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Sample records for capsule involvements incomplete

  1. Risk factors for incomplete small-bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 20% to 30% of capsule endoscopy (CE) procedures, the capsule does not reach the cecum within recording time, with incomplete imaging of the small bowel, which limits the value of CE. Objective: To identify possible risk factors for incomplete small-bowel CE examinations. Design: Data

  2. Factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitchell; M; Lee; Andrew; Jacques; Eric; Lam; Ricky; Kwok; Pardis; Lakzadeh; Ajit; Sandhar; Brandon; Segal; Sigrid; Svarta; Joanna; Law; Robert; Enns

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify patient risk factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy(CE) studies.METHODS:Data from all CE procedures performed at St.Paul's Hospital in Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada,between December 2001 and June 2008 were collected and analyzed on a retrospective basis.Data collection for complete and incomplete CE study groups included patient demographics as well as a number of potential risk factors for incomplete CE including indication for the procedure,hospitalization,dia...

  3. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; Cotter; Francisca; Dias; de; Castro; Joana; Magalhes; Maria; Joo; Moreira; Bruno; Rosa

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer(RTV)and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations(IE)and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy(SBCE).METHODS:Prospective single center interventional study,from June 2012 to February 2013.Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV.If it remained in the stomach,the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min.If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of10 mg of domperidone was administered orally.After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach,it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal(GI)endoscopy.The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department(control group,January 2009-May 2012).RESULTS:Both groups were similar regarding age,sex,indication,inpatient status and surgical history.The control group included 307 patients,with 48(15.6%)IE.The RTV group included 82 patients,with3(3.7%)IE,P=0.003.In the control group,average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel(77 min vs 26 min,P=0.003).In the RTV group,the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients(17.0%)vs 48/307(15.6%)in the control group,P=0.736.Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time(260min vs 297 min,P=0.229).The capsule detected positive findings in 39%of patients in the control group and 49%in the RTV group(P=0.081).CONCLUSION:The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations,with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.

  4. Incomplete Horner syndrome: Report of a case and description of the sympathetic nervous system anatomy involved in Horner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Grant M; Harmatz, Alexander J; Isaacson, Glenn

    2011-02-01

    Horner syndrome, in which ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis occur concomitantly, can arise from injury to the sympathetic nerve pathways anywhere from the brain to the end organs. Incomplete Horner syndrome lacks the sign of anhidrosis. We present a case of incomplete Horner syndrome caused by internal carotid artery dissection and provide a road map of the cervical sympathetic nerves involved in Horner syndrome to explain its etiology. We also discuss the imaging of and therapy for internal carotid artery dissections.

  5. Small bowel involvement documented by capsule endoscopy in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, Birane; Lesur, Gilles; Claude, Pierre; Martzolf, Lionel; Kieffer, Pierre; Sondag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a small and medium vessel vasculitis and is also known as allergic granulomatous angiitis. Gastrointestinal involvement is common in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (20-50%). The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhoea and occasionally gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation. We present a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with small bowel lesions documented by video capsule endoscopy. PMID:26664542

  6. Capsule Endoscopy for Ileitis with Potential Involvement of Other Sections of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ileitis is defined as inflammation of the ileum. This condition includes ulcers, aphthous ulcers, erosions, and nodular or erythematous mucosa. Various etiologies are associated with ileitis. Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, infectious conditions, neoplasms, infiltrative disorders, vasculitides, spondyloarthritis, endometriosis, and radiation therapy-related conditions involve the ileum. However, the differential diagnosis of terminal ileitis can be difficult in many cases. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE has become a useful tool for the diagnosis of a variety of small bowel lesions. This review describes each of the various conditions associated with ileitis and the diagnostic value of VCE for ileitis, which may help identify and evaluate these conditions in clinical practice. Based on the information provided by VCE, a definitive diagnosis could be made using the patients’ medical history, clinical course, laboratory and ileocolonoscopic findings, radiologic imaging findings, and histologic findings.

  7. 痛血康胶囊对早孕大鼠不完全流产模型的治疗作用%Effect of Tongxuekang Capsule on Incomplete Abortion Model in Early Pregnancy Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦云; 郑军; 潘菊华; 李多娇; 黄世敬; 郭宗碧; 刘凤麟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨痛血康胶囊治疗早孕SD大鼠不完全流产模型产后出血的疗效及作用机制。方法:1)受孕7 d予米非司酮和米索前列醇,造成早孕不完全流产模型,痛血康治疗7 d观察并记录SD大鼠离体子宫平滑肌活动情况及病理组织学改变。2)用小鼠尾尖取血法,观察痛血康对小鼠出凝血时间的影响。3)用小鼠耳廓肿胀和SD大鼠棉球肉芽肿两个模型,观察痛血康的抗炎作用。4)用皮下注射肾上腺素加冰水刺激所致SD大鼠血瘀模型,观察痛血康的活血化瘀作用。结果:痛血康能增强早孕不完全流产SD大鼠子宫平滑肌收缩强度,促进残存的胚囊组织排出;能降低血瘀模型SD大鼠全血和血浆黏度,缩短小鼠出凝血时间;对二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀和SD大鼠棉球肉芽肿有明显抑制作用。结论:痛血康在早孕SD大鼠中具有治疗产后出血的作用,可能与增强流产SD大鼠的子宫收缩强度、促进残留在宫腔的绒毛或蜕膜组织排出、缩短出凝血时间、抑制炎症等有关。%Objective:To explore the efficacy and mechanism of Tongxuekang capsule on postpartum hemorrhage.Methods:1 ) The pregnancy incomplete abortion model was built by giving mifepristone and misoprostol to the 7-day pregnant rats and Tongxuek-ang capsule was applied to intervene.The uterine smooth muscle activity in vitro of rats and pathological and histological changes of uterusin each group were observe and recorded.2)The mice tail blood method was applied to observe the effects of Tongxuekang capsule on coagulation time in mice.3)The auricle swelling model in mice and granuloma induced by cotton ball model in rats was adopted to observe the anti-inflammatory effects of Tongxuekang capsule.4)The blood stasis model in rats built by adrenal in sub-cutaneous injection and ice water stimulation was made to survey the effects of promoting blood circulation and removing

  8. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy.

  9. Capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is about the size of a large vitamin pill. The person swallows the capsule, and it takes pictures all the way through ... can be started in the doctor's office. The capsule is the size of a large vitamin pill, about an inch (2.5 centimeters) long ...

  10. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2013-01-01

    with ultrasound, MRI, and subsequently a capsule endoscopy. Six months later, the patient presented, and an abdominal CT-scan showed mechanical small bowel obstruction with suspicion of metallic foreign body and perforation. Laparotomy showed perforation, stenosis, and foreign body, approximately 5 cm from...... the ileocecal valve. A right hemicolectomy and distal ileectomy (60 cm) with an ileostomy were performed. On further inspection of resection, a capsule endoscope was found impacted in a stenosis. The ileostomy was later reversed without complications. Conclusion. It is important to be aware of the possibility...... of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy....

  11. Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because experience with it is limited and traditional upper endoscopy is widely available. Your doctor might recommend a capsule endoscopy procedure to: Find the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have unexplained bleeding in your digestive ...

  12. Cj1411c GENE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI 11168 ENCODES FOR A CYTOCHROME P450 INVOLVED IN BACTERIAL CAPSULE SUGAR METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CORCIONIVOSCHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After isolation in 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni become the most commonlyrecognized cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. In animals is frequently foundin bovines on ovines. Publishing of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni11168 (Parkhill, 2000 revealed the presence of only one cytochrome P450 in anoperon involved in sugar and cell surface biosynthesis. The gene name is Cj1411c, is1359 bp long and encodes 453 aa. The sequence is strictly conserved inCampylobacter jejuni RM221. Similarities with two cytochrome P450s, one formSilicobacter sp. and one form Poloromonas sp., were identified. These two enzymesare known to be involved in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. The recombinantconstruct allowed the expression of active P450 enzyme with a 450 nm peak whenbinds CO. The protein was purified in proportion of ~ 70 %. By deleting the P450gene from the Campylobacter jejuni 11168 genome clear changes in cellmorphology were identified cells becoming wider and shorter. The capsular sugarprofile of the NCI strain reveals the presence of arabinose which was not found inthe wild type strain. The arabinose was identified by both High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR.

  13. Cj1411c GENE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI 11168 ENCODES FOR A CYTOCHROME P450 INVOLVED IN BACTERIAL CAPSULE SUGAR METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORCIONIVOSCHI N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After isolation in 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni become the most commonlyrecognized cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. In animals is frequently foundin bovines on ovines. Publishing of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni11168 (Parkhill, 2000 revealed the presence of only one cytochrome P450 in anoperon involved in sugar and cell surface biosynthesis. The gene name is Cj1411c, is1359 bp long and encodes 453 aa. The sequence is strictly conserved inCampylobacter jejuni RM221. Similarities with two cytochrome P450s, one formSilicobacter sp. and one form Poloromonas sp., were identified. These two enzymesare known to be involved in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. The recombinantconstruct allowed the expression of active P450 enzyme with a 450 nm peak whenbinds CO. The protein was purified in proportion of ~ 70 %. By deleting the P450gene from the Campylobacter jejuni 11168 genome clear changes in cellmorphology were identified cells becoming wider and shorter. The capsular sugarprofile of the NCI strain reveals the presence of arabinose which was not found inthe wild type strain. The arabinose was identified by both High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR.

  14. Differential regulation of Salmonella typhimurium genes involved in O-antigen capsule production and their role in persistence within tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Cox, Clayton E; Xu, Yimin; Noel, Jason T; Giovannoni, James J; Teplitski, Max

    2013-07-01

    Enteric pathogens, including non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and enterovirulent Escherichia coli, are capable of persisting and multiplying within plants. Yet, little is still known about the mechanisms of these interactions. This study identified the Salmonella yihT gene (involved in synthesis of the O-antigen capsule) as contributing to persistence in immature tomato fruit. Deletion of yihT reduced competitive fitness of S. enterica sv. Typhimurium in green (but not ripe, regardless of color) tomato fruit by approximately 3 logs. The yihT recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) reporter was strongly activated in unripe tomato fruit, and fitness of the mutant inversely correlated with the level of the yihT gene expression. Expression of yihT in mature tomato fruit was low, and yihT did not affect competitive fitness within mature fruit. To better understand the molecular basis of the phenotype, behaviors of the yihT RIVET reporter and the yihT mutant were tested in tomato fruit defective in ethylene signaling. These experiments suggest a role for functional ethylene-mediated signaling in the persistence of Salmonella spp. within tomato fruit. Furthermore, jasmonic acid and its precursors strongly reduced expression of yihT.

  15. Formalizing Incomplete Knowledge in Incomplete Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1992-01-01

    Up to now,no satisfactory theory has been established for formalizing incomplete knowledge in incomplete databases.In this paper,we clarify why existing closed world approaches,such as the CWA,the GCWA,the ECWA,circumscription,predicate completion and the PWA,fail to do so,and propose a new method,The method is an augmentation of both the ECWA and circumscription with the mechanism to discriminate implicitly expressed positive knowledge,negative knowledge and truly unknown knowledge.

  16. Involvement of α-adrenoceptors to the implementation of the contractile effects in the capsule of mesenteric lymph nodes in response to electrostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobov, G I; Pan'kova, M N

    2013-03-01

    We studied changes in the contractile function of smooth muscle cells in bovine mesenteric lymph node capsule caused by electrical stimulation of nerve fibers in vitro. It was found that electrostimulation increased tonic tension and frequency of smooth muscle contractions in the node capsule. Tetrodotoxin prevented the stimulatory effect of electrical stimulation on the smooth muscle cells. Phentolamine, prazosin, and yohimbine significantly reduced the capsule response to electrical stimulation and norepinephrine application. It was concluded that excitation of nerve fibers in the capsule of bovine mesenteric lymph nodes upon electrical stimulation is realized, at least in part, via activation of α1-adrenoceptors and, to a lesser extent, via α2-adrenoceptors located on the membrane of smooth muscle cells.

  17. Capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. The advent of CE in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases of the small intestine, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, polyposis syndromes, etc. CE has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of most diseases of the small bowel. Lately this technique has also been used for esophageal and colonic diseases.

  18. Unawareness of a Prolonged Retained Capsule Endoscopy: The Importance of Careful Follow-Up and Cooperation between Medical Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Saigusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man with anemia was referred to our hospital to undergo capsule endoscopy (CE, which revealed small intestinal ulcers. After 5 months of CE, he returned because of recurrent anemia without abdominal symptoms. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography showed capsule retention in the small intestine at the pelvic cavity. The capsule remained at the same place for 7 days. We performed capsule retrieval by laparoscopy-assisted surgery with resection of the involved small intestine, including an ileal stricture. Resected specimen showed double ulcers with different morphologies, an ulcer scar with stricture, and a wide ulcer at the proximal side of the others. Each ulcer had different histopathological findings such as the degree of fibrosis and monocyte infiltration. These differences led us to consider that the proximal ulcer may have been secondarily induced by capsule retention. Our experience indicated that careful follow-up and the cooperation between medical institutions after CE examination should be undertaken for patients with incomplete examination, unknown excretion of the capsule, and/or ulcerative lesions despite the lack of abdominal symptoms. Additionally, a retained CE remaining over long periods and at the same place in the small intestine may lead to secondary ulceration.

  19. BASICS OF COMPOUNDING: Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Capsules have been used for administering medications to patients more than a century and have an important role in drug delivery. When a primary care provider prescribes a tablet, the choice is usually, but not always, limited to commercially available products. A capsule, however, can be prepared extemporaneously, which provides dosing flexibility for the primary care provider and the pharmacist. This article discusses the definitions/types of capsules, their applications, composition, preparation, capsule sizes, the encapsulation process, capsule cleaning, physiochemical considerations, quality control in the preparation of capsules, packaging/storage, stability, and patient counseling to determine the proper capsule size. Also, provided are sample formulations.

  20. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show ...

  1. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  2. Production in incomplete markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the ...

  3. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    We formulate an evolutionary learning process in the spirit of Young (1993a) for games of incomplete information. The process involves trembles. For many games, if the amount of trembling is small, play will be in accordance with the games' (semi- strict) Bayesian equilibria most of the time...... to incomplete information of the prototype strategic conflict known as Chicken. The second is an incomplete information bilateral monopoly, which is also an extension to incomplete information of Nash's demand game, or a simple version of the so-called sealed bid double auction. For both games selection...... by evolutionary learning is in favor of Bayesian equilibria where some types of players fail to coordinate, such that the outcome is inefficient...

  4. Esophageal capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Raul Armendariz; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is now considered as the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Esophageal capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected esophageal disorders is feasible and safe,and could be also an alternative procedure in those patients refusing upper endoscopy.Although large-scale studies are needed to confirm its utility in GERD and cirrhotic patients,current results are encouraging and open a new era in esophageal examination.

  5. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  6. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  7. Incomplete invention of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisa, Tomoyuki

    2007-02-01

    Scientists seldom know the differences between "rejected invention", "non-invention", "incomplete invention", "invention yet to be completed" and "defective invention". The Japanese Supreme Court appointed me as a specialist member (Article 92-2, Code of Civil Procedure) of intellectual property division for medical and biological patents. Herein, I present scientists to the differences and which of them are patentable. In order to prevent oneself from being taken for granted for the scientists' noblesse oblige by clever business administrations, the scientists must know the borderline between patentable or non-patentable.

  8. NIF capsule performance modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Weber S.; Callahan D.; Cerjan C.; Edwards M.; Haan S.; Hicks D.; Jones O.; Kyrala G.; Meezan N.; Olson R; Robey H.; Spears B.; Springer P.; Town R.

    2013-01-01

    Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting th...

  9. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  10. Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Jin Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

  11. Hollow microporous organic capsules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules...

  12. Engineering Stable Hollow Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Scientists at the CAS Institute of Chemistry have been succeeded in fabricating stable hollow capsules by extending covalent layer-by-layer self-assembly(CSA)technique from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional systems.

  13. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  14. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-09-28

    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  15. The analysis of incomplete data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, H. O.; Hocking, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a simple taxonomy for incomplete-data problems and at the same time develop unified methods of analysis. The emphasis is on techniques which are natural extensions of the complete-data analysis and which will handle rather general classes of incomplete-data problems as opposed to custom-made techniques for special problems. The principle of estimation is either maximum likelihood or is at least based on maximum likelihood.

  16. Critical swelling of fluctuating capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir

    2009-03-01

    In many natural transport processes the solute molecules to be transported are encapsulated in semipermeable, flexible membrane vesicles of micron size. We study the swelling of such fluctuating capsules, as the number of encapsulated particles is increased, or the concentration of the outer solution is decreased. The approach to the maximum volume-to-area ratio and the associated buildup of membrane tension involve a continuous phase transition and follow universal scaling laws. The criticality and its features are model-independent, arising solely from the interplay between volume and surface degrees of freedom.ootnotetextE. Haleva and H. Diamant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078104 (2008).

  17. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multis

  18. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  19. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  20. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Mata; J Llach; JM Bordas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new technique that allows complete exploration of the small bowel without external wires. Its role has been analyzed in many small bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease and gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes with promising results. Studies on other pathologies (I.e. Small bowel tumour, celiac disease) are under evaluation to define the role of this technique.

  1. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bao; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differen

  2. Incomplete Bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Tasci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials. In the case =1, =1, we obtain the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas -numbers. If =2, =1, we have the incomplete Pell and Pell-Lucas -numbers. On choosing =1, =2, we get the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal number and besides for =1 the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. In the case =1, =1, =1, we have the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. If =1, =1, =1, =⌊(−1/(+1⌋, we obtain the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Also generating function and properties of the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials are given.

  3. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  4. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  5. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  6. Capsule-train stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  7. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  8. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient- friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease.

  9. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  10. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  11. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  12. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  13. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  14. Shutoff of RNA polymerase II transcription by poliovirus involves 3C protease-mediated cleavage of the TATA-binding protein at an alternative site: incomplete shutoff of transcription interferes with efficient viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pallob; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Tsai, Weimin; Dasgupta, Asim

    2005-08-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a crucial role in cellular transcription catalyzed by all three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Previous studies have shown that TBP is targeted by the poliovirus (PV)-encoded protease 3C(pro) to bring about shutoff of cellular RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription in PV-infected cells. The processing of the majority of viral precursor proteins by 3C(pro) involves cleavages at glutamine-glycine (Q-G) sites. We present evidence that suggests that the transcriptional inactivation of TBP by 3C(pro) involves cleavage at the glutamine 104-serine 105 (Q104-S105) site of TBP and not at the Q18-G19 site as previously thought. The TBP Q104-S105 cleavage by 3C(pro) is greatly influenced by the presence of an aliphatic amino acid at the P4 position, a hallmark of 3C(pro)-mediated proteolysis. To examine the importance of host cell transcription shutoff in the PV life cycle, stable HeLa cell lines were created that express recombinant TBP resistant to cleavage by the viral proteases, called GG rTBP. Transcription shutoff was significantly impaired and delayed in GG rTBP cells upon infection with poliovirus compared with the cells that express wild-type recombinant TBP (wt rTBP). Infection of GG rTBP cells with poliovirus resulted in small plaques, significantly reduced viral RNA synthesis, and lower viral yields compared to the wt rTBP cell line. These results suggest that a defect in transcription shutoff can lead to inefficient replication of poliovirus in cultured cells.

  15. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, J.H. [Osler Hoskin and Harcourt, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs.

  16. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  17. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  18. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  19. Formulation parameters affecting the performance of coated gelatin capsules with pulsatile release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, T; Bodmeier, R

    2003-11-28

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system based on soft gelatin capsules with or without a swelling layer and an external water-insoluble but -permeable polymer coating, which released the drug after a lag time (rupturing of the external polymer coating). The swelling of the gelatin capsule itself was insufficient to rupture the external polymer coating, an additional swelling layer was applied between the capsule and the polymer coating. Croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was more effective as a swelling agent than low and high molecular weight hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; E5 or K100M). Brittle polymers, such as ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAPr), led to a better rupturing and therefore more complete drug release than the flexible polymer coating, Eudragit RS. The lag time of the release system increased with higher polymer coating levels and decreased with the addition of a hydrophilic pore-former, HPMC E5 and also with an increasing amount of the intermediate swelling layer. The water uptake of the capsules was linear until rupture and was higher with CAPr than with EC. Soft gelatin capsule-based systems showed shorter lag times compared to hard gelatin capsules because of the higher hardness/filling state of the soft gelatin capsules. The swelling pressure was therefore more directed to the external polymer coating with the soft gelatin capsules. Typical pulsatile drug release profiles were obtained at lower polymer coating levels, while the release was slower and incomplete at the higher coating levels. CAPr-coated capsules resulted in a more complete release than EC-coated capsules.

  20. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information.

  1. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  2. Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.

  3. Incomplete convolutions in production and inventory models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we study incomplete convolutions of continuous distribution functions, as they appear in the analysis of (multi-stage) production and inventory systems. Three example systems are discussed where these incomplete convolutions naturally arise. We derive explicit, nonrecursive formulae f

  4. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cohen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  5. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27438566

  6. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  7. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  8. Prophylactic Nailing of Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wug Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent reports have described the occurrence of low-energy subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. Although information regarding the surgical treatment of these atypical femoral fractures is increasing, it is unclear if the preventive operation is useful in incomplete fractures. This study examined the results of preventive intramedullary nailing for incomplete atypical femoral fractures. Material and Methods. A retrospective search was conducted for patients older than 50 years receiving bisphosphonate therapy, with incomplete, nondisplaced fractures in either the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal area of the femur. Seventeen patients with a total of 20 incomplete, non-displaced lesions were included. The mean duration of bisphosphonate use was 50.5 months. Eleven of the 17 (64.7% patients had complete or incomplete fractures on the contralateral femur. All were treated with prophylactic fixation of an intramedullary (IM nail. The minimum followup was 12 months. Results. All cases healed with a mean period of 14.3 weeks. Nineteen of the 20 cases healed with the dissolution of incomplete fractures of the lateral aspect. A complete fracture developed at the time of nailing in one patient, but it healed with callus bridging. Conclusion. IM nailing appears to be a reliable way of preventing the progress of incomplete atypical femoral fractures.

  9. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  10. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning (NMR), 22-24 April 2016, Cape Town, South Africa Revising Incompletely Specified Convex Probabilistic Belief Bases Gavin Rens CAIR_, University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Mathematics, Statistics...

  11. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe, over 4 000 patients undergo evacuation for ... 50% of the emergency gynaecological workload. Most patients ... Optimal surgical treatment of incomplete abortion requires a ... Analgesia was provided by intravenous pethidine. (50 ...

  12. Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

  13. Capsule endoscopy of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Matti; Gralnek, Ian M

    2009-08-01

    Video capsule endoscopy has acquired wide clinical acceptance since its the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001. Recently, the technology of video capsule endoscopy has been adapted to other organs in the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus and colon. In this review, we discuss esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE)-the procedure, its indications, contraindications, safety, and future applications. ECE is a minimally invasive procedure that uses special video capsules with ability to acquire images from 2 cameras with high image storing speed of 14 to 18 frames per second. A special ingestion procedure allows for prolonged esophageal transit time and an optimized view of the gastroesophageal junction. ECE has been shown to have moderately high sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease but has not demonstrated superiority to esogastroduodenoscopy in cost-effectiveness models. In patients with portal hypertension, ECE has a sensitivity of 63% to 100% for screening of esophageal varices, but does not seem to be superior to esogastroduodenoscopy in its cost-effectiveness. No serious complications have been reported after ECE although a low rate of esophageal capsule retention (0.7% to 2.2%) has been reported, usually because of unsuspected esophageal strictures. Contraindications to capsule endoscopy include known or suspected gastrointestinal and esophageal obstruction, strictures, or fistulas, intestinal pseudoobstruction, and children under 10 years of age. It is expected that improvements in imaging technology will improve the accuracy of ECE with the development of immunological-based and chemical-based diagnostic capabilities.

  14. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-02-25

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  15. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. PMID:25206695

  16. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangning Li; Yongping Fan; Tao Yang; Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  17. Reasoning with Incomplete and Uncertain Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    the Bayesian and Confirmation theory approaches and to compare them with INFERNO , his proposed approach to uncertain inference [Qui83]. The...reasoning in medicine. Mathematical Biosciences, 23:351-379, 1975. [SBBG86] L. M. Sweet, P. P. Bonissone, A. L. Brown , and S. Gans. Reasoning with Incomplete...CA, October 1979. [SBBG86I L. M. Sweet, P. P. Bonissone, A. L. Brown , and S. Gans. Reasoning with Incomplete and Uncertain Information for Improved

  18. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  19. The capsule's contribution to total hip construct stability--a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Jacob M; Stroud, Nicholas J; Rudert, M James; Tochigi, Yuki; Pedersen, Douglas R; Ellis, Benjamin J; Callaghan, John J; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Brown, Thomas D

    2011-11-01

    Instability is a significant concern in total hip arthroplasty (THA), particularly when there is structural compromise of the capsule due to pre-existing pathology or due to necessities of surgical approach. An experimentally grounded fiber-direction-based finite element model of the hip capsule was developed, and was integrated with an established three-dimensional model of impingement/dislocation. Model validity was established by close similarity to results from a cadaveric experiment in a servohydraulic hip simulator. Parametric computational runs explored effects of graded levels of capsule thickness, of regional detachment from the capsule's femoral or acetabular insertions, of surgical incisions of capsule substance, and of capsule defect repairs. Depending strongly upon the specific site, localized capsule defects caused varying degrees of construct stability compromise, with several specific situations involving over 60% decrement in dislocation resistance. Construct stability was returned substantially toward intact-capsule levels following well-conceived repairs, although the suture sites involved were often at substantial risk of failure. These parametric model results underscore the importance of retaining or robustly repairing capsular structures in THA, in order to maximize overall construct stability. 

  20. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  1. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  2. Capsule endoscopy in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) for the investigation of the small bowel is an approved technique both in adults and children (more than 10 years old). The present review provides data on the indications, diagnostic yield, adverse events and limitations of the WCE technique in children and tries to predict the future of WCE usage in this population of patients.

  3. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  4. Regenerated cellulose capsules for controlled drug delivery: Part IV. In-vitro evaluation of novel self-pore forming regenerated cellulose capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavik; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-01-15

    In the present work, the release mechanisms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) enclosed in self-pore forming regenerated cellulose (RC) two-piece hard shell capsules are described. The RC capsules were fabricated using a modified dip-coating approach, which yielded an assembled dosage form that was equivalent in size and shape to a conventional gelatin two-piece hard shell capsule. Drug release characteristics from RC capsules were evaluated using potassium chloride, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, tramadol hydrochloride, niacinamide, acetaminophen and ketoprofen as model APIs. The RC capsules act as a barrier coated reservoir device that releases the enclosed API at a zero order release rate. When comparing all the API's release behavior from RC capsules, a power-law relationship was observed between their zero-order release rates and their respective aqueous solubilities. Osmotic as well as diffusive mechanisms are involved in the release of the enclosed API. The osmotic mechanism's contribution to zero order release rate increases as the aqueous solubility of the tested APIs inside the capsule increases. The osmotic mediated flux and the apparent diffusivity of the APIs through the capsule wall is a competitive process and the osmotic mediated flux of the enclosed API begins to override its diffusivity through the capsule wall as the API solubility increases. This behavior is attributed to the wide range of pore sizes observed in RC membranes, from our prior analysis. The fluid permeability analysis shows that the RC capsules presented in this work may be better suited for osmotic drug delivery applications than conventional encapsulated systems described in the literature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Starr

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo, and galactose (Gal. Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

  6. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  7. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  8. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  9. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  10. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  11. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  12. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  13. Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingpeng

    Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs

  14. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pushpendra P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: pushpendrapsingh@gmail.com; Singh, B.P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India)], E-mail: bpsinghamu@gmail.com; Sharma, M.K.; Gupta, Unnati [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, D. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: ranjan@iuac.ernet.in

    2009-01-12

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in {sup 16}O + {sup 169}Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, {alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been measured at E{approx}5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt {gamma}-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-{alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels, and increases with direct-{alpha}-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered.

  15. Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.

  16. CLAIM HEDGING IN AN INCOMPLETE MARKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wangui; WANG Chunfeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we compare the performance of the optimal attainable payoffs (of a general claim) derived by the variance-optimal approach and the indifference argument under the mean-variance preference in an incomplete market.Both payoffs are expressed by the signed variance-optimal martingale measure.Our results are applied to the claim hedging under partial information.

  17. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    This paper investigates interpretational ambiguity with reference to the ECC Treaty, and analyses its consequences. Theoretically, it suggests that incomplete contracts generate interpretational ambiguity, due to transaction costs but also to the inherent variability of language. Methodologically...... for studies arguing that supranational actors including the Commission and Court of Justice will utilize ambiguity to further their institutional and political agendas....

  18. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/poly(dopamine) capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Teo, Boon M; Goldie, Kenneth N; Städler, Brigitte

    2014-05-20

    Polymer capsules are an interesting concept considered in nanobiotechnology. Approaches that facilitate their assembly remain sought after. Poly(dopamine) (PDA) has been considered and successfully applied in this context. We recently demonstrated that PDA could be copolymerized with different types of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAAm) to assemble mixed films on planar substrates. Herein, we transferred this approach onto colloidal substrates and characterized the film thickness depending on the film composition and template particles size. While the membrane of capsules assembled using 5 μm template particles exhibited strong dependency on the film composition, smaller templates led to capsules with similar membrane thickness. We then compared the permeability of different capsules using fluorescently labeled dextran and fluorescein. We found that the permeability of capsules was heavily dependent on the polymer composition and the template particle size. These fundamental findings contribute to the potential of these capsules, assembled in one-step, for biomedical applications.

  19. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  20. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... attorney in fact of the vessel owner. The “Incomplete Manifest for Export” box in item 17 of the Vessel... Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and Soviet Zone...

  1. Model for Incomplete Reconnection in Sawtooth Crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Beidler, Matthew T

    2011-01-01

    A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.

  2. Model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, M T; Cassak, P A

    2011-12-16

    A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.

  3. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  4. Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayna Dimitrova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communicate over unreliable channels. We show that in the case of finite message alphabets, games with safety and reachability winning conditions are decidable and finite-state observation-based strategies for the component can be effectively computed. Undecidability for (weak parity objectives follows from the undecidability of (weak parity perfect information games where only one player can lose messages.

  5. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  6. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  7. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Incomplete Double Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Hayashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is a type of chronic renal inflammation that usually occurs in immunocompromised middle-aged women with chronic urinary tract infection or ureteral obstruction induced by the formation of ureteral stones. XGP with an incomplete double ureter is extremely rare. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old woman was referred to our department to undergo further examination for a left renal tumor that was detected by ultrasonography. Dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT revealed an enhanced tumor in the upper renal parenchyma. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed based on a preoperative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Histological sections showed the aggregation of foam cells; thus, XGP was diagnosed. Conclusion. We herein report a rare case of XGP in the upper pole of the kidney, which might have been associated with an incomplete double ureter.

  8. Abigail’s Orphanhood and Incomplete Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐孟婕

    2015-01-01

    Abigail, the protagonist and vil ain in The Crucible, is manipulative, charismatic, and would attack anyone who stands in her way. However, reflecting on her orphanhood and incomplete personality, Abigail and her diabolic actions make more sense. This paper analyzes three facets of Abigail’s personality with a focus on her orphanhood and concludes that her wretchedness is related to her early loss of parents.

  9. Recognition of control chart patterns with incomplete samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftah Abdelrahman Senoussi, Ahmed; Masood, Ibrahim; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In quality control, automated recognition of statistical process control (SPC) chart patterns is an effective technique for monitoring unnatural variation (UV) in manufacturing process. In most studies, focus was given on complete patterns by assuming there is no constrain in the SPC samples. Nevertheless, there is in-practice case whereby the SPC samples cannot be captured properly due to measurement sensor error or human error. Thus, this research aims to design a recognition scheme for incomplete samples pattern that will be useful for an industrial application. The design methodology involves three phases: (i) simulation of UV and SPC chart patterns, (ii) design of pattern recognition scheme, and (iii) evaluation of performance recognition. It involves modelling of the simulated SPC samples in bivariate quality control, raw data input representation, and recognizer training and testing. The proposed technique indicates a high recognition accuracy (normal pattern = 99.5%, shift patterns = 97.5%). This research will provide a new perspective in SPC charting scheme when dealing with constraint in terms of incomplete samples, which is greatly useful for an industrial practitioner in finding the solution for corrective action.

  10. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  11. Abort System Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction for Capsule-Type Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    小澤, 啓伺; 北村, 圭一; 花井, 勝祥; 三好, 理也; 森, 浩一; 中村, 佳朗

    The space transportation system using capsule/rocket configurations such as Apollo and Soyuz are simple compared with Space Shuttle, and have several merits from the viewpoint of reliability. The capsule/rocket system will take over the Space Shuttle, after it retires in 2010. As the Space Shuttle accidents had been caused by several factors, e.g., aerodynamic interaction of shock waves ahead of its wing, advanced abort systems such as LAS (Launch Abort System) are required for the capsule/rocket system. In the present study, as a baseline configuration, a combination of a cone and a cylinder is employed as a CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle), which consists of a capsule (LAV: Launch Abort Vehicle) and a rocket (SM: Service Module). By changing the relative position of the two components as well as the profile area of the rocket, their effects on the capsule/rocket aerodynamic interaction and characteristics (drag and pitching moment) are experimentally and numerically investigated at a supersonic speed (M∞ = 3.0). It is found from the results that the clearance have little effects on the flow field for the case of the baseline configuration. The capsule always showed a positive drag (CD = 0.34), which means that thrust is required to overcome the drag. Otherwise the capsule will recontact the rocket. However in the case where the rocket contact area is 2.2 times as large as the capsule profile, more favorable effects were obtained. Especially in the case of a certain clearance (h/D = 0.40), the drag coefficient of the capsule is CD = -0.35, which means that the capsule suffers a thrust force from the aerodynamic interaction. Under this condition, if capsule has a pitch angle with 5 degrees instantaneously, then pitching moment coefficient becomes CMp = -0.41 therefore capsule stabilize. However, in the case of a very small clearance (h/D ∝ 0.00), the flow becomes unsteady involving pulsating shock wave, leading to a potentially risky separation of the capsule.

  12. How helpful is capsule endoscopy to surgeons?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Ersoy; Bulent Sivri; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a new technology that, for the first time, allows complete, non-invasive endoscopic imaging of the small bowel. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of suspected small bowel diseases has been established. Important applications for surgeons include observations of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel neoplasms.

  13. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  14. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  15. Clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in urban Southeast Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiing-Leong Ang; Kwong-Ming Fock; Tay-Meng Ng; Eng-Kiong Teo; Yi-Lyn Tan

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Capsule endoscopy has demonstrated its clinical utility in the evaluation of small bowel pathology in several Western studies. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine the clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of suspected small bowel disease in an urban Southeast Asian population.METHODS: We used the given (M2A) capsule endoscopy system in 16 consecutive patients with suspected small bowel pathology. In 9 patients the indication was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, while in 6 patients it was to determine the extent of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease. One patient underwent capsule endoscopy for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain. Patient's tolerability to the procedure was evaluated by standardized questionnaires and all patients were reviewed at one week to ensure that the capsule had been excreted without any adverse events.RESULTS: Abnormal findings were present in 8 patients (50%). The cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was determined in 5 out of 9 patients. Findings included 2 cases of angiodysplasia, 2 cases of jejunal ulcers and 1 case of both angiodysplasia and jejunal ulcer. One patient had small bowel erosions and foci of erythema of doubtful significance.Ileal lesions were diagnosed in 2 out of 6 patients with Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy was well tolerated by all patients. One patient with Crohn's disease had a complication of capsule retention due to terminal ileum stricture. The capsule eventually passed out spontaneously after 1 month.CONCLUSION: Our study, which represented the first Asian series, further confirms the diagnostic utility, safety and tolerability of wireless capsule endoscopy.

  16. Incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Leonardo; Maresca, Alessandra; Capristo, Mariantonietta; Del Dotto, Valentina; Tagliavini, Francesca; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Carelli, Valerio

    2017-07-14

    Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset. In females, mitochondrial biogenesis is promoted and maintained within the compensatory range by estrogens, partially explaining the gender bias in LHON. Concerning DOA, none of the above mechanisms has been fully explored, thus mtDNA haplogroups, environmental factors such as tobacco and alcohol, and further nDNA variants may all participate as protective factors or, on the contrary, favor disease expression and severity. Next generation sequencing, complemented by transcriptomics and proteomics, may provide some answers in the next future, even if the multifactorial model that seems to apply to incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies remains problematic, and careful stratification of patients will play a key role for data interpretation. The deep understanding of which factors impinge on incomplete penetrance may shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms leading to optic nerve atrophy, on their possible compensation and, thus, on development of therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of General Incomplete Star Interconnection Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云涛; 侯紫峰; 宋建平

    2002-01-01

    The star networks, which were originally proposed by Akers and Harel, have suffered from a rigorous restriction on the number of nodes. The general incomplete star networks (GISN) are proposed in this paper to relieve this restriction. An efficient labeling scheme for GISN is given, and routing and broadcasting algorithms are also presented for GISN. The communication diameter of GISN is shown to be bounded by 4n - 7. The proposed single node broadcasting algorithm is optimal with respect to time complexity O(n log2 n).

  18. Entropy, heat, and G\\"odel incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible phenomena, such as the production of entropy and heat, arise from fundamental reversible dynamics because the forward dynamics is too complex, in the sense that it becomes impossible to provide the necessary information to keep track of the dynamics. On a heuristic level, this is well captured by coarse graining. We suggest that on a fundamental level the impossibility to provide the necessary information might be related to the incompleteness results of G\\"odel. This would hold interesting implications for both, mathematics and physics.

  19. Some results on resolvable incomplete block designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Minqian; FANG; Kaitai

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the uniformity of a certain kind of resolvable incomplete block (RIB for simplicity) design which is called the PRIB design here. A sufficient and necessary condition is obtained, under which a PRIB design is the most uniform in the sense of a discrete discrepancy measure, and the uniform PRIB design is shown to be connected. A construction method for such designs via a kind of U-type designs is proposed, and an existence result of these designs is given. This method sets up an important bridge between PRIB designs and U-type designs.

  20. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  1. Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-04-18

    Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.

  2. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  3. [Longjintonglin Capsules for type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction: A clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-cai; Wan, Chang-chun; Geng, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guo-wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Longjintonglin Capsules on type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction. We selected 140 patients with type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction according to the diagnostic standards of the American Institutes of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsules orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. We obtained the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Indexes (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), semen liquefaction time, and the results of semen analysis and compared these indicators before and after the treatment. Of the 140 cases, 132 were included in this study, excluding 8 due to their incomplete case histories. Before and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 24.52 ± 5.43, 21.28 ± 4.85, 18.01 ± 4.28, and 14.49 ± 3.65 (P Capsules, with its advantages of safety, effectiveness and no obvious adverse effects, deserve to be recommended for the treatment of type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction.

  4. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the U.S. Capsules in the AGR-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybeck, Nancy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Einerson, Jeffrey J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hawkes, Grant L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN-3636). The AGR-2 test was inserted in the B-12 position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in June 2010 and successfully completed irradiation in October 2013, resulting in irradiation of the TRISO fuel for 559.2 effective full power days (EFPDs) during approximately 3.3 calendar years. The AGR-2 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) (Pham and Einerson 2014). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as-run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of four AGR-2 U.S. capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in (Hawkes 2014). The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume-average fuel temperature and peak fuel temperature in each capsule. This thermal model involves complex physical mechanisms (e.g., graphite holder and fuel compact shrinkage) and properties (e.g., conductivity and density). Therefore, the thermal model predictions are affected by uncertainty in input parameters and by incomplete knowledge of the underlying physics leading to modeling assumptions. Therefore, alongside with the deterministic predictions from a set of input thermal conditions, information about prediction uncertainty is instrumental for the ART

  5. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Haruhiko

    2008-07-01

    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  6. Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping A. Wang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Vaginal Bleeding after Drug-induced Abortion by Yaoliuan Capsule and Its Effects on Menses Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhichun; HUANG Guangying

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period ≤ 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8 %) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2 %) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2 %) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9 %) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9 %) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5±5.2 days and 33.8 d±8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1±3.5 days and 9.9±5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  8. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  9. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmaer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras wit

  10. Elastic constants of the human lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R F

    1969-03-01

    1. A technique is described whereby the elasticity of the human lens capsule has been determined at birth and throughout life. This technique requires three separate determinations: (a) thickness; (b) stress and strain; (c) Poisson's ratio; (a) the capsule was clamped between accurately perforated ground glass plates and its thickness determined by noting the change in depth of focus between Latex spherules adhering to its upper and lower surfaces; (b) the undisturbed capsule was then placed in a specially designed glass distension apparatus and the relationship between volume and pressure recorded when it was distended with isotonic saline. The permeability of the capsule was also measured; (c) in some cases Poisson's ratio was determined by measuring the change of thickness of the capsule and the height to which it rose when distended with isotonic saline at different pressures. An apparatus was designed for this purpose.2. The average thickness of the anterior capsule increases from birth until about the 60th year but thereafter it decreases slightly.3. Poisson's ratio was about 0.47 for both cat and human capsule, and no significant variations with age in human capsule could be detected.4. Corrected volume pressure curves obeyed Hook's law almost to the point of capsule rupture.5. In childhood Young's Modulus of elasticity is about 6 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) and decreases to 3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) at 60 and 1.5 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in extreme old age.6. The ultimate tensile stress was 2.3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in young capsules and 0.7 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in old ones. The maximum percentage elongation was 29 per cent and independent of age.7. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to(a) the mechanical properties of the lens capsule;(b) the ageing of the lens capsule and basement membranes; and(c) the decrease in elasticity of the lens capsule as a cause of presbyopia.

  11. Lightweight, highly compressible, noncrystalline cellulose capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Christopher; Lindström, Stefan B; Larsson, Per Tomas; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-07-08

    We demonstrate how to prepare extraordinarily deformable, gas-filled, spherical capsules from nonmodified cellulose. These capsules have a low nominal density, ranging from 7.6 to 14.2 kg/m(3), and can be deformed elastically to 70% deformation at 50% relative humidity. No compressive strain-at-break could be detected for these dry cellulose capsules, since they did not rupture even when compressed into a disk with pockets of highly compressed air. A quantitative constitutive model for the large deformation compression of these capsules is derived, including their high-frequency mechanical response and their low-frequency force relaxation, where the latter is governed by the gas barrier properties of the dry capsule. Mechanical testing corroborated these models with good accuracy. Force relaxation measurements at a constant compression rendered an estimate for the gas permeability of air through the capsule wall, calculated to 0.4 mL μm/m(2) days kPa at 50% relative humidity. These properties taken together open up a large application area for the capsules, and they could most likely be used for applications in compressible, lightweight materials and also constitute excellent model materials for adsorption and adhesion studies.

  12. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  14. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  15. Low-Rank Representation for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR has been becoming an increasingly popular technique for analyzing data with missing entries, gross corruptions, and outliers. As a significant component of LRMR, the model of low-rank representation (LRR seeks the lowest-rank representation among all samples and it is robust for recovering subspace structures. This paper attempts to solve the problem of LRR with partially observed entries. Firstly, we construct a nonconvex minimization by taking the low rankness, robustness, and incompletion into consideration. Then we employ the technique of augmented Lagrange multipliers to solve the proposed program. Finally, experimental results on synthetic and real-world datasets validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Cerezo, Rafael; Rosa, João G.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the Universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  17. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Rosa, Joao G

    2015-01-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  18. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; KOlda, Tamara G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how...... to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP......-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process....

  19. Bereavement: an incomplete rite of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer

    A bereavement ritual observed during anthropological fieldwork in Peru gives basis to this article which asserts that bereavement has become an incomplete rite of passage. The article reviews the role of ritual and rites of passage, examines other anthropologic examples of death and bereavement rituals, and identifies the lack of post-funeral ritual for many bereaved individuals in the United States. While funerary rituals which end with the funeral and burial of the dead are helpful in providing immediate structure for the bereaved, they are not congruent with the long-term emotional needs and reconstruction of meaning within grief. The author acknowledges value of both private ritual and reunions of the community of mourners, and recommends that bereavement counselors and/or the funeral industry offer to help bereaved construct a "ritual of remembrance and new meaning" after time has allowed them to move along in meaning reconstruction processes of making sense, finding benefits, and identity change.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b Section 520.1660b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520... capsules. (a) Specifications. Piperazine citrate capsules contain piperazine citrate equivalent to 140 milligrams of piperazine base in each capsule. (b) Sponsor. See No. 021091 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter...

  2. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clindamycin capsules and tablets. 520.446 Section... capsules and tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, 150, or 300... 150 mg clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (3) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, or...

  3. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520... capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg) chloramphenicol... section. (1) Nos. 000069 and 050057 for capsules containing 50, 100, 250, or 500 mg chloramphenicol. (2...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2605 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules... Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 3.75 milligrams of trimeprazine in sustained released form (as the tartrate) and 1 milligram of prednisolone (capsule no. 1) or 7...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500... as in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) No. 000009: 250 mg per capsule. (2) No. 000069: 125, 250, or...

  6. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  7. An Innovative Wireless Endoscopic Capsule With Spherical Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Rossella; Mulana, Francesca; Cavallotti, Carmen; Tortora, Giuseppe; Vigliar, Mario; Vatteroni, Monica; Menciassi, Arianna

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the advancement of the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) field for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) screening, by developing all electronic circuits to build an innovative wireless endoscopic capsule with a spherical shape, conceived to reduce the friction during its locomotion and thus improving patient's acceptability. The proposed capsule embeds an image sensor with optics and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), a control unit with a telemetry module, an actuation system, a battery with a smart recharging circuit able to recharge in 20 minutes, a smart power-on circuit and a localization module. Everything is devised to fit in a small spherical shape with a diameter of 26 mm and a weight of 12.70 g. The authors present a description of the sub-modules involved in the capsule development, together with the firmware and hardware integration. In order to reduce the bandwidth for matching the specifications of the target commercial telemetry, the firmware interfacing of a custom encoder was performed, which is able to compress the incoming images with a negligible loss of information and occupying a number of Look Up-Tables (LUTs) less than 1780. As a preliminary work, a versatile Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based demo-board system has been developed in order to test and optimize the functionalities and the performance of the single sub-modules and wireless vision chain system. This work allows to demonstrate the feasibility of a complex biomedical system, with severe constraints by highlighting the necessity to enhance the frame rate in the future.

  8. Capsule Endoscopy: New Technology, Old Complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsule Endoscopy: New Technology, Old Complication. ... A 65-year-old female with a long standing history of anemia and obscure gastrointestinal ... The patient was resuscitated and taken up for an explorative laparotomy where a short ...

  9. Therapeutic Capsule Endoscopy: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for non-invasive (or less-invasive monitoring and treatment of medical conditions has attracted both physicians and engineers to work together and investigate new methodologies. Wireless capsule endoscopy is a successful example of such techniques which has become an accepted routine for diagnostic inspection of the gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a non-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy and provides the opportunity for exploring distal areas of the small intestine which are otherwise not accessible. Despite these advantages, wireless capsule endoscopy is still limited in functionality compared to traditional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopes with advanced functionalities, such as biopsy or drug delivery, are highly desirable. In this article, the current status of wireless capsule endoscopy is reviewed together with some of its possible therapeutic applications as well as the existing challenges.

  10. Systematic Design of edical Capsule Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Beccani, M; Tunc, H; Taddese, AZ; Susilo, E; Volgiesi, P; Ledeczi, A; Valdastri, P

    2015-01-01

    Medical capsule robots that navigate inside the body as diagnostic and interventional tools are an emerging and challenging research area within medical CPSs. These robots must provide locomotion, sensing, actuation, and communication within severe size, power, and computational constraints. This paper presents the first effort for an open architecture, platform design, software infrastructure, and a supporting modular design environment for medical capsule robots to further this research area.

  11. Primary Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation in Traumatic Cataract With Posterior Capsule Breaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YupingZou; WenhuiYang

    1995-01-01

    Background:In patients with incomplete posterior capsule support,posterior chamber intraocular lenses(PC-IOLs)were implanted with both haptics transs-cleral fixation.This causes more damage to the eye and may result in more com-plications,In patients with small posterior breaks,non-fixation or single haptic fixation may be adequate.Methods:Thiry-two consecutive patients of traumatic cataract with posterior capsule breaks caused by penetrating eye trauma were retospected.Posterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all these patients with three tech-niques,ie,without fixation,with single haptic fixation and with both haptics fixation .The selection of the technique was based on the position and size of the posterior capsule.The follow-up period was 21days to 28months(mean,15.2months).Results:Intra-operative problems included ciliary body bleeding(Two patents,6.25%)and enlargement of posterior capsule breaks(2patients,6.25).Postoperative visual acuity was0.5or better(Corrected)in28case(87.5%)and 0.1-0.4in four patients(12.5%),Postoperative complications included hyphema(6eyes,18.8%),transient intraocular pressure elevation(6eyes,18.8%),transient hypotention(7eyes,21.8%).Postoperative IOL position were good except one case of IOL tilt.No pupillary capture or endophthalmitis was found.Conclusions:Not all PC-IOLs have to be fixed by two haptics.In patients with small posterior capsule breaks,PC-IOLmay not be fixed or fixed by only one haptics.Eye Science1995;11:140-142.

  12. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  13. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  14. Observation of incomplete fusion at low angular momenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Devendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work deals with experimental studies of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics using off-line γ-ray spectrometry at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in 16O+130Te system have been measured and compared with the predictions of the statistical model code PACE4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for α-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. Results show that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momenta lesser than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion and also reveals importance of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon.

  15. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  16. Deep community detection in topologically incomplete networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xin; Wang, Chaokun; Ying, Xiang; Wang, Boyang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting communities in topologically incomplete networks (TIN), which are usually observed from real-world networks and where some edges are missing. Existing approaches to community detection always consider the input network as connected. However, more or less, even nearly all, edges are missing in real-world applications, e.g. the protein-protein interaction networks. Clearly, it is a big challenge to effectively detect communities in these observed TIN. At first, we bring forward a simple but useful method to address the problem. Then, we design a structured deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to better detect communities in TIN. By gradually removing edges of the real-world networks, we show the effectiveness and robustness of our structured deep model on a variety of real-world networks. Moreover, we find that the appropriate choice of hop counts can improve the performance of our deep model in some degree. Finally, experimental results conducted on synthetic data sets also show the good performance of our proposed deep CNN model.

  17. Measurement of capsule heat transfer gaps using neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring heat transfer gaps from neutron radiographs. The method involves scanning the radiograph negative with a recording microdensitometer to obtain a trace of the optical density variation across the diameter of the capsule. The optical density change representing the gap is measured from the microdensitometer trace and related to the physical measurement. Heat transfer gaps from 0.061 to 0.178 cm have been determined by this technique and agree with preassembly physical measurements to plus or minus 0.005 cm.

  18. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries.

  19. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  20. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Pennazio; Emanuele Rondonotti; Roberto de Franchis

    2008-01-01

    Until recently,diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques.An array of new methods has recently been developed,increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage.Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ,since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized.Highquality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and fiat lesions recognized,without exposure to radiation.Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range,1.6%-2.4%)and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant;many were unsuspected and not found by other methods.However,it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance.Despite its limitations,CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management.Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms,ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings,remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  1. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  2. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2) m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  3. Radiological findings and healing patterns of incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J.; Campbell, Robert S.D. [Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayor, Peter E. [Leighton Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Crewe, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Rees, Dai [Robert Jones and Agnes-Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The objective was to retrospectively record the CT and MRI features and healing patterns of acute, incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis. The CT scans of 156 adolescents referred with suspected pars interarticularis stress fractures were reviewed. Patients with incomplete (grade 2) pars fractures were included in the study. Fractures were assessed on CT according to vertebral level, location of cortical involvement and direction of fracture propagation. MRI was also performed in 72 of the 156 cases. MRI images of incomplete fractures were assessed for the presence of marrow oedema and cortical integrity. Fracture healing patterns were characterised on follow-up CT imaging. Twenty-five incomplete fractures were identified in 23 patients on CT. All fractures involved the inferior or infero-medial cortex of the pars and propagated superiorly or superolaterally. Ninety-two percent of incomplete fractures demonstrated either complete or partial healing on follow-up imaging. Two (8%) cases progressed to complete fractures. Thirteen incomplete fractures in 11 patients confirmed on CT also had MRI, and 92% demonstrated oedema in the pars. Ten out of thirteen fractures (77%) showed a break in the infero-medial cortex with intact supero-lateral cortex, which correlated with the CT findings. MRI incorrectly graded one case as a complete (grade 3) fracture, and 2 cases as (grade 1) stress reaction. Six fractures had follow-up MRI, 67% showed partial or complete cortical healing, and the same number showed persistent marrow oedema. Incomplete fracture of the pars interarticularis represents a stage of the evolution of a complete stress fracture. The direction of fracture propagation is consistent, and complete healing can be achieved in most cases with appropriate clinical management. CT best demonstrates fracture size and extent, and is the most appropriate modality for follow-up. MRI is limited in its ability to fully depict the cortical integrity of

  4. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  5. Innervation and functional characteristics of connective tissues, especially elastic fibers, in human fetal thoracic intervertebral articular capsule and its surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Miya; Yasui, Masaya; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    The articular capsules between the thoracic vertebrae, which have physiologically different functions from those of other levels of the vertebrae, have yet to be subjected to neuro-anatomical and fine structural analysis. In the present study, we analyzed serial frozen sections of decalcified thoracic vertebrae in human fetuses, and identified the articular capsule tissue with its unique distribution of elastic fibers. The fine structure of the elastic fibers was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the early-stage fetus, the fibrous membrane forming the lateral intervertebral articular capsule contained abundant thin elastic fibers consisting of microfibrils. In the late-stage fetus, the lateral capsule of fibrous membrane was occupied by thick elastic fibers. A medial articular capsule, namely the ligamenta flava, contained numerous thick elastic fibers in both early and late-stage fetuses. The distributional differences in nerve fibers between early and late-stage fetuses were determined by immunostaining, using antibodies raised against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5; ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase). Innervation by PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers was limited to the areas of the articular capsules near the blood vessels, which may indicate their functional relation with blood flow. No PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers were found in the ligamenta flava of the late-stage fetus. Innervation might be directly involved in the development of the intervertebral articular capsules in normal human fetuses.

  6. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 t

  7. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales

  8. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  9. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  10. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  11. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  12. Probing of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy-ion collision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; Rahbar Ali; M Afzal Ansari; B S Tomar; M H Rashid; R Guin; S K Das; R Kumar; R P Singh; S Muralithar; R K Bhowmik

    2014-04-01

    Three different types of experiments have been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. In this respect, first experiment for the measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energy ranges ≈2–8 MeV/nucleon has been done. Measured cumulative and direct crosssections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. It has been observed that, incomplete fusion fraction is sensitively dependent on projectile energy and mass asymmetry between the projectile and the target systems. Second experiment for measuring the forward recoil range distributions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energy ≈8MeV/nucleon has been done. It has been observed that, some evaporation residues have shown additional peaks in the measured forward recoil range distributions at cumulative thicknesses relatively smaller than the expected range of the residues produced via complete fusion. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving the breakup of 20Ne into 4He+16O and/or 8Be+12C followed by one of the fragments with target nucleus 165Ho. Third experiment for the measurement of spin distribution of the evaporation residues produced in the 16O+124Sn system at projectile energy ≈6 MeV/nucleon, showed that the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast and 2-emission channels observed in the forward cone, are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The spin distribution of the evaporation residues also inferred that in incomplete fusion reaction channels input angular momentum ($J_0$) increases with fusion incompleteness when compared to complete fusion reaction channels. Present observation clearly shows that the production of fast forward -particles arises from

  13. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  14. Capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis and follow up of crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Brodersen, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD). the procedure is patient friendly and noninvasive, and compared to cross-sectional imaging, CE allows a direct and detailed evaluation of the entire small bowel mucosa witha high sensitivity...... approach in patients examined for CD, and preliminary results are promising. there are important limitations, involving mainly capsule retention. Furthermore, a diagnostic criterion for CD has never been validated, and lesions detected by CE are not specific for CD. Hence, concern has been raised about...

  15. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  16. Evidence for a role of the polysaccharide capsule transport proteins in pertussis pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Hoo

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (PS capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule itself, affects drastically B. pertussis colonization efficacy in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that absence of KpsT in B. pertussis resulted in global down-regulation of gene expression including key virulence genes regulated by BvgA/S, the master two-component system. Using a BvgS phase-locked mutant, we demonstrated a functional link between KpsT and BvgA/S-mediated signal transduction. Whereas pull-down assays do not support physical interaction between BvgS sensor and any of the capsule locus encoded proteins, absence of KpsT impaired BvgS oligomerization, necessary for BvgS function. Furthermore, complementation studies indicated that instead of KpsT alone, the entire PS capsule transport machinery spanning the cell envelope likely plays a role in BvgS-mediated signal transduction. Our work thus provides the first experimental evidence of a role for a virulence-repressed gene in pertussis pathogenesis.

  17. Protein capsules with cross-linked, semipermeable, and enzyme-degradable surface barriers for controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhua; Hyun, Dong Choon; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongkai; Xia, Younan

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes a method for fabricating protein-based capsules with semipermeable and enzyme-degradable surface barriers. It involves the use of a simple fluidic device to generate water-in-oil emulsion droplets, followed by cross-linking of proteins at the water-oil interface to generate a semipermeable surface barrier. The capsules can be readily fabricated with uniform and controllable sizes and, more importantly, show selective permeability toward molecules with different molecular weights: small molecules like fluorescein sodium salt can freely diffuse through the surface barrier while macromolecules such as proteins can not. The proteins, however, can be released by digesting the surface barrier with an enzyme such as pepsin. Taken together, the capsules hold great potential for applications in controlled release, in particular, for the delivery of protein drugs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: concise up-to-date overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Sarah DouglasCentre for Liver and Digestive Disorders, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area.Keywords: capsule, imaging, small bowel, Crohn’s, celiac, GI bleed

  19. 3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-10-01

    Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.

  20. Biodistribution of polymer hydrogel capsules for the delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Tracey M; Monaghan, Paul; Green, Diane; Kooijmans, Sander A A; Shi, Shuning; Breheney, Kerry; Tizard, Mark; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Zelikin, Alexander N; Wark, Kim

    2012-09-01

    A key phase in the development of intelligently designed nanoparticle delivery vehicles for new therapeutic agents is to gain an understanding of their interaction with tissues and cells. We report a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments aimed at tracking a potential delivery vehicle for therapeutic agents, including vaccine peptides and drugs derived from poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel capsules in certain organs and cell types. For the in vitro studies, two immortal liver-derived cell lines (Huh7 and Hepa1-6) and primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were incubated with Alexa 647 labelled fluorescent capsules to track their internalization and intracellular distribution by confocal microscopy. Capsules, 500nm in diameter, were taken up into the cells in a time-dependent manner in all three cell lines. Capsules were observed in plasma membrane-derived vesicles within the cells. After 24h a significant proportion of the capsules was observed in lysosomes. To understand the behaviour of the capsules in vivo, Alexa 488 labelled fluorescent capsules were intravenously injected into Sprague-Dawley rats and after 24h the fate of the capsules in a number of organs was determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. By flow cytometry, the majority of the capsules were detected in the spleen whilst similar numbers were found in the lung and liver. By confocal microscopy, the majority of the capsules were found in the liver and spleen with significantly less capsules in the lung, heart and kidney. Colocalization of capsules with cell-type specific markers indicated that in lung, heart and kidney, the majority of the capsules were located in endothelial cells. In the spleen ~50% of the capsules were found in CD163-positive cells, whereas in the liver, almost all capsules were located in CD163-positive cells, indicating uptake by Kupffer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of capsules within Kupffer cells. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  1. Capsule endoscopy: Current status in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Gupta; Nageshwar Duvvuru Reddy

    2007-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a safe, non invasive diagnostic modality for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the most important indications of capsule endoscopy.Capsule endoscopy has a very high diagnostic yield especially if the bleeding is ongoing. This technique appears to be superior to other techniques for the detection of suspected lesions and the source of bleeding. Capsule endoscopy has been shown to change the outcome in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI)bleed.

  2. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin capsules. 520.90a Section 520.90a Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.90a Ampicillin capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 125 milligrams or 250 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000008...

  3. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580 Section 520.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... capsules. 520.1920 Section 520.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1920 Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules. (a) Specifications. Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules contain either: (1) 3.33 milligrams of prochlorperazine...

  5. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section 520.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine...

  7. 21 CFR 520.90c - Ampicillin trihydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin trihydrate capsules. 520.90c Section 520.90c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trihydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains ampicillin trihydrate equivalent to 125, 250...

  8. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d Section 520.622d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  11. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonan...

  12. Electrohydrodynamic deformation of capsules in electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Thaokar, Rochish

    2016-11-01

    Micron size capsules are abundant in natural, technological and biological processes but they still require extensive investigation for better understanding of their mechanical behavior. A spherical capusle containing a Newtonian fluid bounded by a viscoelastic membrane and immersed in another Newtonian fluid, and subject to electric field is considered. Discontinuity of electrical properties such as conductivity and permittivity leads to a net Maxwell stress at the capsule interface. In response the capsule undergoes elastic deformation, leading to strain fields and elastic stresses that can balance the applied forces. We investigate this problem with fully resolved hydrodynamics in the Stokes flow limit and electrostatics using the capacitance model. Effect of AC, DC and pulsed DC fields is investigated. Our results show that membrane electrical properties have a huge impact on the equilibrium deformation as well as on the break up of capsules. Our results match with the literature results in the limit of high conductance of the membrane. Analytical theory is employed using spherical harmonics and numerical investigations are conducted using the Boundary integral method.

  13. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  14. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  15. Sympathetic skin response in incomplete spinal cord injury with urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Emad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sympathetic skin response (SSR is a test for evaluation of the sympathetic sweat gland pathways, and it has been used to study the central sympathetic pathways in spinal cord injury (SCI. This study aimed to assess the autonomic pathways according to normal or abnormal SSR in urinary incontinence patients due to incomplete spinal cord injury. Materials and Methods: Suprapubic, palmar, and plantar SSR to the peripheral nerve electrical stimulation were recorded in 16 urinary incontinence patients with incomplete spinal cord injury at various neurological levels and in 30 healthy control subjects. Results: All the recordings of SSR from the incomplete SCI patients with urinary incontinence as compared with their counterparts in the control group showed significantly reduced amplitudes with more prominent reduction in the suprapubic area recording site (P value < 0.0004. SSR with significantly prolonged latencies were recorded from palm and plantar areas in response to suprapubic area and tibial N stimuli, respectively (P value < 0.02. In this study, a significantly higher stimulus intensity (P value < 0.01 was needed to elicit SSR in the cases compared with the control group. Conclusion: This study showed abnormal SSR in urinary incontinence patients due to incomplete SCI. In addition, for the first time we have described recording of abnormal SSR from the suprapubic area as another way to show bladder sympathetic system involvement.

  16. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  17. Incomplete categorical data design non-randomized response techniques for sensitive questions in surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Guo-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to survey questions involving sensitive information, such as sexual behavior, illegal drug usage, tax evasion, and income, may refuse to answer the questions or provide untruthful answers to protect their privacy. This creates a challenge in drawing valid inferences from potentially inaccurate data. Addressing this difficulty, non-randomized response approaches enable sample survey practitioners and applied statisticians to protect the privacy of respondents and properly analyze the gathered data.Incomplete Categorical Data Design: Non-Randomized Response Techniqu

  18. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  19. Utility of MR arthrography in the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manton, G.L.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Weishaupt, D.; Karasick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. Arthrographically, adhesive capsulitis is characterized by decreased joint volume; histologically, the capsule and synovium are thickened. We therefore compared using MR arthrography the joint volumes and capsule/synovial thickness of patients with and without adhesive capsulitis in order to assess the utility of MR arthrography in diagnosing adhesive capsulitis.Design and patients. The 1.5 T MR arthrography images of 28 subjects with (n=9) and without (n=19) adhesive capsulitis were compared. Adhe- sive capsulitis was diagnosed when there was an injected glenohumeral joint volume of less than 10 ml. Two masked observers working in consensus assessed the images for the relative amount of fluid in the biceps tendon sheath and axillary recess, corrugation at the margin of the capsule, capsule/synovial thickness, abnormalities of the rotator interval capsule, and for the presence of a cuff tear.Results. There was a trend towards differences in capsular and synovial thickness (P>0.07) between the subjects with and without adhesive capsulitis; however, the controls had thicker synovium/capsules. Surprisingly, the amount of fluid in the axillary recess and biceps tendon sheath was not significantly different between the groups (P>0.25). There were more tears of the rotator cuff in controls than in patients with adhesive capsulitis (6, 3 vs 1, 1: complete, partial). Also, both corrugation (7 vs 0) and interval abnormalities (7 vs 0) were more common in the controls.Conclusion. There appear to be no useful MR arthrographic signs of adhesive capsulitis. Capsular/synovial thickness, static fluid volume, and the presence of corrugation are inconclusive as MR arthrographic signs for distinguishing shoulders with adhesive capsulitis from those without. (orig.)

  20. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton C. A. da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere.

  1. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile’s energy and α-Q-value.

  2. Genetic etiology and clinical consequences of complete and incomplete achromatopsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Slingerland, N.W.; Roosing, S.; Schooneveld, M.J. van; Lith-Verhoeven, J.J. van; Moll-Ramirez, N.G. van; Born, L.I. van den; Hoyng, C.B.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Klaver, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic causes of complete and incomplete achromatopsia (ACHM) and assess the association between disease-causing mutations, phenotype at diagnosis, and visual prognosis. DESIGN: Clinic-based, longitudinal, multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS: Probands with complete ACHM (n

  3. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  4. Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data Guy Van den Broeck∗ and Karthika Mohan∗ and Arthur Choi and Adnan...We propose a family of efficient algorithms for learning the parameters of a Bayesian network from incomplete data. Our approach is based on recent...algorithms like EM (which require inference). 1 INTRODUCTION When learning the parameters of a Bayesian network from data with missing values, the

  5. The Index of Dirac Operators on Incomplete Edge Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Pierre; Gell-Redman, Jesse

    2016-09-01

    We derive a formula for the index of a Dirac operator on a compact, even-dimensional incomplete edge space satisfying a ''geometric Witt condition''. We accomplish this by cutting off to a smooth manifold with boundary, applying the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem, and taking a limit. We deduce corollaries related to the existence of positive scalar curvature metrics on incomplete edge spaces.

  6. On the Pricing of Options in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Melenberg, B.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we reconsider the pricing of options in incomplete continuous time markets.We first discuss option pricing with idiosyncratic stochastic volatility.This leads, of course, to an averaged Black-Scholes price formula.Our proof of this result uses a new formalization of idiosyncraticy which encapsulates other definitions in the literature.Our method of proof is subsequently generalized to other forms of incompleteness and systematic (i.e. non-idiosyncratic) information.Generally thi...

  7. Predictors of incomplete optical colonoscopy using computed tomographic colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Sachdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Optical colonoscopy (OC is the primary modality for investigation of colonic pathology. Although there is data on demographic factors for incomplete OC, paucity of data exists for anatomic variables that are associated with an incomplete OC. These anatomic variables can be visualized using computed tomographic colonography (CTC. We aim to retrospectively identify variables associated with incomplete OC using CTC and develop a scoring method to predict the outcome of OC. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, 70 cases ( with incomplete OC and 70 controls (with complete OC were identified. CTC images of cases and controls were independently reviewed by a single CTC radiologist. Demographic and anatomical parameters were recorded. Data was examined using descriptive linear statistics and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: On analysis, female gender (80% vs 58.6% P = 0.007, prior abdominal/pelvic surgeries (51.4% vs 14.3% P < 0.001, colonic length (187.6 ± 30.0 cm vs 163.8 ± 27.2 cm P < 0.001, and number of flexures (11.4 ± 3.1 vs 8.4 ± 2.9 P < 0.001 increased the risk for incomplete OC. No significant association was observed for increasing age (P = 0.881 and history of severe diverticulosis (P = 0.867 with incomplete OC. A scoring system to predict the outcome of OC is proposed based on CTC findings. Conclusion: Female gender, prior surgery, and increasing colonic length and tortuosity were associated with incomplete OC, whereas increasing age and history of severe diverticulosis were not. These factors may be used in the future to predict those patients who are at risk of incomplete OC.

  8. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  9. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets...... are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  10. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., Elab ≈ 4-7 MeV/nucleon in 12C, 16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, αxn/2αxn- channels have been measured to probe entirely different γ-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states.

  11. Hearing loss in enlarged vestibular aqueduct and incomplete partition type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadizadeh, Emily; Ascha, Mustafa; Manzoor, Nauman; Gupta, Amit; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff; Otteson, Todd

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this work is to identify the role of incomplete partition type II on hearing loss among patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). EVA is a common congenital inner ear malformation among children with hearing loss, where vestibular aqueduct morphology in this population has been shown to correlate to hearing loss. However, the impact of incomplete partition between cochlear turns on hearing loss has not been, despite meaningful implications for EVA pathophysiology. A retrospective review of radiology reports for patients who had computed tomography (CT) scans with diagnoses of hearing loss at a tertiary medical center between January 2000 and June 2016 were screened for EVA. CT scans of the internal auditory canal (IAC) for those patients with EVA were examined for evidence of incomplete partition type II (IP-II), measurements of midpoint width and operculum width a second time, and patients meeting Cincinnati criteria for EVA selected for analysis. Statistical analysis including chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and t-tests were used to identify differences in outcomes and clinical predictors, as appropriate for the distribution of the data. Linear mixed models of hearing test results for all available tests were constructed, both univariable and adjusting for vestibular aqueduct morphometric features, with ear-specific intercepts and slopes over time. There were no statistically significant differences in any hearing test results or vestibular aqueduct midpoint and operculum widths. Linear mixed models, both univariable and those adjusting for midpoint and operculum widths, did not indicate a statistically significant effect of incomplete partition type II on hearing test results. Hearing loss due to enlarged vestibular aqueduct does not appear to be affected by the presence of incomplete partition type II. Our results suggest that the pathophysiological processes underlying hearing loss in enlarged vestibular aqueduct may not be a result of

  12. Estimating Interaction Effects With Incomplete Predictor Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Craig K.; Baraldi, Amanda N.; Cham, Heining

    2014-01-01

    The existing missing data literature does not provide a clear prescription for estimating interaction effects with missing data, particularly when the interaction involves a pair of continuous variables. In this article, we describe maximum likelihood and multiple imputation procedures for this common analysis problem. We outline 3 latent variable model specifications for interaction analyses with missing data. These models apply procedures from the latent variable interaction literature to analyses with a single indicator per construct (e.g., a regression analysis with scale scores). We also discuss multiple imputation for interaction effects, emphasizing an approach that applies standard imputation procedures to the product of 2 raw score predictors. We thoroughly describe the process of probing interaction effects with maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. For both missing data handling techniques, we outline centering and transformation strategies that researchers can implement in popular software packages, and we use a series of real data analyses to illustrate these methods. Finally, we use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques. PMID:24707955

  13. Fis is essential for capsule production in Pasteurella multocida and regulates expression of other important virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Steen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available P. multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of diseases of animals, including fowl cholera in poultry and wild birds. Fowl cholera isolates of P. multocida generally express a capsular polysaccharide composed of hyaluronic acid. There have been reports of spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. In this study, we identified three independent strains that had spontaneously lost the ability to produce capsular polysaccharide. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that these strains had significantly reduced transcription of the capsule biosynthetic genes, but DNA sequence analysis identified no mutations within the capsule biosynthetic locus. However, whole-genome sequencing of paired capsulated and acapsular strains identified a single point mutation within the fis gene in the acapsular strain. Sequencing of fis from two independently derived spontaneous acapsular strains showed that each contained a mutation within fis. Complementation of these strains with an intact copy of fis, predicted to encode a transcriptional regulator, returned capsule expression to all strains. Therefore, expression of a functional Fis protein is essential for capsule expression in P. multocida. DNA microarray analysis of one of the spontaneous fis mutants identified approximately 30 genes as down-regulated in the mutant, including pfhB_2, which encodes a filamentous hemagglutinin, a known P. multocida virulence factor, and plpE, which encodes the cross protective surface antigen PlpE. Therefore these experiments define for the first time a mechanism for spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida and identify Fis as a critical regulator of capsule expression. Furthermore, Fis is involved in the regulation of a range of other P. multocida genes including important virulence factors.

  14. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  15. Multiscale Regional Formula Fertilization Considering Environment Information Incompleteness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianqian ZHANG; Yan LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Conventional formula fertilization tends to calculate regional rate of fertilizer application by means of analyzing spatial distribution of regional cultivated land productivity combined with experiment data. However,as environment information of cultivated land is incomplete due to limitation of traditional cultivated land management technology and data acquisition,uncertainty of rate of fertilizer makes it hard to define the interval of formula fertilization and support the regional fertilization task. With the technique of spatial analysis and multiscale uncertainty theory,conventional fertilization can be optimized. Four steps are involved to calculate regional formula fertilization interval based on conventional formula fertilization:( i) To simulate cultivated land productivity according to EGLSN Model,and make it crop target field;( ii) To determine rate of fertilizer according to target field to define cultivated land productivity fertilizer interval and mid-value;( iii) To define region fertilizer interval length and value of region varying with scales as environment information becomes complete gradually;( iv) To apply block fertilizer combined with conventional formula by soil testing. Multiscale optimizing formula fertilization system has been established by using the Arc Engine as a platform to integrate the methods,which is applied in Xinjiang County,Shanxi Province,in order to optimize the existing fertilization formula in study area. It showed that the optimized formula fertilization had more spatial details of productivity than the original one.And the new method is available to support formula fertilization in any region or the block with uncertain environment information. It is therefore concluded that the proposed method has the potential for popularity,which provides a multiscale,multiple-factor and standardized formula fertilization method.

  16. The measurement of capsule heat transfer gaps using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    The use of neutron radiographs to determine dimensional changes of heat transfer gaps in cylindrical nuclear fueled capsules is described. A method was developed which involves scanning a very fine grained neutron radiograph negative with a recording microdensitometer. The output of the densitometer is recorded on graph paper and the heat transfer gap is plotted as a well-defined optical density change. Calibration of the recording microdensitometer ratio arms permits measurements to be made of the heat transfer optical density change from the microdensitometer trace. Total heat transfer gaps, measured by this method, agree with the physical measurements within plus or minus 0.005 cm over a range of gaps from 0.061 to 0.178 cm.

  17. Characterization of novel lactoferrin loaded capsules prepared with polyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-10-15

    Novel capsules loaded with lactoferrin (LF) were prepared using polyelectrolyte complexes that were formed by water soluble chitosan (WSC), sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) and sodium polyphosphate (PPS). Normal chitosan (soluble in acidic conditions) was chosen as a control to prepare similar capsules with NaCS and PPS. (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra analysis showed that WSC was in a form of chitosan hydrochloride which can be directly dissolved and protonated in acid-free water. SEM results showed that the capsules had a typical wall-capsule structure with a regular spherical shape and an average diameter of 1.97 mm. TGA studies revealed that the thermal stability of the capsules were enhanced and the moisture content of the drug-free/loaded capsules were 6.3% and 3.2%. SDS-PAGE results showed that the primary structures of the processed LF in the capsules were unchanged. Drug loading (LE%) and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) analysis showed that the capsules had a higher LE% (45.6%) and EE% (70.7%) than that of the control. In vitro release studies showed that the capsules had a regular and sustainable release profiles in simulated colonic fluid. All of these results indicated that the capsules prepared could be used as a candidate protein drug carrier for colon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  19. Prediction of incomplete screening mammograms based on age and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Tiffany D; Stiff, Jennifer H; Myers, John A; Milam, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the age-associated rate of incomplete mammograms requiring additional testing based on Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) score. A retrospective, observational study design from a tertiary medical center was used to evaluate which explanatory variables significantly predicted whether a woman had an incomplete mammogram. An incomplete mammogram was defined as a BIRADS score of 0 (requiring further imaging), whereas a benign process was defined as a BIRADS score of 1 or 2. Explanatory variables included traditional clinical factors (age, race, and menopausal state). During the study period, 20,269 subjects were evaluated. The majority of the patients were white (n = 12,955; 64.6%) and had a BIRADS score consistent with a benign finding (n = 17,571; 86.6%). Premenopausal state (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.50), white race (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.29), and younger age (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.50) significantly increased the odds a woman had an incomplete study. In this cross-sectional, single-institution analysis, premenopausal state and white race are associated with an increased rate for incomplete mammograms. Patients should be counseled appropriately before the initiation of screening.

  20. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  1. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  2. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  3. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  4. Capsule Endoscopy for Crohn’s Disease: Current Status of Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease involving the small and/or large intestine. More than 50% of Western CD patients and up to 88% of Asian CD patients may have small intestinal involvement. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE has a higher diagnostic yield than small bowel barium radiography and computed tomography enterography for the detection of small intestinal involvement of CD. VCE also provides diagnostic yields comparable to magnetic resonance- (MR- based enterography or enteroclysis and may have several advantages over MR-based tests for the detection of early small intestinal lesions. Several studies have suggested the use of VCE-based disease activity scoring systems to evaluate small intestinal mucosal disease activity, although their clinical relevance needs to be further studied. A possible indication for VCE is recurrence monitoring after complete surgical excision of CD-involved segments but its usefulness and efficacy compared with conventional endoscopy should be evaluated. The capsule retention rate ranges from 0 to 5.4% in suspected CD patients and from 0 to 13.2% in established CD patients. If VCE is necessary, significant small bowel stricture should be ruled out before VCE by performing a patency capsule study and/or small bowel radiological study in suspected or established CD patients.

  5. Temporal gene expression profiling of the rat knee joint capsule during immobilization-induced joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kayleigh; Sun, Fangui; Trudel, Guy; Sebastiani, Paola; Laneuville, Odette

    2015-05-26

    Contractures of the knee joint cause disability and handicap. Recovering range of motion is recognized by arthritic patients as their preference for improved health outcome secondary only to pain management. Clinical and experimental studies provide evidence that the posterior knee capsule prevents the knee from achieving full extension. This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic changes of the joint capsule transcriptome during the progression of knee joint contractures induced by immobilization. We performed a microarray analysis of genes expressed in the posterior knee joint capsule following induction of a flexion contracture by rigidly immobilizing the rat knee joint over a time-course of 16 weeks. Fold changes of expression values were measured and co-expressed genes were identified by clustering based on time-series analysis. Genes associated with immobilization were further analyzed to reveal pathways and biological significance and validated by immunohistochemistry on sagittal sections of knee joints. Changes in expression with a minimum of 1.5 fold changes were dominated by a decrease in expression for 7732 probe sets occurring at week 8 while the expression of 2251 probe sets increased. Clusters of genes with similar profiles of expression included a total of 162 genes displaying at least a 2 fold change compared to week 1. Functional analysis revealed ontology categories corresponding to triglyceride metabolism, extracellular matrix and muscle contraction. The altered expression of selected genes involved in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway; AGPAT-9, and of the genes P4HB and HSP47, both involved in collagen synthesis, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression in the knee joint capsule was sensitive to joint immobility and provided insights into molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of knee flexion contractures. Capsule responses to immobilization was dynamic and characterized by modulation of at least three

  6. Engineered Hydrogen-Bonded Glycopolymer Capsules and Their Interactions with Antigen Presenting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Kristian; Xiang, Sue D; Wilson, Paul; Rahim, Md Arifur; Ju, Yi; Whittaker, Michael R; Haddleton, David M; Plebanski, Magdalena; Caruso, Frank; Davis, Thomas P

    2017-02-22

    Hollow glycopolymer microcapsules were fabricated by hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, and their interactions with a set of antigen presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (MACs), and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), were investigated. The glycopolymers were obtained by cascade postpolymerization modifications of poly(oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline methacrylate)-stat-glycidyl methacrylate) involving the modification of the glycidyl groups with propargylamine and the subsequent attachment of mannose azide by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Multilayer assembly of the hydrogen-bonding pair (glycopolymer/poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA)) onto planar and particulate supports (SiO2 particles, d = 1.16 μm) yielded stable glycopolymer films upon cross-linking by CuAAC. The silica (SiO2) particle templates were removed yielding hollow monodisperse capsules, as demonstrated by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular uptake studies using flow cytometry revealed the preferential uptake of the capsules by DCs when compared to MACs or MDSCs. Mannosylated capsules showed a cytokine independent cis-upregulation of CD80 specifically on DCs and a trans-downregulation of PDL-1 on MDSCs. Thus, the glycopolymer capsules may have potential as vaccine carriers, as they are able to upregulate costimulatory molecules for immune cell stimulation on DCs and at the same time downregulate immune inhibitory receptors on suppressor APC such as MDSCs.

  7. The ionic interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae K2 capsule and core lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Sandra; Jiménez, Natalia; Izquierdo, Luis; Merino, Susana; Corsaro, Maria Michela; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Naldi, Teresa; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M

    2006-06-01

    The complete structures of LPS core types 1 and 2 from Klebsiella pneumoniae have been described by other authors. They are characterized by a lack of phosphoryl residues, but they contain galacturonic acid (GalA) residues, which contribute to the necessary negative charges. The presence of a capsule was determined in core-LPS non-polar mutants from strains 52145 (O1 : K2), DL1 (O1 : K1) and C3 (O8 : K66). O-antigen ligase (waaL) mutants produced a capsule. Core mutants containing the GalA residues were capsulated, while those lacking the residues were non capsulated. Since the proteins involved in the transfer of GalA (WabG) and glucosamine residues (WabH) are known, the chemical basis of the capsular-K2-cell-surface association was studied. Phenol/water extracts from K. pneumoniae 52145DeltawabH waaL and 52145DeltawaaL mutants, but not those from from K. pneumoniae 52145DeltawabG waaL mutant, contained both LPS and capsular polysaccharide, even after hydrophobic chromatography. The two polysaccharides were dissociated by gel-filtration chromatography, eluting with detergent and metal-ion chelators. From these results, it is concluded that the K2 capsular polysaccharide is associated by an ionic interaction to the LPS through the negative charge provided by the carboxyl groups of the GalA residues.

  8. Fast assignment reduction in inconsistent incomplete decision systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Shaobo Deng; Shengzhong Feng; Jianping Fan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on fast algorithm for computing the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. It is quite inconvenient to judge the assignment reduct directly ac-cording to its definition. We propose the judgment theorem for the assignment reduct in the inconsistent incomplete decision system, which greatly simplifies judging this type reduct. On such basis, we derive a novel attribute significance measure and construct the fast assignment reduction algorithm (F-ARA), intended for com-puting the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. Final y, we make a comparison between F-ARA and the discernibility matrix-based method by experiments on 13 Univer-sity of California at Irvine (UCI) datasets, and the experimental results prove that F-ARA is efficient and feasible.

  9. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  10. Comprehensive and Systematic Analysis of the Immunocompatibility of Polyelectrolyte Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzin, Mikhail V; Díez, Paula; Goldsmith, Meir; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Teodosio, Cristina; Rejman, Joanna; Feliu, Neus; Escudero, Alberto; Almendral, María Jesús; Linne, Uwe; Peer, Dan; Fuentes, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2017-02-15

    The immunocompability of polyelectrolyte capsules synthesized by layer-by-layer deposition has been investigated. Capsules of different architecture and composed of either non-degradable or biodegradable polymers, with either positively or negatively charged outer surface, and with micrometer size, have been used, and the capsule uptake by different cell lines has been studied and quantified. Immunocompatibility studies were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Data demonstrate that incubation with capsules, at concentrations relevant for practical applications, did not result in a reduced viability of cells, as it did not show an increased apoptosis. Presence of capsules also did not result in an increased expression of TNF-α, as detected with antibody staining, as well as at mRNA level. It also did not result in increased expression of IL-6, as detected at mRNA level. These results indicate that the polyelectrolyte capsules used in this study are immunocompatible.

  11. The motion of a deforming capsule through a corner

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lailai

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional deformable capsule convected through a channel/duct with a corner is studied via numerical simulations using an accelerated boundary integral method adapted to general geometries. A global spectral method is adopted to resolve the dynamics of the capsule's membrane developing elastic tensions according to the Neo-Hookean constitutive law and bending moments in an inertialess flow. The simulations show that the trajectory of the capsule closely follows the underlying streamlines and the deformation of the capsule induces an anti-clockwise rotation of its material points with respect to the travelling direction. The surface area, principle tension and elastic energy of the capsule increase around the corner. Their temporal evolutions are characterised by a clear phase delay and the loss of time-reversal symmetry of Stokes flow due to the elasticity of membrane. The capsule centroid velocity decreases approaching the corner as the mean flow does while a velocity overshoot is observed past the...

  12. Expanding role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy has been shown to detect small bowel inflammatory changes better than any other imaging modality. Selection criteria have been optimized to increase the yield of capsule endoscopy in patients suspected to have Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy allows for earlier diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel and improved diagnosis of colitis in patients where it is unclear if they suffer from Crohn's or ulcerative colitis. A test capsule is available to assess for small bowel strictures and thus avoid capsule retention. A common language has been developed and a new scoring index will be added to capsule software. It is envisioned that the manner in which we treat Crohn's disease in the future will change, based on earlier diagnosis and treatment aimed at mucosal healing rather than symptom improvement.

  13. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Analysis Of Wetted-Foam ICF Capsule Perormance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.; Olson, R.; Zylstra, A.; Haines, B.; Yi, A.; Bradley, P.; Yin, L.; Leeper, R.; Kline, J.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of wetted-foam ICF capsules is investigated with the RAGE Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. We are developing an experimental platform on NIF that employs a wetted foam liquid DT fuel layer ICF capsules. By varying the capsule temperature, the vapor density in the capsule can be prescribed, and the hot spot convergence ratio (CR) of the capsule implosion can be controlled. This allows us to investigate the fidelity of RAGE in modeling of capsule implosions as the value of CR is varied. In the NIF experiments, CR can be varied from 12 to 25. This presentation will cover simulations with RAGE of three NIF shots performed in 2016; a DD and a DT liquid fuel shot with CR =14 and a DT shot with CR =16. It will also discuss analysis of future experiments. This work was performed under auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL.

  15. Regional multiaxial mechanical properties of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Pedrigi, R M; Heistand, M R; Humphrey, J D

    2007-02-01

    The lens capsule of the eye plays fundamental biomechanical roles in both normal physiological processes and clinical interventions. There has been modest attention given to the mechanical properties of this important membrane, however, and prior studies have focused on 1-D analyses of the data. We present results that suggest that the porcine anterior lens capsule has a complex, regionally dependent, nonlinear, anisotropic behavior. Specifically, using a subdomain inverse finite element method to analyze data collected via a new biplane video-based test system, we found that the lens capsule is nearly isotropic (in-plane) near the pole but progressively stiffer in the circumferential compared to the meridional direction as one approaches the equator. Because the porcine capsule is a good model of the young human capsule, there is strong motivation to determine if similar regional variations exist in the human lens capsule for knowledge of such complexities may allow us to improve the design of surgical procedures and implants.

  16. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  17. Gelatin and Non-Gelatin Capsule Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna P; Mazzitelli, Carolyn L

    2017-06-01

    Capsules offer an alternate to tablets for oral delivery of therapeutic compounds. One advantage of capsules over tablets is their amenability to deliver not only solids but also nonaqueous liquids and semisolids as a unit dose solid dosage form. Shell component is an essential part of capsule dosage forms. Capsule shells, available as hard or soft shells, are formulated from gelatin or a non-gelatin polymeric material such as hypromellose and starch, water, and with or without a nonvolatile plasticizer. The capsule shells may also be formulated to modify the release of their fill contents in a site-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on polymeric film-forming materials and manufacturing technologies used in the production of capsule shells. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  19. Design of a slow-release capsule using laser drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Naik, S U

    1984-12-01

    Conventional hard gelatin capsules were made GI-tract resistant by formalin vapor treatment. The residual formalin content was 80 micrograms/capsule 24 h after treatment, which decreased with increased storage time. An in vitro GI-tract resistance test was performed by exposing the capsules to simulated gastric fluid for 4 h and then to simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The resistance was further confirmed by in vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers. Minute pores were drilled on the hardened shells of the capsules with a carbon dioxide gas laser. This permitted the slow passage of the encapsulated tetracycline hydrochloride when subjected to 0.1 M HCl in in vitro dissolution studies. In vitro drug release from these capsules followed zero-order kinetics after an initial lag period of 30 min. The factors influencing the in vitro release rate of tetracycline hydrochloride from these capsules are discussed.

  20. Capsule modeling of high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Marinak, M. M.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of detailed, capsule-only simulations of a set of high foot implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments span a range of ablator thicknesses, laser powers, and laser energies, and modeling these experiments as a set is important to assess whether the simulation model can reproduce the trends seen experimentally as the implosion parameters were varied. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations have been run including a number of effects—both nominal and off-nominal—such as hohlraum radiation asymmetries, surface roughness, the capsule support tent, and hot electron pre-heat. Selected three-dimensional simulations have also been run to assess the validity of the 2D axisymmetric approximation. As a composite, these simulations represent the current state of understanding of NIF high foot implosion performance using the best and most detailed computational model available. While the most detailed simulations show approximate agreement with the experimental data, it is evident that the model remains incomplete and further refinements are needed. Nevertheless, avenues for improved performance are clearly indicated.

  1. Acoustic Sensing and Ultrasonic Drug Delivery in Multimodal Theranostic Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fraser R.; Qiu, Yongqiang; Newton, Ian P.; Cox, Benjamin F.; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Liu, Yangminghao; Huang, Zhihong; Cumming, David R. S.; Näthke, Inke

    2017-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is now a clinically accepted diagnostic modality in which miniaturized technology, an on-board power supply and wireless telemetry stand as technological foundations for other capsule endoscopy (CE) devices. However, VCE does not provide therapeutic functionality, and research towards therapeutic CE (TCE) has been limited. In this paper, a route towards viable TCE is proposed, based on multiple CE devices including important acoustic sensing and drug delivery components. In this approach, an initial multimodal diagnostic device with high-frequency quantitative microultrasound that complements video imaging allows surface and subsurface visualization and computer-assisted diagnosis. Using focused ultrasound (US) to mark sites of pathology with exogenous fluorescent agents permits follow-up with another device to provide therapy. This is based on an US-mediated targeted drug delivery system with fluorescence imaging guidance. An additional device may then be utilized for treatment verification and monitoring, exploiting the minimally invasive nature of CE. While such a theranostic patient pathway for gastrointestinal treatment is presently incomplete, the description in this paper of previous research and work under way to realize further components for the proposed pathway suggests it is feasible and provides a framework around which to structure further work. PMID:28671642

  2. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial

  3. Multiple internalization pathways of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Sasse, Daniel; Wulf, Verena; Hartmann, Raimo; Mircheski, Josif; Ranke, Christiane; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Martínez-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael; Parak, Wolfgang J; Elsasser, Hans-Peter; Rivera Gil, Pilar

    2013-08-27

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are carrier vehicles with great potential for biomedical applications. With the future aim of designing biocompatible, effective therapeutic delivery systems (e.g., for cancer), the pathway of internalization (uptake and fate) of PEM capsules was investigated. In particular the following experiments were performed: (i) the study of capsule co-localization with established endocytic markers, (ii) switching-off endocytotic pathways with pharmaceutical/chemical inhibitors, and (iii) characterization and quantification of capsule uptake with confocal and electron microscopy. As result, capsules co-localized with lipid rafts and with phagolysosomes, but not with other endocytic vesicles. Chemical interference of endocytosis with chemical blockers indicated that PEM capsules enter the investigated cell lines through a mechanism slightly sensitive to electrostatic interactions, independent of clathrin and caveolae, and strongly dependent on cholesterol-rich domains and organelle acidification. Microscopic characterization of cells during capsule uptake showed the formation of phagocytic cups (vesicles) to engulf the capsules, an increased number of mitochondria, and a final localization in the perinuclear cytoplasma. Combining all these indicators we conclude that PEM capsule internalization in general occurs as a combination of different sequential mechanisms. Initially, an adsorptive mechanism due to strong electrostatic interactions governs the stabilization of the capsules at the cell surface. Membrane ruffling and filopodia extensions are responsible for capsule engulfing through the formation of a phagocytic cup. Co-localization with lipid raft domains activates the cell to initiate a lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. Internalization vesicles are very acidic and co-localize only with phagolysosome markers, excluding caveolin-mediated pathways and indicating that upon phagocytosis the capsules are sorted to

  4. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules for sustained ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dipankar; Gupta, Girish; Bhadra, Sulekha; Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Narendra

    2004-07-16

    The present work is intended to develop a sustained bioadhesive drug delivery system for delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Cul-de-Sac for sustained and effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. For this, ultrathin multicomposite capsular systems were selected. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules are molecular assemblies of tailored architecture having layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged macromolecules onto colloidal particles. In the present study colloidal calcium phosphate core and gluateraldehyde fixed RBCs were used as core on which alginate (-vely charged) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (+vely charged) polyelectrolyte coating was deposited alternatively upto 10th layer. The coating in each subsequent layer was determined by changes in zeta potential. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was loaded in the capsules by incubation with the capsules suspended in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. The cores of the capsules were then removed by treatment with 0.1N HCl for calcium phosphate core and by sodium hypochlorite for RBC cored capsules. The hollow ciprofloxacin HCl loaded capsules were the evaluated in-vitro for pattern of layer-by-layer drug loading, drug release, stability at various temperatures and ionic concentrations and corneal retention. The core removal process was found to have minimal effects on drug loading in capsules. The drug loading was found to be higher for RBC cored hollow capsules and hence release rate was lower as compared to calcium cored hollow capsules. Draize test for corneal irritancy proved that the capsules were not irritating. The capsules were found to deliver the ciprofloxacin in cul-de-sac of rabbit's eyes for prolonged period. Based on corneal retention studies and tear drug concentration, the capsules can be considered for suitable and safe use for sustained ocular delivery of drugs.

  5. [The radicality of surgical resection in rectal cancer. Analysis of factors associated with incomplete mesorectal excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferko, A; Orhalmi, J; Nikolov, D H; Hovorková, E; Chobola, M; Vošmik, M; Cermáková, E

    2013-06-01

    Circumferential resection margin (pCRM) and the completeness of mesorectal excision (ME) are two independent prognostic factors significantly associated with the radicality of surgical treatment. Positive pCRM and incomplete mesorectal excision are associated with a significantly higher incidence of local recurrence and worse patient prognosis. The aim of this article is to analyze the risk factors associated with incomplete mesorectal excision. Patients operated on at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Hradec Kralove between January 2011 and February 2013 were included in the study. The patients data were prospectively collected and entered in the Dg C20 registry. The following factors were analyzed: sex, age, BMI, cN, pT, clinical stage, the involved segment of the rectum, neoadjuvant therapy, circumferential tumour location, the type of surgical approach and the type of surgery. 168 patients were operated on during the above period. 9 (5.3%) palliative stomas and 159 (94.6%) resection procedures were performed in this group of 168 patients. 7 (4.4%) patients were excluded because the quality of excision was not assessed in them. 114 (75%) resections, including 5 intersphincteric resections, were performed in the group of the remaining 152 patients. 10 (7%) were Hartmanns procedures a 28 (18%) were amputation procedures. Out of 152 procedures, 69 (45%) were performed laparoscopically. Positive (y)pCRO was recorded in 26 (17%) patients, predominantly after abdominoperineal resection (APR) - 11 out of 27 (41%), and Hartmanns operation - 6 out of 10 (60%). Incomplete ME was observed in 45 patients (30%), complete ME in 81 patients (53%) and partially complete in 26 patients (17%). Univariate analysis confirmed statistically significant factors associated with incomplete mesorectal excision: (y)pT (P = 0.00027), type of surgery (P = 0.00001) and tumour location (P = 0.00001). Multivariate analysis then confirmed two independent prognostic factors

  6. 21 CFR 520.1921 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide, with neomycin sustained-release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sustained-release capsules. 520.1921 Section 520.1921 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains either: (1) Capsule No. 1: 3.33 milligrams of... base (as the sulfate); or (2) Capsule No. 3: 10 milligrams of prochlorperazine (as the dimaleate), 5...

  7. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...... occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins...

  8. The Thermal Hydraulic Test of SFR Irradiation Test Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Park, Sung Jae; Choo, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Irradiation test using a capsule has been performed for fuel or material performance test in the test reactor. Irradiation capsule for the HANARO reactor must satisfy the hydraulic conditions and structural integrity from a out-pile test. Items of a out-pile test are pressure drop, flow-induced vibration test and endurance test. The results of test must show that a test capsule satisfy the HANARO operational requirement with sufficient margin. This paper describes the devices of thermal hydraulic test and the results of SFR test capsule

  9. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Sang Hyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.

  10. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially...... equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market....

  11. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  12. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis...

  13. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  14. Minimal Martingale Measures for Discrete-time Incomplete Financial Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Jian-ming Xia

    2002-01-01

    In this note, we give a characterization of the minimal martingale measure for a general discretetime incomplete financial market. Then we concretely work out the minimal martingale measure for a specific discrete-time market model in which the assets' returns in different times are independent.

  15. Pareto Improving Price Regulation when the Asset Market is Incomplete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Polemarchakis, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price r

  16. Plural Form in Franchising: An Incomplete Contracting Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPlural form franchising is modeled from an incomplete contracting perspective. Complete franchising is the unique, efficient governance structure only when the plural form externality is limited and the costs of investment are low for both franchisees. Governance structure choice is irre

  17. On the Pricing of Options in Incomplete Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenberg, B.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we reconsider the pricing of options in incomplete continuous time markets.We first discuss option pricing with idiosyncratic stochastic volatility.This leads, of course, to an averaged Black-Scholes price formula.Our proof of this result uses a new formalization of idiosyncraticy whic

  18. Local model uncertainty and incomplete-data bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copas, John; Eguchi, Shinto; Ferguson, Claire; Henderson, Neil; Onabid, Mathias; Parker, Helen; Pritchard, Gareth; Sharif, Maarya; Zhu, Ximin; Wit, Ernst; McGrory, Clare; Barry, Sarah; Fearnside, Alastair; Nguyen, The Mahn; Conte, Rossella Lo; Weir, James; Miller, James; Recchia, Angela; Wit, Ernst; Purutçuoğlu, Vilda; Wit, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Problems of the analysis of data with incomplete observations are all too familiar in statistics. They are doubly difficult if we are also uncertain about the choice of model. We propose a general formulation for the discussion of such problems and develop approximations to the resulting bias of

  19. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem...

  20. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffner, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  1. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult...

  2. Calculating balanced incomplete block design for educational assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Carlson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    A popular design in large scale' educational assessments is the balanced incomplete block design. The design assumes that the item pool is split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to assessment booklets. This paper shows how the technique of 0-1 linear programming can be used to calcula

  3. Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  4. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finit...... markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  5. Local model uncertainty and incomplete-data bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copas, John; Eguchi, Shinto; Ferguson, Claire; Henderson, Neil; Onabid, Mathias; Parker, Helen; Pritchard, Gareth; Sharif, Maarya; Zhu, Ximin; Wit, Ernst; McGrory, Clare; Barry, Sarah; Fearnside, Alastair; Nguyen, The Mahn; Conte, Rossella Lo; Weir, James; Miller, James; Recchia, Angela; Wit, Ernst; Purutçuoğlu, Vilda; Wit, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Problems of the analysis of data with incomplete observations are all too familiar in statistics. They are doubly difficult if we are also uncertain about the choice of model. We propose a general formulation for the discussion of such problems and develop approximations to the resulting bias of max

  6. CT brainscan in incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdeigel, M.

    1987-03-01

    The CT brain scan of a 17-year-old patient with primary hyperuricaemia and mental retardation is presented. The examination demonstrates subcortical and cortical atrophy of the brain. The HGPRTase level was below normal. Clinical evidence of selfmutilation or tophi was not found. This patient's condition was interpreted as an incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

  7. Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we...

  8. 49 CFR 568.4 - Requirements for incomplete vehicle manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... document applies. The identification shall be by vehicle identification number (VIN) or groups of VINs to... same tire size designation may, at the option of the incomplete vehicle manufacturer, be stated as a... statement that conformity with the standard cannot be determined based upon the components supplied on the...

  9. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  10. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  11. How incomplete contracts foster innovation in inter-organizational relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumo, R.; van der Valk, Wendy; van Weele, A.J.; Duijsters, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Relative to relational governance, research into the use and effects of formal governance is scarce. Recent contributions suggest that a specific type of contract that has intentionally been left incomplete, the performance-based contract (PBC), fosters innovation. However, it is unknown how this

  12. Percutaneous vascular plug for incomplete surgical left atrial appendage closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisay, Justin P; Sangodkar, Sandeep; Salinger, Michael H; Lampert, Mark; Feldman, Ted

    2014-04-01

    Surgical left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion has a failure rate as high as 60% due to persistent residual flow in the LAA or large LAA remnants. We describe a novel technique for treatment of incomplete surgical LAA ligation, and define the mechanism that led to persistence of the remnant LAA without any thrombus formation.

  13. Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milliano, de W.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.
    The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers,

  14. Processen with 'incomplete' sensitivity lists and their synthesis aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenkamp, Egbert; Mekenkamp, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Synthesis tools only support a subset of VHDL. In this paper, we focus on the synthesis aspects of processes with an incomplete sensitivity list. In general, processes with a sensitivity list are used to describe combinational logic and clocked logic. The sensitivity list is called `complete' when a

  15. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finit

  16. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a low ballistic coefficient deployable capsule in Earth re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, G.; Savino, R.; Mongelluzzo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a microsatellite and the related deployable recovery capsule. The aero-brake is folded at launch and deployed in space and is able to perform a de-orbiting controlled re-entry. This kind of capsule, with a flexible, high temperature resistant fabric, thanks to its lightness and modulating capability, can be an alternative to the current "conventional" recovery capsules. The present authors already analyzed the trajectory and the aerodynamic behavior of low ballistic coefficient capsules during Earth re-entry and Mars entry. In previous studies, aerodynamic longitudinal stability analysis and evaluation of thermal and aerodynamic loads for a possible suborbital re-entry demonstrator were carried out in both continuum and rarefied regimes. The present study is aimed at providing preliminary information about thermal and aerodynamic loads and longitudinal stability for a similar deployable capsule, as well as information about the electronic composition of the plasma sheet and its possible influence on radio communications at the altitudes where GPS black-out could occur. Since the computer tests were carried out at high altitudes, therefore in rarefied flow fields, use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes was mandatory. The computations involved both global aerodynamic quantities (drag and longitudinal moment coefficients) and local aerodynamic quantities (heat flux and pressure distributions along the capsule surface). The results verified that the capsule at high altitude (150 km) is self-stabilizing; it is stable around the nominal attitude or at zero angle of attack and unstable around the reverse attitude or at 180° angle of attack. The analysis also pointed out the presence of extra statically stable equilibrium trim points.

  17. Visualization of Capsule Reentry Vehicle Heat Shield Ablation Using Naphthalene PLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Christopher S.; Clemens, Noel T.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will use an ablative heat shield and improved understanding of the ablation process would be beneficial for design purposes. Given that ablation is a multi-physics process involving heat and mass transfer, codes aiming to predict heat shield ablation are in need of experimental data pertaining to the turbulent transport of ablation products for validation. At The University of Texas at Austin, a technique is being developed that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a low-temperature sublimating ablator (naphthalene) to visualize the transport of ablation products in a supersonic flow. Since ablation at reentry temperatures can be difficult to recreate in a laboratory setting it is desirable to create a limited physics problem and simulate the ablation process at relatively low temperature conditions using naphthalene. A scaled Orion MPCV model with a solid naphthalene heat shield has been tested in a Mach 5 wind tunnel at various angles of attack in the current work. PLIF imaging reveals the distribution of the ablation products as they are transported into the heat-shield boundary layer and over the capsule shoulders into the separated shear layer and backshell recirculation region. Visualizations of the capsule shear layer using both naphthalene PLIF and Schlieren imaging compared favorably. High concentrations of naphthalene in the capsule separated flow region, intermittent turbulent structures on the heat shield surface, and interesting details of the capsule shear layer structure were observed using the naphthalene PLIF technique. The capsule shear layer was also shown to generally appear to be more turbulent at lower angles of attack. Furthermore, the PLIF signal increased steadily over the course of a run indicating that during a wind tunnel run the model heated up and the rate of naphthalene ablation increased. The shear layer showed increasing signs of turbulence over the course of a wind tunnel run

  18. New reduced volume preparation regimen in colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuo Kakugawa; Kazuhide Higuchi; Shinji Tanaka; Hideki Ishikawa; Hisao Tajiri; Yutaka Saito; Shoichi Saito; Kenji Watanabe; Naoki Ohmiya; Mitsuyuki Murano; Shiro Oka; Tetsuo Arakawa; Hidemi Goto

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed bowel preparation method for colon capsule endoscopy.METHODS:A pilot,multicenter,randomized controlled trial compared our proposed "reduced volume method" (group A) with the "conventional volume method" (group B) preparation regimens.Group A did not drink polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEGELS) the day before the capsule procedure,while group B drank 2 L.During the procedure day,groups A and B drank 2 L and 1 L of PEG-ELS,respectively,and swallowed the colon capsule (PillCam COLON(R) capsule).Two hours later the first booster of 100 g magnesium citrate mixed with 900 mL water was administered to both groups,and the second booster was administered six hours post capsule ingestion as long as the capsule had not been excreted by that time.Capsule videos were reviewed for grading of cleansing level.RESULTS:Sixty-four subjects were enrolled,with results from 60 analyzed.Groups A and B included 31 and 29 subjects,respectively.Twenty-nine (94%) subjects in group A and 25 (86%) subjects in group B had adequate bowel preparation (ns).Twenty-two (71%) of the 31 subjects in group A excreted the capsule within its battery life compared to 16 (55%) of the 29 subjects in group B (ns).Of the remaining 22 subjects whose capsules were not excreted within the battery life,all of the capsules reached the left side colon before they stopped functioning.A single adverse event was reported in one subject who had mild symptoms of nausea and vomiting one hour after starting to drink PEG-ELS,due to ingesting the PEG-ELS faster than recommended.CONCLUSION:Our proposed reduced volume bowel preparation method for colon capsule without PEG-ELS during the days before the procedure was as effective as the conventional volume method.

  19. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 876.1300 Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (a) Identification. An ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system is used for visualization of the small bowel... Special Controls Guidance Document: Ingestible Telemetric Gastrointestinal Capsule Imaging Systems;...

  20. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  1. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  2. Posterior capsule opacification. Part 1: Experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, O

    1999-01-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most frequent complication associated with decreased vision after cataract surgery. Previous methods of preventing PCO have not proven to be practical, effective, and safe for routine clinical procedure, but some novel concepts and methods have recently been developed. This 2-part review looks at clinical and experimental investigations of PCO, focusing on developments since 1992. Clinical aspects will be presented in a later issue. This paper addresses (1) in vitro models for PCO research; (2) pathophysiology and molecular biology of lens epithelial cells (LECs); (3) prevention of PCO. Of special interest are methods of culturing human LECs obtained by capsulotomy during cataract surgery, including those obtained with an intact capsular bag, to provide an in vitro model for investigating the pathophysiology of LECs; the effect of a sharp bend in the lens capsule that induces contact inhibition of migrating LECs; more specific inhibition of migrating LECs using an immunotoxin, b-FGF-saporin, or EDTA and RGD-peptides.

  3. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  4. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ju Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  5. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  6. Triple-ion interactions for the construction of supramolecular capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, G.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of [2+4] capsules based on triple-ion interactions was obtained. Four monovalent anions (bromide, nitrate, acetate, and tosylate) bring together two tetrakis(pyridiniummethyl)tetramethyl cavitands by pyridinium−anion−pyridinium interactions. ESI-MS experiments have confirmed the capsule

  7. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wanan Yang,1 Houde Dai,2 Yong He,1 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Quanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet ring, magnetic driving, spiral structure, torque  

  8. Improving ICF implosion performance with alternative capsule supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A.; Milovich, J.; Martinez, D.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stadermann, M.; Amendt, P.; Bhandarkar, S.; Chang, B.; Choate, C.; Crippen, J.; Felker, S. J.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Johnson, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M.; Mcinnis, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Sepke, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thin membrane that holds the capsule in-place in the hohlraum is recognized as one of the most significant contributors to reduced performance in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility. This membrane, known as the "tent," seeds a perturbation that is amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor and can rupture the capsule. A less damaging capsule support mechanism is under development. Possible alternatives include the micron-scale rods spanning the hohlraum width and supporting either the capsule or stiffening the fill-tube, a larger fill-tube to both fill and support the capsule, or a low-density foam layer that protects the capsule from the tent impact. Experiments are testing these support features to measure their imprint on the capsule. These experiments are revealing unexpected aspects about perturbation development in indirect drive ICF, such as the importance of shadows coming from bright spots in the hohlraum. Two dimensional and 3D models are used to explain these features and assess the impact on implosion performance. Experiments and modeling suggest that the fill-tube supported by a perpendicular rod can mount the capsule without any additional perturbation beyond that of the fill tube.

  9. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmat, H.H.; Janssen, D.W.; van Tienen, T.; Diercks, R.L.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Fernandes, Paulo; Folgado, Joao; Silva, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its

  10. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  11. The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.K.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.I. [Dept. of Radiology and Research, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); JHeo, J.H. [Dept. of Neurology, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 mean, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infraction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weigthed images (T2WI) and trace masp of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infraction was determined by FA maps. i.e. on the white band of internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer agreement on determination of the location of interfraction was evaluated. Accuracy of infract localization by T2WI-DWI only was varied from 72 to 91% according to the observers. Inter-observer agreement value was moderate (Kappa=0.446), when images were interpreted by T2WI-DWI only. Clinical manifestation of each lesions wre varied, but sensory motor stroke was mainly observed in thalamic lesion (50%) while pure motor hemiparesis was predominant in the case of infract involving internal capsule, corona radiata (91%) and basal ganglia (83%). The FA maps is useful in the evaluation of lacunar lesions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. Clinical presentation varies according to the exact location of lacunar infractions, and more accurate diagnosis can be made by FA maps as well as conventional T2-weighted image and DWI.

  12. Foxd1-dependent signals control cellularity in the renal capsule, a structure required for normal renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Randy S; Batourina, Ekatherina; Choi, Christopher; Vorontchikhina, Marina; Kitajewski, Jan; Mendelsohn, Cathy L

    2005-02-01

    Development of the metanephric kidney involves the establishment of discrete zones of induction and differentiation that are crucial to the future radial patterning of the organ. Genetic deletion of the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, results in striking renal abnormalities, including the loss of these discrete zones and pelvic fused kidneys. We have investigated the molecular and cellular basis of the kidney phenotypes displayed by Foxd1-null embryos and report here that they are likely to be caused by a failure in the correct formation of the renal capsule. Unlike the single layer of Foxd1-positive stroma that comprises the normal renal capsule, the mutant capsule contains heterogeneous layers of cells, including Bmp4-expressing cells, which induce ectopic phospho-Smad1 signaling in nephron progenitors. This missignaling disrupts their early patterning, which, in turn, causes mispatterning of the ureteric tree, while delaying and disorganizing nephrogenesis. In addition, the defects in capsule formation prevent the kidneys from detaching from the body wall, thus explaining their fusion and pelvic location. For the first time, functions have been ascribed to the renal capsule that include delineation of the organ and acting as a barrier to inappropriate exogenous signals, while providing a source of endogenous signals that are crucial to the establishment of the correct zones of induction and differentiation.

  13. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  14. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  15. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  16. Estimates of power deposited via cesium/barium beta and gamma radiation captured in components of a Hanford cesium chloride capsule and by components of overpacked capsules placed in an interim dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roetman, V.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-23

    The deposition of power in Hanford cesium chloride capsules and in the components of design concepts for overpacking and interim storage were determined as requested (Randklev, 1996a). The power deposition results from the selective capture of gamma and beta radiation coming from the decay of the 137CS isotope in the CsCl contained in the capsules. The following three cases were analyzed: (a) a single CsCl capsule, (b) an overpack containing eight CsCl capsules, and (c) an infinite square array of such overpacks as placed in tubes of a interim dry storage facility. The power deposition was expressed as watts per gram for each of the respective physical design components in these three cases. Per the analyses request and guidance (Randklev 1996a), the primary analysis objective was to characterize, for each case, the power deposition across the radial cross-section at the expected axial position of maximum deposition. As requested, this primary part of the analysis work was done using choices for component dimension and material properties that would reasonably characterize the maximum deposition profile across the salt (CsCl) and the inner capsule barrier of the double walled metal capsule system used to construct the Hanford capsules. The secondary objective was to further evaluate the deposition behavior relative to the influence of axial position. The guidance (Randklev 1996a) also requested 1797 an analysis case that involved a lag-storage pit in a hot-cell, in which a cylindrical metal basket from a transportation cask would be used to position several capsules in the lag-storage pit. Although the basic model for the lag storage concept evaluation was essentially completed by the end of FY-96, the analysis was not run because of the need to prioritize and limit the work scope due to funding limitations for FY-97. The specific purpose for performing the subject set of analyses (Randklev 1996a) is to obtain power deposition values (i.e., per the decay of T37cs

  17. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  18. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  19. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rubel Basar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  20. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  1. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized

  2. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  3. Incomplete nonextensive statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhi-Fu; Ou Cong-Jie; Chen Jin-Can

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the entropy of incomplete statistics (IS) and the joint probability factorization condition,two controversial problems existing in IS are investigated:one is what expression of the intemal energy is reasonable for a composite system and the other is whether the traditional zeroth law of thermodynamics is suitable for IS.Some new equivalent expressions of the internal energy of a composite system are derived through accurate mathematical calculation.Moreover,a self-consistent calculation is used to expound that the zeroth law of thermodynamics is also suitable for IS,but it cannot be proven theoretically.Finally,it is pointed out that the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics for incomplete nonextensive statistics is unnecessary and the nonextensive assumptions for the composite internal energy will lead to mathematical contradiction.

  4. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  5. Extracting Backbones from Weighted Complex Networks with Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The backbone is the natural abstraction of a complex network, which can help people understand a networked system in a more simplified form. Traditional backbone extraction methods tend to include many outliers into the backbone. What is more, they often suffer from the computational inefficiency—the exhaustive search of all nodes or edges is often prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we propose a backbone extraction heuristic with incomplete information (BEHwII to find the backbone in a complex weighted network. First, a strict filtering rule is carefully designed to determine edges to be preserved or discarded. Second, we present a local search model to examine part of edges in an iterative way, which only relies on the local/incomplete knowledge rather than the global view of the network. Experimental results on four real-life networks demonstrate the advantage of BEHwII over the classic disparity filter method by either effectiveness or efficiency validity.

  6. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  7. Cooperation under Incomplete Information on the Discount Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, C

    2010-01-01

    In the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, when every player has a different discount factor, the grim-trigger strategy is an equilibrium if and only if the discount factor of each player is higher than some threshold. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding the discount factors? In this work we look at repeated games in which each player has incomplete information regarding the other player's discount factor, and ask when a pair of grim-trigger strategies is an equilibrium. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for such strategies to be an equilibrium. We characterize the states of the world in which the strategies are not triggered, i.e., the players cooperate, in such equilibria (or $\\epsilon$-equilibria), and ask whether these "cooperation events" are close to those in the complete information case, when the information is "almost" complete, in several senses.

  8. Data fusion techniques for incomplete measurement of trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on data processing for incomplete measurementof trajectory (IMT) in aerospace mea- surement and control. The IMT means that the principal equipment loses the measured data during some intervals so that trajectory parameters (position, velocity, etc.) cannot be determined independently. Based on a joint model for trajectory estimation with reduced parameter, a fusion way is put forth by making full use of measured data from auxiliary equipment with lower precision. In the superposition intervals of measurement between principal and auxiliary equipment, the technique of diagnosing and estimating system errors is applied to improving the estimate precision of trajectory parameters (TP) and determining the precision after data fusion. In practical test, this method operates so successfully that it can not only provide complete TP but improve their precision remarkably. Meanwhile, this way is also applicable to other problems of incomplete measurement.

  9. Incomplete ossification of the atlas in dogs with cervical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Christopher M R; Kneissl, Sibylle; Benigni, Livia; Kenny, Patrick J; Lamb, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Osseous defects affecting the atlas were identified in computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of five dogs with cervical signs including pain, ataxia, tetraparesis, or tetraplegia. Osseous defects corresponded to normal positions of sutures between the halves of the neural arch and the intercentrum, and were compatible with incomplete ossification. Alignment between the portions of the atlas appeared relatively normal in four dogs. In these dogs the bone edges were smooth and rounded with a superficial layer of relatively compact cortical bone. Displacement compatible with unstable fracture was evident in one dog. Concurrent atlantoaxial subluxation, with dorsal displacement of the axis relative to the atlas, was evident in four dogs. Three dogs received surgical treatment and two dogs were treated conservatively. All dogs improved clinically. Incomplete ossification of the atlas, which may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical signs localized to the cranial cervical region.

  10. Orbito-palpebral reconstruction in two cases of incomplete cryptophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Herdan, M L; Hurbli, T

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of congenital symblepharon (variant of cryptophthalmos) are reported. Cryptophthalmos is a very rare congenital defect, with incomplete or complete failure in the development of one or both eyelids with skin recovering the anterior segment. Surgical treatment is described including expansion of the conjunctival fornix with eyeball conservation if possible. At the same time or later, the upper eyelid is reconstructed by inferior eyelid flap. The ophthalmic features of cryptophthalmos and its systemic associations are reviewed.

  11. ANALYSIS OF INCOMPLETE STOCK MARKET WITH JUMP-DIFFUSION UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Chao; Indrajit Bardhan

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies incomplete stock market that includes discontinuous priceprocesses. The discontinuity is modeled by very general point processes admitting onlystochastic intensities. Prices are driven by jump-diffusion uncertainty and have randombut predictable jumps. The space of risk-neutral measures that are associated with themarket is identified and related to fictitious completions. The construction of replicatingportfolios is discussed, and convex duality methods are used to prove existence of optimalconsumption and investment policies for a problem of utility maximization.

  12. Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

  13. Incomplete McCune-Albright Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nagehan Aslan

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a genetic, non-inheritable disease that can cause bone pain, bone deformities and fracture. It has a large clinic spectrum from benign monostotic fibrous dysplasia to McCune-Albright syndrome. Rare McCune-Albright syndrome is characterized by precocious puberty, cafe au lait spots and fibrous dysplasia. Herein we presented a case who was preferred to hospital with pathological fractures and diagnosed with Incomplet McCune Albright syndrome because of the lack of e...

  14. Cleanup delays at hazardous waste sites: an incomplete information game

    OpenAIRE

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Simon, Leo K.; Zhao, Jinhua

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the incentives facing Potentially Responsible Parties at a hazardous waste site to promote excessive investigation of the site and thus postpone the beginning of the remediation phase of the cleanup. We model the problem as an incomplete information, simultaneous-move game between PRPs. We assume that PRP's liability shares are predetermined. Each PRP's type is its private information about the precision of its own records relating to the site. A strategy for a PRP is a fun...

  15. On the forecast of periodic events from incomplete records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naunihal Singh

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice several natural phenomena like wind direction, death rates, egg production ,etc. follow circular normal distribution. In this paper the problem of estimating the parameters of this distribution from incomplete records has been worked out by the method of maximum likelihood. Second order partial derivatives are given to determine the standard error of the estimates. A numerical example is added to illustrate the practical application of the method.

  16. Simulated data supporting inbreeding rate estimates from incomplete pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    This data release includes:(1) The data from simulations used to illustrate the behavior of inbreeding rate estimators. Estimating inbreeding rates is particularly difficult for natural populations because parentage information for many individuals may be incomplete. Our analyses illustrate the behavior of a newly-described inbreeding rate estimator that outperforms previously described approaches in the scientific literature.(2) Python source code ("analytical expressions", "computer simulations", and "empricial data set") that can be used to analyze these data.

  17. The influence of size on the toxicity of an encapsulated pesticide: a comparison of micron- and nano-sized capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Alicea N; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation technology involves entrapping a chemical active ingredient (a.i.) inside a hollow polymeric shell and has been applied to commercial pesticide manufacturing for years to produce capsule suspension (CS) formulations with average particle sizes in the micron-scale. The few literature sources that investigate the environmental fate and toxicity to non-target organisms of encapsulated commercially available pesticide products with regard to capsule size report on average sizes between 20 and 50 μm. Here, we have identified a CS formulation with an average capsule size of approximately 2 μm with some capsules extending into the nanometer scale (~200 nm). Determining how carrier size influences toxicity is important to understanding if current pesticide risk assessments are sufficient to protect against products that incorporate encapsulation technology. Here, a commercial pyrethroid CS pesticide with lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-Cy) as the a.i. was separated into two suspensions, a fraction consisting of nano-sized capsules (~250 nm) and a fraction of micron-sized capsules (~2200 nm) in order to investigate the influence of capsule size on toxicity to embryonic zebrafish, Danio rerio. Toxicity was evaluated 24h after exposure to equivalent amounts of a.i. by the presence and severity of pyrethroid-specific tremors, 14 sublethal developmental impacts and mortality. Fish exposed to greater than 20 μg a.i. L(-1) technical λ-Cy or formulated product experienced curvature of the body axis, pericardial edema, craniofacial malformations, and mortality. Exposure to the unfractionated formulation, micro fraction, nano fraction and technical a.i. resulted in no significant differences in the occurrence of sublethal impacts or mortality; however, the technical a.i. exposure resulted in significantly less fish experiencing tremors and shorter tremors compared to any of the formulated product exposures. This suggests that the capsule size does not influence the toxic

  18. Expectant management of incomplete abortion in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleta, Joana R; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of expectant management of induced and spontaneous first trimester incomplete abortion. A prospective observational trial, conducted between June 2006 and November 2007, of 2 groups of patients diagnosed with an incomplete abortion: 66 patients who had received misoprostol for an induced abortion (group 1) and 30 patients who had had a spontaneous abortion (group 2). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed weekly. The success rate (complete abortion without surgery), time to resolution, duration of bleeding and pelvic pain, rate of infection, number of unscheduled hospital visits, and level of satisfaction with expectant management were recorded. The incidence of complete abortion was 86.4% and 82.1% in groups 1 and 2 respectively at day 14 after diagnosis, and 100% in both groups at day 30 (two group 2 patients underwent curettage and were excluded from the analysis). Both groups reported 100% satisfaction with expectant management, although over 90% of the women reported feeling anxious. Expectant management for incomplete abortion in the first trimester after use of misoprostol or after spontaneous abortion may be practical and feasible, although it may increase anxiety associated with the impending abortion.

  19. Enteroscope without overtube for cecal intubation after an incomplete colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Franco; Gaia, Silvia; Cosimato, Maurizio; Recchia, Serafino

    2011-06-01

    Cecal intubation is one of the targets of colon endoscopic evaluation, however even under experienced hands 5-10% of colonoscopies are incomplete. The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of single balloon enteroscope (SBE) without employing overtube-balloon equipment in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. Between January 2009 and July 2010, patients with an incomplete standard colonscopy were prospectively enrolled to perform a colonoscopy with a single balloon enteroscope. Examinations were performed by the same expert operator during the same session. Enteroscopy was performed on 79 patients, cecal intubation were obtained in 93.6% of the cases (74/79). It provided a new diagnosis in 43% of cases (34/79). Procedure was safe and well tolerated. Overall the additional use of single balloon enteroscope allowed to obtain the cecal intubation in up to 99.2% cases (898/905). The use of the enteroscope without overtube-balloon equipment may be an effective method to increase the cecal intubation rate after failure of a standard colonoscopy. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  1. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  2. Vortex Rings from Sphagnum Moss Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Emily S; Cha, Jung Ha; Strassman, Sam; Hard, Clara; Whitaker, Dwight L

    2010-01-01

    Long distance wind dispersal requires small spores with low terminal velocities, which can be held aloft by turbulent air currents until they are deposited in suitable habitats for colonization. The inherent difficulty in dispersing spores by wind is that spores easily carried by wind are also rapidly decelerated when moving through still air. Thus the height of spore release is critical in determining their range of dispersal. Vascular plants with wind dispersed spores use the height of the plant to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, however non-vascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently tall. These fluid dynamics videos show how exploding capsules of {\\em Sphagnum} moss generate vortex rings to carry spores to heights above 10 cm with an initial velocity of 16 m s$^{-1}$. In contrast spores launched ballistically at these speeds through still air would travel only 2-7 mm.

  3. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  4. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N

    2003-10-01

    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  5. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Capsules for Cellular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanli; Cui, Jiwei; Ju, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wong, Edgar H H; Tran, Jenny; Qiao, Greg G; Caruso, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Particle-cell interactions are governed by, among other factors, the composition and surface properties of the particles. Herein, we report the preparation of various polymer capsules with different compositions and properties via atom transfer radical polymerization mediated continuous assembly of polymers (CAPATRP), where the cellular interactions of these capsules, particularly fouling and specific targeting, are examined by flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy. Acrylated eight-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (8-PEG) and poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide) (PHPMA) as well as methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are used as macro-cross-linkers to obtain a range of polymer capsules with different compositions (PEG, PHPMA, HA, PGA, and PMA). Capsules composed of low-fouling polymers, PEG and PHPMA, show negligible association with macrophage Raw 264.7, monocyte THP-1, and HeLa cells. HA capsules, although moderately low-fouling (capsules show high cellular association toward phagocytic Raw 264.7 and THP-1 cells. These findings demonstrate the capability of the CAPATRP technique in preparing polymer capsules with specific cellular interactions.

  6. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  7. Patency(C) and agile(C) capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    àngel Caunedo-àlvarez; Javier Romero-Vazquez; Juan M Herrerias-Gutierrez

    2008-01-01

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods.The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract,in a non-invasive manner.The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency(C) capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel,and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy,despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction.Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency(C) capsule,four of them needed surgery.So,a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile(C) capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion.This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  8. Emerging Issues and Future Developments in Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed from a research venture into a widely used clinical tool and the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. These orally administered capsules traverse passively through the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis and are used in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The primary focus of CE research in recent years has been enabling active CE manipulation and extension of the technology to therapeutic functionality; thus, widening the scope of the procedure. This review outlines clinical standards of the technology as well as recent advances in CE research. Clinical capsule applications are discussed with respect to each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Promising research efforts are presented with an emphasis on enabling active capsule locomotion. The presented studies suggest, in particular, that the most viable solution for active capsule manipulation is actuation of a capsule via exterior permanent magnet held by a robot. Developing capsule procedures adhering to current healthcare standards, such as enabling a tool channel or irrigation in a therapeutic device, is a vital phase in the adaptation of CE in the clinical setting.

  9. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport.

  10. Current Clinical Indications for Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruno; Cotter, José

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel capsule endoscopy is currently the first line diagnostic examination for many diseases affecting the small bowel. This article aims to review and critically address the current indications of small bowel capsule endoscopy in clinical practice. Bibliographic review of relevant and recent papers indexed in PubMed. Small bowel capsule endoscopy enables a non-invasive full-assessment of the small bowel mucosa, with high diagnostic yield even for subtle lesions. In patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, diagnostic yield is higher when performed early after the onset of bleeding. Endoscopic treatment of angioectasias using balloon-assisted enteroscopy may contribute to reduce rebleeding, while the risk of rebleeding in patients with 'negative' small bowel capsule endoscopy is debatable. Cross-sectional imaging may be more accurate than small bowel capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis of large small bowel tumors. The Smooth Protruding Index on Capsule Endoscopy (SPICE score) may help to differentiate submucosal tumors from innocent bulges. Small bowel capsule endoscopy is also a key diagnostic instrument in patients with suspected Crohn's disease and non-diagnostic ileocolonoscopy; it may also influence prognosis and therapeutic management, by determining disease extent and activity in patients with known Crohn's disease. The role of small bowel capsule endoscopy to investigate possible complications in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease is evolving. Small bowel capsule endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic instrument for patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and/or suspected small bowel tumors; it may also be a key examination in patients with suspected Crohn's disease, or patients with known Crohn's disease to fully assess disease extension and activity; finally, it may contribute for the diagnosis of complications of non-responsive coeliac disease.

  11. Solid State Stability of Extemporaneously Prepared Levothyroxine Aliquots and Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Jeff; Salton, Jason; Carlson, Christie; Wheeler, Rich; Cote, Brianna; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and compare stability data for levothyroxine (T4) powder in the anhydrous and pentahydrate form when prepared as an aliquot and in capsules. Two different compounding pharmacies, Central Iowa Compounding and Gateway Medical Pharmacy, used different forms of T4 and aliquot formulations, which were studied to determine the beyond-use date at ±5% or ±10% of labeled strength. T4 was extracted from aliquot and capsule formulations and assessed using reverse-phase high- performance liquid chromatography validated to differentiate between the degraded and original forms of T4. The results indicate that T4 1:100 aliquot formulation prepared with silica gel or Avicel as filler are stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency, but at ±5% labeled potency, the silica gel and Avicel aliquot formulations are stable for 45 and 30 days, respectively. The silica gel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency and 90 days at ±5% labeled potency, while the Avicel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Avicel capsules prepared from old aliquot (120 days) and fresh aliquot (1 day) were also compared for stability. The old aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 14 days at ±5% labeled potency and 150 days at ±10% labeled potency, while new aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Based on our data, there can be significant variation in the beyond-use dates assigned to T4 capsules based on the diluents used for aliquots, the final capsule formulations, and the potency standards applied. These results also indicate that pharmacists must exercise caution when using older aliquots and may have to assign shorter beyond-use dates.

  12. Neuroanatomical distribution of mechanoreceptors in the human cadaveric shoulder capsule and labrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Jessica W; Smirnova, Irina V; McIff, Terence E

    2014-09-01

    glenohumeral joint stabilizers, namely, capsule and labrum, primarily involved in the onset of shoulder instability and recurrent instability. Neuroanatomical knowledge of articular mechanoreceptors is important for (i) developing a topographical map that reflects correspondence between the joint and surrounding musculature, (ii) understanding proprioceptive deficits that are only partially restored post surgical and post rehabilitative treatment, and (iii) gaining further knowledge about articular mechanoreceptors.

  13. Researches on Magnetic Localization for Detecting Capsule in Gastrointestinal Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wen-hui; YAN Guo-zheng; GUO Xu-dong; WANG Kun-dong

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the capsule detection for examination of gastrointestinal (GI) tract became a novel noninvasive system, but it was still a problem for capsule's location.This paper examined various technologies used for measuring position based on magnetic method of the capsule in GI tract, while some new methods were investigated and their efficiency and complexity were analyzed.The results show that the radio frequency location is only practicable, but the tri-coil stimulating magnetic method and magnetic marker method can help to acquire a high precise, simplified, efficient and localized device.

  14. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  15. Incidence of Incomplete Excision in Surgically Treated Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Identification of the Related Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sabouri Rad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer with potential risks for metastasis and recurrence if left untreated or incompletely excised. This case series study was designed to determine the frequency of incompletely excised SCCs and the related risk factors. A total of 273 SCCs (253 patients excised in Razi dermatology hospital of Tehran from 2006-2008, were evaluated and were analyzed by Chi-square or t-test. The incidence of incomplete excision was 17.58 % and deep margin involvement was observed in 73% of lesions. Risk factors associated with incomplete excision of SCCs were being female, location of the tumors (in particular the lesions on lateral canthus, upper lip, foot, forehead, cheek, neck, nose and ear, large lesions and grafting method of repair. There was no statistically significant difference for the age, degree of histological differentiation, childhood history of radiotherapy for tinea capitis and the type of anesthesia. More care should be taken for high risk SCCs as complete excision avoids potential risk of recurrence and metastasis.

  16. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  17. Under-air staining of the anterior capsule using Trypan blue with a 30 G needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giammaria D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Giammaria,1 Michele Giannotti,2 Angelo Scopelliti,1 Giacomo Pellegrini,1 Bruno Giannotti11Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord, Fano, Italy; 2Catholic University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: The original technique of staining the anterior capsule of the lens with Trypan blue involves the injection of an air bubble in the anterior chamber. A drawback of this technique is the possible instability of the anterior chamber caused by the sudden exit of air when the dye is injected with the cannula through the side-port incision. Other staining techniques that use viscoelastic substances to increase the stability of the anterior chamber and to dose the injected dye have been described. The authors present an under-air staining technique of the anterior capsule using one drop of Trypan blue injected with a 30 G needle through the peripheral cornea. This procedure prevents the air bubble from escaping the anterior chamber and allows fast and selective staining of the capsule.Keywords: Trypan blue, staining technique, dye, cataract surgery, capsulorhexis

  18. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  19. 77 FR 66621 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendation for Lenalidomide Capsules; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... for Lenalidomide Capsules; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... lenalidomide capsules. The draft guidance is a revised version of a previously published draft guidance on the... availability of revised draft BE recommendations for lenalidomide capsules. Revlimid (lenalidomide capsules...

  20. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  1. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  2. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system.

  3. Blink rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portello, Joan K; Rosenfield, Mark; Chu, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS), a highly prevalent condition, is frequently associated with dry eye disorders. Furthermore, a reduced blink rate has been observed during computer use. The present study examined whether post task ocular and visual symptoms are associated with either a decreased blink rate or a higher prevalence of incomplete blinks. An additional trial tested whether increasing the blink rate would reduce CVS symptoms. Subjects (N = 21) were required to perform a continuous 15-minute reading task on a desktop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm. Subjects were videotaped during the task to determine their blink rate and amplitude. Immediately after the task, subjects completed a questionnaire regarding ocular symptoms experienced during the trial. In a second session, the blink rate was increased by means of an audible tone that sounded every 4 seconds, with subjects being instructed to blink on hearing the tone. The mean blink rate during the task without the audible tone was 11.6 blinks per minute (SD, 7.84). The percentage of blinks deemed incomplete for each subject ranged from 0.9 to 56.5%, with a mean of 16.1% (SD, 15.7). A significant positive correlation was observed between the total symptom score and the percentage of incomplete blinks during the task (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was noted between the blink score and symptoms (p = 0.035). Increasing the mean blink rate to 23.5 blinks per minute by means of the audible tone did not produce a significant change in the symptom score. Whereas CVS symptoms are associated with a reduced blink rate, the completeness of the blink may be equally significant. Because instructing a patient to increase his or her blink rate may be ineffective or impractical, actions to achieve complete corneal coverage during blinking may be more helpful in alleviating symptoms during computer operation.

  4. Information storage capacity of incompletely connected associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Kurfess, Franz J.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the memory capacity of incompletely connected associative memories is investigated. First, the capacity is derived for memories with fixed parameters. Optimization of the parameters yields a maximum capacity between 0.53 and 0.69 for hetero-association and half of it for autoassociation improving previously reported results. The maximum capacity grows with increasing connectivity of the memory and requires sparse input and output patterns. Further, parameters can be chosen in such a way that the information content per pattern asymptotically approaches 1 with growing size of the memory.

  5. Incomplete McCune-Albright Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a genetic, non-inheritable disease that can cause bone pain, bone deformities and fracture. It has a large clinic spectrum from benign monostotic fibrous dysplasia to McCune-Albright syndrome. Rare McCune-Albright syndrome is characterized by precocious puberty, cafe au lait spots and fibrous dysplasia. Herein we presented a case who was preferred to hospital with pathological fractures and diagnosed with Incomplet McCune Albright syndrome because of the lack of endocrine hyperfunction and developed early puberty at clinical course.

  6. Rough Set Approach to Incomplete Multiscale Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xibei; Qi, Yong; Yu, Dongjun; Yu, Hualong; Song, Xiaoning; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale information system is a new knowledge representation system for expressing the knowledge with different levels of granulations. In this paper, by considering the unknown values, which can be seen everywhere in real world applications, the incomplete multiscale information system is firstly investigated. The descriptor technique is employed to construct rough sets at different scales for analyzing the hierarchically structured data. The problem of unravelling decision rules at different scales is also addressed. Finally, the reduct descriptors are formulated to simplify decision rules, which can be derived from different scales. Some numerical examples are employed to substantiate the conceptual arguments. PMID:25276852

  7. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  8. Uniform Asymptotic Expansion for the Incomplete Beta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Gergő; Olde Daalhuis, Adri B.

    2016-10-01

    In [Temme N.M., Special functions. An introduction to the classical functions of mathematical physics, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996, Section 11.3.3.1] a uniform asymptotic expansion for the incomplete beta function was derived. It was not obvious from those results that the expansion is actually an asymptotic expansion. We derive a remainder estimate that clearly shows that the result indeed has an asymptotic property, and we also give a recurrence relation for the coefficients.

  9. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....

  10. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate...

  11. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate...

  12. Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Profile, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 24, 1981, 11-29. 8. Henrici P., Applied and Computational Complex Analysis (Vol. 1), John Wiley and Sons...SHrTITI E 5 FUINPING ,IRS Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios 6 AtITImOR(S) Armido I. DiI)onato Alfred H. Morris, Jr. I...ASSII l,) UNCLASSIFIED IN i i FOREWORD I he work described in this report was done in the Space and Surface Systems Division and tile Computer and

  13. Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Petravic, M.

    1978-04-01

    The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program.

  14. Bilateral Complete and Incomplete Fusion of Incisors and its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Godwin Clovis; Chalakkal, Paul; De Souza, Neil; Gavhane, Sanket

    2017-01-01

    This case report highlights the management of a case of bilateral complete and incomplete fusion of maxillary incisors in a 10-year-old child. A mock-up was done on the diagnostic cast. Pretreatment esthetic evaluation was done using bis-acryl composite temporaries which were transferred intraorally from the diagnostic cast using a putty index. An incisal overlap veneer preparation was done, following which, an IPS e-max veneer was cemented. A digital mock-up was carried out using the Adobe Photoshop and Corel Draw softwares to aid in laboratorial fabrication of the veneer.

  15. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  16. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  17. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  18. STUDY ON CONTINUOUS-TIME HEDGING PROBLEM IN INCOMPLETE MARKETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 吴冲锋

    2002-01-01

    This paper extended the continuous-time dynamic-hedging theorem for the incomplete markets of Bertsimas, Kogan and Lo's to the case in which riskless interest rate is not zero. The theorem was then proved with the stochastic dynamic programming theory, by constructing a self-financing dynamic strategy that best approximates an arbitrary payoff function in the mean-squared sense. When the riskless interest rate is zero, our optimal hedging strategy coincides with the results of Bertsimas, Kogan and Lo,i.e. their results are special cases of ours.

  19. Incomplete Data and Data Dependencies in Relational Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The chase has long been used as a central tool to reason about dependencies and their effect on queries. It has been applied to different relevant problems in database theory such as query optimization, query containment and equivalence, dependency implication, and database schema design. Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the chase as an important tool in several database applications like data exchange and integration, query answering in incomplete data, and many others.It is well known that the chase algorithm might be non-terminating and thus, in order for it to find practical ap

  20. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....

  1. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Bao Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid. In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  2. Fusion of Heterogeneous Incomplete Hesitant Preference Relations in Group Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    ...) under group decision making settings. First, some simple formulae are developed to derive a priority weight vector from an incomplete hesitant fuzzy preference relation or an incomplete hesitant multiplicative preference relation based...

  3. Spectral analysis of parallel incomplete factorizations with implicit pseudo­-overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magolu monga Made, Mardochée; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2001-01-01

    Two general parallel incomplete factorization strategies are investigated. The techniques may be interpreted as generalized domain decomposition methods. In contrast to classical domain decomposition methods, adjacent subdomains exchange data during the construction of the incomplete factorizatio

  4. Emerging methods for the fabrication of polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiwei; van Koeverden, Martin P; Müllner, Markus; Kempe, Kristian; Caruso, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hollow polymer capsules are attracting increasing research interest due to their potential application as drug delivery vectors, sensors, biomimetic nano- or multi-compartment reactors and catalysts. Thus, significant effort has been directed toward tuning their size, composition, morphology, and functionality to further their application. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging techniques for the fabrication of polymer capsules, encompassing: self-assembly, layer-by-layer assembly, single-step polymer adsorption, bio-inspired assembly, surface polymerization, and ultrasound assembly. These techniques can be applied to prepare polymer capsules with diverse functionality and physicochemical properties, which may fulfill specific requirements in various areas. In addition, we critically evaluate the challenges associated with the application of polymer capsules in drug delivery systems. © 2013.

  5. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  6. The mechanical properties of the human hip capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John D; Glisson, Richard R; Guilak, Farshid; Vail, T Parker

    2002-01-01

    The human hip capsule is adapted to facilitate upright posture, joint stability, and ambulation, yet it routinely is excised in hip surgery without a full understanding of its mechanical contributions. The objective of this study was to provide information about the mechanical properties of the ligaments that form the hip capsule. Cadaver bone-ligament-bone specimens of the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and femoral arcuate ligaments were tested to failure in tension. The hip capsule was found to be an inhomogeneous structure and should be recognized as being composed of discrete constituent ligaments. The anterior ligaments, consisting of the 2 arms of the iliofemoral ligament, were much stronger than the posterior ischiofemoral ligament, withstanding greater force at failure and exhibiting greater stiffness. Knowledge of the anatomy and mechanical properties of the capsule may help the hip surgeon choose an appropriate surgical approach or repair strategy.

  7. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial hypo

  8. Wireless capsule video endoscopy:Three years of experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Eliakim

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review and summerize the current literatue regarding M2A wireless capsule endoscopy.METHODS: Peer reviewed publications regarding the use of capsule endoscopy as well as our personal experience were reviewed.RESULTS: Review of the literature dearly showed that capsule endoscopy was superior to enteroscopy, small bowel follow through and computerized tomography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, iron deficiency anemia,or suspected Crohn′s disease. It was very sensitive for the diagnosis of small bowel tumors and for survailance of small bowel pathology in patients with Gardner syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Its role in celiac disease and in patients with known Crohn′s disease was currently being investigated.CONCLUSION: Capsule video endoscopy is a superior and more sensitive diagnostic tool than barium follow through,enteroscopy and entero- CT in establishing the diagnosis of many small bowel pathologies.

  9. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years.

  10. Multiaxial mechanical behavior of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistand, M R; Pedrigi, R M; Delange, S L; Dziezyc, J; Humphrey, J D

    2005-11-01

    The biomechanics of the lens capsule of the eye is important both in physiologic processes such as accommodation and clinical treatments such as cataract surgery. Although the lens capsule experiences multiaxial stresses in vivo, there have been no measurements of its multiaxial properties or possible regional heterogeneities. Rather all prior mechanical data have come from 1-D pressure-volume or uniaxial force-length tests. Here, we report a new experimental approach to study in situ the regional, multiaxial mechanical behavior of the lens capsule. Moreover, we report multiaxial data suggesting that the porcine anterior lens capsule exhibits a typical nonlinear pseudo-elastic behavior over finite strains, that the in situ state is pre-stressed multi-axially, and that the meridional and circumferential directions are principal directions of strain, which is nearly equi-biaxial at the pole but less so towards the equator. Such data are fundamental to much needed constitutive formulations.

  11. Inhibition of phage infection in capsule-producing Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... Acid production by capsule-producing Streptococcus thermophilus was inhibited less ... lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of similar size to fat globules ..... Characterization of new virulent phage (MLC-A) of Lactobacillus paracasei.

  12. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  13. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  14. Granular computing in mosaicing of images from capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Maciura, Lukasz; Bazan, Jan G.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces methods for modeling compound granules used in algorithms which could successfully construct a mosaic from the images coming from an endoscope capsule. In order to apply the algorithm, combined images must have a common area where the correspondence of points is determined. That allows to determine the transformation parameters to compensate movement of the capsule that occurs between moments when the mosaic images were acquired. The developed algorithm for images from...

  15. Research on Technology of Filling Sodium into Fuel Test Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Chi; XIE; Chun; WANG; Shu-xing; MI; Zheng-feng; YU; Tuan-jie; CUI; Chao; WANG; Ming-zheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a high pure sodium environment for properties testing in the fuel research for fast reactor,it is essential to fill sodium into fuel testing capsules.By the method of vacuum,temperature-controlling and inert gas protection,quantificational sodium had been filled into the fuel testing capsules.Fig.1shows the schematic diagram of sodium filling device.Table 1shows

  16. Study of Contact Melting Inside Isothermally Heated Vertical Cylindrical Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenWenzhen; ChengShangmo; 等

    1993-01-01

    Close-contact melting processes of phase change material(PCM) inside vertical cylindrical capsule are studied.PCM are heated bhy the capsule isothermalyy at the bottom and side.The theoretical formulas of the melting rate and thickness of liquid layer during the heat transfer process are obtained by analysis,which are convenient for engineering predictions.Finally,the factors that affect melting are discussed.and conclusions are drawn.

  17. SART3-Dependent Accumulation of Incomplete Spliceosomal snRNPs in Cajal Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajal bodies (CBs are evolutionarily conserved nuclear structures involved in the metabolism of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs. CBs are not present in all cell types, and the trigger for their formation is not yet known. Here, we depleted cells of factors required for the final steps of snRNP assembly and assayed for the presence of stalled intermediates in CBs. We show that depletion induces formation of CBs in cells that normally lack these nuclear compartments, suggesting that CB nucleation is triggered by an imbalance in snRNP assembly. Accumulation of stalled intermediates in CBs depends on the di-snRNP assembly factor SART3. SART3 is required for both the induction of CB formation as well as the tethering of incomplete snRNPs to coilin, the CB scaffolding protein. We propose a model wherein SART3 monitors tri-snRNP assembly and sequesters incomplete particles in CBs, thereby allowing cells to maintain a homeostatic balance of mature snRNPs in the nucleoplasm.

  18. Incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity in the frontal eye field results in curved saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Robert M

    2006-11-01

    Saccades in the presence of distractors show significant trajectory curvature. Based on previous work in the superior colliculus (SC), we speculated that curvature arises when a movement is initiated before competition between the target and distractor goals has been fully resolved. To test this hypothesis, we recorded frontal eye field (FEF) activity for curved and straight saccades in search. In contrast to the SC, activity in FEF is normally poorly correlated with saccade dynamics. However, the FEF, like the SC, is involved in target selection. Thus if curvature is caused by incomplete target selection, we expect to see its neural correlates in the FEF. We found that saccades that curve toward a distractor are accompanied by an increase in perisaccadic activity of FEF neurons coding the distractor location, and saccades that curve away are accompanied by a decrease in activity. In contrast, for FEF neurons coding the target location, there is no significant difference in activity between curved and straight saccades. To establish that the distractor-related activity is causally related to saccade curvature, we applied microstimulation to sites in the FEF before saccades to targets presented without distractors. The stimulation was subthreshold for evoking saccades and the temporal structure of the stimulation train resembled the activity recorded for curved saccades. The resulting movements curved toward the location coded by the stimulation site. These results support the idea that saccade curvature results from incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity during target selection.

  19. SART3-Dependent Accumulation of Incomplete Spliceosomal snRNPs in Cajal Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Ivan; Malinová, Anna; Stejskalová, Eva; Matějů, Daniel; Klimešová, Klára; Roithová, Adriana; Švéda, Martin; Knejzlík, Zdeněk; Staněk, David

    2015-01-13

    Cajal bodies (CBs) are evolutionarily conserved nuclear structures involved in the metabolism of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). CBs are not present in all cell types, and the trigger for their formation is not yet known. Here, we depleted cells of factors required for the final steps of snRNP assembly and assayed for the presence of stalled intermediates in CBs. We show that depletion induces formation of CBs in cells that normally lack these nuclear compartments, suggesting that CB nucleation is triggered by an imbalance in snRNP assembly. Accumulation of stalled intermediates in CBs depends on the di-snRNP assembly factor SART3. SART3 is required for both the induction of CB formation as well as the tethering of incomplete snRNPs to coilin, the CB scaffolding protein. We propose a model wherein SART3 monitors tri-snRNP assembly and sequesters incomplete particles in CBs, thereby allowing cells to maintain a homeostatic balance of mature snRNPs in the nucleoplasm.

  20. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grim, Gary P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilke, Mark D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, George L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loomis, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilde, Carl H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Tai - Sen F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danly, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steven H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patel, M [LLNL; Sepke, S [LLNL; Hatarik, R [LLNL; Fittinghoff, D [LLNL; Bower, D [LLNL; Marinak, M [LLNL; Munro, D [LLNL; Moran, M [LLNL; Hilko, R [NSTEC; Frank, M [LLNL; Buckles, R [NSTEC

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  1. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate.

  2. Capsule Endoscopy for Portal Hypertensive Enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ran Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE is a mucosal abnormality of the small bowel that is observed in patients with portal hypertension (PH and can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. The pathogenesis is still not completely understood. The introduction of new endoscopic methods, including capsule endoscopy (CE or balloon-assisted enteroscopy, has increased the detection of these abnormalities. CE can also serve as a road map for deciding subsequent interventions and evaluating the treatment effect. The prevalence of PHE is reportedly 40–70% in patients with PH. Endoscopic findings can be roughly divided into vascular and nonvascular lesions such as inflammatory-like lesions. Traditionally, PHE-associated factors include large esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy or colopathy, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C, a history of variceal treatment, and acute gastrointestinal bleeding. More recently, on using scoring systems, a high computed tomography or transient elastography score was reportedly PHE-related factors. However, the prevalence of PHE and its related associated factors remain controversial. The management of PHE has not yet been standardized. It should be individualized according to each patient’s situation, the availability of therapy, and each institutional expertise.

  3. Electromagnetic wave propagation of wireless capsule endoscopy in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Eng-Gee; 王炤; 陈瑾慧; TILLO; Tammam; MAN; Ka-lok

    2013-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy(WCE) is a promising technique which has overcome some limitations of traditional diagnosing tools, such as the comfortlessness of the cables and the inability of examining small intestine section. However, this technique is still far from mature and asks for the feasible improvements. For example, the relatively low transmission data rate and the absence of the real-time localization information of the capsule are all important issues. The studies of them rely on the understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in human body. Investigation of performance of WCE communication system was carried out by studying electromagnetic(EM) wave propagation of the wireless capsule endoscopy transmission channel. Starting with a pair of antennas working in a human body mimic environment, the signal transmissions and attenuations were examined. The relationship between the signal attenuation and the capsule(transmitter) position, and direction was also evaluated. These results provide important information for real-time localization of the capsule. Moreover, the pair of antennas and the human body were treated as a transmission channel, on which the binary amplitude shift keying(BASK) modulation scheme was used. The relationship between the modulation scheme, data rate and bit error rate was also determined in the case of BASK. With the obtained studies, it make possible to provide valuable information for further studies on the selection of the modulation scheme and the real-time localization of the capsules.

  4. Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.

  5. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  6. Pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna in wireless capsule endoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondili Kohitha Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy is a best option for exploring inaccessible areas of small intestine for inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This technique brings less pain compare to conventional endoscopy technique. The wireless endoscopy system comprises of three main modules: an ingestible capsule that is swallowed by the patient, an external control unit and display device for image display. In this paper we proposed pentagonal shape microstrip patch antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy system. Inhibiting characteristics of a single microstrip patch like low gain, light weight, thin thickness and smaller bandwidth, make it more popular. This kind of antenna is aggressive miniaturized to meet the requirements of the wireless capsule endoscope. The simulation results show that the designed Circular Polarization (CP pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna gives axial ratio of 0.6023 at 2.38 GHz and CP axial ratio bandwidth of 36MHz with 1.5%. The antenna designed for wireless capsule endoscopy is a proposed one, which may work effectively when compared to other antennas in the capsule.

  7. MALDI-MS-imaging of whole human lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronci, Maurizio; Sharma, Shiwani; Chataway, Tim; Burdon, Kathryn P; Martin, Sarah; Craig, Jamie E; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2011-08-05

    The ocular lens capsule is a smooth, transparent basement membrane that encapsulates the lens and is composed of a rigid network of interacting structural proteins and glycosaminoglycans. During cataract surgery, the anterior lens capsule is routinely removed in the form of a circular disk. We considered that the excised capsule could be easily prepared for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) analysis. MALDI-MSI is a powerful tool to elucidate the spatial distribution of small molecules, peptides, and proteins within tissues. Here, we apply this molecular imaging technique to analyze the freshly excised human lens capsule en face. We demonstrate that novel information about the distribution of proteins by MALDI-MSI can be obtained from this highly compact connective tissue, having no evident histo-morphological characteristics. Trypsin digestion carried out on-tissue is shown to improve MALDI-MSI analysis of human lens capsules and affords high repeatability. Most importantly, MALDI-MSI analysis reveals a concentric distribution pattern of proteins such as apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and collagen IV alpha-1 on the anterior surface of surgically removed lens capsule, which may indicate direct or indirect effects of environmental and mechanical stresses on the human ocular lens.

  8. Cooperative coalition for formation flight scheduling based on incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Linghang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the cooperative coalition problem for formation scheduling based on incomplete information. A multi-agent cooperative coalition framework is developed to optimize the formation scheduling problem in a decentralized manner. The social class differentiation mechanism and role-assuming mechanism are incorporated into the framework, which, in turn, ensures that the multi-agent system (MAS evolves in the optimal direction. Moreover, a further differentiation pressure can be achieved to help MAS escape from local optima. A Bayesian coalition negotiation algorithm is constructed, within which the Harsanyi transformation is introduced to transform the coalition problem based on incomplete information to the Bayesian-equivalent coalition problem based on imperfect information. The simulation results suggest that the distribution of agents’ expectations of other agents’ unknown information approximates to the true distribution after a finite set of generations. The comparisons indicate that the MAS cooperative coalition algorithm produces a significantly better utility and possesses a more effective capability of escaping from local optima than the proposal-engaged marriage algorithm and the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

  9. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  10. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult......We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main...... difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the proposed AI\\&M (adjusting imputation and maximization) procedure the optimization is performed...... by operations in the space of data completions, rather than directly in the parameter space of the profile likelihood. We apply the AI\\&M method to learning parameters for Bayesian networks. The method is compared against conservative inference, which takes into account each possible data completion...

  11. Analysis of recurrent event data with incomplete observation gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Jin; Jhun, Myoungshic

    2008-03-30

    In analysis of recurrent event data, recurrent events are not completely experienced when the terminating event occurs before the end of a study. To make valid inference of recurrent events, several methods have been suggested for accommodating the terminating event (Statist. Med. 1997; 16:911-924; Biometrics 2000; 56:554-562). In this paper, our interest is to consider a particular situation, where intermittent dropouts result in observation gaps during which no recurrent events are observed. In this situation, risk status varies over time and the usual definition of risk variable is not applicable. In particular, we consider the case when information on the observation gap is incomplete, that is, the starting time of intermittent dropout is known but the terminating time is not available. This incomplete information is modeled in terms of an interval-censored mechanism. Our proposed method is applied to the study of the Young Traffic Offenders Program on conviction rates, wherein a certain proportion of subjects experienced suspensions with intermittent dropouts during the study.

  12. Parametric study of the Incompletely Stirred Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran); Bilger, R.W. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    The Incompletely Stirred Reactor (ISR) is a generalization of the widely-used Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) model and allows for incomplete mixing within the reactor. Its formulation is based on the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) method. This model is applicable to nonpremixed combustion with strong recirculation such as in a gas turbine combustor primary zone. The model uses the simplifying assumptions that the conditionally-averaged reactive-scalar concentrations are independent of position in the reactor: this results in ordinary differential equations in mixture fraction space. The simplicity of the model permits the use of very complex chemical mechanisms. The effects of the detailed chemistry can be found while still including the effects of micromixing. A parametric study is performed here on an ISR for combustion of methane at overall stoichiometric conditions to investigate the sensitivity of the model to different parameters. The focus here is on emissions of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is shown that the most important parameters in the ISR model are reactor residence time, the chemical mechanism and the core-averaged Probability Density Function (PDF). Using several different shapes for the core-averaged PDF, it is shown that use of a bimodal PDF with a low minimum at stoichiometric mixture fraction and a large variance leads to lower nitric oxide formation. The 'rich-plus-lean' mixing or staged combustion strategy for combustion is thus supported. (author)

  13. Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

  14. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  15. Observable Priors: Limiting Biases in Estimated Parameters for Incomplete Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmo, Kelly; Martinez, Gregory; Hees, Aurelien; Witzel, Gunther; Ghez, Andrea M.; Do, Tuan; Sitarski, Breann; Chu, Devin; Dehghanfar, Arezu

    2017-01-01

    Over twenty years of monitoring stellar orbits at the Galactic center has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study the physics and astrophysics of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to constrain the mass of and distance to the black hole, and to evaluate its gravitational influence on orbiting bodies, we use Bayesian statistics to infer black hole and stellar orbital parameters from astrometric and radial velocity measurements of stars orbiting the central SMBH. Unfortunately, most of the short period stars in the Galactic center have periods much longer than our twenty year time baseline of observations, resulting in incomplete orbital phase coverage--potentially biasing fitted parameters. Using the Bayesian statistical framework, we evaluate biases in the black hole and orbital parameters of stars with varying phase coverage, using various prior models to fit the data. We present evidence that incomplete phase coverage of an orbit causes prior assumptions to bias statistical quantities, and propose a solution to reduce these biases for orbits with low phase coverage. The explored solution assumes uniformity in the observables rather than in the inferred model parameters, as is the current standard method of orbit fitting. Of the cases tested, priors that assume uniform astrometric and radial velocity observables reduce the biases in the estimated parameters. The proposed method will not only improve orbital estimates of stars orbiting the central SMBH, but can also be extended to other orbiting bodies with low phase coverage such as visual binaries and exoplanets.

  16. Cooperative coalition for formation flight scheduling based on incomplete information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Linghang; Xu Xiaohao; Zhao Yifei

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the cooperative coalition problem for formation scheduling based on incomplete information. A multi-agent cooperative coalition framework is developed to optimize the formation scheduling problem in a decentralized manner. The social class differentiation mech-anism and role-assuming mechanism are incorporated into the framework, which, in turn, ensures that the multi-agent system (MAS) evolves in the optimal direction. Moreover, a further differen-tiation pressure can be achieved to help MAS escape from local optima. A Bayesian coalition nego-tiation algorithm is constructed, within which the Harsanyi transformation is introduced to transform the coalition problem based on incomplete information to the Bayesian-equivalent coali-tion problem based on imperfect information. The simulation results suggest that the distribution of agents’ expectations of other agents’ unknown information approximates to the true distribution after a finite set of generations. The comparisons indicate that the MAS cooperative coalition algo-rithm produces a significantly better utility and possesses a more effective capability of escaping from local optima than the proposal-engaged marriage algorithm and the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

  17. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  18. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  19. Multiresolution Analysis Techniques to Isolate, Detect and Characterize Morphologically Diverse Features of Structured ICF Capsule Implosions

    CERN Document Server

    Afeyan, Bedros; Jones, Peter; Starck, Jean Luc; Herrmann, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In order to capture just how nonuniform and degraded the symmetry may become of an imploding inertial confinement fusion capsule one may resort to the analysis of high energy X ray point projection backlighting generated radiographs. Here we show new results for such images by using methods of modern harmonic analysis which involve different families of wavelets, curvelets and WaSP (wavelet square partition) functions from geometric measure theory. Three different methods of isolating morphologically diverse features are suggested together with statistical means of quantifying their content for the purposes of comparing the same implosion at different times, to simulations and to different implosion images.

  20. [Bioequivalence research of cyclosporin soft capsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Mao, Mian; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Xuehua

    2012-04-01

    This paper is aimed to study the bioavailability and bioequivalence of Cyclosporin Soft Capsules (test preparation and reference preparation) in Chinese healthy volunteers. A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method for determining the concentration of Cyclosporin A in human whole blood was developed and methodological validated. In accordance with the randomized two-period self crossover study, 24 volunteers received a single oral dose of 400 mg of test preparation or reference preparation. Multiple blood samples were collected post dose and then the concentration of Cyclosporin A in human whole blood samples was determined using the validated assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, Cmax, Tmax, and T1/2 were calculated using the non-compartmental method. The bioequivalence of the two preparations was evaluated. After receiving single dose of 400 mg of Cyclosporine A, the pharmacokinetic parameters of T1/2, Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-t, of Cyclosporin A were (10.114 +/- 6.329) h and (9.717 +/- 4.076) h, (2021.235 +/- 298.581) ng x ml(-1) and (1992.192 +/- 1286.923) ng x ml(-1) (1.729 +/- 0.361) h and (1.813 +/- 0.323) h, (9824.811 +/- 1633.026) ng x h x ml(-1) and (10316.514 +/- 1395.955) ng x h x ml(-1) for test preparation and reference preparation, respectively. The statistical results suggested that these parameters were comparable between the two preparations. The results showed that the test preparation was bioequivalent with the reference preparation in healthy volunteers.

  1. θ-improved limited tolerance relation model of incomplete information system for evaluation of water conservancy project management modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin GAO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of water conservancy project management is a complicated engineering system involving a management system, a management method, management personnel, the exertion of social, economic, and ecological effects, and so on. However, indices for evaluating the modernization of water conservancy project management are usually unobtainable in practical applications. Conducting appropriate extension of the classical rough set theory and then applying it to an incomplete information system are the key to the application of the rough set theory. Based on analysis of some extended rough set models in incomplete information systems, a rough set model based on the θ-improved limited tolerance relation is put forward. At the same time, upper approximation and lower approximation are defined under this improved relation. According to the evaluation index system and management practices, the threshold for θ is defined. An example study indicates the practicability and maneuverability of the model.

  2. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  3. Geometrical analysis of Cys-Cys bridges in proteins and their prediction from incomplete structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblum, A.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of C-alpha atom positions from cysteines involved in disulphide bridges in protein crystals shows that their geometric characteristics are unique with respect to other Cys-Cys, non-bridging pairs. They may be used for predicting disulphide connections in incompletely determined protein structures, such as low resolution crystallography or theoretical folding experiments. The basic unit for analysis and prediction is the 3 x 3 distance matrix for Cx positions of residues (i - 1), Cys(i), (i +1) with (j - 1), Cys(j), (j + 1). In each of its columns, row and diagonal vector--outer distances are larger than the central distance. This analysis is compared with some analytical models.

  4. Analytical Quality check of oil based blend in Flaxilip capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Rane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of capsules containing blend in the powder form is easy, but it is bit difficult to analyse the soft gelatin capsule containing oil based blend. The purpose of this study was to develop test parameters to determine and supervise the quality of such herbal capsule formulation. Five different lots of soft gelatin Flaxilip capsule containing Linseed oil, Guggulu processed with linseed oil, Garlic oil, Fenugreek oil along with Soyabean oil as an excipient , were selected for the study. All the five lots were subjected to general capsule tests such as determination of average weight and disintegration time. Results obtained were around 1.3500g and 10minutes respectively. Specific test parameters applicable for oils like specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value were applied quantitatively for quality evaluation. Standardised suitable classical methods were applied. Results in all the five lots were found to be well within inhouse limit. All the samples were subjected to heavy metals and microbiological testing. Compliance of corresponding findings with the standard pharmacopoeial guidelines assure the safe intake of the drug. For getting the better effect, the Guggulu that is Commiphora mukul used in the formulation was processed with linseed oil. Its presence was confirmed by carrying out HPTLC for E and Z guggulu sterone. Resemblance of spots at Rf ranging from 0.36 to 0.38 and 0.43 to 0.45 in Toluene : Acetone (9:1 system showed the presence of gugulu in blends of all the lots. Hence by applying all these test parameters one can ensure the quality of the soft gelatin ayurvedic capsule formulation containing oily base like in Flaxilip capsule.

  5. Discovery and characterization of lunar materials: An incomplete process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Our knowledge of lunar materials is based on (1) sample collections (by the Apollo and Lunar missions, supplemented by Antarctic lunar meteorites); and (2) remote sensing (Earth-based or by spacecraft). The characterization of lunar materials is limited by the small number of sampled sites and the incomplete remote-sensing database (geochemical data collected from orbit cover 20 percent of the lunar surface). There is much about lunar surface materials that remains to be discovered. Listed are some features suspected form present knowledge: (1) Polar Materials; (2) Farside Materials; (3) Crater-Floor Materials; (4) Crater-Wall and Central Peak Materials; (5) Volcanic Shield and Dome Materials; (6) Transient-Event Materials; and (7) Meteoritic and Cometary Materials; This short list of likely discoveries isn't exhaustive. We know much about a few spots on the Moon, but little about the full range of lunar materials.

  6. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  7. Incomplete Regulation, Asymmetric Information, and Collusion-Proofness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Meireles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an incomplete regulation framework, the regulator cannot replicate all the possible outcomes by himself since he has no influence over some firms in the market. Due to asymmetric information, it may be better for the regulator to allow the unregulated firms to extract a truthful report from the regulated firm through side-payments under collusion, and therefore the “collusion-proofness principle” may not hold. In fact, by introducing an exogenous number of unregulated firms, social welfare differences seem to favour a collusion-allowing equilibrium. However, such result will depend on the relative importance given by the regulator to the consumer surplus in the social welfare function.

  8. Iterative reconstruction of images from incomplete spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Jan B.; van den Berg, Peter M.; Habashy, Tarek M.

    1997-06-01

    In various branches of engineering and science, one is confronted with measurements resulting in incomplete spectral data. The problem of the reconstruction of an image from such a data set can be formulated in terms of an integral equation of the first kind. Consequently, this equation can be converted into an equivalent integral equation of the second kind which can be solved by a Neumann-type iterative method. It is shown that this Neumann expansion is an error-reducing method and that it is equivalent to the Papoulis - Gerchberg algorithm for band-limited signal extrapolation. The integral equation can also be solved by employing a conjugate gradient iterative scheme. Again, convergence of this scheme is demonstrated. Finally a number of illustrative numerical examples are presented and discussed.

  9. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection presenting with incomplete congruous homonymous quadrantanopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Celia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe a rare presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD as a small but congruous incomplete homonymous hemianopia demonstrating use of visual field testing in the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30 year old woman had been unwell for 4 months with difficulty focusing, vertigo, dizziness and a feeling of falling to the right. A small but congruous right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia was found on examination leading to further investigation that uncovered a vertebral artery dissection and multiple posterior circulation infarctions including a left occipital stroke matching the field defect. Conclusions We describe an atypical case of VAD presenting with a small congruous quadrantanopia. This is a rare but significant condition that predisposes to multiple thromboembolic infarction that may be easily misdiagnosed and a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis.

  10. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  11. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system.

  12. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can display......In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income...... both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  13. A recursive algorithm for the incomplete partial fraction decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Dirk P.

    1987-05-01

    Given polynomials P m+n-1, D m , and E n (where the subscript denotes degree), the incomplete partial fraction decomposition is equivalent to constructing polynomials Q n -1 and R m -1 such that P m+n-1= Q n-1 D m + E n R m-1. An elegant algorithm, designed for the case when m≪ n, was given by Henrici [ZAMP, 1971]. When this algorithm is applied to cases where m≅ n, it seems to suffer from numerical instability. The purpose of this paper is to explain the numerical instability, and to suggest a modified version of Henrici's algorithm in which the instability is substantially reduced. A numerical example is given.

  14. Mining incomplete data-A rough set approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRZYMALA-BUSSE Jerzy W

    2008-01-01

    Many real-life data sets are incomplete, or in different words, are affected by missing attribute values.Three interpretations of missing attribute values are discussed in the paper., lost values (erased values), attribute-concept values(such a value may be replaced by any value from the attribute domain restricted to the concept), and"do not care" conditions (a missing attribute value may be replaced by any value from the attribute domain). For in- complete data sets three definitions of lower and upper approximations are discussed. Experiments were conducted on six typical data sets with missing attribute values, using three different interpretations of missing attribute values and the same definition of concept lower and upper approximations. The conclusion is that the best approach to miss- ing attribute values is the lost value type.

  15. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radde, Rebecca; Duma, Cecilia; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Abeta42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral beta-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging.

  16. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete human interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    According to the disease module hypothesis the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data has sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant co-expression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, while diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are clinically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between clinically related diseases, even if they do not share disease genes. PMID:25700523

  17. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  18. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware.

  19. Pericardio-Amniotic Shunting for Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander C; Debeer, Anne; Russo, Francesca M; Aertsen, Michael; Aerts, Katleen; Miserez, Marc; Deprest, Jan; Lewi, Liesbeth; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, presented with an incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell with an omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, and a pericardial defect at 32 weeks' gestation. A large pericardial effusion compressed the lungs and had led to a reduced lung growth with an observed-to-expected total lung volume of 28% as measured by MRI. The effusion disappeared completely after the insertion of a pericardio-amniotic shunt at 33 weeks. After birth, the newborn showed no signs of pulmonary hypoplasia and underwent a surgical correction of the defect. Protracted wound healing and a difficult withdrawal from opioids complicated the neonatal period. The child was discharged on postnatal day 105 in good condition. This case demonstrates that in case of Pentalogy of Cantrell with large pericardial effusion, the perinatal outcome might be improved by pericardio-amniotic shunting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can display......In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income...... both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  1. Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

  2. A continuous rating method for preferential voting. The incomplete case

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Rosa; Saumell, Laia

    2009-01-01

    A method is given for quantitatively rating the social acceptance of different options which are the matter of a preferential vote. In contrast to a previous article, here the individual votes are allowed to be incomplete, that is, they need not express a comparison between every pair of options. This includes the case where each voter gives an ordered list restricted to a subset of most preferred options. In this connection, the proposed method (except for one of the given variants) carefully distinguishes a lack of information about a given pair of options from a proper tie between them. As in the complete case, the proposed method is proved to have certain desirable properties, which include: compliance with a majority principle, clone consistency, and continuity of the rates with respect to the data.

  3. The Physics of Interdependence, Social Uncertainty Relations, and Incompleteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.F. Lawless

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a mathematical model of social uncertainty relations to replace traditional models of the interaction, as well as a model of complexity from econophysics. Our goal with this mathematics is to control hybrid teams, firms and systems (i.e., where “hybrids” are arbitrary combinations of humans, robots and machines. But uncertainty is created by states of interdependence between social objects: at one extreme, interdependence reduces to independence between agents, producing rational but asocial effects; at the other extreme, interdependence de-individuates a group’s members until individual identity dissolves into a group (e.g., strong cults, mobs, gangs, and well-run teams and firms. In other studies, we have reviewed the structure of teams; in this report, we focus on how interdependence impedes efforts at direct control by making meaning incomplete. We begin with bistability to simplify interdependence, and generalize to full interdependence.

  4. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  5. Novel capsules for potential theranostics of obscure gastrointestinal bleedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Bayram; Şakalak, Hüseyin; Çavuşoğlu, Halit; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2016-09-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is identified as persistent or repeated bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract which could not be defined by conventional gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiological examinations. These GI bleedings are assessed through invasive diagnostic and treatment methods including enteroscopy, angiography and endoscopy. In addition, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a non-invasive method used to determine the location of the bleeding, however, this does not provide any treatment. Despite of these successful but invasive methods, an effective non-invasive treatment is desperately needed. Herein, we prepare non-invasive theranostic capsules to cure obscure GI bleeding. An effective theranostic capsule containing endothelin as the targeting agent, thrombin-fibrinogen or fibrin as the treating agent, and fluorescein dye as the diagnostic tool is suggested. These theranostic capsules can be administered orally in a simple and non-invasive manner without a risk of complication. By using these novel capsules, one can diagnose obscure GI bleeding with having a possibility of curing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J; Guilak, F; Glisson, R; Vail, T P

    2001-05-01

    The hip joint capsule functions to constrain translation between the femur and acetabulum while allowing rotational and planar movements. Despite the crucial role it plays in the pathogenesis of hip instability, little is known about its biomechanical properties. The goal of this study was to determine the regional material properties of the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments of the capsule. Ten human cadaveric specimens of each ligament were tested to failure in tension. The stress at failure, strain at failure, strain energy density at failure, toe- and linear-region elastic moduli, and the Poisson's ratio were measured for each ligament. The strain to failure was greatest in the ischiofemoral ligament, while no significant difference was noted in failure stress by region or ligament. The Young's moduli of elasticity ranged from 76.1 to 285.8 MPa among the different ligaments, and were generally consistent with properties previously reported for the shoulder capsule. The elastic moduli and strain energy density at failure differed by region. No significant differences in Poisson's ratio were found by region or ligament. The average Poisson's ratio was approximately 1.4, consistent with anisotropic behavior of ligamentous tissues. Understanding the material properties of the hip capsule may help the orthopaedic surgeon better understand normal ligament function, and thereby choose a surgical approach or strategy of repair. Furthermore, knowledge of the normal mechanical function of the hip capsule ligaments could assist in the evaluation of the success of a repair.

  7. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  8. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  9. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body.

  10. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  12. A safety review for irradiation test of the creep capsule(02S-08K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, C. G.; Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The creep capsule(02S-08K), which is aimed to confirm the design characteristics and the structural integrity, will be irradiated at the IR2 test hole in October, 2004. To review a safety in the irradiation test of the capsule, the reactivity effect in HANARO was analyzed and stress and temperatures on the capsule were estimated. In the abnormal operating condition during the test of the capsule, the effect exerted on the capsule outer body by leakage or breakage of the stress loading unit equipped in the capsule was analyzed.

  13. Pilot study trialling a new ambulatory method for the clinical assessment of regional gastrointestinal transit using multiple electromagnetic capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, A M; Gregersen, T; Schlageter, V; Scott, M S; Demierre, M; Kucera, P; Dahlerup, J F; Krogh, K

    2014-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders often involve several regions of the GI tract. Therefore, easy and safe assessment of whole gut and regional motility is valuable for more precise diagnosis. 3D-Transit is a novel method for ambulatory evaluation of total and regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) based on the anatomical localization of ingestible electromagnetic capsules. The main purpose of this study was to test the performance of the 3D-Transit system. Twenty healthy volunteers each ingested three electromagnetic capsules over a period of two consecutive days. Standard radio-opaque markers (ROM) were also ingested to assess the agreement between total GITT obtained with both methods. Investigations were well-tolerated and three capsules could be tracked simultaneously with minimal data loss (Capsule 1: median: 0.2% of time (range 0-25.3%). Region specific contraction patterns were identified and used for computation of total and regional GITT in all subjects. Inter-observer agreement was 100% for total GITT (median variation 0%) but less for regional GITT. Day-to-day and diurnal variations were significant for total and regional GITT. Total GITT assessed by 3D-Transit capsules were moderately well-correlated to those assessed with standard ROM (Spearman's rho = 0.7). 3D-transit is a well-tolerated and minimal invasive ambulatory method for assessment of GI motility. By providing both total and regional transit times, the 3D-Transit system holds great promise for future clinical studies of GI function in health and disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Extension of information entropy-based measures in incomplete information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ren-pu; HUANG Dao; GAO Mao-ting

    2005-01-01

    It is helpful for people to understand the essence of rough set theory to study the concepts and operations of rough set theory from its information view. In this paper we address knowledge expression and knowledge reduction in incomplete information systems from the information view of rough set theory. First, by extending information entropy-based measures in complete information systems, two new measures of incomplete entropy and incomplete conditional entropy are presented for incomplete information systems. And then, based on these measures the problem of knowledge reduction in incomplete information systems is analyzed and the reduct definitions in incomplete information system and incomplete decision table are proposed respectively. Finally,the reduct definitions based on incomplete entropy and the reduct definitions based on similarity relation are compared. Two equivalent relationships between them are proved by theorems and an in equivalent relationship between them is illustrated by an example. The work of this paper extends the research of rough set theory from information view to incomplete information systems and establishes the theoretical basis for seeking efficient algorithm of knowledge acquisition in incomplete information systems.

  15. Huayu capsule enhances limb-catching capability of rats with experimental open traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyang Zhou; Juan Zhang; Yong Wang; Haibing Qian; Li Gong; Guojun Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is hard to cure the open traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially for the brain functional recovery after brain injury. In this regard, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a wide prospect.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Huayu capsule on limb-catching capability of rat models of open TBI,and investigate its possible mechanism.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled study.SETTING: Grade 3 Pharmacological Laboratory of TCM, State Administration of TCM, Chengdu University of TCM.MATERIALS: This study was performed from October 2005 to January 2006. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats of either gender, aged 3 months old, weighing from 190 to 220 g, were involved in this study. Huayu capsule was made and supplied by the Department of TCM Processing of Chengdu University of TCM, Lot No.050121; Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid was manufactured by Jilin Aodong Yanbian Pharmaceutical Industry Co.,Ltd., Lot No. 050406.METHODS: Open right parietal lobe TBI rat models were made as described in references. The involved rat models were randomized into 5 groups according to gender and body mass: model group, high-, middle-,low-dose Huayu capsule groups and Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid group, with 10 rats in each. Rats in the model group were administrated with distilled water of 5 mL/kg; Rats in the high-, middle- and low-dose Huayu capsule groups were administrated with 1.030, 0.515, 0.258 g/kg raw herbs; Rats in the Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid group were administrated with Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid of 5 mL/kg, intragastrically once a day for 7 days successively for all after recovering consciousness from anesthetization. ① One hour after administration on the 6th day, rats in each group were placed on a 100 cm fine straight iron wire paralleling to the ground and 20 cm above the operational table. The time of the rats keeping on the wire was counted and it indicated the nerve-muscle catching capability. The longer the remained time, the better the nerve-muscle catching capability.② Twenty

  16. Effects of trichostatin A on human Tenon capsule fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of trichostatin A(TSAon cell proliferation and the expressions of histone deacetylase 1(HDAC1and HDAC2 in cultured human Tenon capsule fibroblast(HTF.METHODS: Human Tenon capsule fibroblasts were cultured in vitro after glaucoma filtration surgery. The third to sixth passage of cell were treated by 600nmol/L TSA or none. Cell viability measured by MTT assay after 1, 2 and 3d respectively. The expressions of HDAC1 and HDAC2 were analyzed by Western blot 2d after TSA treatment.RESULTS: Compared to the control, cell viability decreased significantly after treatment with TSA at 1d(PCONCLUSION: TSA inhibits the proliferation of Tenon capsule fibroblast by inhibiting the expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2, and reduces subconjunctival scar formation.

  17. Noncovalent encapsulation of cobaltocenium inside resorcinarene molecular capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Ivy; Kaifer, Angel E

    2005-03-04

    The encapsulation of cobaltocenium (Cob+) inside hexameric molecular capsules of two different resorcinarenes was investigated in dichloromethane solution. Both 1H NMR spectroscopic and voltammetric experiments clearly reveal that Cob+ experiences encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements obtained from PGSE NMR experiments indicate that the molecular capsules exist in dichloromethane solution in the absence of any cations. Bound and free Cob+ ions undergo slow exchange on the NMR time scale, but the bound Cob+ ions rotate and/or tumble freely inside the molecular capsules. Under experimental conditions suitable for voltammetry the encapsulation of Cob+ depends on the nature of the supporting electrolyte. Tetraalkylammonium hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate, and perchlorate supporting electrolytes prevent the encapsulation of Cob+, while tetraalkylammonium chloride and bromide salts allow it. The nature of the tetraalkylammonium cation plays a smaller role in the encapsulation. Finally, the structure of the resorcinarene also factors into the overall stability of the molecular assembly.

  18. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  19. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  20. Demonstration of bacteroides capsules by light microscopy and ultrastructural cytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, H; Payne, C M; Ryan, K J

    1983-05-01

    Forty-six anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, including 26 members of the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG), were examined for capsules by the India ink technic. Thirty-five were encapsulated, including all the BFG strains. As a follow-up, seven of these isolates and two previously studied reference strains (B. fragilis ATCC 23745 and Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482) were examined for capsules by ultrastructural cytochemistry. Using the periodic acid thiocarbohydrazide silver proteinate (PATCSP) method of Thiéry, all the BFG examined were encapsulated. In addition to the reference strains, this included one strain of B. fragilis and four of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. One non-BFG strain showed no capsular material. Differences between these results and those reported previously with the ruthenium red technic may reflect species differences in the chemical composition of Bacteroides capsules.

  1. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new rou...

  2. Inhibitive Effects of Quercetin on Rabbit Tenon Capsule Fibroblasts Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Lin Chen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To study the inhibitive effects of quercetin (QU) on the fibroblasts proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule and its mechanism.Methods: Cultured fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of QU solution and investigated by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of QU was obser ved on cells cycle using the flow cytometer. Besults: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency.Flow cytometer results showed 26.92% cell increase in G1 phase, 23.50% decrease in S phase and 3.42% decrease in G2 phase.Conclusions: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency. QU may effect all phase of cell cycle and inhibit cell proliferation by inhibiting G1 phase transitting to S phase and G2 phase.

  3. Rayleigh Taylor Instability Growth in NIC Capsules with Engineered Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Clark, D. S.; Farley, D. R.; Landen, O. L.; Scott, H.; Moreno, K.; Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Golovkin, I.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.

    2011-10-01

    In order to achieve thermonuclear burn and energy gain in ICF capsules, the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities must be understood and controlled. Experiments are planned to measure time dependent hydrodynamic instability growth of engineered defects on the surface of NIC capsules using x-ray radiography. We will present an analysis of synthetic radiography from 2D and 3D HYDRA simulations with various x-ray drive fluxes and show how these results will be used to assess code predictions of instability growth and mix. We will also discuss how these results correlate with capsule performance and observables from hot spot self emission imaging and Ge spectroscopy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Development of Beryllium-Copper Alloy Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Jason; Alexander, David; Thoma, Daniel; Field, Robert; Day, Robert; Cameron, Bernard; Nobile, Arthur; Rivera, Gerald; Kelly, Ann; Papin, Pallas; Schulze, Roland; Dauelsberg, Lawrence; Alexander, Neil; Galix, Remy

    2004-11-01

    Cu-doped Be capsules are being developed for ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our fabrication approach is based on bonding of cylindrical parts containing precision machined hemispherical cavities, followed by machining an external spherical contour to produce a spherical shell. While we have demonstrated this approach, there are several key issues that need to be resolved before a shell meeting NIF specifications can be produced. These issues are synthesis of high purity small grain size Be0.9at%Cu alloy, formation of a strong hemishell bond that will allow the capsule to contain its 400 atm fill gas at room temperature, precision machining and polishing of the capsule to meet stringent specifications for surface finish and spherical quality, and filling with DT. In this paper we report on the progress that has been made in resolving these key issues.

  5. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  6. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  7. Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-hong FANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; Bing-ling ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition ofsimethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and sime-thicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the small intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and small bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal small intes-tines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no effect on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean small intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side effects observed.

  8. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  9. Silicone Oil Tamponade Combined with Lensectomy Preserving Anterior Lens Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuL; YangJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the therapeutic effect and indicatio n of silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule.Methods:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule was performed in 33 cases (33 eyes)of high myopia ,proliferative vitroretinopathy(PVR)D grade and giant retinal tear(GRT).10 cases were onlyeye and 11 cases had harder nucleus of lens.The surgical methods included:1.smashing lens nucleus and lensectomy preserving complete anterior capsule;2,vitrectomy and membrane peeling;3,usage of liquid perfluorocarbin or retinotomy or drainage;4.silicone oil tamponade;5.postoperative Nd;YAG laser for anterior capsulectomy. Results:Follow-up time was 6 months or more in 29 cases.Total retinal reattachment was achieved in 22 cases,macular retinal reattachment in 5 cases.The visual acuity was 20/800 to 20/200 in 13 cases,20/100 to 20/50 in 12 cases.Visual acuity was significantly improved in GRT group(P<0.05).Complications included unexpected anterior capsule break intraoperatively,anterior capsule opacity,silicone oil emulsification and liquid perfluorocarbin remainig postoperatively.Conclusions:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior capsule was safe and can reduce the operative complications.The indications included:1.GRT complicated with high myopia;2,advanced PVR cases complicated with high myopia in which silicone oil must be used;3.severe lens opacity cases in which silicone oil must be used;4.complex retinal detachment of only ye.

  10. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  11. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions and observation of mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M.H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excitation functions for sixteen evaporation residues produced in the interaction of 20Ne with 165Ho have been measured in the projectile energy range ≈88-164 MeV, using catcher foil activation technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. It has been found in general that the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced via xn/pxn channels satisfactorily reproduced with the statistical model code PACE-2 after subtraction of precursor decay contribution. The significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions for the residues produced in alpha emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions has been observed. These alpha emission channels are attributed to incomplete fusion reaction process. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He + 16O and /or 8Be + 12C followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 165Ho. The analysis of the present data suggest that probability of incomplete fusion increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF also increases with increasing mass-asymmetry of the entrance channel.

  12. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency...... findings. 55 patients underwent VCE as the third procedure after negative bidirectional endoscopy. The lesions were single in 89.5% of cases, and multiple in 10.5%. Retention of the capsule occurred in 9.8% of patients with small-bowel tumors. After VCE, 54/124 patients underwent 57 other examinations...

  13. Steady state heat transfer in ORR irradiation capsules. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.C.; Michaels, S.L.; Wilkes, G.R.

    1976-04-26

    The mathematical model developed by Stiros for prediction of temperature profiles in ORR irradiation capsules was modified and a numerical solution obtained. A Fortran computer program was written to solve the generalized finite difference equations applied to a fixed lattice system superimposed on the capsule cross section. The Liebmann iterative method was employed. The solution accounts for changes in internal heat generation, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity induced by both temperature and fluence. The computed temperatures deviated from actual experimental measurements in the fuel rods by less than 2.0 percent.

  14. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  15. A parametric study on ice formation inside a spherical capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Silva, T.M. da [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos - FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP, Campinas (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica - DEMEC, UFPE, CEP 50740-530, PE, Recife (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a numerical study on the heat transfer during the process of solidification of water inside a spherical capsule. The governing equations of the problem and associated boundary conditions were formulated and solved using a finite difference approach and a moving grid scheme. The model was optimized and the numerical predictions were validated by comparison with experimental results realized by the authors. The model was also used to investigate the effects of the size and material of the shell, initial temperature of the phase change material and the external temperature of the spherical capsule on the solidified mass fraction and the time for the complete solidification. (authors)

  16. Capsule implosions driven by dynamic hohlraum x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic hohlraum experiments at the Z facility already implode capsules with up to 80 kJ absorbed x-ray energy. However, many challenging issues remain for ICF. The present experiments use diagnostic capsules to address two of these issues: symmetry measurement and control and building understanding of the capsule/hohlraum implosion system. A suite of x-ray spectrometers record time and space resolved spectra emitted by Ar tracer atoms in the implosion core, simultaneously from up to three different quasi-orthogonal directions. Comparing the results with simulation predictions provide severe tests of understanding. These data also can used to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the time resolved core temperature and density profiles. X-ray and neutron diagnostics are used to examine how the implosion conditions change as the capsule design changes. The capsule design changes include variations in CH wall thickness and diameter, Ge-doped CH shells, and SiO2 shells. In addition, a new campaign investigating Be capsule implosions is beginning. Be capsules may offer superior performance for dynamic hohlraum research and it may be possible to investigate NIF-relevant Be implosion issues such as the fill tube effects, sensitivity to columnar growth associated with sputtered Be capsule fabrication, and the effect of Cu dopants on implosion conditions. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. * In collaboration with G.A. Rochau, G.A. Chandler, S.A. Slutz, P.W. Lake, G. Cooper, G.S. Dunham, R.J. Leeper, R. Lemke, T.A. Mehlhorn, T.J. Nash, D.S. Nielsen, K. Peterson, C.L. Ruiz, D.B. Sinars, J. Torres, W. Varnum, Sandia; R.C. Mancini, T.J. Buris-Mog, UNR; I. Golovkin, J.J. MacFarlane, PRISM; A. Nikro, D. Steinman, J.D. Kilkenny, H. Xu, General Atomics; M. Bump, T.C. Moore, K-tech; D.G. Schroen, Schafer

  17. DC polarographic and spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, J A; Nunez-Vergara, L J; Aros, M

    1980-09-01

    Polarographic and spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of ampicillin in capsules. Acidic hydrolysis of ampicillin with 1% HCHO in 0.3N HCl yields a degradation product identified as 2-hydroxy-3-phenyl-6-methylpyrazine. This compound has a well defined UV absorption band at 380 nm and a polarographic wave at -0.55 V vs SCE, which can be used for analytical purposes. Individual capsule assays, composite assays, and recovery studies are described. The average recovery values and standard deviations (SD) for UV and polarographic determinations were 99.20% (SD 0.95) and 100.85% (SD 1.09), respectively.

  18. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  19. A novel localization method for noninvasive monitoring capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wenhui; Yan Guozheng; Jiang Pingping; Guo Xudong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive monitoring capsule for gastrointestinal tract can be swallowed by patient. It is of great importance for the physician to monitor the precise position of capsule in gastrointestinal tract. The authors investigated a novel method for it. Using three coils with DC current to excite magnetic field and one triaxial magnetoresistive sensor to measure the excited magnetic vectors, they tried to solve the problem.The authors provided the localization principle of the method and analyzed it by an experiment, too. The method may be applied in practice in the future though it is still immature now.

  20. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J.; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X.-M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  1. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome presenting with incomplete renal Fanconi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktenli, Cagatay; Saglam, Mutlu; Zafer, Emre; Gül, Davut

    2002-10-01

    Here we report on a patient with findings of acrocephaly, craniosynostosis, low frontal hairline, ptosis of eyelids, deviated nasal septum, broad great toes, moderate hallux valgus, bilateral symmetrical complete soft tissue syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, and partial soft tissue syndactyly of toes 4 and 5 consistent with the diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Additionally, the patient had some unusual findings as part of generalized dysfunction of the renal tubules including hypophosphatemia with renal phosphate wasting, normocalcemic hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, decreased serum PTH levels, osteopenia, and nephrolithiasis. In the light of these findings, the diagnosis of incomplete renal Fanconi syndrome was made. In conclusion, on the basis of the present findings, it is difficult to say whether renal tubular dysfunction are somehow connected to the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome or not. Therefore, we consider that this is probably just a coincident. However, further studies may show the connection between renal tubular dysfunction and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

  2. Topology and incompleteness for 2+1-dimensional cosmological spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajman, David

    2016-12-01

    We study the long-time behavior of the Einstein flow coupled to matter on 2-dimensional surfaces. We consider massless matter models such as collisionless matter composed of massless particles, massless scalar fields and radiation fluids and show that the maximal globally hyperbolic development of homogeneous and isotropic initial data on the 2-sphere is geodesically incomplete in both time directions, i.e. the spacetime recollapses. This behavior also holds for open sets of initial data. In particular, we construct classes of recollapsing 2+1-dimensional spacetimes with spherical spatial topology which provide evidence for a closed universe recollapse conjecture for massless matter models in 2+1 dimensions. Furthermore, we construct solutions with toroidal and higher genus topology for the massless matter fields, which in both cases are future complete. The spacetimes with toroidal topology are 2+1-dimensional analogies of the Einstein-de Sitter model. In addition, we point out a general relation between the energy-momentum tensor and the Kretschmann scalar in 2+1 dimensions and use it to infer strong cosmic censorship for all these models. In view of this relation, we also recall corresponding models containing massive particles, constructed in a previous work and determine the nature of their initial singularities. We conclude that the global structure of non-vacuum cosmological spacetimes in 2+1 dimensions is determined by the mass of particles and—in the homogeneous and isotropic setting studied here—verifies strong cosmic censorship.

  3. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.

  4. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourali L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit -hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  5. Nonlinear stochastic systems with incomplete information filtering and control

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bo; Shu, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Stochastic Processes addresses the frequently-encountered problem of incomplete information. The causes of this problem considered here include: missing measurements; sensor delays and saturation; quantization effects; and signal sampling. Divided into three parts, the text begins with a focus on H∞ filtering and control problems associated with general classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems. Filtering problems are considered in the second part, and in the third the theory and techniques previously developed are applied to the solution of issues arising in complex networks with the design of sampled-data-based controllers and filters. Among its highlights, the text provides: ·         a unified framework for handling filtering and control problems in complex communication networks with limited bandwidth; ·         new concepts such as random sensor and signal saturations for more realistic modeling; and ·         demonstration of the use of techniques such...

  6. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Image reconstruction from incomplete convolution data via total variation regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Shen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Variational models with Total Variation (TV regularization have long been known to preserve image edges and produce high quality reconstruction. On the other hand, recent theory on compressive sensing has shown that it is feasible to accurately reconstruct  images from a few linear measurements via TV regularization. However, in general TV models are difficult to solve due to the nondifferentiability and the universal coupling of variables. In this paper, we propose the use of alternating direction method for image reconstruction from highly incomplete convolution data, where an image is reconstructed as a minimizer of an energy function that sums   a TV term for image regularity and a least squares term for data fitting. Our algorithm, called RecPK, takes advantage of problem structures and has an extremely low per-iteration cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of RecPK, we  compare it with TwIST, a state-of-the-art algorithm for minimizing TV models. Moreover, we also demonstrate the usefulness of RecPK in image zooming.

  8. Ambiguity and Incomplete Information in Categorical Models of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate notions of ambiguity and partial information in categorical distributional models of natural language. Probabilistic ambiguity has previously been studied using Selinger's CPM construction. This construction works well for models built upon vector spaces, as has been shown in quantum computational applications. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to provide a satisfactory method for introducing mixing in other compact closed categories such as the category of sets and binary relations. We therefore lack a uniform strategy for extending a category to model imprecise linguistic information. In this work we adopt a different approach. We analyze different forms of ambiguous and incomplete information, both with and without quantitative probabilistic data. Each scheme then corresponds to a suitable enrichment of the category in which we model language. We view different monads as encapsulating the informational behaviour of interest, by analogy with their use in modelling side effects in computation. Previous results of Jacobs then allow us to systematically construct suitable bases for enrichment. We show that we can freely enrich arbitrary dagger compact closed categories in order to capture all the phenomena of interest, whilst retaining the important dagger compact closed structure. This allows us to construct a model with real convex combination of binary relations that makes non-trivial use of the scalars. Finally we relate our various different enrichments, showing that finite subconvex algebra enrichment covers all the effects under consideration.

  9. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  10. The Complete Semiconductor Transistor and Its Incomplete Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chih-Tang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the definition of the complete transistor. For semiconductor devices, the complete transistor is always bipolar, namely, its electrical characteristics contain both electron and hole currents controlled by their spatial charge distributions. Partially complete or incomplete transistors, via coined names or/and designed physical geometries, included the 1949 Shockley p/n junction transistor (later called Bipolar Junction Transistor,BJT), the 1952 Shockley unipolar 'field-effect' transistor (FET, later called the p/n Junction Gate FET or JGFET), as well as the field-effect transistors introduced by later investigators. Similarities between the surface-channel MOS-gate FET (MOSFET) and the volume-channel BJT are illustrated. The bipolar currents, identified by us in a recent nanometer FET with 2-MOS-gates on thin and nearly pure silicon base, led us to the recognition of the physical makeup and electrical current and charge compositions of a complete transistor and its extension to other three or more terminal signal processing devices, and also the importance of the terminal contacts.

  11. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  12. Truly incomplete and complex exchanges in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to energetic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Durante, Marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon silicon ions, or iron ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. To verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole-chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after irradiation with the heavy ions of high LET, and consequently the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/microm, the highest LET included in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon iron ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique, which allows identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy iron ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges; these ratios were higher than those obtained after exposure to 6 Gy gamma rays. After 0.7 Gy of iron ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single iron-ion track.

  13. The role of radiation therapy after incomplete resection of penile cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langsenlehner, T.; Mayer, R.; Prettenhofer, U.; Kapp, K.S. [Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, F. [Inst. for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, U. [Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Pummer, K. [Dept. of Urology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the outcome in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for penile cancer. Patients and methods: between 1987 and 2006, 24 patients (median age, 62.7 years; range, 35.5-90.4 years) with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (T1, n = 10; T2, n = 11; T3, n = 3) received megavoltage external radiotherapy (n = 22) or {sup 192}Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 2) following total penectomy (n = 7), partial penectomy (n = 10), or local excision (n = 7); lymphadenectomy was performed in eight patients. In 14 patients, radiotherapy was delivered after incomplete tumor resection, and in 20 patients the planning target volume included the regional lymph nodes. Median total dose of external radiotherapy was 56 Gy/1.8-2 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy). Brachytherapy was given with a total dose of 45 Gy/3 Gy. Results: during a median follow-up of 58.4 months, penile or perineal recurrence was found in four patients giving a 5-year local control rate of 74.8%. Regional failure occurred in two patients. 5-year metastases-free survival and progression-free survival rates were 86.7% and 64.5%, respectively. Four patients died due to tumor progression. The actuarial 5-year cause-specific and overall survival rates were 84.3 and 56.6%, respectively. Conclusion: radiation therapy is a successful method of treatment for penile cancer in terms of local control and organ preservation after microscopically incomplete surgery. Radiotherapy of the regional lymph nodes might also be effective in preventing regional recurrence and can be considered in case of high-risk features and following excision of extensive lymph node involvement. (orig.)

  14. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states

  15. 77 FR 35985 - Determination That PARAPLATIN (Carboplatin) Injection and SUSTIVA (Efavirenz) Capsules Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SUSTIVA (Efavirenz) Capsules Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... (efavirenz) Capsule, 100 Bristol Myers Squibb. milligrams (mg). NDA 20-452 PARAPLATIN (carboplatin) Do...

  16. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  17. Method for multiple attribute decision making based on incomplete linguistic judgment matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yao; Fan Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    With respect to the multiple attribute decision making problems with linguistic preference relations on alternatives in the form of incomplete linguistic judgment matrix, a method is proposed to analyze the decision problem. The incomplete linguistic judgment matrix is transformed into incomplete fuzzy judgment matrix and an optimization model is developed on the basis of incomplete fuzzy judgment matrix provided by the decision maker and the decision matrix to determine attribute weights by Lag)range multiplier method. Then the overall values of all alternatives are calculated to rank them. A numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and practicality of the proposed method.

  18. Cellulose nanofiber/nanocrystal reinforced capsules: a fast and facile approach toward assembly of liquid-core capsules with high mechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, Anna J; Musyanovych, Anna; Kappl, Michael; Bernhardt, Max; Glasser, Gunnar; Wohnhaas, Christian; Berglund, Lars A; Risbo, Jens; Landfester, Katharina

    2014-05-12

    Liquid-core capsules of high mechanical stability open up for many solid state-like applications where functionality depending on liquid mobility is vital. Herein, a novel concept for fast and facile improvement of the mechanical properties of walls of liquid-core capsules is reported. By imitating nature's own way of enhancing the mechanical properties in liquid-core capsules, the parenchyma plant cells found in fruits and vegetables, a blend of short cellulose nanofibers (capsule walls. The NFC/CNC blend was prepared from a new version of the classical wood pulp hydrolysis. The capsule shell consisted of a covalently (by aromatic diisocyanate) cross-linked NFC/CNC structure at the outer capsule wall and an inner layer dominated by aromatic polyurea. The mechanical properties revealed an effective capsule elastic modulus of 4.8 GPa at 17 wt % NFC/CNC loading, about six times higher compared to a neat aromatic polyurea capsule (0.79 GPa) and 3 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported capsules from regenerated cellulose (0.0074 GPa). The outstanding mechanical properties are ascribed to the dense nanofiber structure, present in the outer part of the capsule wall, that is formed by oriented NFC/CNC of high average aspect ratio (L/d ∼ 70) and held together by both covalent (urethane bonds) and physical bonds (hydrogen bonds).

  19. Role of capsule and suilysin in mucosal infection of complement-deficient mice with Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Beineke, Andreas; Singpiel, Alena; Willenborg, Jörg; Dutow, Pavel; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Klos, Andreas; Baums, Christoph G

    2014-06-01

    Virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains are invasive extracellular bacteria causing septicemia and meningitis in piglets and humans. One objective of this study was to elucidate the function of complement in innate immune defense against S. suis. Experimental infection of wild-type (WT) and C3(-/-) mice demonstrated for the first time that the complement system protects naive mice against invasive mucosal S. suis infection. S. suis WT but not an unencapsulated mutant caused mortality associated with meningitis and other pathologies in C3(-/-) mice. The capsule contributed also substantially to colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Experimental infection of C3(-/-) mice with a suilysin mutant indicated that suilysin expression facilitated an early disease onset and the pathogenesis of meningitis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed C3 antigen deposition on the surface of ca. 40% of S. suis WT bacteria after opsonization with naive WT mouse serum, although to a significantly lower intensity than on the unencapsulated mutant. Ex vivo multiplication in murine WT and C3(-/-) blood depended on capsule but not suilysin expression. Interestingly, S. suis invasion of inner organs was also detectable in C5aR(-/-) mice, suggesting that chemotaxis and activation of immune cells via the anaphylatoxin receptor C5aR is, in addition to opsonization, a further important function of the complement system in defense against mucosal S. suis infection. In conclusion, we unequivocally demonstrate here the importance of complement against mucosal S. suis serotype 2 infection and that the capsule of this pathogen is also involved in escape from complement-independent immunity.

  20. Impaired elastin deposition in Fstl1-/- lung allograft under the renal capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Geng

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar development in late gestation is a process important to postnatal survival. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1 is a matricellular protein of the Bmp antagonist class, which is involved in the differentiation/maturation of alveolar epithelial cells during saccular stage of lung development. This study investigates the role of Fstl1 on elastin deposition in mesenchyme and subsequent secondary septation in the late gestation stage of terminal saccular formation. To this aim, we modified the renal capsule allograft model for lung organ culture by grafting diced E15.5 distal lung underneath the renal capsule of syngeneic host and cultured up to 7 days. The saccular development of the diced lung allografts, as indicated by the morphology, epithelial and vascular developments, occurred in a manner similar to that in utero. Fstl1 deficiency caused atelectatic phenotype companied by impaired epithelial differentiation in D3 Fstl1(-/- lung allografts, which is similar to that of E18.5 Fstl1(-/- lungs, supporting the role of Fstl1 during saccular stage. Inhibition of Bmp signaling by intraperitoneal injection of dorsomorphin in the host mice rescued the pulmonary atelectasis of D3 Fstl1(-/- allografts. Furthermore, a marked reduction in elastin expression and deposition was observed in walls of air sacs of E18.5 Fstl1(-/- lungs and at the tips of the developing alveolar septae of D7 Fstl1(-/- allografts. Thus, in addition to its role on alveolar epithelium, Fstl1 is crucial for elastin expression and deposition in mesenchyme during lung alveologenesis. Our data demonstrates that the modified renal capsule allograft model for lung organ culture is a robust and efficient technique to increase our understanding of saccular stage of lung development.

  1. Unique lipid anchor attaches Vi antigen capsule to the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Sean D; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Whitfield, Chris

    2016-06-14

    Polysaccharide capsules are surface structures that are critical for the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever. It produces a capsular polysaccharide known as "Vi antigen," which is composed of nonstoichiometrically O-acetylated α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronic acid residues. This glycan is a component of currently available vaccines. The genetic locus for Vi antigen production is also present in soil bacteria belonging to the genus Achromobacter Vi antigen assembly follows a widespread general strategy with a characteristic glycan export step involving an ATP-binding cassette transporter. However, Vi antigen producers lack the enzymes that build the conserved terminal glycolipid characterizing other capsules using this method. Achromobacter species possess a Vi antigen-specific depolymerase enzyme missing in S enterica Typhi, and we exploited this enzyme to isolate acylated Vi antigen termini. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a reducing terminal N-acetylhexosamine residue modified with two β-hydroxyl acyl chains. This terminal structure resembles one half of lipid A, the hydrophobic portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The VexE protein encoded in the Vi antigen biosynthesis locus shares similarity with LpxL, an acyltransferase from lipid A biosynthesis. In the absence of VexE, Vi antigen is produced, but its physical properties are altered, its export is impaired, and a Vi capsule structure is not assembled on the cell surface. The structure of the lipidated terminus dictates a unique assembly mechanism and has potential implications in pathogenesis and vaccine production.

  2. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  3. Parental Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  4. 75 FR 39024 - Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules, 10 Milligrams, 20 Milligrams, and 40...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES> Food and Drug Administration Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules, 10... Administration (FDA) is announcing its determination that ACCUTANE (isotretinoin) Capsules, 10 milligrams (mg...) Capsules, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg, are the subject of NDA 18-662, held by Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. (Roche...

  5. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  6. 10 CFR 32.21 - Radioactive drug: Manufacture, preparation, or transfer for commercial distribution of capsules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for commercial distribution of capsules containing carbon-14 urea each for âin vivoâ diagnostic use..., preparation, or transfer for commercial distribution of capsules containing carbon-14 urea each for “in vivo... commercial distribution capsules containing 37 kBq (1 µCi) carbon-14 urea (allowing for nominal variation...

  7. 75 FR 76017 - Determination That GLEEVEC (Imatinib Mesylate) Capsules, 50 Milligrams and 100 Milligrams, Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That GLEEVEC (Imatinib Mesylate) Capsules, 50... determined that GLEEVEC (imatinib mesylate) Capsules, 50 milligrams (mg) and 100 mg, were not withdrawn from... new drug applications (ANDAs) for imatinib mesylate capsules, 50 mg and 100 mg, if all other legal and...

  8. 75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... use of dichlorophene and toluene deworming capsules for cats and dogs. In a final rule published... withdraw approval of NADA 101-497 for TINY TIGER (dichlorophene/toluene) Worming Capsules, NADA 101-498 for...

  9. Investigation on the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation hypromellose capsules with different lubricant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, I Y; Diez, F; Jones, B E; Kayali, N; Polo, L

    2015-08-15

    HPMC capsules are made by a dipping process and a surface lubricant for the mould pins is an essential processing aid for removing dried capsules shells. For the purpose of this study, the level was determined by quantifying methyloleate (MO) a component found in the lubricant but not in the hypromellose capsules. Here we investigated the influence of the lubricant, low (10.81 μg/capsule=60 mg/kg MO), medium (15.97 μg/capsule=90 mg/kg MO) and high (23.23 μg/capsule=127 mg/kg MO) content on powder (binary mixture of salbutamol: lactose, 1:50 w/w) aerosolization properties was investigated. Results indicated significantly lower emitted dose from capsules with 60 mg/kg MO. Furthermore, the 90 and 127 mg/kg MO level of lubricant capsules produced almost double the Fine Particle Dose & Fine Particle Fraction compared with the low level of lubricant. The data indicates that lubricant level within capsules has an influence on deposition profiles and amount of drug remaining in capsule and inhaler device after actuation. It is suggested lubricant levels greater than 60 mg/kg MO per capsule are required to minimise powder retention within capsules and maximise deposition profiles. AFM (atomic force microscopy) data suggest that internal surface roughness may be related with this phenomena. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... determined that ALOXI (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for palonosetron HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal and...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345f - Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... novobiocin capsules. 520.2345f Section 520.2345f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345f Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains the equivalent of 60 milligrams of tetracycline hydrochloride and 60...

  12. 78 FR 1221 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Ponstel® (Mefenamic Acid) Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... (Mefenamic Acid) Capsules AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... acid) capsules. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Ponstel (mefenamic acid) capsules for purposes of U.S. Government...

  13. 76 FR 59141 - Determination That LOXITANE (Loxapine Succinate) Capsules and Three Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That LOXITANE (Loxapine Succinate) Capsules...., 417 Wakara Capsules, Way, Suite 100, Equivalent to (EQ) Salt Lake City, UT 5 milligram (mg) 84108...) Inc., 340 Kingsland Capsule, 200 mg. St., Nutley, NJ 07110. FDA has reviewed its records and, under...

  14. 77 FR 41412 - Determination That CHLOROMYCETIN (Chloramphenicol) Capsules, 250 Milligrams, Were Withdrawn From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That CHLOROMYCETIN (Chloramphenicol) Capsules... CHLOROMYCETIN (chloramphenicol) Capsules, 250 milligrams (mg), were withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or... chloramphenicol capsules, 250 mg. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nikki Mueller, Center for Drug Evaluation and...

  15. Elastic Changes of Capsule in a Rat Knee Contracture Model Assessed by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Y.; Chimoto, E.; Ando, A.; Saijo, Y.; Itoi, E.

    Sound speed of a capsule in a rat knee contracture model was measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. There was no statistical significant difference in the anterior capsule compared with the control group. However, the sound speed of the posterior capsule was significantly greater compared with the control group after prolonged immobilization.

  16. Les Habitats: Culture Capsules in English for Use in Beginning French Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofts, Jan; And Others

    Eight culture capsules describing various aspects of French housing are presented. Each capsule includes a French-American contrast and gives ideas for classroom presentation and student activities. The capsules deal with: le logement, les immeubles, les exterieurs, la minuterie, les portes, la salle de bain, le refrigerateur, and culture grains…

  17. Self collision avoidance for humanoids using circular and elliptical capsule bounding volumes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . The humanoid body is modeled using elliptical capsules, while the moving segments, i.e. arms and legs, of the humanoid are modeled using circular capsules. The self collision distance between two capsules is computed and used to generate self collision free...

  18. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials....

  19. Distribution and emission of chloropicrin applied as gelatin capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloropicrin (CP) is a potential methyl bromide alternative for controlling soil-borne pests. However, the compound is highly volatile that poses strong exposure risks for humans and the environment because of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. A gelatin capsule formulation was developed as...

  20. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2016-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.