and assembly testing had been realized in the system, which could greatly shorten the product's development time and improve the design quality.

  3. 基于骨架模型曲柄滑块机构的参数化设计与仿真%Parametric Design and Simulation of Slider-Crank Mechanism Based on Skeleton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康爱军; 陈飞; 程刚

    2012-01-01

    对曲柄滑块机构进行了几何分析并确定了其设计参数的取值范围.基于Pro/E的Top-Down设计方法,建立了曲柄滑块机构的骨架模型.通过Pro/Program编程和添加关系式实现了骨架模型参数化设计.基于骨架模型建立了曲柄滑块机构装配模型,并在Pro/Mechanism模块中进行运动学仿真分析,成功地建立了一个参数化设计与仿真系统.该系统能够获取曲柄滑块机构任意位置的运动规律,具有可视化、参数化、操作简单等特点,为教学与生产实践提供指导.%Geometric analysis is done and value ranges of design parameters are confirmed for Slider-crank Mechanism.Based on the Top-Down design in Pro/E,the skeleton model for slider-crank Mechanism is builtAnd parametric design for the skeleton model is realized by programming and adding relations in Pro/Program-Based on the skeleton model,an assembly model is built,and is kinematically simulated in Pno/Mechanisin.So α parametric design and simulation system for slider-crank mechanism is finally estab-lishedWith this system,movement law in any position of slider-crank mechanism can be obtained. This system is characterized with its visualization and parameterization and easy ope ration,which may provide guidance for teaching and productive practice.

  4. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  5. Fabrication and irradiation of HFIR-MFE-JP-17, -18, and -19 target irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to fabricate and irradiate capsules for testing magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactor candidate first-wall materials in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target positions. Japanese and US test specimens are being irradiated to determine fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels and a few chromium ferritic steels and high heat flux alloys after irradiation to 3 dpa at temperatures of 60-125 and 250-300C. Fabrication and irradiation of three new uninstrumented HFIR target capsules for testing 12.5-mm-diameter stainless steel fracture toughness specimens to a damage level of approximately 3 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures of 60-125 and 250-300C are proceeding satisfactorily. Two low temperature capsules of identical design, designated HFIR-MFE-JP-18 and HFIR-MFE-JP-19, each contain 32 fracture toughness specimens directly cooled by reactor cooling water. Irradiation of these two capsules is nearing completion. A single helium-filled elevated temperature capsule, designated HFIR-MFE-JP-17, will contain a stack of 86 fracture toughness specimens. Additional neutronic calculations were required for this experiment to insure that it will not cause unacceptable neutron flux shifting and hot spots in HFIR fuel regions. Irradiation of this capsule is scheduled to start in late November, 1991. Included in each capsule are companion transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SS-3 tensile specimens for correlation of microstructural, tensile, and fracture toughness properties

  6. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis

  7. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  8. Regulation of capsule in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Thomas, Jennifer; Stephens, David S

    2016-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a devastating pathogen exclusive to humans, expresses capsular polysaccharides that are the major meningococcal virulence determinants and the basis for successful meningococcal vaccines. With rare exceptions, the expression of capsule (serogroups A, B, C, W, X, Y) is required for systemic invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in capsule expression or structure (e.g. hypo- or hyper-encapsulation, capsule "switching", acetylation) can influence immunologic diagnostic assays or lead to immune escape. The loss or down-regulation of capsule is also critical in meningococcal biology facilitating meningococcal attachment, microcolony formation and the carriage state at human mucosal surfaces. Encapsulated meningococci contain a cps locus with promoters located in an intergenic region between the biosynthesis and the conserved capsule transport operons. The cps intergenic region is transcriptionally regulated (and thus the amount of capsule expressed) by IS element insertion, by a two-component system, MisR/MisS and through sequence changes that result in post-transcriptional RNA thermoregulation. Reversible on-off phase variation of capsule expression is controlled by slipped strand mispairing of homo-polymeric tracts and by precise insertion and excision of IS elements (e.g. IS1301) in the biosynthesis operon. Capsule structure can be altered by phase-variable expression of capsular polymer modification enzymes or "switched" through transformation and homologous recombination of different polymerases. Understanding the complex regulation of meningococcal capsule has important implications for meningococcal biology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current and future vaccine development and vaccine strategies. PMID:26089023

  9. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  10. 基于辅助线滞生法的Auto CAD R12参数化设计系统%Auto CAD R12 Parametric Design System Based on the Detained Auxiliary Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭启全; 周克绳

    1996-01-01

    本文提出了一种在Auto CAD R12环境下,用C语言(基于ADS)开发二维图形参数化设计的新方法辅助线滞生法.解决了辅助线滞生法与ADS具体结合中的技术难题;阐述了实元素悬挂到辅助元素上的新思想,实现了尺寸驱动;为用户众多的Auto CAD R12增加了新功能.基于该方法的Auto CAD R12参数化设计系统(Auto CAD R12 Parametric Design System--APDS)已用于悬挂输送机、管道油阀及半挂自卸车的设计绘图.

  11. Parametric Models of Periodogram

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Mohan; A. Mangalam; S. Chattopadhyay

    2014-09-01

    The maximum likelihood estimator is used to determine fit parameters for various parametric models of the Fourier periodogram followed by the selection of the best-fit model amongst competing models using the Akaike information criteria. This analysis, when applied to light curves of active galactic nuclei can be used to infer the presence of quasi-periodicity and break or knee frequencies. The extracted information can be used to place constraints on the mass, spin and other properties of the putative central black hole and the region surrounding it through theoretical models involving disk and jet physics.

  12. Investigation on the Optimum Performance and Parametric Design of a Variety of Energy Conversion Systems%多种能量转换系统的性能优化与参数设计的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国星; 陈金灿

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy, increasing efficiency of energy utilization and empoldering new and renewable clean energy sources are emphases of developing energy source in the coming years. The performance optimization and parametric design of energy conversion systems is one of the key science problems in energy utilization with high efficiency. In the present paper, some important research results involving the optimum performance and parametric design of a variety of energy conversion systems, such as the magnetic refrigeration, semiconductor thermoelectric devices, thermal utilization of solar energy , chemical engines and chemical pumps , fuel cell hybrid systems , water electrolysis systems for hydrogen production, Brownian motors , quantum thermodynamic cycle systems , and so on,are introduced in combination with both the research status at home and abroad and the research work of our group in recent years.%节能、提高能效、开发新能源(包括可再生清洁能源)是今后能源发展的重点,而能量转换系统的性能优化与参数设计是高效利用能源的一个关键科学问题.结合国内外的研究现状和本研究组近年来的研究工作,介绍在磁制冷、半导体热电器件、太阳能热利用、化学机与化学泵、燃料电池及其耦合系统、电解水制氢系统、布朗马达及量子热力学循环等能量转换系统的性能优化与参数设计方面所取得的一些重要成果.

  13. Capsule Ablator Inflight Performance Measurements Via Streaked Radiography Of ICF Implosions On The NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Mackinnon, A.; MacPhee, A.; Meezan, N.; Olson, R.; Hicks, D.; LePape, S.; Izumi, N.; Fournier, K.; Barrios, M. A.; Ross, S.; Pak, A.; Döppner, T.; Kalantar, D.; Opachich, K.; Rygg, R.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B.; LaFortune, K.; Widmayer, C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, J.; Moses, E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data delivers good accuracy in implosion metrics that meets our requirements for ignition and agrees with recently introduced 2-dimensional pinhole radiography. Calculations match measured trajectory across various capsule designs and laser drives when the peak laser power is reduced by 20%. Furthermore, calculations matching measured trajectories give also good agreement in ablator shell thickness and remaining mass.

  14. 基于CreoParametric的易拉罐外形尺寸的优化设计%Shape and Size Optimal Design of Tear-off Tin Based on Creo Parametric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩炬; 曹利杰; 郭亚楠

    2012-01-01

    Shape and size optimal design of tear-off tin was carried out based on Creo Parametric behavior modeling with example. The optimal design of tear-off tin was performed with shape and size as variables, volume as constraint condition, minimal mass of metal as design goal. The method has the advantages of easy operation and reliable results. The purpose was to provide reference for optimal design of tear-off tin and other metal packaging containers.%结合实例应用CreoParametnc的行为建模功能,对易拉罐的外形尺寸进行了优化设计。在CreoParametnc中以易拉罐外形尺寸为设计变量,以易拉罐容积为约束条件,以易拉罐金属用量最小为设计目标,进行了优化设计。该方法操作简便、优化结果可靠、推广性强。为易拉罐及其他包装容器的优化设计提供了新的思路。

  15. Development of OpenGL-based Parametric Design System for Special Shape Pack- aging Carton%基于OpenGL的异型包装纸盒参数化设计系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦昌; 曾健

    2012-01-01

    给出了异型包装纸盒参数化设计中关键参数的确定方法,以系统中的一个异型盒型为例,论述了异型盒参数化设计过程中各参数之间的关系,确定了参数化设计的关键参数,并给出了相关的计算公式。开发了一套能展示立体的线框图、贴图后的效果图以及平面展开的线框图等的设计系统,为异型包装纸盒的设计提供便利。%The determination method of key parameters for parametric design of special shape packaging carton was introduced. Relationship among the parameters in the course of design was discussed with example. The key parameters of the example were determined and the correlative calculation formulas were provided. A corresponding design system with the functions of showing line frame model, rendering model, and evolving drawing etc. was developed, which provide convenience for design of special shape packaging carton.

  16. A finite element parametric modeling technique of aircraft wing structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jiapeng; Xi Ping; Zhang Baoyuan; Hu Bifu

    2013-01-01

    A finite element parametric modeling method of aircraft wing structures is proposed in this paper because of time-consuming characteristics of finite element analysis pre-processing. The main research is positioned during the preliminary design phase of aircraft structures. A knowledge-driven system of fast finite element modeling is built. Based on this method, employing a template parametric technique, knowledge including design methods, rules, and expert experience in the process of modeling is encapsulated and a finite element model is established automatically, which greatly improves the speed, accuracy, and standardization degree of modeling. Skeleton model, geometric mesh model, and finite element model including finite element mesh and property data are established on parametric description and automatic update. The outcomes of research show that the method settles a series of problems of parameter association and model update in the pro-cess of finite element modeling which establishes a key technical basis for finite element parametric analysis and optimization design.

  17. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  18. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  19. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  20. 电子胶囊中基于非对称结构的无源双向通信芯片设计%A Passive, Asymmetric Bi-Directional Communication IC Designed for Electronic Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞航; 姜来; 李琰; 纪震

    2012-01-01

    Small electronic devices attached to the outer surface of standard capsule can potentially serve as a cost-effective method of validating medication compliance via electronic detection of an ingested e-pill inside the human digestive tract. In this paper, a passive chip design for such a device is discussed,and the detailed design procedure is given.For the volume-constrained device to achieve the best communication efficiency in the human body environment,an novel asymmetric architecture, which employs different carrier frequencies on Downlink / U plink data transfer, is proposed: the data communication from the reader to the ingested device (Downlink) is designed at 13.56MHz to minimize the signal attenuation through the human body,and the 915MHz band is used for the communication from the ingested device to the reader (Uplink) to achieve the best antenna radiation efficiency. A prototype micro-chip is fabricated using UMC CMOS 130nm technology, and measures 1500 ×800μm2. Experimental results demonstrate that the chip can be activated by - 4dBm input power and achieves a data rate of 17kb/s in the Downlink communication. For the Uplink communication,the chip generates periodic pulses at 915MHz with a data rate of 0.75kb/s.%将电子设备附着在医用胶囊外表面构成电子胶囊可以用来监测服药依从性,本文着重讨论了其中无源双向通信芯片的设计方法.综合考虑无线信号在人体内的传输损耗和电子胶囊中微型天线辐射效率等因素,本文在设计中创新地采用了下行/上行通信不同载波频率的非对称系统结构.在下行通信中采用了传输损耗较小的13.56MHz低频信号,实现对芯片的唤醒以及工作模式的配置;在上行通信中则采用了915MHz高频信号,以优化胶囊天线的辐射效率.系统采用标准的UMC 130nm CMOS工艺实现,面积为1500×800μm2.实验结果表明,下行通信时该无源芯片的唤醒灵敏度为- 4dBm,数据率为17kb/s;上行通

  1. How helpful is capsule endoscopy to surgeons?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Ersoy; Bulent Sivri; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a new technology that, for the first time, allows complete, non-invasive endoscopic imaging of the small bowel. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of suspected small bowel diseases has been established. Important applications for surgeons include observations of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel neoplasms.

  2. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  3. Parametric Model of an Aerospike Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A suite of computer codes was assembled to simulate the performance of an aerospike engine and to generate the engine input for the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories. First an engine simulator module was developed that predicts the aerospike engine performance for a given mixture ratio, power level, thrust vectoring level, and altitude. This module was then used to rapidly generate the aerospike engine performance tables for axial thrust, normal thrust, pitching moment, and specific thrust. Parametric engine geometry was defined for use with the engine simulator module. The parametric model was also integrated into the iSIGHTI multidisciplinary framework so that alternate designs could be determined. The computer codes were used to support in-house conceptual studies of reusable launch vehicle designs.

  4. SMAC — A Modular Open Source Architecture for Medical Capsule Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Beccani; Ekawahyu Susilo; Christian Di Natali; Pietro Valdastri

    2014-01-01

    The field of Medical Capsule Robots (MCRs) is gaining momentum in the robotics community, with applications spanning from abdominal surgery to gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. MCRs are miniature multifunctional devices usually constrained in both size and on-board power supply. The design process for MCRs is time consuming and resource intensive, as it involves the development of custom hardware and software components. In this work, we present the STORM Lab Modular Architecture for Capsules ...

  5. Parametric analysis as a methodical approach that facilitates the exploration of the creative space in low-energy and zero-energy design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    -energy or zero-energy building design. The paper discusses professional differences between two of the main actors involved in integrated design processes; engineers and architects, as well as a methodical approach to investigation and delimitation of the creative space of a specific project. The paper...

  6. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  7. Mechanical Parametric Oscillations and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Usually parametric oscillations are not the topic of general physics courses. Probably it is because the mathematical theory of this phenomenon is relatively complicated, and until quite recently laboratory experiments for students were difficult to implement. However parametric oscillations are good illustrations of the laws of physics and can be…

  8. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics

  9. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  10. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  11. Applying Parametric Fault Detection to a Mechanical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felício, P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.;

    2002-01-01

    A way of doing parametric fault detection is described. It is based on the representation of parameter changes as linear fractional transformations (lfts). We describe a model with parametric uncertainty. Then a stabilizing controller is chosen and its robustness properties are studied via mu. Th....... The parameter changes (faults) are estimated based on estimates of the fictitious signals that enter the delta block in the lft. These signal estimators are designed by H-infinity techniques. The chosen example is an inverted pendulum....

  12. Status for development of a capsule and instruments for high-temperature irradiation in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the reactors planned in the Gen-IV program will be operated at high temperature and under high neutron flux, the requirements for irradiation of materials at high temperature are recently being gradually increased. The irradiation tests of materials in HANARO up to the present have been performed usually at temperatures below 300degC at which the RPV materials of the commercial reactors are being operated. To overcome the restriction for high-temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule with double thermal media composed of two kinds of materials such as Al-Ti and Al-graphite was designed and fabricated as a more advanced capsule than the single thermal media capsule. (author)

  13. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:1307994

  14. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  15. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  16. Optimization of linear parametric circuits by the control of stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shapovalov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A brief description of the symbolic frequency method for linear parametric circuit analysis is adduced. In particular it comes to parametric transfer functions and assessment of asymptotic stability of such circuits. The formulation of optimization task. The objective function formation is done via two functions - the function of goal defined by desirable circuit characteristics (goal of optimization and function characteristics of circuit defined by the selected values of the varied parameters during optimization of electrical circuit characteristics. The coincidence degree of these two functions is objective function which is formed on their basis by the chosen method. The procedure of optimization. The solution of optimization task is determining the values с0* and m* that provide minimum value of objective function, satisfy the condition of circuit stability and conditions of physical parametric element realizability Example. There is example of single-circuit parametric amplifier optimization using the objective function based on the calculation of parametric circuit transfer function with a symbolic representation of the parametric capacity parameters. Conclusions. Frequency symbolic analysis method allows solving optimization task of parametric linear circuits designing in the frequency domain based on use of the frequency symbolic transfer functions which are approximated by trigonometric polynomials of Fourier, particularly in complex form.

  17. Conformational transitions of cytochrome c in sub-micron-sized capsules at air/buffer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Maheshkumar; Dhathathreyan, Aruna

    2014-09-30

    This work presents the design of sub-micron-sized capsules of Cytochrome c (cyt c) in the range 300-350 nm and the conformational transitions of the protein that occur when the films of these capsules spread at the air/buffer interface are subjected to repeated compression-expansion cycles. Steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and circular dichroic (CD) spectra have been used to study the highly compact native conformation (70% helicity) of the protein in the capsules and its stability has been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The capsules have been characterized using zeta sizer and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Surface concentration-surface pressure (Γ-π) isotherms of the films of the capsules spread at air/buffer interface following compression-expansion show destabilizing effect on cyt c. FTIR and CD spectra of these films skimmed from the surface show that the protein transitions gradually from its native helical to an anomalous beta sheet aggregated state. This results from a competition between stabilizing hydrated polar segments of the protein in the capsule and destabilizing nonspecific hydrophobic interactions arising at the air/buffer interface. This 2D model could further our understanding of the spatial and temporal roles of proteins in confined spaces and also in the design of new drug delivery vehicles using proteins.

  18. Parametric Timing Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivancos, E; Healy, C; Mueller, F; Whalley, D

    2001-05-09

    Embedded systems often have real-time constraints. Traditional timing analysis statically determines the maximum execution time of a task or a program in a real-time system. These systems typically depend on the worst-case execution time of tasks in order to make static scheduling decisions so that tasks can meet their deadlines. Static determination of worst-case execution times imposes numerous restrictions on real-time programs, which include that the maximum number of iterations of each loop must be known statically. These restrictions can significantly limit the class of programs that would be suitable for a real-time embedded system. This paper describes work-in-progress that uses static timing analysis to aid in making dynamic scheduling decisions. For instance, different algorithms with varying levels of accuracy may be selected based on the algorithm's predicted worst-case execution time and the time allotted for the task. We represent the worst-case execution time of a function or a loop as a formula, where the unknown values affecting the execution time are parameterized. This parametric timing analysis produces formulas that can then be quickly evaluated at run-time so dynamic scheduling decisions can be made with little overhead. Benefits of this work include expanding the class of applications that can be used in a real-time system, improving the accuracy of dynamic scheduling decisions, and more effective utilization of system resources. This paper describes how static timing analysis can be used to aid in making dynamic scheduling decisions. The WCET of a function or a loop is represented as a formula, where the values affecting the execution time are parameterized. Such formulas can then be quickly evaluated at run-time so dynamic scheduling decisions can be made when scheduling a task or choosing algorithms within a task. Benefits of this parametric timing analysis include expanding the class of applications that can be used in a real

  19. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  20. 水田高地隙喷杆喷雾机传动齿轮箱的参数化设计%Gear-box Parametric Design of Paddy High-clearance Boom Sprayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁世杰; 陈树人; 邵景世; 郭双革

    2014-01-01

    Combined the research of rice planting features with the agronomic requirements of the South , determine the specific parameters of paddy high-clearance boom sprayer .In order to meet the above requirements , design the transmis-sion gear box of the boom sprayer , including walking transmission system and spraying transmission system , and achie-ving the reasonable distribution of power .By defining design parameters , and creating involute equation and other param-eter equations in Pro/E software , achieve parametric design of bevel gears and spur gears .Through automatic generation of different gear models and virtual assembly , improve the efficiency and increase the labor of designers .%通过对南方水稻种植特点的调研并结合农艺要求,确定了水田高地隙喷杆喷雾机的具体工作参数,设计了喷杆喷雾机的传动齿轮箱,包含行走传动齿轮系统和喷施传动齿轮系统,实现了整车的动力合理分配。通过在Pro/E软件中定义设计参数、建立渐开线方程及其他各参数之间的方程,对齿轮箱的直齿锥齿轮和直齿圆柱齿轮进行参数化设计,实现不同参数齿轮模型的自动生成,并进行虚拟装配,提高了设计效率,降低了设计者的劳动量。

  1. The Logic of Parametric Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    The computational method of parametric probability analysis is introduced. It is demonstrated how to embed logical formulas from the propositional calculus into parametric probability networks, thereby enabling sound reasoning about the probabilities of logical propositions. An alternative direct probability encoding scheme is presented, which allows statements of implication and quantification to be modeled directly as constraints on conditional probabilities. Several example problems are solved, from Johnson-Laird's aces to Smullyan's zombies. Many apparently challenging problems in logic turn out to be simple problems in algebra and computer science; often just systems of polynomial equations or linear optimization problems. This work extends the mathematical logic and parametric probability methods invented by George Boole.

  2. 数字化设计中环境行为的参数化%Parametric Environment Behavior in Digital Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧莉; 王津红; 丁晓博

    2014-01-01

    本文试图提出一种基于虚拟现实技术的环境行为参数化方式。在设计阶段,将环境行为学的因素与数字化建筑设计紧密结合起来,探讨了环境行为因素的参数在建筑形态及互动空间设计的应用,提出了建成前评价体系的初步构想。%This paper tries to put forward a kind of way of environmental behavior parameters based on virtual reality technology. In the design stage, the factor of environment be-havior and digital architectural design are combined closely together, we probed into the application of parameters of env-ironmental behavior factors in the design of architectural form and interactive space, and put forward the preliminary ideas before completion of evaluation system.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the...

  4. Capsule Retentions and Incomplete Capsule Endoscopy Examinations: An Analysis of 2300 Examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte M. Höög; Lars-Åke Bark; Juan Arkani; Jacob Gorsetman; Olle Broström; Urban Sjöqvist

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate capsule endoscopy in terms of incomplete examinations and capsule retentions and to find risk factors for these events. Material and Methods. This retrospective and consecutive study includes data from 2300 capsule enteroscopy examinations, performed at four different hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden from 2003 to 2009. Results. The frequency of incomplete examinations was 20%. Older age, male gender, suspected, and known Crohn's disease were risk factors for an incomplete exami...

  5. A Parametric Approach to IIR Digital Filter Design%一种设计ⅡR数字滤波器的参数化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红; 李刚; 黄朝耿; 叶丰

    2012-01-01

    Based on a continuous-time state-space structure and the generalized bilinear transformation(GBT),a parameterization for IIR digital filter design is proposed.The cost function can be minimised without stability monitoring because the corresponding stability region is the entire parameter space.Simulation shows that the performance of the filters obtained with the proposed approach is better than that of those designed with an existing one in terms of passband ripple,stopband attenuation and group delay.%基于连续时间状态空间结构和广义双线性变换,提出了一种设计无限冲激响应(ⅡR)数字滤波器的参数化方法.优点是稳定区域包含了整个参数空间,因此可以采用无约束优化方法.给出了仿真实例,并与已有的设计方法进行了比较,其通带波动、阻带衰减、群迟延等性能更为优越.

  6. Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide parametric oscillator crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, C L; Cooper, D G; Budni, P A; Knights, M G; Schepler, K L; Dedomenico, R; Catella, G C

    1994-05-20

    We performed an experimental investigation of thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide (AgGaSe(2)) optical parametric oscillator crystals pumped by a 2-µm laser at ambient temperature. We determined an empirical expression for the effective thermal focusing power in terms of the pump power, beam diameter, crystal length, and absorption coefficient. This relation may be used to estimate average power limitations in designing AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillators. We also demonstrated an 18% slope efficiency from a 2-µm pumped AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillator operated at 77 K, at which temperature thermal lensing is substantially reduced because of an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the thermal index gradient dn/dT. Cryogenic cooling may provide an additional option for scaling up the average power capability of a 2-µm pumped AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillator.

  7. Modeling Interconnect Variability Using Efficient Parametric Model Order Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Peng; Li, Xin; Pileggi, Lawrence T; Nassif, Sani R

    2011-01-01

    Assessing IC manufacturing process fluctuations and their impacts on IC interconnect performance has become unavoidable for modern DSM designs. However, the construction of parametric interconnect models is often hampered by the rapid increase in computational cost and model complexity. In this paper we present an efficient yet accurate parametric model order reduction algorithm for addressing the variability of IC interconnect performance. The efficiency of the approach lies in a novel combination of low-rank matrix approximation and multi-parameter moment matching. The complexity of the proposed parametric model order reduction is as low as that of a standard Krylov subspace method when applied to a nominal system. Under the projection-based framework, our algorithm also preserves the passivity of the resulting parametric models.

  8. Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh;

    2012-01-01

    Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....

  9. Therapeutic Capsule Endoscopy: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for non-invasive (or less-invasive monitoring and treatment of medical conditions has attracted both physicians and engineers to work together and investigate new methodologies. Wireless capsule endoscopy is a successful example of such techniques which has become an accepted routine for diagnostic inspection of the gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a non-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy and provides the opportunity for exploring distal areas of the small intestine which are otherwise not accessible. Despite these advantages, wireless capsule endoscopy is still limited in functionality compared to traditional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopes with advanced functionalities, such as biopsy or drug delivery, are highly desirable. In this article, the current status of wireless capsule endoscopy is reviewed together with some of its possible therapeutic applications as well as the existing challenges.

  10. Quantum Complexity of Parametric Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    We study parametric integration of functions from the class C^r([0,1]^{d_1+d_2}) to C([0,1]^{d_1}) in the quantum model of computation. We analyze the convergence rate of parametric integration in this model and show that it is always faster than the optimal deterministic rate and in some cases faster than the rate of optimal randomized classical algorithms.

  11. Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is ...

  12. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Computer Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真.%In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid model, putting the changeable parameters design were put in the part 3D model creating procedure. The rapid modeling of worm gear and worm were realized by generating visual variable parameters dialog box. On this basis,the virtual assembly and motion simulation were made for rapid modeling of worm gear and worm.

  13. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  14. Mission Capture with a Multi-Role Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, M.

    The multi-role system concept is to maximise the number of mission that a system can undertake, thus maximising the value of its acquisition cost. The viability of this concept was explored by matching missions from International Space Station (ISS) support through to to Mars Landing with a feasibility design for a multi-role capsule. It was found that as the missions became more ambitious and moved further from lunar/Earth space, so increasing large add-on modules were required. However, these modules contained only simple elements like propellant tanks, increased pressurised space and supplies, and therefore represented lower cost developments; the expensive functions having been undertaken by the capsule. When it came to human interplanetary missions such as to Mars it was found that new primary transportation systems were required, but the capsule could still play a key role in support, for example Mars lander ascent stage, conducting Martian moon excursion missions and as the crew return to earth system. Given the immediate future of manned space flight is to maintain ISS operations combined with a range of exploration objectives beyond earth orbit, it is clearly not viable to develop specialist systems for each mission and multi-role systems will be essential. The feasibility concept illustrated how systems that require heavy development investment can made with sufficiently flexible to cover all these missions with only minimal additional investments.

  15. Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Clara R.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Cerqueira, Mariana T.; Marques, Alexandra P.; Reis, Rui L.; Mano, João F.

    2016-02-01

    A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the “stem cell niche”, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of BMP-2, RUNX2 and BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources.

  16. [Clinical practice using colon capsule endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakugawa, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Minori; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy(CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic technologies designed to explore the colorectum. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006, and the second generation (PillCam COLON 2 : CCE-2), with increased sensitivity, was released in 2009. The CCE-2 has 2 imagers with a much wider angle of view that has been increased to 172 degrees per imager, allowing nearly 360 degrees coverage of the colon by two. The most unique feature of the CCE-2 is its adaptive frame rate (AFR). This new technology allows the CCE-2 to capture 35 images per second when in motion and 4 images per second when virtually stationary. The per-patient CCE-2 sensitivity for detecting polyps > or = 6 mm has been reported as 84%-91%. These recent advancements in this modality might offer physicians the option to screen for colorectal lesions noninvasively. PMID:24597367

  17. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid molding, putting the changeable parameter design in the part 3D model creating procedure. By generating visual variable parameters dialog box, realize the rapid modeling of worm gear and worm. On this basis, finished rapid modeling of worm gear and worm of virtual assembly and motion simulation, laid the foundation for the follow - up study of the worm and worm gear.%在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真,为蜗轮蜗杆机构的后续研究奠定了基础.

  18. Building information modeling based on intelligent parametric technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xudong; TAN Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to push the information organization process of the building industry,promote sustainable architectural design and enhance the competitiveness of China's building industry,the author studies building information modeling (BIM) based on intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling is a new technology in the field of computer aided architectural design,which contains not only geometric data,but also the great amount of engineering data throughout the lifecycle of a building.The author also compares BIM technology with two-dimensional CAD technology,and demonstrates the advantages and characteristics of intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling,which is based on intelligent parametric modeling technology,will certainly replace traditional computer aided architectural design and become the new driving force to push forward China's building industry in this information age.

  19. TAGS-85/2N RTG power for Viking Lander Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-08-01

    Results of studies performed by Isotopes, Inc., Nuclear Systems Division, to optimize and baseline a TAGS-85/2N RTG for the Viking Lander Capsule prime electrical power source are presented. These studies generally encompassed identifying the Viking RTG mission profile and design requirements, and establishing a baseline RTG design consistent with these requirements.

  20. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  1. A new method for ship inner shell optimization based on parametric technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Yan-Yun; Lin Yan; Li Kai

    2015-01-01

    A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM), is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP) model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc....

  2. Fast Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time delay-and-sum synthetic aperture beamformer. The beamforming delays and apodization coefficients are described parametrically. The image is viewed as a set of independent lines that are defined in 3-D by their origin, direction, and...... implementation of the beamformer is optimized with respect to the architecture of a novel synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS), in which 4 channels are processed by the same set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In synthetic transmit aperture imaging, low-resolution images are formed...

  3. Multicutter machining of compound parametric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatna, Abdelmadjid; Grieve, R. J.; Broomhead, P.

    2000-10-01

    Parametric free forms are used in industries as disparate as footwear, toys, sporting goods, ceramics, digital content creation, and conceptual design. Optimizing tool path patterns and minimizing the total machining time is a primordial issue in numerically controlled (NC) machining of free form surfaces. We demonstrate in the present work that multi-cutter machining can achieve as much as 60% reduction in total machining time for compound sculptured surfaces. The given approach is based upon the pre-processing as opposed to the usual post-processing of surfaces for the detection and removal of interference followed by precise tracking of unmachined areas.

  4. Parametric uncertain identification of a robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, L.; Viola, J.; Hernández, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the parametric uncertainties identification of a robotic system of one degree of freedom. A MSC-ADAMS / MATLAB co-simulation model was built to simulate the uncertainties that affect the robotic system. For a desired trajectory, a set of dynamic models of the system was identified in presence of variations in the mass, length and friction of the system employing least squares method. Using the input-output linearization technique a linearized model plant was defined. Finally, the maximum multiplicative uncertainty of the system was modelled giving the controller desired design conditions to achieve a robust stability and performance of the closed loop system.

  5. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  6. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  7. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  8. Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators...... are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...... a global update function that yields an assignment to each node in a PDG. For an iterative application of the function, we prove that a fixed point assignment to PDG nodes exists and the set of assignments constitutes a well-quasi ordering, thus ensuring that the fixed point assignment can be found after...

  9. GENGTC-JB: a computer program to calculate temperature distribution for cylindrical geometry capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In design of JMTR irradiation capsules contained specimens, a program (named GENGTC) has been generally used to evaluate temperature distributions in the capsules. The program was originally compiled by ORNL(U.S.A.) and consisted of very simple calculation methods. From the incorporated calculation methods, the program is easy to use, and has many applications to the capsule design. However, it was considered to replace original computing methods with advanced ones, when the program was checked from a standpoint of the recent computer abilities, and also to be complicated in data input. Therefore, the program was versioned up as aim to make better calculations and improve input method. The present report describes revised calculation methods and input/output guide of the version-up program. (author)

  10. Order parametr for design of proteinlike heteropolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, E.; Eyck, L. Ten; Onuchic, J.

    1998-01-01

    preprint withdrawn. A revised version of this paper, with different authors appears in E. Nelson, P. Wolynes, and J. Onuchic, in Optimization in computational chemistry and molecular biology, C. Floudas and P. Pardalos editors, (1999)). The main failing of my approach in these papers is the fact that the Hamiltonian and order parameters are based on pair distances only, and therefore do not break the local gauge (reflection) symmetry. Consequently, the order parameters cannot detect the diffe...

  11. 电动汽车麦弗逊前悬架设计及参数优化%Design and Parametric Optimization of McPherson Front Suspension of Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建辉; 周孔亢; 郭立娜; 侯永涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on the whole vehicle's design parameters and suspension design theories, the McPherson front suspension of an electric vehicle is designed. Based on UG/Motion and using the open interface of UG, a software system is developed to realize the parametric design of the McPherson suspension's kinematics simulation models, matching design of vehicle toe-in and camber and simulation analysis of the simulation models. The software system's correctness is verified by comparing the simulation results with ADAMS. By means of combining genetic algorithm with kinematics of multi-body system and taking the minimum variation of the front wheel alignment parameters as well as minimum lateral displacement of the tires as the optimal object, the McPherson suspension's design parameters are optimized. The validity of the optimum method is verified by comparing the simulation results of initial design and optimum design. The optimization results show that the coordinates of the McPherson suspension swing arm's front and rear points have effects on the changes curve of front wheel alignment parameters as well as lateral displacement of the tires to the run out of automotive wheels.%根据整车设计参数及悬架设计理论,设计某款电动汽车的麦弗逊前悬架.基于UG/Motion利用UG的开放接口开发相应的软件系统,实现麦弗逊前悬架运动学仿真模型的参数化设计、前轮外倾角与前束角的匹配设计和前悬架系统的运动学仿真分析;通过与ADAMS的仿真结果相对比,验证系统的正确性;将遗传优化算法与多体运动学分析方法相结合,以前轮定位参数的变化量最小和车轮侧向滑移量最小为优化目标对麦弗逊前悬架的设计参数进行优化,通过对比初始设计与优化设计的仿真结果,验证优化方法的有效性.优化分析显示,麦弗逊前悬架摆臂前后点坐标的变化,对前轮定位参数及车轮接地点滑移量随车轮跳动量的变化曲线都有影响.

  12. Variance in parametric images: direct estimation from parametric projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to apply linear kinetic models to dynamic projection data in PET in order to calculate parameter projections. These can subsequently be back-projected to form parametric images - maps of parameters of physiological interest. Critical to the application of these maps, to test for significant changes between normal and pathophysiology, is an assessment of the statistical uncertainty. In this context, parametric images also include simple integral images from, e.g., [O-15]-water used to calculate statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This paper revisits the concept of parameter projections and presents a more general formulation of the parameter projection derivation as well as a method to estimate parameter variance in projection space, showing which analysis methods (models) can be used. Using simulated pharmacokinetic image data we show that a method based on an analysis in projection space inherently calculates the mathematically rigorous pixel variance. This results in an estimation which is as accurate as either estimating variance in image space during model fitting, or estimation by comparison across sets of parametric images - as might be done between individuals in a group pharmacokinetic PET study. The method based on projections has, however, a higher computational efficiency, and is also shown to be more precise, as reflected in smooth variance distribution images when compared to the other methods. (author)

  13. 基于WebAccess和PLC的轮胎胶囊硫化机群控系统%Design of group control system for tyre capsule vulcanizer based on WebAccess and PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新建; 邢建国; 于红艳

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize group control of tyre capsule vulcanizer,a master-slave control system was composed of industry computer and programmable logic controller( PLC). The industry computer was taken as host computer. WebAccess configuration software was applied as development platform. The industry computer can realize dynamic display of data,storage,query,statistics,reports and other functions. PLC was adopted as slave machine to control vulcanizer. The communication of industry computer and PLC was realized through serial port. The temperature of vulcanizer was controlled with fuzzy control strategy. And the fuzzy control strategy was given. The test results indicate that the group control system has friendly interface and operates conveniently. Compared with single control system,the system can improve the capsule quality,production efficiency and level of automation.%为实现轮胎胶囊注射硫化机群控系统,采用工控机和PLC组成了上下位机控制系统.工控机作为上位机,以组态软件WebAccess为开发平台,可实现数据动态显示、存储、查询、统计、报表等功能;PLC作为下位机,对硫化机工作过程进行控制;采用串行通讯方式实现了上、下位机的通讯;基于模糊控制策略实现了硫化机温度的控制,并给出了模糊控制器的设计.研究结果表明,系统界面友好,操作方便,与单机控制相比,群控系统可以提高胶囊质量和生产效率,提高生产管理信息化水平.

  14. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  15. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  16. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  17. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  18. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. Capsule endoscopy: Current status in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Gupta; Nageshwar Duvvuru Reddy

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a safe, non invasive diagnostic modality for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the most important indications of capsule endoscopy.Capsule endoscopy has a very high diagnostic yield especially if the bleeding is ongoing. This technique appears to be superior to other techniques for the detection of suspected lesions and the source of bleeding. Capsule endoscopy has been shown to change the outcome in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI)bleed.

  20. ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS: USE THE EVIDENCE TO INTEGRATE YOUR INTERVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil; Labbe, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Frozen shoulder syndrome, clinically known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition affecting up to 5% of the population. Adhesive capsulitis is considered fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule with a chronic inflammatory response. Patients experience pain, limited range of motion, and disability generally lasting anywhere from 1 to 24 months. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to review the pathophysiolgy of adhesive capsulitis and discuss physical therapy...

  1. Wireless fluorescence capsule for endoscopy using single photon-based detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Cumming, David R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence Imaging (FI) is a powerful technique in biological science and clinical medicine. Current FI devices that are used either for in-vivo or in-vitro studies are expensive, bulky and consume substantial power, confining the technique to laboratories and hospital examination rooms. Here we present a miniaturised wireless fluorescence endoscope capsule with low power consumption that will pave the way for future FI systems and applications. With enhanced sensitivity compared to existing technology we have demonstrated that the capsule can be successfully used to image tissue autofluorescence and targeted fluorescence via fluorophore labelling of tissues. The capsule incorporates a state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor single photon avalanche detector imaging array, miniaturised optical isolation, wireless technology and low power design. When in use the capsule consumes only 30.9 mW, and deploys very low-level 468 nm illumination. The device has the potential to replace highly power-hungry intrusive optical fibre based endoscopes and to extend the range of clinical examination below the duodenum. To demonstrate the performance of our capsule, we imaged fluorescence phantoms incorporating principal tissue fluorophores (flavins) and absorbers (haemoglobin). We also demonstrated the utility of marker identification by imaging a 20 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling solution on mammalian tissue.

  2. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg) tetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for...

  3. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate equivalent to 50, 100, 200, or 500 milligrams of dicloxacillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  5. OVERVIEW ABOUT THE INSTRUMENTED NOSE ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE EXPERT CAPSULE

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Thomas; Stubicar, Kornelia; Koppenwallner, Georg; Müller-Eigner, Rudolf; Lein, Sebastian; Steinbeck, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The EXPERT mission aims at collecting precise in-flight data during atmospheric re-entry. For this purpose a vehicle was envisaged that is designed especially for that. Almost twenty payloads are on board of the EXPERT capsule which has the shape of a cone with a blunt nose. Four non-moveable flaps are located at the end of the capsule. The nose of the vehicle is made from a ceramic matrix (CMC) composite material. In the nose four exciting experiments are situated. Payload 1 is a Flush Air D...

  6. Sensor-Aided Localized Capsule-Cooling Using Neural Networks for Energy-Efficient Refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, N.; P. K. Sadhu; Pal, N.; SWAROOP R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensor-aided localized capsule-cooling technique is a unique refrigeration process where sensors precisely capsulate the location of an item(s) on a shelf of a fridge and hence direct the governing artificial intelligence to take suitable action. Here the sensors are used to locate the objects and the designed smart system (neural network) activates the corresponding ductlines to cool the object. Here neural network system opens the gate(s) and tilts the angle to allow the flow of cool air th...

  7. DEVELOPING PARAMETRIC BUILDING MODELS – THE GANDIS USE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thaller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a project related to green building design, we have created a group of eight parametric building models that can be manipulated interactively with respect to dimensions, number of floors, and a few other parameters. We report on the commonalities and differences between the models and the abstractions that we were able to identify.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  9. Synergistic action on hypnosia: Yinao capsules with pentobarbital sodium of threshold and sub-threshold dosages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilan Zhang; Mingsan Miao; Jingjing Shi; Yalei Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sedative and hypnotic drugs could cure insomnia in a dependent manner, and traditional Chinese medicine has some superiority in treating insomnia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the synergistic action of Yinao capsules with pentobarbital sodium in threshold and sub-threshold dosages in hypnosia and sedation.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design and control experiment.SETTING: Pharmacological laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Totally 200 grade Ⅱ Kunming mice of 18 - 21 g, either male or female, were used. Yinao capsules, main ingredients of which were turtleback glue, thinleaf milkwort root, Chinese magnoliavine fruit,mythic fungus, tangshen, ginseng and grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, were offered by Chinese-American Huayi Pharmacy, Co.,Ltd. (ratified number: 040901); Kangnaoshuai capsules, main ingredients of which were prepared rehmannia root, tuber fleeceflower root, ginseng, membranous milkvetch root, thinleaf milkwort root, Fushen, grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, spine date seed, lecithin, barbary wolfberry fruit, pueraria root,vitamin E, etc., were produced by Shijiazhuang Siyao, Co.,Ltd. (ratified number: 040964); Pentobarbital sodium was produced by China Medicine (Group) Shanghai Chemical Reagent, Co,.Ltd. (Ratified number:030816). ZZ-6 mice spontaneous activity apparatus was produced by Chengdu Taimeng Science and Technology, Co.,Ltd.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Animal Experimental Center, Henan College of spontaneous activity of mice: Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 mice in each group:Mice in the large, middle and small dosages of Yinao capsules groups were intragastrically infused with Yinao capsules suspension (1.36, 0.68, 0.34 g/kg); Those in the Kangnaoshuai capsules group were infused with Kangnaoshuai suspension (1.12 g/kg); Those in the control group were given physiologic saline of the same volume. The mice were administrated once a day for

  10. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  11. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K;

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human ch...

  12. Neuroimaging of Semantic Processing in Schizophrenia: A Parametric Priming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. Duke; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of fMRI and other neuroimaging techniques in the study of cognitive language processes in psychiatric and non-psychiatric conditions has led at times to discrepant findings. Many issues complicate the study of language, especially in psychiatric populations. For example, the use of subtractive designs can produce misleading results. We propose and advocate for a semantic priming parametric approach to the study of semantic processing using fMRI methodology. Implications of this parametric approach are discussed in view of current functional neuroimaging research investigating the semantic processing disturbance of schizophrenia. PMID:19765623

  13. Retained wireless video enteroscopy capsule: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott R; Lohr, Joann M

    2009-01-01

    Capsule enteroscopy, which is a wireless noninvasive approach to evaluation of the small intestine, consists of an 11 x 26-mm capsule containing a miniature video camera, batteries, illuminating light-emitting diodes, a transmitter, and an antenna. The components inside the capsule are encased by a slippery, nonbiodegradable, plastic housing, which weighs less than 4 g. Information obtained from the imager, approximately 2 frames per second, is transmitted by way of radiotelemetry to an array of sensors taped to the abdomen, which connect to a data recorder worn on a belt around the waist. The batteries are designed to last roughly 7-8 hours, providing enough energy to generate approximately 50,000 to 60,000 detailed images. The clinical review of the imagery is made available after completion of the study when images are downloaded from the data recorder to a computer with dedicated software. PMID:20005505

  14. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Solem, J C; Bradley, P A; Rundberg, R S

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  15. Responsiveness of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index in patients with adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Juel Niels; Ekeberg Ole; Tveitå Einar; Bautz-Holter Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background Instruments designed to measure the subjective impact of painful shoulder conditions have become essential in shoulder research. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is one of the most extensively used scales of this type. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility and responsiveness of the SPADI in patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods SPADI test-retest r...

  16. Orthogonal Design Method for Screening of Extraction Process of Keganyu Capsule%正交设计法筛选克感愈胶囊提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若因; 王卫; 苏洪青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the optimal extraction conditions for Keganyu Capsule and ensure energy-saving production process and environmental protection. Methods With the content of chlorogenic acid as the index, the optimal extraction process was selected by investigating three main influential factors of water volume, decocting time and alcohol concentration with an L9(34) orthogonal test. Results The optimal extraction process was as follows: extracting twice with water, 10 times of amount of water for 2 h each time, 70% alcohol. Conclusion This process can be suitable for the industrialized production because it is reasonable, reliable, and has simple operation, low cost, as well as less emission pollutants.%目的 筛选克感愈胶囊的最佳提取条件,以确保生产工艺节能降耗,保护城市环境.方法 对影响提取效果的主要因素加水量、煎煮时间和醇沉浓度进行三因素三水平设计,以绿原酸百分含量为指标,用L9(34)表安排实验,筛选最佳提取工艺.结果 最佳提取工艺条件为水提取2次,每次水量10倍,每次提取2h,醇沉浓度为70%.结论 该工艺合理、可靠,操作简单,成本低,排放污染物少,适合工业化生产.

  17. Terahertz-wave parametric gain of stimulated polariton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takida, Yuma; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Nawata, Kouji; Tokizane, Yu; Han, Zhengli; Koyama, Mio; Notake, Takashi; Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally determined the terahertz- (THz-) wave parametric gain of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) by phonon-polaritons in LiNb O3 . Our approach is based on ultrabright THz-wave generation from SRS under stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression with subnanosecond pump pulses. To obtain the frequency dependence of the parametric gain, we measured the crystal-length dependence of the THz-wave output directly using a surface-coupling configuration. We found that the product of the parametric gain and the threshold crystal length is constant throughout the tuning range. Our result provides a physical basis for the design and performance enhancement of SRS-based ultrabright tabletop THz-wave sources for various applications.

  18. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  19. HANARO instrumented capsule development for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. H

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the program for the maximum utilization of HANARO by MOST, Korea, an instrumented capsule (00M-01U) was designed and fabricated for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications. The basic structure of the capsule for the irradiation of Stainless steels was based on that of the 99M-01K capsule irradiated successfully in HANARO. To satisfy the user requirements such as irradiation temperature and neutron fluence, the optimal arrangement of test specimens was done in the axial and circumferential direction. The temperature distribution and thermal stress of a capsule with multi-holes were obtained by a finite element analysis code, ANSYS. From these analyzed data, this capsule was found to be compatible with HANARO design requirement. Various types of specimens such as small tensile, Charpy, TEM and EPMA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The specimens will be irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 288, 300 and 350 deg C up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.0x10{sup 20}(n/cm{sup 2})(E>1.0MeV)

  20. Parametric decay of the curvaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that the curvaton decay takes place most naturally by way of a broad parametric resonance. The mechanism is analogous to resonant inflaton decay but does not require any tuning of the curvaton coupling strength to other scalar fields. For low scale inflation and a correspondingly low mass scale for the curvaton, we speculate on observable consequences including the possibility of stochastic gravitational waves

  1. Vanishing torsion of parametric curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUH(A)SZ Imre

    2007-01-01

    We consider the class of parametric curves that can be represented by combination of control points and basis functions. A control point is let vary while the rest is held fixed. It's shown that the locus of the moving control point that yields points of zero torsion is the osculating plane of the corresponding discriminant curve at its point of the same parameter value. The special case is studied when the basis functions sum to one.

  2. Parametrically unstable ion sound waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion relation is derived for parametric instabilities caused by an intense ion sound wave which couples high and low frequency electrostatic modes of a non isothermal unmagnetized homogeneous plasma. The phase velocity of the pump wave is between the ion and the electron thermal speed. The dispersion relation contains filamentational, modulational, and stimulated scattering instabilities. Growth rates as a function of the pump and plasma characteristics are given. For a given amplitude of the pump /PHI0/, the largest growth rate is found in the case of filamentation instability, which becomes explosive in nature when /ePHI0/2 / Tsub(i)Tsub(e) = (k lambda(D))2, where lambda (D) is the Debye length. The physical situation studied allows to clarify some new basic parametric processes occuring during R.F. heating below and around the ion gyrofrequency. Finally, the relevance of this and other more general parametric instabilities from the point of view of plasma heating and confinement, is briefly discussed

  3. Plasma waves in parametric interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai Andreevich

    The nonlinear laser-plasma interaction is widely discussed in the modern plasma literature with applications to inertial confinement fusion, generation of fast electrons, and amplification of high power radiation. Among nonlinear wave phenomena in plasma, the parametric wave coupling often plays the dominant role in laser-plasma interaction at moderate laser intensities since it is the lowest order nonlinear effect. The plasma wave can mediate the parametric laser coupling with high efficiency. We study the interplay of the parametric laser-plasma interaction and other physical effects which may affect this interaction. We study this interplay with an emphasis on the plasma-based backward Raman amplifier (BRA) based on the three-wave coupling. Three major types of physical effects in the parametric wave coupling are studied. In the first part of the thesis, we find the longitudinal profiles of the interacting waves in cases of interest for pulse compression. We find the solution for the output pulse in backward Raman amplification seeded by a laser pulse of finite duration. We also propose a new scheme for high-power amplification for pulses in the terahertz frequency range. For this scheme, based on the four-wave mixing in a capillary filled with plasma, we find the profile of the output pulse. The second part of this thesis is devoted to transverse effects, which may reduce the focusability of the output pulse in backward Raman amplification. We find that the transverse modulations of the pump can be averaged and do not reduce the amplified pulse focusability if the longitudinal length of these modulations is much smaller than the amplification length. In the third part, we study the kinetic effects. We propose a simplified fluid model for the nonlinear Landau damping of a parametrically driven plasma wave and study the effect of nonlinear Landau damping in backward Raman amplification. This simplified model can be useful not only for understanding complex

  4. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  5. Parametric study and optimization of water-tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Cánovas, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to improve the optimization of the resources required to the design and construction of water tanks. The criteria and methodology proposed by the standards and studies is analyzed and have contributed to develop the structural design and the associated parametric study. Likewise, the methodology applied to develop the environmental analysis; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is addressed. The present work consists of two studies that has been developed at the same time an...

  6. Effectiveness of Qiangjijianli capsule on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunmin Li; Bo Fu; Yuyan Li; DongYang; Shudong Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) and anti-AchR antibody of human myasthenia gravis are the same immune globulin.This antibody restricts the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the amount of receptor binding sites is decreased,so myasthenia gravis occurs.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action of Qiangjijianli capsule on EAMG rats.DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Acetylcholine receptors(AchR)were extracted from electric skate's electric organ which lives in the sea near Guangzhou.It had high biological activity and the protein content was 1.63 g/L.Qiangjijianli capsule (Astragalus mongholicus,Codonopsis pilosula,Atractylodes macrocephala,Angelica sinensis,Bupleurum chinense,Cairo morningglory root or leaf,Glycyrrhixa uralensis,etc.0.5 g crude drug per capsule) was bought from the Manufacturing Laboratory of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine with the Batch No.89-11-1.METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May to August 1990.①Adult female SD rats were immunized with AchR.The animals' movement condition was observed and recorded everyday. Ten rats were chosen as normal control group.and they were not given any treatment and raised normally.After modeled,20 successful rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups:treatmental group and model group. 2 mL Qiangjijianli capsule suspension(1 g)was intragastrically administrated into each rat of treatmental group for 30 days; The same amount of clean water was intragastrically administrated into the rats of model group for 30 days.(2)Serum AchR antibody was measured with ABC-ELISA method. After administration,the rats were sacrificed.The complete diaphragmatic muscle was extracted for in vitro receptor binding test

  7. Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castanié, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a

  8. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  9. The feasibility of wireless capsule endoscopy in detecting small intestinal pathology in children under the age of 8 years: a multicentre European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fritscher-Ravens; P. Scherbakov; P. Bufler; F. Torroni; T. Ruuska; H. Nuutinen; M. Thomson; M. Tabbers; P. Milla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To systematically evaluate the feasibility and methodology to carry out wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in children,8 years to define small intestinal pathology. Design: Prospective European multicentre study with negative prior investigation. Patients and interventions: 83 children aged

  10. Guideline for Capsule Endoscopy: Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chang, Dong Kyung; Do, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Min, Byung Hoon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Jin-Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; ,

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal End...

  11. Resorcinarenes are hexameric capsules in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Evan-Salem, Tamar; Baruch, Inbal; Avram, Liat; Cohen, Yoram; Palmer, Liam C.; Rebek, Julius

    2006-01-01

    The host–guest complexes of resorcin[4]arenes with small molecules in organic solutions are examined using modern NMR spectroscopic methods. The complexation of glutaric acid and β-methyl d-glucopyranoside in chloroform were investigated through 2D COSY, 2D NOESY, 1D NOE, and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) techniques. These methods indicate that the complex is a self-assembled capsule composed of six resorcinarenes that surround six guest molecules of glutaric acid or three molecul...

  12. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  13. Parametric constraints in multi-beam interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Guy M.; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    2012-10-01

    Multi-beam interference (MBI) represents a method of producing one-, two-, and three-dimensional submicron periodic optical-intensity distributions for applications including micro- and nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterial, biomedical structures, optical trapping, and numerous other subwavelength structures. Accordingly, numerous optical configurations have been developed to implement MBI. However, these configurations typically provide limited ability to condition the key parameters of each interfering beam. Constraints on individual beam amplitudes and polarizations are systematically considered to understand their effects on lithographically useful MBI periodic patterning possibilities. A method for analyzing parametric constraints is presented and used to compare the optimized optical-intensity distributions for representative constrained systems. Case studies are presented for both square and hexagonal-lattices produced via three-beam interference. Results demonstrate that constraints on individual-beam polarizations significantly impact patterning possibilities and must be included in the systematic design of an MBI system.

  14. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths. PMID:24104828

  15. New algorithms for evaluating parametric surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Through generalization of mathematical model of surface lofting program in the CONSURF system, the definitions for two generalized Ball surfaces and their recursive algorithms are given. Furthermore, the conversion al gorithms from Bézier surface to these two generalized Ball surfaces are presented. On the basis of these algorithms, two more efficient algorithms for evaluating parametric surfaces are also derived. One uses generalized Ball forms directly for evaluating surface, and the other converts the given Bézier surface to a generalized Ball surface firstly, and then evalu ates the surface. Both theoretical analysis and example computations show that the two new algorithms are more efficient than the de Casteljau algorithm. Especially when Wang-Ball surface is used, the time complexity is reduced from cubic to quadratic of the degree of the surface. If these algorithms are applied to displaying, interactive rendering, designing, intersection-finding, offsetting and approximating for surfaces, considerable economic results can be achieved.

  16. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  17. 基于并行 CFD 和优化技术的返回舱外形多目标优化设计%Aerodynamic configuration design optimization of reentry capsule based on CFD and multi-objective optimization theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 陈冰雁

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic longitudinal static stability characteristics,hypersonic lift-to-drag ra-tio characteristics under trim angle of attack,and off-set location placement of gravity center for spherical cap segment-reversing cone capsule configuration are studied through Multi-point/objec-tive Design Optimization technique combined numerical parallel simulation methods.Contrary re-lations are presented between the aerodynamic static stability and the other two characteristics. Aerodynamic static longitudinal stability is improved as trimmed lift-drag ratio decreased and off-set location of gravity center increased,whereas,increasing trimmed lift-drag ratio or decreasing offset location of gravity center means worse static stability.The method introduced in the paper shows some guiding significance for the design of reentry capsule.%在给定的质心设计范围内,围绕球冠倒锥返回舱外形的高超声速气动单点静稳定性、配平升阻特性、质心横偏量的综合设计问题,提出了多点多目标优化设计数学模型。通过多目标优化设计方法结合并行数值模拟技术,对该多点多目标气动外形优化设计问题进行研究,为了加快多点数值计算进度,采用了嵌套并行方法,通过有效利用硬件资源来提高多个状态气动数值求解效率。根据以上方法给出的最优设计边界指出了返回舱单点静稳定性与配平升阻比和质心横偏量的矛盾关系,改善单点静稳定性会导致配平升阻比下降,使质心横偏量增加;反之,配平升阻比增加,质心横偏量减少都会使单点静稳定性变差。

  18. An improved YEF-DCT based compression algorithm for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Khan, Tareq; Wahid, Khan

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive technique to receive images of intestine for medical diagnostics. The main design challenges of endoscopy capsule are accruing and transmitting acceptable quality images by utilizing as less hardware and battery power as possible. In order to save wireless transmission power and bandwidth, an efficient image compression algorithm needs to be implemented inside the endoscopy electronic capsule. In this paper, an integer discrete-cosine-transform (DCT) based algorithm is presented that works on a low-complexity color-space specially designed for wireless capsule endoscopy application. First of all, thousands of human endoscopic images and video frames have been analyzed to identify special intestinal features present in those frames. Then a color space, referred as YEF, is used. The YEF converter is lossless and takes only a few adders and shift operation to implement. A low-cost quantization scheme with variable chroma sub-sampling options is also implemented to achieve higher compression. Comparing with the existing works, the proposed transform coding based compressor performs strongly with an average compression ratio of 85% and a high image quality index, peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 52 dB.

  19. High-throughput identification of chemical inhibitors of E. coli Group 2 capsule biogenesis as anti-virulence agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Goller

    Full Text Available Rising antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli, the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs, has placed a new focus on molecular pathogenesis studies, aiming to identify new therapeutic targets. Anti-virulence agents are attractive as chemotherapeutics to attenuate an organism during disease but not necessarily during benign commensalism, thus decreasing the stress on beneficial microbial communities and lessening the emergence of resistance. We and others have demonstrated that the K antigen capsule of E. coli is a preeminent virulence determinant during UTI and more invasive diseases. Components of assembly and export are highly conserved among the major K antigen capsular types associated with UTI-causing E. coli and are distinct from the capsule biogenesis machinery of many commensal E. coli, making these attractive therapeutic targets. We conducted a screen for anti-capsular small molecules and identified an agent designated "C7" that blocks the production of K1 and K5 capsules, unrelated polysaccharide types among the Group 2-3 capsules. Herein lies proof-of-concept that this screen may be implemented with larger chemical libraries to identify second-generation small-molecule inhibitors of capsule biogenesis. These inhibitors will lead to a better understanding of capsule biogenesis and may represent a new class of therapeutics.

  20. Zero- vs. one-dimensional, parametric vs. non-parametric, and confidence interval vs. hypothesis testing procedures in one-dimensional biomechanical trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories. PMID:25817475

  1. Outcomes of Ultrasound-guided Glen Humeral Corticosteroid Injections in Adhesive Capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Amos; Katz, Jeffrey N; Higgins, Laurence D; Newman, Joel; Gomoll, Andreas; Jain, Nitin B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess short and longer-term outcomes of ultrasound-guided glenohumeral corticosteroid injections for adhesive capsulitis. Study Design A mixed prospective and retrospective study design Place and Duration of Study Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, between June 2011 and July 2012. Methodology Using medical records, we first retrospectively identified patients who had r...

  2. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of up-conversion optical parametric oscillation at $\\lambda_3=465$ nm are given for a periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd$^{3+}$ ions.

  3. Exchange of Parametric CAD Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua; PRATT J Michael; SRIRAM D Ram

    2006-01-01

    A method to exchange digital CAD model construction history data using ISO10303 is presented. The primary intention of this research is to demonstrate the utility of ISO10303-108 in achieving parametric CAD model exchange between commercial CAD systems. ISO10303-108, still under development, has been used to represent geometric and dimensional constraints on the sketch profile. Schemas from Parts 42, 50 of ISO 10303 are also used. ISO10303-42 is adopted to represent geometric and topological information and ISO10303-50 is used to represent the mathematical expression.

  4. 基于电子、气动技术和CANopen总线的膜盒柔性自动化装配系统设计%Design of Flexible and Automatic Assembly of Capsule Based on CANopen Bus, Pneumatic and Electric Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈水金

    2012-01-01

    基于气动技术、电子技术及数字控制技术的柔性装配是精密仪器仪表制造及装配中的核心技术.针对流水线式变送器膜盒的自动化装配工艺,提出切实可行的柔性自动装配方案,设计并优化各模块气动机械手和电、气结合机械手,并根据装配系统工艺要求设计了可靠的电、气结合的柔性装配系统;基于软PLC和CANopen总线协议,设计I/0从站并实现了高精度自动化装配分布式现场总线控制系统,为精密仪器仪表柔性装配应用提供了参考.%The flexible assembly based on pneumatic, electric and digital control technologies is one of key approaches for the fabrication and assembly of precision instruments and apparatus. Aiming at the pipeline automatic assembly technology of transmitter capsule in instruments, a feasible approach for flexible and automatic assembly was presented. The pneumatic and electric manipulators of each module were designed and optimized. A reliable flexible assembly system was designed according to the process requirement of practical assembly system. The I/O slave stations and high precision distributed field bus control system of automatic assembly were designed based on soft PLC and CANopen bus protocol. This work provides an important reference for the design of flexible assembly application in instrumental industry.

  5. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  6. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  7. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  8. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Kh Akhmedov

    2000-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we review the parametric resonance of neutrino oscillations in matter. In particular, physical interpretation of the effect and the prospects of its experimental observation in oscillations of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in the earth are discussed.

  9. EFFECT OF WEB HOLES ON WEB CRIPPLING STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS UNDER END-ONE-FLANGE LOADING CONDITION - PART II: PARAMETRIC STUDY AND PROPOSED DESIGN EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Ying; uzzaman, asraf; Lim, James; Abdelal, Gasser; Sha, Wei; Nash, David; Young, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-section sizes. The holes are located either centred above the bearing plates or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole de...

  10. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  11. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  12. Expanding role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy has been shown to detect small bowel inflammatory changes better than any other imaging modality. Selection criteria have been optimized to increase the yield of capsule endoscopy in patients suspected to have Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy allows for earlier diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel and improved diagnosis of colitis in patients where it is unclear if they suffer from Crohn's or ulcerative colitis. A test capsule is available to assess for small bowel strictures and thus avoid capsule retention. A common language has been developed and a new scoring index will be added to capsule software. It is envisioned that the manner in which we treat Crohn's disease in the future will change, based on earlier diagnosis and treatment aimed at mucosal healing rather than symptom improvement.

  13. The motion of a deforming capsule through a corner

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lailai

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional deformable capsule convected through a channel/duct with a corner is studied via numerical simulations using an accelerated boundary integral method adapted to general geometries. A global spectral method is adopted to resolve the dynamics of the capsule's membrane developing elastic tensions according to the Neo-Hookean constitutive law and bending moments in an inertialess flow. The simulations show that the trajectory of the capsule closely follows the underlying streamlines and the deformation of the capsule induces an anti-clockwise rotation of its material points with respect to the travelling direction. The surface area, principle tension and elastic energy of the capsule increase around the corner. Their temporal evolutions are characterised by a clear phase delay and the loss of time-reversal symmetry of Stokes flow due to the elasticity of membrane. The capsule centroid velocity decreases approaching the corner as the mean flow does while a velocity overshoot is observed past the...

  14. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The “perfect” capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  15. Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.

  16. Software for Managing Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; DeVivo, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    The Information Power Grid Virtual Laboratory (ILab) is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) graphical-user-interface computer program that generates shell scripts to facilitate parametric studies performed on the Grid. (The Grid denotes a worldwide network of supercomputers used for scientific and engineering computations involving data sets too large to fit on desktop computers.) Heretofore, parametric studies on the Grid have been impeded by the need to create control language scripts and edit input data files painstaking tasks that are necessary for managing multiple jobs on multiple computers. ILab reflects an object-oriented approach to automation of these tasks: All data and operations are organized into packages in order to accelerate development and debugging. A container or document object in ILab, called an experiment, contains all the information (data and file paths) necessary to define a complex series of repeated, sequenced, and/or branching processes. For convenience and to enable reuse, this object is serialized to and from disk storage. At run time, the current ILab experiment is used to generate required input files and shell scripts, create directories, copy data files, and then both initiate and monitor the execution of all computational processes.

  17. Comparison of parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric two-stage estimation methods for copula models

    OpenAIRE

    ABEBE, Haftom Temesgen

    2009-01-01

    To compare the parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric two-stage estimation methods. Based on a simulation study, we would like to study the robustness of the estimation of the dependence vector against misspecification of the marginal survival functions.

  18. Computational Hypersonic Aerodynamics with Emphasis on Earth Reentry Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonida NICULESCU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The temperature in the front region of a hypersonic vehicle nose can be extremely high, for example, reaching approximately 11 000 K at a Mach number of 36 (Apollo reentry due to the bow shock wave. In this case, accurate prediction of temperature behind the shock wave is necessary in order to precisely estimate the wall heat flux. A better prediction of wall heat flux leads to smaller safety coefficient for thermal shield of space reentry vehicle; therefore, the size of thermal shield decreases and the payload could increase. However, the accurate prediction of temperature behind the bow shock wave implies the use of a precise chemical model whose partial differential equations are added to Navier-Stokes equations. This second order partial differential system is very difficult to be numerically integrated. For this reason, the present paper deals with the computational hypersonic aerodynamics with chemical reactions with the aim of supporting Earth reentry capsule design.

  19. An in situ mechanical-radiation effects test capsule for simulating fusion material environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of radiation and simultaneous cyclic stress on materials are inherent in advanced energy source designs such as inertially and magnetically confined controlled thermonuclear reactors. A test capsule capable of applying a cyclic stress to test specimens while they are being irradiated in the 800-MeV proton beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility has been developed. The design and performance of this device are discussed in this report. This machine has facilities for seven pairs of differential samples; one sample of a pair receives an applied cyclic stress and its companion in an identical flux will be the unstressed control. Control of the sample temperature and in situ monitoring of sample elongation and load are provided in the design. Results of an earlier experiment will be discussed, along with those of preliminary bench tests of the redesigned capsule. (orig.)

  20. In situ mechanical-radiation effects test capsule for simulating fusion material environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of radiation and simultaneous cyclic stress on materials are inherent in advanced energy source designs such as inertially and magnetically confined controlled thermonuclear reactors. A test capsule capable of applying a cyclic stress to test specimens while they are being irradiated in the 800-MeV proton beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility has been developed. The design and performance of this device are discussed in this report. This machine has facilities for seven pairs of differential samples; one sample of a pair receives an applied cyclic stress and its companion in an identical flux will be the unstressed control. Control of the sample temperature and in situ monitoring of sample elongation and load are provided in the design. Results of an earlier experiment will be discussed, along with those of preliminary bench tests of the redesigned capsule

  1. A four spiral slots microstrip patch antenna for radiotelemetry capsules based on FDTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Antenna is very crucial to radiotelemetry capsules which can measure the physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The objective of this paper is to design a novel spiral slots microstrip patch antenna for the radiotelemetry capsules communicating with external recorder at 915 MHz located in ISM (Industry, Science, and Medical) bands. The microstrip patch antenna is designed and evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Return loss characteristics and the effect of the human body on resonant frequency are analyzed, and the performances of radiation patterns at different positions of the human alimentary tract are also estimated. Finally, specific absorption rate (SAR) computations are performed, and the peak 1-g and 10-g SAR values are calculated. According to the peak SAR values, the maximum delivered power for the designed antenna was found so that the SAR values of the antenna satisfy the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) limitations.

  2. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  3. Fibrous Calcareous Concretions in the Capsules of Human Pineal Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Kodaka Tetsuo; Mori Ryoichi; Ezure Hiromitsu; Ito Junji; Otsuka Naruhito

    2013-01-01

    We examined calcareous concretions in the capsule of 15 human pineal glands containing a large amount of the concretions in the matrix. The capsule concretions, brown to blackish-brown in color and/or translucent, were smaller than the matrix concretions, which were yellowish-white. The matrix concretions showed the typical mulberry-shaped overall appearance with scallop-shaped concentric laminations of non-fibrous structures, but the capsule concretions, which also contained Ca and P, showed...

  4. The Use of a Parametric Feature Based CAD System to Teach Introductory Engineering Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a parametric-feature-based computer-aided design (CAD) System, AutoCAD Designer, in teaching concepts of three dimensional geometrical modeling and design. Allows engineering graphics to go beyond the role of documentation and communication and allows an engineer to actually build a virtual prototype of a design idea and…

  5. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de, E-mail: velosom@cdtn.br, E-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  6. Preparation of alginate-gelatin capsules and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan LI; Xi-guang CHEN; Cheng-sheng LIU; Chen-guang LIU; Yu-ping XUE

    2008-01-01

    Capsules based on alginate and gelatin prepared by extrusion method could increase the cell numbers of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to be 108 CFU·9-1 in the wet state of the capsules. The capsules were spherical, smooth-surfaced and non-aggregated with a diameter of (4.0±0.3) mm. The behavior of the samples were quite similar at low relative humidity (33%, 52%) and the ratio of weight change reached 93%. Four kinds of capsules in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) exhibited shrinkage while the beads eroded accompanied with slight swelling in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The pH values affected the stability of the capsules and with the increase in pH, the capsules chan-ged from shrank then swelled and finally, broke into pieces. The capsules behaved differently under different ion intens-ities and the introduction of gelatin weakened the stability of capsules compared with the alginate ones. Cells of L. casei ATCC 393 could be continuously released from the capsules in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the release amounts and speeds in SIF were much higher and faster than those in SGF.

  7. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Sang Hyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.

  8. Reaction-in-flight neutrons as a signature for shell mixing in National Ignition Facility capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Bradley, P. A.; Grim, G. P.; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic calculations and results from computational simulations are presented that suggest that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons can be used to diagnose mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. Such mixing processes in NIF capsules are of fundamental physical interest and can have important effects on capsule performance, quenching the total thermonuclear yield. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to down-scattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

  9. An endoscopic capsule robot: a meso-scale engineering case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of unique challenges arise in fabricating and assembling complex mechanisms at the meso-scale (hundreds of microns to centimetres). In general, for a complex multi-part mechanism at this length scale, no single machining technique can produce all the necessary parts—or often even a single individual part. Towards developing a comprehensive set of 'best practices' for combining multiple precision micromachining operations at the meso-scale, we present a case study on fabricating and assembling an endoscopic capsule robot. Existing passive imaging capsules have proven exceptionally useful in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and robotic capsules promise to enhance their diagnostic capabilities and enable non-invasive treatment delivery. In this case study, we describe the fabrication of a robotic capsule (2.6 cm3 in volume) containing a complex mechanism consisting of 72 components, each of which requires a variety of meso- or even micro-scale features. We describe the manufacturing processes used to produce these components and features (combinations of high precision, multiply refixtured computer numerical control processes, sink and wire electro discharge machining, laser cutting, etc). These results contribute to the emerging framework of best practices in meso-scale design and manufacture, illustrating ways to effectively combine several processes to produce a complex meso-scale device

  10. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    Phase sensitive amplification using the parametric processes in fiber has the potential of delivering high gain and broadband operation with ultralow noise. It is able to regenerate both amplitude and phase modulated signals, simultaneously, with the appropriate design. This thesis concerns......, in specific, the design and optimization of such phase sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). For phase sensitive amplification in highly nonlinear fibers, optima points of operation have been identified for both the standard and the novel high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold highly nonlinear fiber....... Further, phase sensitive parametric processes in a nano-engineered silicon waveguide have been measured experimentally for the first time. Numerical optimizations show that with reduced waveguide propagation loss and reduced carrier life time, larger signal phase sensitive extinction ratio is achievable...

  11. Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Banihashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the growing global trend toward energy efficiency in buildings, this paper aims to first; investigate the energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates and second; analyze the most dominant used parametric and non-parametric tests in dimension reduction for simulating this component. A four-story building representing the conventional type of residential apartments for four climates of cold, temperate, hot-arid and hot-humid was selected for simulation. 10 variables of U-factor, SHGC, emissivity, visible transmittance, monthly average dry bulb temperature, monthly average percent humidity, monthly average wind speed, monthly average direct solar radiation, monthly average diffuse solar radiation and orientation constituted the parameters considered in the calculation of cooling and heating loads of the case. Design of Experiment and Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to find the most significant factors and reduction dimension of initial variables. It was observed that in two climates of temperate and hot-arid, using double glazed windows was beneficial in both cold and hot months whereas in cold and hot-humid climates where heating and cooling loads are dominant respectively, they were advantageous in only those dominant months. Furthermore, an inconsistency was revealed between parametric and non-parametric tests in terms of identifying the most significant variables.

  12. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  13. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.

    2014-05-01

    ]. Preliminary results indicate that parametric methods are capable of sufficiently providing the structural/modal characteristics such as natural frequencies and damping ratios. The study also aims - at a further level of investigation - to provide a reliable statistically-based methodology for structural health monitoring after major seismic events which potentially cause harming consequences in structures. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the State Scholarships Foundation of Hellas. References [1] J. S. Sakellariou and S. D. Fassois, "Stochastic output error vibration-based damage detection and assessment in structures under earthquake excitation," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 297, pp. 1048-1067, 2006. [2] G. Hloupis, I. Papadopoulos, J. P. Makris, and F. Vallianatos, "The South Aegean seismological network - HSNC," Adv. Geosci., vol. 34, pp. 15-21, 2013. [3] F. P. Pentaris, J. Stonham, and J. P. Makris, "A review of the state-of-the-art of wireless SHM systems and an experimental set-up towards an improved design," presented at the EUROCON, 2013 IEEE, Zagreb, 2013. [4] S. D. Fassois, "Parametric Identification of Vibrating Structures," in Encyclopedia of Vibration, S. G. Braun, D. J. Ewins, and S. S. Rao, Eds., ed London: Academic Press, London, 2001. [5] S. D. Fassois and J. S. Sakellariou, "Time-series methods for fault detection and identification in vibrating structures," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 365, pp. 411-448, February 15 2007.

  14. OCTG Premium Threaded Connection 3D Parametric Finite Element Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    Full 360 degree 3D finite element models are the most complete representation of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) premium threaded connections. Full 3D models can represent helical threads and boundary conditions required to simulate make-up and service loading. A methodology is developed to create a 360 degree full 3D parametric finite element model with helical threads as an effective design and analysis tool. The approach is demonstrated with the creation of a metal-to-metal seal integral ...

  15. A parametric visualization software for the assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamanthou Charalampos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a parametric visualization software used to assist the teaching of the Network Primal Simplex Algorithm for the assignment problem (AP. The assignment problem is a special case of the balanced transportation problem. The main functions of the algorithm and design techniques are also presented. Through this process, we aim to underline the importance and necessity of using such educational methods in order to improve the teaching of Computer Algorithms.

  16. Proposal for a Casimir-driven parametric amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Imboden, M; Campbell, D K; Bishop, D J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a design for a MEMS parametric amplifier modulated by the Casimir force. We present the theory for such a device and show that it allows for the implementation of a very sensitive voltage measuring technique, where the amplitude of a high quality factor resonator includes a tenth power dependency on an applied DC voltage. This approach opens up a new and powerful measuring modality, applicable to other measurement types.

  17. Neuroimaging of Semantic Processing in Schizophrenia: A Parametric Priming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Han, S Duke; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of fMRI and other neuroimaging techniques in the study of cognitive language processes in psychiatric and non-psychiatric conditions has led at times to discrepant findings. Many issues complicate the study of language, especially in psychiatric populations. For example, the use of subtractive designs can produce misleading results. We propose and advocate for a semantic priming parametric approach to the study of semantic processing using fMRI methodology. Implications of this parame...

  18. Parametrization of nuclear parton distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hirai; S Kumano; M Miyama

    2001-08-01

    Optimum nuclear parton distributions are obtained by analysing available experimental data on electron and muon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). The distributions are given at 2 = 1 GeV2 with a number of parameters, which are determined by a 2 analysis of the data. Valencequark distributions are relatively well determined at medium , but they are slightly dependent on the assumed parametrization form particularly at small . Although antiquark distributions are shadowed at small , their behavior is not obvious at medium from the 2 data. The gluon distributions could not be restricted well by the inclusive DIS data; however, the analysis tends to support the gluon shadowing at small . We provide analytical expressions and computer subroutines for calculating the nuclear parton distributions, so that other researchers could use them for applications to other high-energy nuclear reactions.

  19. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact on ac...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  20. Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a parametric beamformer, which can handle all imaging modalities including synthetic aperture imaging, is presented. The image lines and apodization coefficients are specified parametrically, and the lines can have arbitrary orientation and starting point in 3D coordinates. The beam...

  1. Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear rotor dynamic is characterized by parametric excitation of both linear and nonlinear terms caused by centrifugal and Coriolis forces when formulated in a moving frame of reference. Assuming harmonically varying support point motions from the tower, the nonlinear parametric instability...

  2. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  3. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-01-01

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  4. New reduced volume preparation regimen in colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuo Kakugawa; Kazuhide Higuchi; Shinji Tanaka; Hideki Ishikawa; Hisao Tajiri; Yutaka Saito; Shoichi Saito; Kenji Watanabe; Naoki Ohmiya; Mitsuyuki Murano; Shiro Oka; Tetsuo Arakawa; Hidemi Goto

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed bowel preparation method for colon capsule endoscopy.METHODS:A pilot,multicenter,randomized controlled trial compared our proposed "reduced volume method" (group A) with the "conventional volume method" (group B) preparation regimens.Group A did not drink polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEGELS) the day before the capsule procedure,while group B drank 2 L.During the procedure day,groups A and B drank 2 L and 1 L of PEG-ELS,respectively,and swallowed the colon capsule (PillCam COLON(R) capsule).Two hours later the first booster of 100 g magnesium citrate mixed with 900 mL water was administered to both groups,and the second booster was administered six hours post capsule ingestion as long as the capsule had not been excreted by that time.Capsule videos were reviewed for grading of cleansing level.RESULTS:Sixty-four subjects were enrolled,with results from 60 analyzed.Groups A and B included 31 and 29 subjects,respectively.Twenty-nine (94%) subjects in group A and 25 (86%) subjects in group B had adequate bowel preparation (ns).Twenty-two (71%) of the 31 subjects in group A excreted the capsule within its battery life compared to 16 (55%) of the 29 subjects in group B (ns).Of the remaining 22 subjects whose capsules were not excreted within the battery life,all of the capsules reached the left side colon before they stopped functioning.A single adverse event was reported in one subject who had mild symptoms of nausea and vomiting one hour after starting to drink PEG-ELS,due to ingesting the PEG-ELS faster than recommended.CONCLUSION:Our proposed reduced volume bowel preparation method for colon capsule without PEG-ELS during the days before the procedure was as effective as the conventional volume method.

  5. A parametric costing model for wave energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the philosophy and technical approach to a parametric cost model for offshore wave energy systems. Consideration is given both to existing known devices and other devices yet to be conceptualised. The report is complementary to a spreadsheet based cost estimating model. The latter permits users to derive capital cost estimates using either inherent default data or user provided data, if a particular scheme provides sufficient design definition for more accurate estimation. The model relies on design default data obtained from wave energy device designs and a set of specifically collected cost data. (author)

  6. Generalized Parametrization Dependence in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Lippoldt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We critically examine the gauge, and field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gau\\ss{}ian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical observables are independent of such calculational specifications, the construction of quantum gravity field theories typically relies on off-shell quantities such as $\\beta$ functions and generating functionals and thus face potential stability issues with regard to such generalized parametrizations. We analyze a two-parameter class of covariant gauge conditions, the role of momentum-dependent field rescalings and a class of field parametrizations. Using the product of Newton and cosmological constant as an indicator, the principle of minimum sensitivity identifies stationary points in this parametrization space which show a remarkable insensitivity to the parametrization. In the most insensitive cases, the quantized gravity system exhibits a non-Gau\\ss{}ian UV stable fixed point, lending further support to asymptotically free q...

  7. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present open-quotes entry levelclose quotes, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability (open-quotes load curveclose quotes) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested

  8. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

  9. Free-form geometric modeling by integrating parametric and implicit PDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Qin, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Parametric PDE techniques, which use partial differential equations (PDEs) defined over a 2D or 3D parametric domain to model graphical objects and processes, can unify geometric attributes and functional constraints of the models. PDEs can also model implicit shapes defined by level sets of scalar intensity fields. In this paper, we present an approach that integrates parametric and implicit trivariate PDEs to define geometric solid models containing both geometric information and intensity distribution subject to flexible boundary conditions. The integrated formulation of second-order or fourth-order elliptic PDEs permits designers to manipulate PDE objects of complex geometry and/or arbitrary topology through direct sculpting and free-form modeling. We developed a PDE-based geometric modeling system for shape design and manipulation of PDE objects. The integration of implicit PDEs with parametric geometry offers more general and arbitrary shape blending and free-form modeling for objects with intensity attributes than pure geometric models.

  10. Scheimpflug imaging of pediatric posterior capsule rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Dilraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented two days after blunt trauma to the left eye with a slingshot. On examination his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination of the left eye revealed a Vossius ring, traumatic cataract, traumatic posterior capsule tear (PCT. The contour of the posterior capsule bulge corresponded to the edges of the PCT. Rotating Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam 70700:Oculus, Wetzlar Germany confirmed the traumatic cataract in the region of the PCT visualized as increased lens density at the cortex-vitreous interface. The extent of the PCT in the greatest and least dimensions was documented before and after intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Intra-operatively, the PCT was evident and phaco-emulsification with an IOL implant was performed. Postoperatively, his BCVA improved to 20/20 in the left eye with a well-centered in-the-bag IOL as found on slit-lamp and Scheimpflug images.

  11. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  12. Protective Role of the Capsule and Impact of Serotype 4 Switching on Streptococcus mitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rukke, Håkon V.; Kalluru, Raja Sab; Repnik, Urska; Gerlini, Alice; José, Ricardo J.; Periselneris, Jimstan; Marshall, Helina; Griffiths, Gareth; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Brown, Jeremy S.; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule surrounding Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for virulence. Recently, Streptococcus mitis, a human commensal and a close relative of S. pneumoniae, was also shown to have a capsule. In this study, the S. mitis type strain switched capsule by acquisition of the serotype 4 capsule locus of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, following induction of competence for natural transformation. Comparison of the wild type with the capsule-switching mutant and with a capsule deletion mut...

  13. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  14. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...

  15. Highly active antibody-modified magnetic polyelectrolyte capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdepérez, Daniel; Del Pino, Pablo; Sánchez, Lourdes; Parak, Wolfgang J; Pelaz, Beatriz

    2016-07-15

    Polyelectrolyte hollow capsules are versatile platforms typically used for encapsulation of a wide variety of macromolecules in their cavity. The polymer shell of these capsules as composed by alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes also allows for adding additional functionalities. The properties of the shell can be for example engineered by trapping different nanoparticles in-between the shell layers and/or by attaching bioactive molecules such as antibodies to the outermost layer. Herein, iron oxide NPs were inmobilized into the shell of polyelectrolyte capsules and the outermost layer of the shell was covalently modified with anti peroxidase antibodies. These capsules act as prototype model system, aiming to obtain a microstructure with the potential capability to specifically recognize and separate macromolecules. Due to the magnetic nanoparticles in the capsule shell, the capsules together with the attached target might be extracted by magnetic field gradients. Here we verified this approach by extracting horseradish peroxidase from a solution through magnetic separation with capsules bearing antibodies against horseradish peroxidase. The bioactivity of the capsules and the high degree of specific antibody functionalization were confirmed and quantified through an enzymatic reaction mediated by the extracted horseradish peroxidase. PMID:27089014

  16. 1964 computer run on a laser-imploded capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAZER Alchemy 7b (WA-7b) is a WAZER calculation of a laser-driven micro-implosion of a spherical capsule consisting of a thin gold pusher surrounded by a thick (frozen) deuterium ablator. The properties of the target capsule and the shape of the laser pulse used to irradiate it are described

  17. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  18. A Deep Learning Approach to Data-driven Parameterizations for Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumar, Prasanna Kumar; Black, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesizers today use Mel Cepstral coefficients as the vocal tract parameterization of the speech signal. Mel Cepstral coefficients were never intended to work in a parametric speech synthesis framework, but as yet, there has been little success in creating a better parameterization that is more suited to synthesis. In this paper, we use deep learning algorithms to investigate a data-driven parameterization technique that is designed for the specific ...

  19. Rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis by cell wall and capsule components direct fluorescent antibody assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lily Natalia; Rahmat Setya AdjI

    2008-01-01

    During the outbreak of anthrax, early diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. Numerous attempts have been made to design antigen based detection tests and to rapidly identify truly anthrax specific antigens for B. anthracis. In Indonesia, standard identification of B. anthracis relies on a combination of time consuming steps including bacterial culture and Ascoli precipitin test, which can take several days to provide a diagnosis. In this study, two component (cell wall and capsule) di...

  20. Enhancement of Integrated Solar Collector with Spherical Capsules PCM Affected by Additive Aluminum Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Fatah O. Al Ghuol; Sopian, K.; Shahrir Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to study, analyze, design, and construct a solar air heater combined with an appropriate phase-change material (PCM) unit. This solar air heater is analogous to a collector integrating a thermal storage unit and a solar thermal collector. In this study, such single-pass solar air heater in amalgamation with PCM was constructed, and several tests were conducted on this device. During the experiments for the solar collector with PCM (spherical capsules), the temperature varie...

  1. Implementation of the intelligent and continuous optimization method in underground engineering,PartⅠ. Parametric design and optimization method%地下工程智能连续优化方法的实现Ⅰ:参数化设计及优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈卫忠; 李廷春; 王清标

    2014-01-01

    地下工程空间分布优化设计是大型地下工程稳定性分析的关键。如今,制约其发展的瓶颈主要有两个:一是模型的建立;二是优化方法的实现。针对以上问题,以大型有限元软件ABAQUS为平台,基于其标准设计语言Python对其前后处理进行二次开发,将参数化模型可动边界的非线性关系编入到程序中,实现了有限元参数化设计;通过MATLAB语言编程,建立基于Nelder-Mead法与精确罚函数法的联合优化方法,并将优化分析程序与有限元参数化设计相结合,实现了地下工程问题的“智能连续”优化。文中涉及到工程应用将在本文的Ⅱ部分给出。%The optimization design of underground engineering space distribution is the key of stability anal-ysis in a large-scale underground engineering. Nowadays, there are two main bottlenecks to restrict its de-velopment. One is the problem of model establishing and the other is the implementation of the optimiza-tion method. Taking the general-purpose finite element software ABAQUS as a platform, its standard design language Python is used to make secondary development for the pre-processing and post-processing. The moving boundary nonlinear relationship of parametric model is made into the program to realize the fem-based parametric design. Using MATLAB language for programming,a combined optimization was estab-lished on the basis of Nelder-Mead algorithm and exact penalty function method, and further combining the optimum analysis program with finite element parametric design, the intelligent and continuous optimiza-tion method in underground engineering has been realized. The engineering application involved in this pa-per will be given in Part Ⅱ of this paper series.

  2. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  3. 矿用避难硐室环境综合监测与通讯传输系统设计%The Design of Mine Escape Capsule Environmental Monitoring and Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文强; 颜静; 郭斌

    2012-01-01

    该文设计了一种新型矿用避难硐室环境综合监测和通讯系统的设计方案。避难硐室是矿井发生矿难时重要的井下紧急避险设施,能为无法撤离的人员提供生命保障。避难硐室的环境监测系统是避难人员在密闭空间内生存依靠的重要保障,它包括硐室内外气体参数(至少CO、CO2、O2、CH4四种)、温湿度等人员生存的必需条件的实时监测。采用LPCI766为核心器件,与非色散红外气体传感器、电化学气体传感器、信号调理、MD模数转换等模块相结合,组成环境参数信号的采集系统,通过RS485通信方式与外部系统进行数据通信,通过现场测试证明,这种方法是完全可行的。%This paper designed a new design scheme of mine asylum cavern environment comprehensive monitoring and the communication systemAsylum cavern is an important underground emergency facili- ties when mining accident happens in the mine,and can provide life security for the people who can't e- vacuate.The environment monitoring system of Asylum cavern is the important guarantee that the refuge personnel in an airtight room in survival depends on,including indoor and outdoor gas safety parameters(at least in CO and CO2, O2, CH4 four),temperature and humidity etc real-time monitoring to assure the vital conditions of the personnel survival.Taking the LPC1766 for the core device,which combines infrared gas sensors,electrochemical gas sensors,signal disposal and A/D conversion module into environmental pa- rameters of signal collection system,and RS485 communication mode is used for data communication.

  4. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    Current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or "shimmed," so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy of capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries in two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater.

  5. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  6. Optimizing bandwidth and dynamic range of lumped Josephson parametric amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, A.; Vijay, R.; Macklin, C.; Minev, Z.; Siddiqi, I.

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting parametric amplifiers have revolutionized the field of quantum measurement by providing high gain, ultra-low noise amplification. They have been used successfully for high-fidelity qubit state measurements, probing nano-mechanical resonators, quantum feedback, and for microwave quantum optics experiments. Though several designs exist, a simple and robust architecture is the Lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifier (LJPA). This device consists of a capacitively shunted SQUID directly coupled to a transmission line to form a low quality factor (Q) nonlinear resonator. We discuss amplifiers which can be tuned over the full 4-8 GHz band with 20-25 dB of gain and 10 - 50 MHz of signal bandwidth. However, similar to other parametric amplifiers employing a resonant circuit, the LJPA suffers from low dynamic range and has a -1 dB gain compression point of order -130 dBm. We explore new designs comprised of an array of SQUIDs to improve the dynamic range. We will present the results of numerical simulations and preliminary experiments. We will also briefly discuss improvements obtained from different biasing methods and packaging. This research was supported by the Army Research Office under a QCT grant.

  7. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  8. Theory of spontaneous parametric down-conversion from photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective-medium approach is used to derive a set of coupled-mode equations describing quadratic parametric interactions in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous medium of finite length. The solutions for both copropagating and counterpropagating interactions are used to study the quantum-mechanical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). An example is studied in which the inhomogeneous medium is a photonic crystal. The effect that device geometry has on both the efficiency and bandwidth of SPDC is explored. With appropriate design, we find that it is possible not only to enhance the efficiency of SPDC, but also to generate broadband copropagating and narrowband counterpropagating down-converted light. A setup is proposed with the potential to act as a source of entangled photon pairs

  9. Summary of the U.S. specimen matrix for the HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US specimen matrix for the collaborative DOE/Monbusho HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule contains two ceramics and 29 different metals, including vanadium alloys, ferritic/martensitic steels, pure iron, austenitic stainless steels, nickel alloys, and copper alloys. This experiment is designed to provide fundamental information on the effects of brief low-temperature excursions on the tensile properties and microstructural evolution of a wide range of materials irradiated at nominal temperatures of 350 and 500 C to a dose of {approximately}5 dpa. A total of 340 miniature sheet tensile specimens and 274 TEM disks are included in the US-supplied matrix for the irradiation capsule.

  10. Metrological Analysis of Precision of the System of Delivering a Water Capsule for Explosive Production of Water Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmigielski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper precision of the system controlling delivery by a helicopter of a water capsule designed for extinguishing large scale fires is analysed. The analysis was performed using a numerical method of distribution propagation (the Monte Carlo method supplemented with results of application of the uncertainty propagation method. In addition, the optimum conditions for the airdrop are determined to ensure achieving the maximum area covered by the water capsule with simultaneous preserving the precision level necessary for efficient fire extinguishing.

  11. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2005-12-27

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  12. CFD Parametric Study of Consortium Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  13. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2016-01-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond). PMID:27143582

  14. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2016-05-04

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  15. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51–1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  16. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  17. Vortex Rings from Sphagnum Moss Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Emily S; Cha, Jung Ha; Strassman, Sam; Hard, Clara; Whitaker, Dwight L

    2010-01-01

    Long distance wind dispersal requires small spores with low terminal velocities, which can be held aloft by turbulent air currents until they are deposited in suitable habitats for colonization. The inherent difficulty in dispersing spores by wind is that spores easily carried by wind are also rapidly decelerated when moving through still air. Thus the height of spore release is critical in determining their range of dispersal. Vascular plants with wind dispersed spores use the height of the plant to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, however non-vascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently tall. These fluid dynamics videos show how exploding capsules of {\\em Sphagnum} moss generate vortex rings to carry spores to heights above 10 cm with an initial velocity of 16 m s$^{-1}$. In contrast spores launched ballistically at these speeds through still air would travel only 2-7 mm.

  18. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  19. Supercritical extraction of oleaginous: parametric sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy has become universal and competitive, thus the industries of vegetable oil extraction must advance in the sense of minimising production costs and, at the same time, generating products that obey more rigorous patterns of quality, including solutions that do not damage the environment. The conventional oilseed processing uses hexane as solvent. However, this solvent is toxic and highly flammable. Thus the search of substitutes for hexane in oleaginous extraction process has increased in the last years. The supercritical carbon dioxide is a potential substitute for hexane, but it is necessary more detailed studies to understand the phenomena taking place in such process. Thus, in this work a diffusive model for semi-continuous (batch for the solids and continuous for the solvent isothermal and isobaric extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and submitted to a parametric sensitivity analysis by means of a factorial design in two levels. The model parameters were disturbed and their main effects analysed, so that it is possible to propose strategies for high performance operation.

  20. Science Parametrics for TPF-Type Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a science metric for pure-search missions of the scale of the Terrestrial Planet Finder. The metric is the expected number $N$ of discovered earthlike planets as a function of total exposure time $\\Sigma\\tau$. We estimate $N(\\Sigma\\tau)$ for a range of mission parameters: aperture $D=4-16$ m, inner working angle $IWA=0.0196''-0.3135''$, and $\\Sigma\\tau=10-1000$ d. Our technique involves (1) building a prioritized stack of all possible search observations of stars in the input catalog, including revisits, (2) constructing design reference missions by repeatedly selecting the observation with highest merit from the top of the stack, (3) estimating the density of $N$ by convolving the Bernoullian densities of executed observations, and (4) investigating the parametrical variations of $N$, $D$, $IWA$, and $\\Sigma\\tau$. For example, near the center of the range of parameters -- at $D=8$ m, $IWA=0.0784''$, $\\Sigma\\tau=100$ d -- we estimate $N=40$, that $N\\sim\\Sigma\\tau^{0.272}$, and that a factor-two imp...

  1. Analysis of Parametric & Non Parametric Classifiers for Classification Technique using WEKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugal kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of Machine learning & Data Mining, lot of work had been done to construct new classification techniques/ classifiers and lot of research is going on to construct further new classifiers with the help of nature inspired technique such as Genetic Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, Neural Network, Particle Swarm Optimization etc. Many researchers provided comparative study/ analysis of classification techniques. But this paper deals with another form of analysis of classification techniques i.e. parametric and non parametric classifiers analysis. This paper identifies parametric & non parametric classifiers that are used in classification process and provides tree representation of these classifiers. For the analysis purpose, four classifiers are used in which two of them are parametric and rest of are non-parametric in nature.

  2. Adhesion and detachment of a capsule in axisymmetric flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, M. P.; Leal, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    The adhesion and detachment of a capsule on a solid boundary surface is studied via a combination of scaling theory and numerical simulation and the behavior is compared and contrasted with a vesicle. It is shown that the dominant physical property for both capsules and vesicles is the area dilation modulus Ks of the membrane. The nonzero shear modulus Gs for capsules increases the resistance to deformation and thus decreases slightly the equilibrium contact radius for an adhered capsule compared to an adhered vesicle. The detachment process in this study is due to an external axisymmetric flow. Unlike a rigid body that must be pulled away without change of shape, capsules (and vesicles) almost always detach dominantly by peeling in which the contact radius decreases but the minimum separation distance does not change until the final moments of detachment. Compared to a vesicle with the same Ks, a capsule maintains a more compact shape and is harder to elongate under a given external flow. Hence, the detachment process is slower for capsules compared to vesicles with the same Ks.

  3. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N

    2003-10-01

    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  4. Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient

  5. Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Implementation of the above algorithms in a structural monitoring system has the potential advantage of storing...

  6. A uniform parametrization of moment tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl

    2015-09-01

    A moment tensor is a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parametrization of the 5-D space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parametrization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parametrization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parametrization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favour double couples.

  7. New Parametrizations for the Photon Structure Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last year four new parametrizations of the Hadronic Photon Structure Function at Next to Leading Order have appeared. In this talk, I briefly review the main features of the three of them: the FFNSCJK, CJK and AFG. (author)

  8. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  9. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  10. Creating Efficient Instrumentation Networks to Support Parametric Risk Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, P.

    2009-04-01

    The development and institutionalisation of Catastrophe modelling during the 1990s opened the way for Catastrophe risk securitization transactions in which catastrophe risk held by insurers is transferred to the capital markets in the form of a bond. Cat Bonds have been one of the few areas of the capital markets in which the risk modelling has remained secure and the returns on the bonds have held up well through the 2008 Credit Crunch. There are three ways of structuring the loss triggers on bonds: ‘indemnity triggers' - reflecting the actual losses to the issuers; ‘index triggers' reflecting the losses to some index such as reported insurance industry loss and ‘parametric triggers' reflecting the parameters of the underlying catastrophe event itself. Indemnity triggers require that the investors trust that the insurer is reporting all their underlying exposures, while both indemnity and index losses may take 1-2 years to settle before all the claims are reported and resolved. Therefore parametric structures have many advantages, in particular in that the bond can be settled rapidly after an event. The challenge is to create parametric indices that closely reflect the actual losses to the insurer - ie that minimise ‘basis risk'. First generation parametric indices had high basis risk as they were crudely based on the magnitude of an earthquake occurring within some defined geographical box, or the intensity of a hurricane relative to the distance of the storm from some location. Second generation triggers involve taking measurements of ground motion or windspeed or flood depths at many locations and weighting each value so that the overall index closely mimics insurance loss. Cat bonds with second generation parametric triggers have been successfully issued for European Windstorm, UK Flood and California and Japan Earthquake. However the spread of second generation parametric structures is limited by the availability of suitable networks of

  11. Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Signature for Shell Mixing in NIF capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Grim, G P; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J B

    2009-01-01

    We present analytic calculations and results from computational simulations showing that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons act as a robust indicator for mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in DT capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to downscattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

  12. Development of a capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation tests in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule assembly machine (CAM) for the long-term irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor has been designed, developed and demonstrated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The CAM will provide a technical base for viable re-irradiation services. This machine will be installed in the reactor service pool of the HANARO reactor. The new assembly technique by using a mock up of the CAM in air demonstrated its suitability for an assembly operation, and for an application of this technique to a reactor. The technique will be upgraded after a commissioning test under water environments. This technique would be expected to be recommended for a country where an underwater canal for transporting irradiated devices and enough space of a hot cell for assembling capsule components are not available. (author)

  13. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: difficulties in comparing CT enterography and video capsule endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP 2, Department of Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965-Paris 7 ' ' Angiogenese et recherche translationnelle' ' , Paris (France); Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2012-06-15

    A paper reports the results of a retrospective study that was designed to evaluate the potential role of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in elucidating the cause of bleeding in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for whom CT enterography was negative. The authors highlight the limitations of dual-phase CT enterography for the detection of flat lesions of the small bowel such as ulcers, angiodysplasias or arteriovenous malformations, and confirm the superiority of VCE for the detection of this category of lesions. This commentary discusses some of the issues raised. Key Points circle Video capsule endoscopy surpasses CT enterography in detecting flat small bowel lesions. circle Retrospective VCE and CT enterography findings in obscure bleeding need further evaluation. circle A fair and unbiased comparison of the two investigations is still needed. (orig.)

  14. Localization of a Robotic Capsule for GI Motility Inspection with a Portable Ultrasonic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜萍萍; 颜国正

    2004-01-01

    The micro-systems used for in vivo physical inspection have many advantages over traditional methods. In order to aid diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders, a capsule is developed for GI pressure and pH inspection. Localization of the capsule in GI tract with time is a necessary condition for subsequent data analysis and medical diagnosis. It is also a common problem facing all in vivo mobile micro-systems. An approach of segment localization by utilizing some key points along GI tract is proposed. A portable ultrasonic detecting device was designed for this purpose. Experiments under conditions similar to GI tract were carried out and the results proved the effectiveness and reliability of this method and the device.

  15. [Tri-dimensional omics analysis on effect of zhuanggu zhitong capsule against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Ping; Zeng, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Min; Liu, Hui-Ping; Mo, Xin-Min

    2014-08-01

    To propose the new concept of multidimensional omics, and define that the multidimensional omics is a proper method for studying the material base and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds. Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule was taken for example to study its effect against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis. From the perspective of chemi-omics, genomics and proteomics of TCM, it systematically interpreted the efficacious materials and mechanisms of Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule in preventing and treating experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis, while taking the lead in designing a three dimensional form to intuitively exhibit the results of the multidimensional omics study. This study provides a new idea and solution for studies on the efficacious materials and mechanisms of TCM compounds.

  16. Development of a capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A capsule assembly machine (CAM) for the long term irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor has been designed, developed and demonstrated at the Korea Atomic Energy Reasearch Institute (KAERI). The CAM will provide a technical base for viable re-irradiation servives. This machine will be installed in the reactor service pool of the HANARO reactor. The new assembly technique by using a mockup of the CAM in air demonstrated its suitability for an assembly operation, and for an application of this technique to a reactor. The technique will be upgraded after a commissioning test under water environments. This would be expected to be recommended for a country where an under water canal for transporting irradiated devices and enough space of a hot cell for assembling capsule components are not available.

  17. The Quantum Theory of Optical Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the effect of parametric amplification on various forms of light. In particular we shall consider number and coherent states, but many of the calculations hold for those states whose operators satisfy the properties, = = ==0 e.g. chaotic light. The first chapter lays down the fundamental preliminaries necessary for our calculations and reviews linear amplifier theory. We consider the phase sensitive and insensitive forms of amplifiers modelling the former on the degenerate parametric amplifier and the latter on the non-degenerate and inverted population amplifiers. Chapter 2 deals with balanced homodyne detection of a narrow band coherent state before and after degenerate parametric amplification. In chapter 3 we consider a continuous mode number state produced by atomic emission and parametrically amplified using the formalism of Collett and Gardiner. We give general results for the output flux intensity and also consider the simpler case where the atomic decay rate is much smaller than the parametric cavity decay rate. Also we consider the degree of second order coherence using this simplified theory. Chapters 4 and 5 consider the double amplifier interferometer, using single and continuous mode theories, and enable us to determine the form of amplifier which produces the best visibility and hence lowest noise figures. The travelling-wave parametric amplifier is discussed in chapter 6 and is contrasted with the cavity parametric amplifier discussed in chapters 1 and 2. Finally we consider the much contemplated idea of using amplifiers to boost signals in fibre optic transmission lines using our model of the parametric amplifier and examining the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio. We consider both coherent and squeezed inputs and our results hold for both cavity and travelling -wave amplifiers.

  18. On weighted inequalities for parametric Marcinkiewicz integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qassem HM

    2006-01-01

    We establish a weighted boundedness of a parametric Marcinkiewicz integral operator if is allowed to be in the block space for some and satisfies a mild integrability condition. We apply this conclusion to obtain the weighted boundedness for a class of the parametric Marcinkiewicz integral operators and related to the Littlewood-Paley -function and the area integral , respectively. It is known that the condition is optimal for the boundedness of .

  19. Model Specification between Parametric and Nonparametric Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Jiti Gao; Dag Tjøstheim; Jiying Yin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a general model specification between a parametric co-integrating model and a nonparametric co-integrating model in a multivariate regression model, which involves a univariate integrated time series regressor and a vector of stationary time series regressors. A new and simple test is proposed and the resulting asymptotic theory is established. The test statistic is constructed based on a natural distance function between a nonparametric estimate and a smoothed parametric...

  20. Semiclassical limit of universal parametric density correlations

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Alfredo M Ozorio; Lewenkopf, Caio H.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the semiclassical theory for the parametric level density fluctuations, we show that for large parametric changes the density correlation function, after rescaling, becomes universal and coincides with the leading asymptotic term obtained from Random Matrix Theory. The advantage of the semiclassical approach is to provide a simple recipe for the calculation of the non-universal scaling parameter from elements of the underlying classical dynamics specific to the system. We discuss re...

  1. Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Das

    2010-11-01

    Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity configuration and type-II phase matching have been discussed for generating tunable narrow linewidth radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation process.

  2. Automated Adaptive Brightness in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Using Image Segmentation and Sigmoid Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ravi; Mohammed, Shahed K; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Zhang, Xuechao; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) plays an important role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases by capturing images of human small intestine. Accurate diagnosis of endoscopic images depends heavily on the quality of captured images. Along with image and frame rate, brightness of the image is an important parameter that influences the image quality which leads to the design of an efficient illumination system. Such design involves the choice and placement of proper light source and its ability to illuminate GI surface with proper brightness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are normally used as sources where modulated pulses are used to control LED's brightness. In practice, instances like under- and over-illumination are very common in WCE, where the former provides dark images and the later provides bright images with high power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-power and efficient illumination system that is based on an automated brightness algorithm. The scheme is adaptive in nature, i.e., the brightness level is controlled automatically in real-time while the images are being captured. The captured images are segmented into four equal regions and the brightness level of each region is calculated. Then an adaptive sigmoid function is used to find the optimized brightness level and accordingly a new value of duty cycle of the modulated pulse is generated to capture future images. The algorithm is fully implemented in a capsule prototype and tested with endoscopic images. Commercial capsules like Pillcam and Mirocam were also used in the experiment. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well in controlling the brightness level accordingly to the environmental condition, and as a result, good quality images are captured with an average of 40% brightness level that saves power consumption of the capsule. PMID:27333609

  3. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  4. Efficient Characterization of Parametric Uncertainty of Complex (Biochemical Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schillings

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parametric uncertainty is a particularly challenging and relevant aspect of systems analysis in domains such as systems biology where, both for inference and for assessing prediction uncertainties, it is essential to characterize the system behavior globally in the parameter space. However, current methods based on local approximations or on Monte-Carlo sampling cope only insufficiently with high-dimensional parameter spaces associated with complex network models. Here, we propose an alternative deterministic methodology that relies on sparse polynomial approximations. We propose a deterministic computational interpolation scheme which identifies most significant expansion coefficients adaptively. We present its performance in kinetic model equations from computational systems biology with several hundred parameters and state variables, leading to numerical approximations of the parametric solution on the entire parameter space. The scheme is based on adaptive Smolyak interpolation of the parametric solution at judiciously and adaptively chosen points in parameter space. As Monte-Carlo sampling, it is "non-intrusive" and well-suited for massively parallel implementation, but affords higher convergence rates. This opens up new avenues for large-scale dynamic network analysis by enabling scaling for many applications, including parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and systems design.

  5. Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter

  6. PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate

  7. Surface parametrization and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechbuehler, Christian; Gerig, Guido; Kuebler, Olaf

    1992-09-01

    Procedures for the parameterization and description of the surface of simply connected 3-D objects are presented. Critical issues for shape-based categorization and comparison of 3-D objects are addressed, which are generality with respect to object complexity, invariance to standard transformations, and descriptive power in terms of object geometry. Starting from segmented volume data, a relational data structure describing the adjacency of local surface elements is generated. The representation is used to parametrize the surface by defining a continuous, one-to-one mapping from the surface of the original object to the surface of a unit sphere. The mapping is constrained by two requirements, minimization of distortions and preservation of area. The former is formulated as the goal function of a nonlinear optimization problem and the latter as its constraints. Practicable starting values are obtained by an initial mapping based on a heat conduction model. In contract to earlier approaches, the novel parameterization method provides a mapping of arbitrarily shaped simply connected objects, i.e., it performs an unfolding of convoluted surface structures. This global parameterization allows the systematical scanning of the object surface by the variation of two parameters. As one possible approach to shape analysis, it enables us to expand the object surface into a series of spherical harmonic functions, extending the concept of elliptical Fourier descriptors for 2-D closed curves. The novel parameterization overcomes the traditional limitations of expressing an object surface in polar coordinates, which restricts such descriptions to star-shaped objects. The numerical coefficients in the Fourier series form an object-centered, surface-oriented descriptor of the object''s form. Rotating the coefficients in parameter space and object space puts the object into a standard position and yields a spherical harmonic descriptor which is invariant to translations, rotations

  8. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  9. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications. PMID:26083534

  10. Wireless capsule video endoscopy:Three years of experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Eliakim

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review and summerize the current literatue regarding M2A wireless capsule endoscopy.METHODS: Peer reviewed publications regarding the use of capsule endoscopy as well as our personal experience were reviewed.RESULTS: Review of the literature dearly showed that capsule endoscopy was superior to enteroscopy, small bowel follow through and computerized tomography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, iron deficiency anemia,or suspected Crohn′s disease. It was very sensitive for the diagnosis of small bowel tumors and for survailance of small bowel pathology in patients with Gardner syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Its role in celiac disease and in patients with known Crohn′s disease was currently being investigated.CONCLUSION: Capsule video endoscopy is a superior and more sensitive diagnostic tool than barium follow through,enteroscopy and entero- CT in establishing the diagnosis of many small bowel pathologies.

  11. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina). (2) The contents of 1 capsule should be mixed with the food of the...

  13. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  14. Assessing pupil and school performance by non-parametric and parametric techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Witte; E. Thanassoulis; G. Simpson; G. Battisti; A. Charlesworth-May

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the non-parametric free disposal hull (FDH) and the parametric multi-level model (MLM) as alternative methods for measuring pupil and school attainment where hierarchical structured data are available. Using robust FDH estimates, we show how to decompose the overall i

  15. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  16. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puers, R.; Carta, R.; Thoné, J.

    2011-05-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules.

  17. Evaluation of friction enhancement through soft polymer micro-patterns in active capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Elisa; Pensabene, Virginia; Castrataro, Piero; Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Capsule endoscopy is an emerging field in medical technology. Despite very promising innovations, some critical issues are yet to be addressed, such as the management and possible exploitation of the friction in the gastrointestinal environment in order to control capsule locomotion more actively. This paper presents the fabrication and testing of bio-inspired polymeric micro-patterns, which are arrays of cylindrical pillars fabricated via soft lithography. The aim of the work is to develop structures that enhance the grip between an artificial device and the intestinal tissue, without injuring the mucosa. In fact, the patterns are intended to be mounted on microfabricated legs of a capsule robot that is able to move actively in the gastrointestinal tract, thus improving the robot's traction ability. The effect of micro-patterned surfaces on the leg-slipping behaviour on colon walls was investigated by considering both different pillar dimensions and the influence of tissue morphology. Several in vitro tests on biological samples demonstrated that micro-patterns of pillars made from a soft polymer with an aspect ratio close to 1 enhanced friction by 41.7% with regard to flat surfaces. This work presents preliminary modelling of the friction and adhesion forces in the gastrointestinal environment and some design guidelines for endoscopic devices.

  18. Catalytic oxygen production mediated by smart capsules to modulate elastic turbulence under a laminar flow regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, A; Bianco, M; Miglietta, R; del Mercato, L L; Carraro, M; Sorarù, A; Bonchio, M; Gigli, G; Rinaldi, R; Viola, I; Arima, V

    2014-11-21

    Liquid flow in microchannels is completely laminar and uniaxial, with a very low Reynolds number regime and long mixing lengths. To increase fluid mixing and solubility of reactants, as well as to reduce reaction time, complex three-dimensional networks inducing chaotic advection have to be designed. Alternatively, turbulence in the liquid can be generated by active mixing methods (magnetic, acoustic waves, etc.) or adding small quantities of elastic materials to the working liquid. Here, polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules embodying a catalytic polyoxometalate complex have been suspended in an aqueous solution and used to create elastic turbulence and to propel fluids inside microchannels as an alternative to viscoelastic polymers. The overall effect is enhanced and controlled by feeding the polyoxometalate-modified capsules with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, thus triggering an on-demand propulsion due to oxygen evolution resulting from H2O2 decomposition. The quantification of the process is done by analysing some structural parameters of motion such as speed, pressure, viscosity, and Reynolds and Weissenberg numbers, directly obtained from the capillary dynamics of the aqueous mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The increases in fluid speed as well as the capsule-induced turbulence effects are proportional to the H2O2 added and therefore dependent on the kinetics of H2O2 dismutation. PMID:25238401

  19. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules

  20. Sensor-Aided Localized Capsule-Cooling Using Neural Networks for Energy-Efficient Refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Banerjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor-aided localized capsule-cooling technique is a unique refrigeration process where sensors precisely capsulate the location of an item(s on a shelf of a fridge and hence direct the governing artificial intelligence to take suitable action. Here the sensors are used to locate the objects and the designed smart system (neural network activates the corresponding ductlines to cool the object. Here neural network system opens the gate(s and tilts the angle to allow the flow of cool air through the ductlines. Then the orifices, which fall in the virtual “Hot Region”, the domain that the active sensors had created almost immediately on sensing an obstruction, are opened. The orifices and sensors are arranged in a series on the lower wall of the ductlines to allow flow of air in the downward direction. These open orifices facilitate the direct hitting of cool air on the target-item and hence create a cold block within a fridge, instead of cooling the entire fridge uniformly, to keep the singular item refrigerated. This mode of operation offering selective cooling, rather than the conventional uniform one, is useful in saving energy, as the region then needed to be cooled is reduced significantly. A detail structural and theoretical explanations along with graphical analysis clearly elucidate the effective working of this mechanism under practical circumstances is given here. In this paper neural network is used for capsule cooling for energy efficient refrigeration