WorldWideScience

Sample records for capsular block syndrome

  1. Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy developed after capsular block syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hurmeric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man developed capsular block syndrome in the early postoperative period, following phacoemulsification surgery. After neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy, the intraocular pressure remained elevated for 4 days despite antiglaucomatous medication. On the postoperative fifth day, nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case with nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy associated with early postoperative capsular block syndrome after phacoemulsification surgery.

  2. Late-Onset Capsular Block Syndrome: Unusually Delayed Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Rana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsular block syndrome (CBS has been known to occur as a rare complication of cataract surgery with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and a posterior-chamber lens implant. Typically, it presents with reduced vision in the early postoperative period and is characterised by a forward displacement of the posterior-chamber intra-ocular lens and an accumulation of intra-capsular opaque material. Management of CBS is usually by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. In this report, we describe a unique case of very-delayed-onset CBS with good visual acuity, occurring 8 years after surgery. It was treated successfully with surgical removal of the opaque material.

  3. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  4. Capsular warning syndrome and crescendo lacunar strokes after atherosclerotic stenosis of the recurrent artery of Heubner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Gomori, John M; Leker, Ronen R

    2012-12-01

    The stereotype of repetitive transient cerebral ischemia causing unilateral motor, sensory, or sensorimotor deficits that simultaneously affect the face, arm, and leg, clinically localized to the internal capsule, fits with the description of capsular warning syndrome (CWS). A high proportion of individuals with these symptoms develop subsequent capsular stroke, despite various proposed preventative measures. It has been postulated that the mechanism for such strokes is that of small-vessel single-penetrator disease. We present a patient with repetitive CWS intermingled with crescendo capsular strokes secondary to recurrent artery of Heubner disease. This report causally links CWS-crescendo lacunar strokes and Heubner artery atherosclerotic disease (intracranial branch atheromatous disease).

  5. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

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    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  6. Synthesis of a selectively protected trisaccharide building block of the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae types 6A and 6B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Slaghek, T.M.; Vliet, M.J. van; Maas, A.A.M.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    4-Methoxybenzyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-3-O-[2,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-3-O-(3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl)-α-D- glucopyranosyl]-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (22), a building block for the α-D-Galp-(1->3)-α-D-Glcp-(1->3)-α-L-Rhap fragment of the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae types 6A and 6B

  7. Synthesis of a Glucuronic Acid-Containing Thioglycoside Trisaccharide Building Block and Its Use in the Assembly of Cryptococcus Neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Lorenzo; Ulc, Rebecca; Oscarson, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    As part of an ongoing project aimed at identifying protective capsular polysaccharide epitopes for the development of vaccine candidates against the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the synthesis and glycosylation properties of a naphthalenylmethyl (NAP) orthogonally protected trisaccharide thioglycoside, a common building block for construction of serotype B and C capsular polysaccharide structures, were investigated. Ethyl (benzyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl- uronate)-(1→2)-[2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)]-6-O-benzyl-3-O-(2-naphthalenylmethyl)-1-thio-α-d-mannopyranoside was prepared and used both as a donor and an acceptor in glycosylation reactions to obtain spacer equipped hexa- and heptasaccharide structures suitable either for continued elongation or for deprotection and printing onto a glycan array or conjugation to a carrier protein. The glycosylation reactions proceeded with high yields and α-selectivity, proving the viability of the building block approach also for construction of 4-O-xylosyl-containing C. neoformans CPS structures. PMID:27308199

  8. Takotsubo syndrome with transient complete atrioventricular block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Takotsubo syndrome (transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome) is a novel cardiac syndrome of left ventricular apical ballooning involving reversible left ventricular apical ballooning (during systole) of acute onset with chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and minimal elevation of cardiac enzymes resembling acute myocardial infarction, but without evidence of myocardial ischemia or injury. Patients have no angiographic evidence of coronary artery stenosis and there is almost always a complete recovery of left ventricular function in days to weeks. The precise etiologic basic of this syndrome is not clear but most likely it is a non-ischemic, metabolic syndrome caused by stress-induced activation of the cardiac adrenoceptors in absence of ischemia and reperfusion.1-3 Reported here is a case of stress-induced transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome in an elderly Chinese woman.

  9. Complete atrioventricular block in adult Sjögren's syndrome with anti-Ro autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Myung Jun; Park, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Young-Soo; Park, Chul-Yeon; Choe, Jung-Yoon

    2011-06-01

    Anti-Ro autoantibody is associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and neonatal lupus syndrome (i.e., congenital complete heart block in newborns). Generally, the adult atrioventricular (AV) node is believed to be relatively resistant to the scarring effects of anti-Ro/anti-La autoantibodies. However, there have been some reports of adult complete AV block in SS and SLE patients. Here, we report a case of complete heart block in primary SS with anti-Ro autoantibodies, with no other risk factor for the development of heart block, and review their etiological association.

  10. Acute capsular infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-three patients with lacunar-type of acute capsular infarction were treated in our service during the last 2 years. Their lesions were identified by computed tomography (CT) and classified into six types according to their locations: anterior, lateral, posterior, superior, inferior and multiple. The lesions were thought to be in the watershed areas of the regional arterial supplies, and the areas were considered to be prone to ischemia. The clinical course of each type showed characteristic features of ischemic strokes. In the majority of the patients with the lateral type, reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND) was seen as the predominant symptom, transient ischemic attack (TIA) was noted in the patients with the superior type, and major completed stroke was observed in those with posterior type.

  11. Capsular hook-assisted implantation of modified capsular tension ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Gupta, Shikha; Nayak, Bhagabat; Gogia, Varun

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with decrease of vision over a period of 2 years. On examination, he was diagnosed to have microspherophakia with lenticular myopia with secondary glaucoma in both eyes. He was treated by lens aspiration and two-point capsular support using a modified capsular tension ring (M-CTR) and capsular tension segment (CTS) sutured to the sclera along with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens inside the bag. Lens aspiration was performed without artificial capsular hook support of the bag, as the lens was soft and vitreous was formed. However, M-CTR rotation into the bag was fraught with repeated adherence of the advancing end of the M-CTR into the loose bag causing simultaneous rotation of the bag with the rotation of the ring resulting in transient increase in bag subluxation. Capsular hooks provided appropriate countertraction to the unsupported bag, thus facilitating easy insertion and rotation of the ring into the bag. PMID:27048263

  12. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  13. Prevention of posterior capsular opacification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M; Gelens, Edith; Kuijer, Roelof; Hooymans, Johanna Mm; van Kooten, Theo G; Koopmans, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common complication of cataract surgery. The development of PCO is due to a combination of the processes of proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation of residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) on the lens capsule. In the past decades, various forms

  14. TOTAL THYROIDECTOMY USING CAPSULAR DISSECTION

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    R. Moldovanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy can be performed with low rate of injuries of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands, with appropriate techniques. The paper describes the technique of total thyroidectomy using capsular dissection and the indications of this operation. There are some steps which should be respected: good exposure of the thyroid gland, careful dissection of the superior pole using the avascular plane between superior pole and cricothyroid muscle, medial retraction of the gland, ligating the tertiary (third order branches of the inferior thyroid artery, near the surface of thyroid parenchyma. Using this type of dissection, the recurrent laryngeal nerves are protected, as well as the blood supply of the parathyroid glands. Conclusions: Total thyroidectomy using capsular dissection is the procedure of choice for multinodular goiter, because avoid the completion thyroidectomy for recurrence or occult thyroid cancer.

  15. Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 With Total Spinal Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ok, Se Jin; Yang, Jong Yeun; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who...

  16. Treatment of Congenital Complete Atrioventricular Heart Block With Permanent Epicardial Pacemaker in Neonatal Lupus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tanriverdi, Sema; Ulger, Zulal; Siyah Bilgin, Betul; Kultursay, Nilgun; Yalaz, Mehmet; Atay, Yuksel; Koroglu, Ozge Altun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal lupus syndrome (NLS) is a passively acquired autoimmune condition due to the transplacental passage of maternal anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and congenital complete heart block (CHB) is its most serious manifestation. Skin and hepatic involvement may occur in later infancy. Case Presentation: A term infant with fetal bradycardia, detected at the 23rd gestational age, was diagnosed with CHB due to NLS and was ...

  17. Sphenopalatine blocks in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, V D; Scudds, R

    1997-10-01

    Sphenopalatine blocks have been used to treat pain for more than 80 years. Anecdotal support for sphenopalatine ganglion blocks has been very strong in those who believe in the technique, but the research results have been inconclusive. Therefore, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 61 patients, 42 with fibromyalgia and 19 with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain was measured using visual analogue scales prior to treatment, during treatment, and 28 days after the treatment. Headaches were evaluated in frequency and location prior to and after treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks were performed under direct vision using 4% lidocaine and sterile water as a placebo. Analysis of the results showed no statistical differences between the lidocaine and the placebo groups.

  18. The Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher R; Denard, Patrick J; Brady, Paul C; Hartzler, Robert U; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    In a subset of patients with rotator cuff tears, the glenohumeral joint has minimal degenerative changes and the rotator cuff tendon is either irreparable or very poor quality and unlikely to heal. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is often considered for these patients despite the lack of glenohumeral arthritis. However, due to the permanent destruction of the glenohumeral articular surfaces, complication rates, and concerns about implant longevity with RSA, we believe the superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) is a viable alternative. In this article, we describe our technique for the SCR. PMID:27552457

  19. Block Network Error Control Codes and Syndrome-based Complete Maximum Likelihood Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Bahramgiri, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, network error control coding is studied for robust and efficient multicast in a directed acyclic network with imperfect links. The block network error control coding framework, BNEC, is presented and the capability of the scheme to correct a mixture of symbol errors and packet erasures and to detect symbol errors is studied. The idea of syndrome-based decoding and error detection is introduced for BNEC, which removes the effect of input data and hence decreases the complexity. Next, an efficient three-stage syndrome-based BNEC decoding scheme for network error correction is proposed, in which prior to finding the error values, the position of the edge errors are identified based on the error spaces at the receivers. In addition to bounded-distance decoding schemes for error correction up to the refined Singleton bound, a complete decoding scheme for BNEC is also introduced. Specifically, it is shown that using the proposed syndrome-based complete decoding, a network error correcting code with r...

  20. Successful treatment of post thrombotic syndrome with sequential lumbar sympathetic block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anita; Portonova, Brittany; Dadachanji, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    An underappreciated sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the pain associated with the blood clot in the peripheral extremity. Although most frequently acute in nature, DVT occasionally presents with chronic pain in the affected limb. Furthermore, many individuals suffering from prothrombotic states often have recurring pain from DVT. Thus far there has been a paucity in the medical literature in how to treat post thrombotic pain. Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) can cause a significant decrease in quality of life in individuals who have had a history of a DVT. Symptoms will typically include edema, pain, heaviness of the affected limb, skin changes, ulcers, varicosities, and gait abnormality. An underappreciated approach to treating PTS is the utilization of lumbar sympathetic blocks (LSB). A 68-year-old male who had a history of recurrent right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis presented with complaints of excruciating pain, discomfort, and erythema in his right lower extremity, which was negatively affecting his quality of life and prohibiting him from mobility. The patient attributed his lack of mobility secondary to the thrombotic pain. Compression boot/stocking therapy was not combating the discomfort associated with the PTS, often increasing the severity of the patient's pain. Sequential right lumbar sympathetic blocks were performed, which nearly completely resolved the patient's symptoms and improved the patient's ambulatory status and ability to perform activities of daily living. Sympathetic nerve blocks should be considered as a treatment option for patients who suffer with pain from PTS. PMID:25675072

  1. Management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with total spinal block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Se Jin; Yang, Jong Yeun; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who suffered from constant stabbing and squeezing pain, with severe touch allodynia in the left upper extremity following an operation of chondroblastoma. After the TSB, the patient's continuous and spontaneous pain became mild and the allodynia disappeared and maintained decreased for 1 month. PMID:20552078

  2. Optimization and simulation of a New Low Density Parity-Check Decoder using the Syndrome Block

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    Lagrini Lakbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Low Density Parity-Check codes are one of the hottest topics in coding theory nowadays equipped with very fast encoding and decoding algorithms, LDPC are very attractive both theoretically and practically.In this article, we present a simulation of a work that has been accepted in an international journal. The newalgorithm allows us to correct errors quickly and without iterations. We show that the proposed algorithm simulation can be applied for both regular and irregular LDPC codes. First, we developed the design of the syndrome Block Second, we generated and simulated the hardware description language source code using Quartus software tools, and finally we show low complexity compared to the basic algorithm

  3. Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 With Total Spinal Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Se Jin; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who suffered from constant stabbing and squeezing pain, with severe touch allodynia in the left upper extremity following an operation of chondroblastoma. After the TSB, the patient's continuous and spontaneous pain became mild and the allodynia disappeared and maintained decreased for 1 month. PMID:20552078

  4. Lumbar Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin Type B for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Pyung Bok; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar sympathetic block (LSB) is an effective method for relief of sympathetically mediated pain in the lower extremities. To prolong the sympathetic blockade, sympathetic destruction with alcohol or radiofrequency has been used. The pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves are cholinergic, and botulinum toxin (BTX) has been found to inhibit the release of acetylcholine at the cholinergic nerve terminals. Moreover, BTX type B (BTX-B) is more convenient to use than BTX type A. Based on these findings, we performed LSB on the 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the lower extremity. Levobupivacaine 0.25% 5 mL mixed with BTX-B 5,000 IU was given under fluoroscopic guidance. Two months after LSB with BTX-B, pain intensity and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) score were significantly reduced. Allodynia and coldness disappeared and skin color came back to normal. In conclusion, BTX-B can produce an efficacious and durable sympathetic blocking effect on patients with CRPS.

  5. Lumbar Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin Type B for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Pyung Bok; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar sympathetic block (LSB) is an effective method for relief of sympathetically mediated pain in the lower extremities. To prolong the sympathetic blockade, sympathetic destruction with alcohol or radiofrequency has been used. The pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves are cholinergic, and botulinum toxin (BTX) has been found to inhibit the release of acetylcholine at the cholinergic nerve terminals. Moreover, BTX type B (BTX-B) is more convenient to use than BTX type A. Based on these findings, we performed LSB on the 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the lower extremity. Levobupivacaine 0.25% 5 mL mixed with BTX-B 5,000 IU was given under fluoroscopic guidance. Two months after LSB with BTX-B, pain intensity and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) score were significantly reduced. Allodynia and coldness disappeared and skin color came back to normal. In conclusion, BTX-B can produce an efficacious and durable sympathetic blocking effect on patients with CRPS. PMID:26431145

  6. Formation of a reliable capsular flap in a rat model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuringa, M.C.; Hartman, E.H.M.; Ruhe, P.Q.; Jansen, J.A.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prefabrication can be used to produce capsular flaps; other researchers have confirmed the feasibility of such flaps. Before the possibilities of capsular flaps can be explored, a reliable method to create these flaps has to be established first. METHODS: To produce capsular flaps in a rat model, th

  7. Peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzkowski, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an inherited disorder of collagen production that results in multiorgan dysfunction. Patients with hypermobility type display skin hyperextensibility and joint laxity, which can result in chronic joint instability, dislocation, peripheral neuropathy, and severe musculoskeletal pain. A bleeding diathesis can be found in all subtypes of varying severity despite a normal coagulation profile. There have also been reports of resistance to local anesthetics in these patients. Several sources advise against the use of regional anesthesia in these patients citing the 2 previous features. There have been reports of successful neuraxial anesthesia, but few concerning peripheral nerve blocks, none of which describe nerves of the lower extremity. This report describes 2 cases of successful peripheral regional anesthesia in the lower extremity. In case 1, a 16-year-old adolescent girl with hypermobility type presented for osteochondral grafting of tibiotalar joint lesions. She underwent a popliteal sciatic (with continuous catheter) and femoral nerve block under ultrasound guidance. She proceeded to surgery and tolerated the procedure under regional block and intravenous sedation. She did not require any analgesics for the following 15 hours. In case 2, an 18-year-old woman with hypermobility type presented for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for chronic patella instability. She underwent a saphenous nerve block above the knee with analgesia in the distribution of the saphenous nerve lasting for approximately 18 hours. There were no complications in either case. Prohibitions against peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, appear unwarranted. PMID:26897449

  8. Late sodium current block for drug-induced long QT syndrome: Results from a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Mason, J W; Erato, C; Sanabria, C; Waite-Labott, K; Hong, M; Lin, J; Guo, P; Mutlib, A; Wang, J; Crumb, W J; Blinova, K; Chan, D; Stohlman, J; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in many drugs being withdrawn from the market. At the same time, the current regulatory paradigm for screening new drugs causing long QT syndrome is preventing drugs from reaching the market, sometimes inappropriately. In this study, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind clinical trial studying late sodium (mexiletine and lidocaine) and calcium (diltiazem) current blocking drugs to counteract the effects of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs (dofetilide and moxifloxacin). We demonstrate that both mexiletine and lidocaine substantially reduce heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation from dofetilide by 20 ms. Furthermore, all QTc shortening occurs in the heart-rate corrected J-Tpeak (J-Tpeak c) interval, the biomarker we identified as a sign of late sodium current block. This clinical trial demonstrates that late sodium blocking drugs can substantially reduce QTc prolongation from hERG potassium channel block and assessment of J-Tpeak c may add value beyond only assessing QTc. PMID:26259627

  9. Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and observe the effect of conduction block (CB in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy (AIDP group, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN group and equivocal group according to their electro-physiological results and then reclassificated after electro-physiological review. All of the patients were followed for 6 months since their attacks. Results: Bad prognosis is more pronounced in AMAN group than in AIDP group (P < 0.05. Most of the patients classificated as AIDP transformed into AMAN when CB occurred in the early phase of the disease. There is a positive relationship between CB in the early phase of the disease and severity of illness (P < 0.05, but CB showed no correlation with prognosis of the patients (P > 0.05. Conclusion: CB in the early phase of GBS indicates the probability of AIDP transforming into AMAN; it suggests that patients with CB in the early phase of the disease might be in serious conditions in a certain extent.

  10. Simvastatin Reduces Capsular Fibrosis around Silicone Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Ki Rin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2016-08-01

    Capsular fibrosis and contracture occurs in most breast reconstruction patients who undergo radiotherapy, and there is no definitive solution for its prevention. Simvastatin was effective at reducing fibrosis in various models. Peri-implant capsular formation is the result of tissue fibrosis development in irradiated breasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on peri-implant fibrosis in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to an experimental group (9 rats, 18 implants) or a control group (9 rats, 18 implants). Two hemispherical silicone implants, 10 mm in diameter, were inserted in subpanniculus pockets in each rat. The next day, 10-Gy of radiation from a clinical accelerator was targeted at the implants. Simvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage in the experimental group, while animals in the control group received water. At 12 weeks post-implantation, peri-implant capsules were harvested and examined histologically and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The average capsular thickness was 371.2 μm in the simvastatin group and 491.2 μm in the control group. The fibrosis ratio was significantly different, with 32.33% in the simvastatin group and 58.44% in the control group (P silicone implants in rats. This finding offers an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing capsular fibrosis and contracture after implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:27478339

  11. Postextrasystolic sinoatrial exit block in human sick sinus syndrome: demonstration by direct recording of sinus node electrograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseman, P; Berzin, B; Desry, D; Bauchart, J J; Reade, R; Leroy, O; Poncelet, P; Lekieffre, J; Thery, C

    1991-12-01

    Ten patients with sick sinus syndrome having repetitive sinus node electrograms during long postpacing pauses were studied during programmed atrial stimulation. Sinus node activity was recorded using a percutaneous catheter electrode. A sinus node electrogram was recorded before the return atrial beat in seven patients; it was similar to the sinus node electrogram observed during postpacing pauses and is clearly identified because sinoatrial conduction time was markedly prolonged following the atrial extra beat. Complete sinoatrial exit block occurred in four patients. (1) Sinus node electrograms were thus validated both during postpacing pauses and during programmed atrial stimulation in most patients with sick sinus syndrome. (2) Sinoatrial conduction time was markedly prolonged after one extrasystole, accounting for supracompensatory atrial return cycles. (3) If it were cumulative following multiple extrasystoles, this effect could constitute the electrophysiologic link between an abnormal response during programmed atrial stimulation and the complete sinoatrial block recorded during the pauses that follow rapid atrial pacing.

  12. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  13. [Influence of beta block and autonomic nerve block on the recovery time of the sinus node in sick sinus syndrome and carotid sinus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, M; Sartore, B; Barra, M; Menozzi, C; Monducci, I; Bertulla, A

    1984-10-01

    In order to evaluate the relative role of the automatic nervus system and of the intrinsic electrophysiologic properties on the sinus node function, we measured the corrected sinus node recovery time before and after autonomic nervous system blockade in 24 patients. Fourteen had a sick sinus syndrome, five had a carotid sinus syncope, two had syncope of unknown origin associated with bradycardia. Beta blockade was obtained by infusing metoprolol intravenously at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg; complete automatic blockade was achieved by further i.v. administration of atropine at a dosage of 0.04 mg/kg. After beta blockade, the corrected sinus node recovery time increased in patients with sick sinus syndrome and intrinsic slow heart rate, whereas it decreased in patients with carotid sinus syncope or with syncope and bradycardia. In patients with sick sinus syndrome and normal intrinsic heart rate the response was variable. A positive direct correlation was found between the changes of the corrected sinus node recovery time induced by beta blockade and those induced by autonomic blockade; that is, both either prolonged or shortened the corrected sinus node recovery time. The changes of the corrected sinus node recovery time after beta blockade alone were inversely correlated with the intrinsic heart rate. We conclude that patients with intrinsic depression of the sinus node have an increased sympathetic tone.

  14. Capsular Contracture In Silicone Breast Implants: Insights From Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilberto J; D'Acampora, Armando; Neves, Fernanda S; Mendes, Paulo R; Vasconcellos, Zulmar A DE; Neves, Rodrigo D'Eça; Figueiredo, Claudia P

    2016-09-01

    Breast augmentation with silicone implants is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons around the world. Capsular contracture is a frequent complication in breast augmentation and reconstructive surgery, that requires invasive intervention. The inflammatory response to implanted mammary prostheses appears to be directly associated to capsular contracture. This review discusses the evidences from rat models studies, on the role of inflammation and fibrosis in capsular contraction and its relation to silicone breast implants surface.

  15. Medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome: Adrenal-blocking drugs and ketaconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCushing's syndrome is associated with serious morbidity and increased mortality. Irrespective of its cause, i.e. a pituitary adenoma, ectopic ACTH production or an adrenal neoplasia, Cushing's syndrome is primarily treated surgically. However, when surgery is unsuccessful or contraindica

  16. Ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block for adhesive capsulitis: one case and a short topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Bartholdy, Anne; Hautopp, H;

    2011-01-01

    impact passive and guided active mobilization by the performing physiotherapist for three consecutive weeks. This case and a short topical review on the use of SSN block in painful shoulder conditions highlight the possibility of a USG continuous nerve block of the SSN as sufficient pain management......We present a case with an ultrasound-guided (USG) placement of a perineural catheter beneath the transverse scapular ligament in the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (SSN). The patient suffered from a severe and very painful adhesive capsulitis of the left...... shoulder secondary to an operation in the same shoulder conducted 20 weeks previously for impingement syndrome and a superior labral anterior-posterior tear. Following a new operation with capsular release, the placement of a continuous nerve block catheter subsequently allowed for nearly pain-free low...

  17. Intermittent bundle-branch block in patients with accessory atrio-His or atrio-AV nodal pathways. Variants of the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befeler, B; Castellanos, A; Aranda, J; Gutierrez, R; Lazzara, R

    1976-02-01

    Intracardiac electrophysiological studies were performed in two patients with a documented history of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Case 1, with short PR interval and narrow QRS complexes had a short AH interval and intermittent right bundle-branch block. Thus the short PR wide QRS syndrome is not always a result of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome but can also be seen in the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome coexisting with bundle-branch block. Case 2, with normal PR and AH at the lower limits of normal, showed the dual pathway response to atrial pacing that can occur in patients with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome. He also had tachycardia-dependent right bundle-branch block and left posterior hemiblock. Therefore, neither the short PR interval nor the narrow QRS complexes characterized these forms of pre-excitation. The constant features were, from the clinical viewpoint, the occurrence of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and electrophysiologically the abnormal response to atrial stimulation.

  18. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  19. Separation of Pneumcoccal Capsular Polysaccharide BY Gel Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Huang Xinghua; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo

    2004-01-01

    Separation of pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide by gel was investigated in this paper. The gels used here were poly(acrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate)gels and prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The experimental results indicated that gel extraction is a potential method to separate pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide from its dilute solution.

  20. G protein-gated IKACh channels as therapeutic targets for treatment of sick sinus syndrome and heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesirca, Pietro; Bidaud, Isabelle; Briec, François; Evain, Stéphane; Torrente, Angelo G; Le Quang, Khai; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Baudot, Matthias; Marger, Laurine; Chung You Chong, Antony; Nargeot, Joël; Striessnig, Joerg; Wickman, Kevin; Charpentier, Flavien; Mangoni, Matteo E

    2016-02-16

    Dysfunction of pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node (SAN) underlies "sick sinus" syndrome (SSS), a common clinical condition characterized by abnormally low heart rate (bradycardia). If untreated, SSS carries potentially life-threatening symptoms, such as syncope and end-stage organ hypoperfusion. The only currently available therapy for SSS consists of electronic pacemaker implantation. Mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 Ca(2+) channels (Cav1.3(-/-)) recapitulate several symptoms of SSS in humans, including bradycardia and atrioventricular (AV) dysfunction (heart block). Here, we tested whether genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of the muscarinic-gated K(+) channel (IKACh) could rescue SSS and heart block in Cav1.3(-/-) mice. We found that genetic inactivation of IKACh abolished SSS symptoms in Cav1.3(-/-) mice without reducing the relative degree of heart rate regulation. Rescuing of SAN and AV dysfunction could be obtained also by pharmacological inhibition of IKACh either in Cav1.3(-/-) mice or following selective inhibition of Cav1.3-mediated L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) current in vivo. Ablation of IKACh prevented dysfunction of SAN pacemaker activity by allowing net inward current to flow during the diastolic depolarization phase under cholinergic activation. Our data suggest that patients affected by SSS and heart block may benefit from IKACh suppression achieved by gene therapy or selective pharmacological inhibition.

  1. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-01-20

    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process. PMID:22683648

  2. Ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block for adhesive capsulitis: one case and a short topical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børglum, J; Bartholdy, A; Hautopp, H; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, K

    2011-02-01

    We present a case with an ultrasound-guided (USG) placement of a perineural catheter beneath the transverse scapular ligament in the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (SSN). The patient suffered from a severe and very painful adhesive capsulitis of the left shoulder secondary to an operation in the same shoulder conducted 20 weeks previously for impingement syndrome and a superior labral anterior-posterior tear. Following a new operation with capsular release, the placement of a continuous nerve block catheter subsequently allowed for nearly pain-free low impact passive and guided active mobilization by the performing physiotherapist for three consecutive weeks. This case and a short topical review on the use of SSN block in painful shoulder conditions highlight the possibility of a USG continuous nerve block of the SSN as sufficient pain management in the immediate post-operative period following capsular release of the shoulder. Findings in other painful shoulder conditions and suggestions for future studies are discussed in the text. PMID:21226866

  3. Treatment of Muckle-Wells syndrome: analysis of two IL-1-blocking regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Wittkowski, Helmut; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Koetter, Ina; Lohse, Peter; Ummenhofer, Katharina; Reess, Fabian; Hansmann, Sandra; Koitschev, Assen; Deuter, Christoph; Bialkowski, Anja; Foell, Dirk; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by excessive interleukin-1 (IL-1) release, resulting in recurrent fevers, sensorineural hearing loss, and amyloidosis. IL-1 inhibition with anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, improves clinical symptoms and inflammatory markers. Subclinical disease activity is commonly observed. Canakinumab, a fully human IgG1 anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody, can abolish excess IL-1β. The study aim was to analyze the efficac...

  4. Apheresis in high risk antiphospholipid syndrome pregnancy and autoimmune congenital heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Brucato, Antonio; Ramoni, Veronique; Facchinetti, Myriam; Tonello, Marta; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Grava, Chiara; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2015-12-01

    In the first part a prospective cohort study was reported to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment protocol including plasma exchange (PE) or PE plus intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) or immunoadsorption (IA) plus IVIG administered in addition to conventional therapy to 22 pregnant women with high-risk APS. The results indicate that PE or IA treatments administered along with IVIG and conventional antithrombotic therapy could be a valuable and safe therapeutic option in pregnant APS women with triple antiphospholipid antibody positivity along with a history of thrombosis and/or one or more severe pregnancy complications. In the second part the efficacy and safety of PE combined with IVIG and steroids were evaluated for the treatment of 10 patients with autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing maternal features, pregnancy outcome and side effects with those of 24 CHB patients treated with steroids only. The patients treated with the combined therapy showed a statistically significant regression of 2nd degree blocks, an increase in heart rate at birth and a significantly lower prevalence of pacing in the first year of life. Moreover, no side effects were observed except for a few steroid-related events. If these results are confirmed by large-scale studies, the apheretic procedures could lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these devastating diseases. PMID:26626966

  5. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the fluorescent

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyang Oh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient’s capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

  7. Synthesis of part structures of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype C capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Lorenzo; McCabe, Orla; Oscarson, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. The development of a vaccine based on the capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans is still an open challenge due to the heterogeneity of the capsular polysaccharide and the difficulty of identifying protective epitopes. Therefore, construction of structurally defined part structures of the C. neoformans GXM capsule is in great demand. Herein is presented the synthesis of a 3-O-naphthalenylmethyl protected trisaccharide thioglycoside building block which is present in C. neoformans serotype C polysaccharide. Its property as a donor in a glycosylation reaction with a model acceptor has been evaluated together with its behaviour as an acceptor following removal of the temporary protecting group. The heavily branched hexasaccharide was obtained in good yields and excellent α-selectivity. The frame shifted octasaccharide structural triad motif for serotype C was also prepared following the same building block strategy. For the first time this structural motif, which is the most substituted amongst the four C. neoformans serotypes, was prepared. Three synthesized C. neoformans serotype C fragments of varying size, from penta-up to octasaccharide, were deprotected and will be included in unique glycoarrays to further investigate the possibility to develop a synthetic vaccine against this pathogen. PMID:27423877

  8. Evaluation by Survival Analysis on Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Children with Respiratory Syncytial Viral Pneumonia of Phlegm-Heat Blocking Fei Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 汪受传; 白文静; 李瑞丽; 艾军

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To objectively evaluate the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine in treating children's respiratory syncytial viral pneumonia(RSVP) of phlegm-heat blocking Fei(肺) syndrome(PHBFS). Methods:A single-blinded multi-center,blocked,randomized and parallel-controlled method was adopted.The clinical study was carried out on 206 children with RSVP-PHBFS who were assigned to two groups,108 in the test group treated through intravenous dripping of Qingkailing Injection(清开灵注射液) in combination of...

  9. Anatomic Hip Capsular Reconstruction With Separate Suture Anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Cuéllar, Asier; Sánchez, Alberto; Cuéllar, Adrián

    2016-06-01

    The number of reports on the use of capsule suturing techniques during hip arthroscopy has increased in the last few years because of the important function played by the iliofemoral ligament (IFL). This study describes an arthroscopic technique whereby the hip capsule is opened by a limited vertical dissection of both the capsule itself and the IFL from their footprint on the acetabular rim, and the capsulolabral junction and the IFL's deep fibers are released. After the intra-articular procedure, the capsule is closed through 2 to 4 side-to-side sutures in the vertical arm of the capsulotomy and 1 to 2 suture anchors with sutures are passed through either side of the capsular confluence. This technique prevents a full transverse section of the IFL and allows complete capsular closure through reconstruction of the capsular footprint. PMID:27656393

  10. Reevaluating the Serotype II Capsular Locus of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a novel sequence of the serotype II capsular locus of group B streptococcus that resolves inconsistencies among the results of various groups and the sequence in GenBank. This locus was found in diverse lineages and presents genes consistent with the complete synthesis of the type II polysaccharide.

  11. Capsular Myrtaceae 10. The Metrosideros Complex: M. angustifolia (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    As is the case with Tepualia stipularis for South America, Metrosideros angustifolia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 270, is the sole representative of the capsular Myrtaceae in Africa. It occurs as a shrub or small tree at lower elevations, often along river banks, in the south-west corner of South

  12. Identification of a capsular variant and characterization of capsular acetylation in Klebsiella pneumoniae PLA-associated type K57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Yang, Han-Ru; Yang, Feng-Ling; Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is important for its virulence. Among 79 capsular (K) types discovered thus far, K57 is often associated with PLA. Here, we report the identification of a K57 variant. Cps gene locus sequencing revealed differences between the K57 reference strain 4425/51 (Ref-K57) and a variant, the PLA isolate A1142. While Ref-K57 cps contained orf13 encoding a putative acetyltransferase, the insertion of a putative transposase-encoding gene at this position was detected in A1142. This variation was detected in other K57 clinical strains. Biochemical analyses indicated that A1142 was deficient in CPS acetylation. Genetic replacement and complementation verified that orf13 was responsible for CPS acetylation. Acetylation increased CPS immunoreactivity to antiserum and enhanced K. pneumoniae induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines through JNK and MAPK signaling. While acetylation diminished the serum resistance of bacteria, it promoted adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells possibly via increasing production of type I fimbriae. In conclusion, acetylation-mediated capsular variation in K57 was observed. Capsular acetylation contributed to the variety and antigenic diversity of CPS, influenced its biological activities, and was involved in K. pneumoniae-host interactions. These findings have implications for vaccine design and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae. PMID:27550826

  13. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I—capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II—capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III—capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed. The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I—120 eyes (38.1%); Type II—157 eyes (49.8%); Type III—38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.572, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation with intraoperative posterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.16, P = 0.122) was observed. The ACOA significantly decreased from Type I to Type II to Type III, the PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type

  14. Biomechanical Evaluation of Capsulotomy and Capsular Repair in the Hip

    OpenAIRE

    Wuerz, Thomas H.; Song, Sang Hoon; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Greenberg, Mitchell; Espinoza, Alejandro; Nho, Shane Jay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The use of hip arthroscopy has increased over recent years to treat various forms of hip pathologies including femoroacetabular impingement. While a capsulotomy facilitates adequate visualization and access for diagnostic and interventional purposes, the current literature remains divided over the use of routine capsular closure to address the iatrogenic instability that may be induced by an excessive or unclosed capsulotomy. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to determin...

  15. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  16. Effects of hip joint position and intra-capsular volume on hip joint intra-capsular pressure: a human cadaveric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse Paul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra-capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra-capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied. An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra-capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra-capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra-capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2.1-fold increase (p = 0.028 of the intra-capsular hip joint pressure; full external rotation and full internal rotation increased the pressure by at least 4-fold (p Conclusion Intra-capsular pressure increases with its volume, but with a wide variation with different positions. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in 45-degree flexion.

  17. Evidence for Existence of Immunoglobulins that Block Ovarian Granulosa Cell Growth in Vitro. A Putative Role in Resistant Ovary Syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEISSENBRUCH, MIRJAM M. van; HOEK, ANNEMIEKE; VLIET-BLEEKER, INGRID van; SCHOEMAKER, JOOP; DREXHAGE, HEMMO

    1991-01-01

    The sera of 26 patients with premature ovarian failure were examined in order to detect immunoglobulin-G (IgGs) that can block FSH-induced in vitro granulosa cell DNA synthesis via, a Feulgen cytochemical bioassay system. The IgGs of four patients with polycystic ovary-like disease, five postmenopau

  18. Normalisation of left ventricular systolic function after change from VVI pacing to biventricular pacing in a child with congenital complete atrioventricular block, long-QT syndrome, and congenital muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G; Reimers, Jesper I; Andersen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Development of dilated cardiomyopathy in patients with congenital complete atrioventricular block with or without pacemaker is well described. We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with congenital complete atrioventricular block, long-QT syndrome, and VVI pacemaker. Temporary paci...... in the right ventricular outflow tract demonstrated a 63% increase in cardiac output. After change to biventricular DDD pacing, left ventricular systolic function and diastolic dimensions normalised....

  19. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.;

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  20. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  1. New techniques for evaluating the gastrointestinal tract: capsular endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Karateyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a procedure for capsular endoscopy (CE, a new high-technology method of evaluating the small bowel, and reports on its use in rheumatological care. Small bowel involvement is noted to be frequently encountered in rheumatic diseases, such as Behcet's disease, diffuse scleroderma, and seronegative spondylitis. According to the data of clinical trials, CE is effective in timely detecting this visceral abnormality. At the same time, CE is actually the only accurate method of diagnosing drug-induced enteropathy, a potentially menacing disease that frequently occurs with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Retro-aortic, left inferior renal capsular vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto G Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In our case report, abdominal multi-detector computed tomography was used for the pre-operative anatomy evaluation in a living kidney donor. The early phase of the test revealed normal kidneys in the donor. The vascular phase detected a venous variant on the left side: An inferior renal capsular vein, which had a loop and a retro-aortic course. This preoperative knowledge was crucial for the laparoscopic nephrectomy as a surgical procedure for harvesting kidney from the living donor.

  3. Immune responses to and adjuvant properties of bacterial capsular polysccharides.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    Complement plays an important role in the humoral response to protein antigens, but its role in anti-capsular antibody responses is unclear. The immunogenicity of a panel of twelve CPSs from S. pneumoniae was investigated in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD35/CD21, respectively). With the exception of serotype 4, IgM anti-polysaccharide responses were not dependent on the presence of CD35/CD21. In contrast IgG anti-polysaccharide responses, which were infrequently and variab...

  4. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, AE; Vaughan, A; Jones, N.; Turner, P; Turner, C.; Efstratiou, A.; Patel, D.; MMM Informatics Group; Walker, AS; Berkley, J.; Crook, DW; Seale, AC

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotype is a major determ inant of virulence, and affects potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole genome sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This shows high agree ment (kappa=0.92) with conventional methods, and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all ten capsular types.

  5. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Anna E; Vaughan, Alison; Jones, Nicola; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Efstratiou, Androulla; Patel, Darshana; Walker, A Sarah; Berkley, James A; Crook, Derrick W; Seale, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotypes are major determinants of virulence and affect potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole-genome-sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This method shows strong agreement (kappa of 0.92) with conventional methods and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all 10 capsular types. PMID:26962081

  6. Blocking of Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP Leads to Reduced Replication of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinrong; Mei, Feng; Agrawal, Anurodh; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections and diseases represents a potential threat for worldwide spread and requires development of effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, we revealed a novel positive function of an exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1 (cAMP-1; Epac-1) on MERS-CoV replication. Specifically, we have shown that Epac-specific inhibitor treatment or silencing Epac-1 gene expression rendered cells resistant to viral infection. We believe Epac-1 inhibitors deserve further study as potential therapeutic agents for MERS-CoV infection. PMID:24453361

  7. Isolated congenital heart block in undifferentiated connective tissue disease and in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a clinical study of 81 pregnancies in 41 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Todesco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and the features of congenital heart block (CHB in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. Methods: We studied 81 pregnancies of 41 women attending the Outpatients’ Clinic of the Rheumatology Unit of University Hospital of Padova from July 1989 to March 2004. Twenty five of these (61% were affected with UCTD and 16 (39% with pSS. Serologic inclusion criteria was anti-Ro/La positivity, assessed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Results: CHB was found in 2 out of the 46 (4,3% pregnancies followed by our Staff and in 2 out of the 35 (5,7% included in the retrospective part of the study. In 3 cases CHB was a 3rd degree block, causing pregnancy termination in 2. The only 2nd degree block was identified in one patient at the 22nd week of gestation and treated with dexamethasone and plasma-exchange. All of the women were positive to 52 kd and 60 kd Ro autoantibodies. CHB mothers had higher titer antibodies to 52 kd Ro protein than did the mothers with healthy infants (P = 0,026. Electrocardiographic abnormalities at birth were found in 3 out of 29 asymptomatic infants. One presented sinus bradycardia, the second abnormalities of ventricular repolarization, both regressed spontaneously, while the third ventricular extrasystoles which continue even now at 5 months. Conclusion: These results showed that in UCTD and pSS there is a higher incidence of CHB than that reported in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Electrocardiographic screening in all infants born to mothers with anti-Ro/La antibodies would seem an important measure to identify those with irreversible heart conduction abnormalities.

  8. Low-concentration, continuous brachial plexus block in the management of Purple Glove Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Verghese T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Purple Glove Syndrome is a devastating complication of intravenous phenytoin administration. Adequate analgesia and preservation of limb movement for physiotherapy are the two essential components of management. Case presentation A 26-year-old Tamil woman from India developed Purple Glove Syndrome after intravenous administration of phenytoin. She was managed conservatively by limb elevation, physiotherapy and oral antibiotics. A 20G intravenous cannula was inserted into the sheath of her brachial plexus and a continuous infusion of bupivacaine at a low concentration (0.1% with fentanyl (2 μg/ml at a rate of 1 to 2 ml/hr was given. She had adequate analgesia with preserved motor function which helped in physiotherapy and functional recovery of the hand in a month. Conclusion A continuous blockade of the brachial plexus with a low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl helps to alleviate the vasospasm and the pain while preserving the motor function for the patient to perform active movements of the finger and hand.

  9. Effective Use of a Silicone-induced Capsular Flap in Secondary Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yong Jeong, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Performing secondary rhinoplasty in patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty using a silicone implant is difficult due to thinning of nasal skin and formation of a capsule. Excess capsule formation can cause capsular contracture, resulting in short nose deformity or implant deviation, migration, or implant demarcation. Revision rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, dorsal silicone implant, and tip plasty was performed in 95 Korean patients (91 women and 4 men; mean age, 27 years who previously underwent primary augmentation rhinoplasty using silicone implants. The capsular flap was composed by creating a dual plane above the anterior capsule and below the posterior capsule. The existing silicone implant was removed, and a new silicone implant was placed under the posterior capsule. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 4 years (mean, 31.7 months. Of the 95 patients who underwent secondary augmentation rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, 88 patients (92.6% showed satisfactory results. There was no hematoma or nasal skin vascular compromise. There was no visible or palpable capsule resorption or recurrent capsular contracture. Early implant malpositioning (within 30 days postoperatively was observed in 4 patients, and tip shape dissatisfaction (within 60 days postoperatively was reported by 3 patients. Four patients underwent revision surgery and had successful outcomes. Nasal augmentation using a silicone implant and capsular flap in secondary rhinoplasty avoids complications caused by removal of the capsule. Recurrent capsule formation or clinically noticeable resorption of the capsular flap was not observed in this study.

  10. Surgical intervention and capsular contracture after breast augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Fryzek, Jon P; Hölmich, Lisbet R;

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on local complications after breast augmentation are scarce. In particular, few prospectively collected data are available on modern breast implants on this issue. Using data from the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, the authors examined determinants of surgery......-requiring complications and capsular contracture grades III to IV among 2277 women who underwent cosmetic breast implantation from June 1999 through April 2003. During an average follow-up period of 1.6 years after implantation, 4.3% of these women (3% of implants) required secondary surgery as a result of short...... surgical practices and modern implants used for breast augmentation produce fewer short-term complications than procedures and devices of the past. This prospective study indicates that surgical procedures are more important predictors for local (short-term) complications than implant or patient...

  11. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, L; Debois, H; Fletcher, M; Dumas, R

    1999-09-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important health threat in many parts of the world, with an estimated 16 million cases and 600,000 deaths occurring each year. The emergence of Salmonella typhi strains multiply resistant to antibiotics has complicated the treatment of this disease. Field experience of 8 years shows that a vaccine composed of purified Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given as a single intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection, has consistent immunogenicity and efficacy. Side effects, based on reports since 1989, are infrequent and mild. Furthermore, the Vi vaccine may be administered simultaneously with other common "travel" vaccines, at two different sites of injection, without affecting immunogenicity and tolerability. This review presents an update of the development and clinical experience with the Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, France).

  12. Immunization coverage against capsular bacteria in splenectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Ernest; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Stolarczyk, Celina; Kurpas, Donata; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Szenborn, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Splenectomy significantly increases the risk of severe invasive infections caused by capsular bacteria, such as sepsis and meningitis. Immunizations before and after splenectomy reduce the risk and are routinely recommended. Little is known about compliance with actual immunization guidelines in Poland. The aim of this study was to analyze the vaccination rate and the knowledge of splenectomized patients concerning immunizations in Poland. We applied a questionnaire to survey 85 adult patients (F/M 49/36) splenectomized in 2009-2010 and analyzed the patients' medical files and immunization certificates. Patients were also questioned over the phone. We found that the patients were most commonly immunized against Streptococcus pneumoniae (17/85, 20 %), less often against Haemophilus influenzae b (8/85, 9.4 %), and rarely against Niesseria meningitidis C (3/85, 3.5 %). In contrast, hepatitis B immunization coverage rate was as high as 67 % (57/85). The majority of respondents (59/85, 69.4 %) regarded information about the recommended immunizations as insufficient and rated their doctor's reasoning as inconsistent, a smaller number (20/85, 23.5 %) confirmed they received sound information before splenectomy. Both surgeons and primary care physicians did not offer immunizations to the majority of patients (59/85, 69.4 %); as a result, only 30.6 % of patients (26/85) were immunized against any capsular bacteria before splenectomy. In conclusion, the majority of splenectomized patients are not immunized despite current guidelines and do show an inadequate level of knowledge concerning the consequences of splenectomy. It is important that both surgeons and primary care doctors give patients clear instructions about immunizations and antibiotics recommended before and after their splenectomy.

  13. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Geisinger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance due to its propensity for intractable multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals. All clinical isolates examined contain a conserved gene cluster, the K locus, which determines the production of complex polysaccharides, including an exopolysaccharide capsule known to protect against killing by host serum and to increase virulence in animal models of infection. Whether the polysaccharides determined by the K locus contribute to intrinsic defenses against antibiotics is unknown. We demonstrate here that mutants deficient in the exopolysaccharide capsule have lowered intrinsic resistance to peptide antibiotics, while a mutation affecting sugar precursors involved in both capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis sensitizes the bacterium to multiple antibiotic classes. We observed that, when grown in the presence of certain antibiotics below their MIC, including the translation inhibitors chloramphenicol and erythromycin, A. baumannii increases production of the K locus exopolysaccharide. Hyperproduction of capsular exopolysaccharide is reversible and non-mutational, and occurs concomitantly with increased resistance to the inducing antibiotic that is independent of the presence of the K locus. Strikingly, antibiotic-enhanced capsular exopolysaccharide production confers increased resistance to killing by host complement and increases virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. Finally, we show that augmented capsule production upon antibiotic exposure is facilitated by transcriptional increases in K locus gene expression that are dependent on a two-component regulatory system, bfmRS. These studies reveal that the synthesis of capsule, a major pathogenicity determinant, is regulated in response to antibiotic stress. Our data are consistent with a model in which gene expression changes triggered by ineffectual antibiotic treatment cause A. baumannii to transition

  14. A novel microactuator for microbiopsy in capsular endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunkil; Koo, Kyo-in; Bang, Seoung Min; Youp Park, Jeong; Song, Si Young; 'Dan'Cho, Dongil

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a LiGA (a German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung) process based microactuator to be used for microbiopsy in capsular endoscopes. This microactuator is designed to be integrated into a capsular endoscope and to extract tissue samples inside the small gastrointestine which a conventional endoscope cannot reach. The proposed microactuator was fabricated as a cylindrical shape of diameter 10 mm and length 1.8 mm. This actuator consists of three parts: a microbiopsy part with a microspike, an actuating part with a torsion spring and a triggering part with a shape memory alloy (SMA) heating wire and polymer string. In order to extract sample tissue, a microspike in the developed actuator moves forward and backward using the slider-crank mechanism. For low power consumption triggering, a polymer-melting scheme was applied. The SMA heating wire consumed approximately 1.5 V × 160 mA × 1 second (66.67 µWH) for triggering. The precise components of the microactuator were fabricated using the LiGA process in order to overcome the limitations in accuracy of conventional precision machining. The developed microactuator was evaluated by extracting tissue samples from the small intestine of a pig ex vivo, and examining the tissue with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining protocol. The experimental tests demonstrated that the developed microactuator with microspike successfully extracted tissue samples from the pig's small intestines. This paper is an extended version of an oral paper presented at Transducers 2007: 14th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Lyon, France, 10-14 June, 2007.

  15. 星状神经节阻滞改善肩手综合征的水肿及关节活动度%Block of ganglion stellatum on improving edema and range of movement in shoulder- hand syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾西; 陈尚康; 关晨霞; 姜丽; 王留根

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Shoulder- hand syndrome(SHS) also called reflective sympathetic malnutrition is a common syndrome and often seen in stroke paralysis,which early manifestation is sudden edema of hand,pain,increased skin temperature,shoulder pain.If treatment is prolonged,muscle atrophy of hand and permanent loss of range of movement might occure.Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment has a good effect on SHS.In this article,effect of block of ganglion stellatum on SHS is observed on base of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.

  16. Development and application of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to differentiate antibodies against live and inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yanlong; Huang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yixue; Ran, Wei; Zhu, Lisai; Yang, Guilian; Ding, Xuemei; Yang, Zhanqing; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a method that could differentiate antibodies against live and inactivated vaccines of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A blocking ELISA (b-ELISA) was established using the PRRSV non-structural protein, Nsp9, as the antigen and a monoclonal antibody, 2D6, against the Nsp9 protein as the capture antibody. The test was validated by using 415 clinical sera in the b-ELISA compared to a commercial kit based on the indirect ELISA using the nucleocapsid (N) protein as antigen. Significant differences were observed for the data obtained by the two detection methods. This may be due to the commercial kit detecting antibodies elicited by live and inactivated virus, whereas the b-ELISA only detects antibodies produced by any active viral replication, such as natural infection or live vaccination. Therefore, the b-ELISA in this study is able to distinguish between antibodies against live and inactivated viruses in pigs.

  17. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Ascaso; Valentín Huerva; Andrzej Grzybowski

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t...

  18. Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Gunenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o′clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.

  19. Differential Localization of Complement Component 3 within the Capsular Matrix of Cryptococcus neoformans

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Marcellene A.; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is a powerful activator of the complement system. The goal of the present study was to assess serum and cellular variables that influence the sites for C3 binding within the capsular matrix. Confocal microscopy using fluorophore-labeled polyclonal anti-C3 and anticapsular monoclonal antibodies and rosetting of fluorescent microspheres coated with anti-C3 were used to identify sites of C3 binding relative to the capsular edge. The results s...

  20. Immunochemical and Biological Characterization of Three Capsular Polysaccharides from a Single Bacteroides fragilis Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltrud M Kalka-Moll; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); Comstock, L. E.; Gonzalez, Sylvia E.; Tzianabos, Arthur O.; Dennis L Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Although Bacteroides fragilis accounts for only 0.5% of the normal human colonic flora, it is the anaerobic species most frequently isolated from intra-abdominal and other infections with an intestinal source. The capsular polysaccharides of B. fragilis are part of a complex of surface polysaccharides and are the organism's most important virulence factors in the formation of intra-abdominal abscesses. Two capsular polysaccharides from strain NCTC 9343, PS A1 and PS B1, have been characterize...

  1. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  2. Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is characterized by sudden death associated with one of several ECG patterns including incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads. According to the ECG patterns there are three types of Brugada syndrome. Brugada syndrome is genetically determined and has an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission in about 50% of familial cases. Nowadays implantation of cardioverter-defibrillator is the only proven method of sudden cardiac death prevention.

  3. Characterization of exopolysaccharide and ropy capsular polysaccharide formation by Weissella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Saskia Katharina; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Schwab, Clarissa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    With their broad functional properties, lactic acid bacteria derived high molar mass exopolysaccharides (EPS) and oligosaccharides are of great interest for food, medical and pharmaceutical industry. EPS formation by 123 strains of Weissella cibaria and Weissella confusa, was evaluated. Dextran formation from sucrose was observed for all tested strains while 18 strains produced fructan in addition to dextran. Six isolates synthesized a highly ropy polymer from glucose associated with the formation of a cell-bound, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) composed of glucose, O-acetyl groups and two unidentified monomer components. The soluble EPSs of nine strains were identified as low α-1,3-branched dextran, levan and inulin type polymers using NMR. In addition to glucan and fructan, W. confusa produced gluco- and fructooligosaccharides. Partial dextransucrase and fructansucrase sequences were characterized in the selected Weissella strains. Our study reports the first structural characterization of fructan type EPS from Weissella as well as the first Weissella strain producing inulin. Production of more than one EPS-type by single strains may have high potential for development of applications combining EPS technological and nutritional benefits. PMID:25475311

  4. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  5. Characterization of exopolysaccharide and ropy capsular polysaccharide formation by Weissella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Saskia Katharina; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Schwab, Clarissa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    With their broad functional properties, lactic acid bacteria derived high molar mass exopolysaccharides (EPS) and oligosaccharides are of great interest for food, medical and pharmaceutical industry. EPS formation by 123 strains of Weissella cibaria and Weissella confusa, was evaluated. Dextran formation from sucrose was observed for all tested strains while 18 strains produced fructan in addition to dextran. Six isolates synthesized a highly ropy polymer from glucose associated with the formation of a cell-bound, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) composed of glucose, O-acetyl groups and two unidentified monomer components. The soluble EPSs of nine strains were identified as low α-1,3-branched dextran, levan and inulin type polymers using NMR. In addition to glucan and fructan, W. confusa produced gluco- and fructooligosaccharides. Partial dextransucrase and fructansucrase sequences were characterized in the selected Weissella strains. Our study reports the first structural characterization of fructan type EPS from Weissella as well as the first Weissella strain producing inulin. Production of more than one EPS-type by single strains may have high potential for development of applications combining EPS technological and nutritional benefits.

  6. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, K P; Gilbertson, I T; Koornhof, H J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Schulz, D; Cadoz, M; Armand, J

    1987-11-21

    The protective efficacy against typhoid fever of a single intramuscular injection of 25 micrograms of the Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was assessed in a randomised double-blind controlled trial. Vaccination of 11,384 children was followed by 21 months' surveillance. 47 blood-culture-proven cases of typhoid occurred in children who received meningococcal A + C CPS vaccine and 19 cases in those vaccinated with Vi CPS. Protective efficacy was 60% calculated from the day of vaccination and 64% from 6 weeks after vaccination. Surveillance also included 11,691 unvaccinated children; 173 cases occurred in this group. Protective efficacy in relation to the unvaccinated group was 77.4% and 81.0% after 21 months, calculated immediately and 6 weeks after vaccination, respectively. Vaccination was associated with minimum local side-effects, and an increase in anti-Vi antibodies occurred, as measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels remained significantly raised at 6 and 12 months post vaccination. Vi CPS is thus a safe and effective means of typhoid vaccination.

  7. Surgical capsular release reduces flexion contracture in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jonathan D; Hartzler, Robert U; Abdel, Matthew P; Morrey, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Steinmann, Scott P; Morrey, Bernard F; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2013-10-01

    Animal models of joint contracture may be used to elucidate the mechanisms of arthrofibrosis. Patients with joint contracture commonly undergo surgical capsular release. Previous animal models of joint contracture do not simulate this aspect of arthrofibrosis. We hypothesize that a surgical capsular release will decrease the severity of arthrofibrosis in this rabbit model. A capsular contracture was surgically created in 20 skeletally mature rabbits. Eight weeks later, ten rabbits underwent capsular release, which consisted of elevation of the posterior capsule through a lateral incision and manipulation under anesthesia. Ten rabbits had a sham incision, without release (control group). Immediately after release or sham surgery, extension loss (calculated by subtracting the knee extension angle (degrees) of the operative limb from the nonoperative, contralateral limb) was measured using fluoroscopy. All animals were sacrificed following 16 weeks of postoperative free cage activity. At sacrifice, joint contracture was measured using a custom, calibrated device. The histology of the posterior joint capsule was assessed at sacrifice. All animals survived both operations without complications. Immediately after surgical release or sham surgery, the average extension loss was 129.2 ± 10.7° in the control group versus 29.6 ± 8.2° in the capsular release group (p = 0.0002). Following 16 weeks of remobilization, the average extension loss of the control and capsular release animals were 49.0 ± 12.7° and 36.5 ± 14.2°, respectively (p = 0.035). There were no histological differences between the two groups. In this animal model, a surgical capsular release decreased the extension loss (flexion contracture) immediately after surgery, as well as following sixteen weeks of remobilization. There were no histological changes detected in the posterior joint capsule. PMID:23703948

  8. Collagen immunostains can distinguish capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis and may help stage liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rock, Jonathan B; Yearsley, Martha M; Hanje, A James; Frankel, Wendy L

    2014-01-01

    Core-needle biopsy remains essential for diagnosis of cirrhosis; however, evaluation of fibrosis in such biopsies is often challenging due to the fragmented nature of cirrhotic liver specimens. It is also common to see portions of liver capsules present in the biopsy which adds to the diagnostic challenge. The distinction between capsular/subcapsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis is critical to avoid potential overstaging of liver fibrosis. We compared the differential immunostaining in liver capsular and septal areas for collagens III, IV, V, VI, vitronectin, laminin, Orcein, and Trichrome in 15 whole sections of explanted cirrhotic livers and 5 simulated liver biopsies. Collagens III, IV, V, VI, Trichrome, and Orcein show distinct staining patterns in capsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis. Collagen IV shows strong diffuse septal staining and consistently weak to negative capsular staining. Collagens III and VI stain similar to IV for septal fibrosis, whereas collagen V, Trichrome, and Orcein show strong staining in both areas. Collagen IV, possibly with III or VI in addition to the routine Trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain, is useful in differentiating capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis on challenging and fragmented liver biopsies.

  9. Alleviation of capsular formations on silicone implants in rats using biomembrane-mimicking coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ung; Ham, Jiyeon; Kim, Sukwha; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Seonju; Min, Hye Jeong; Choi, Sunghyun; Choi, Ra Mi; Kim, Heejin; Oh, Sohee; Hur, Ji An; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Despite their popular use in breast augmentation and reconstruction surgeries, the limited biocompatibility of silicone implants can induce severe side effects, including capsular contracture - an excessive foreign body reaction that forms a tight and hard fibrous capsule around the implant. This study examines the effects of using biomembrane-mimicking surface coatings to prevent capsular formations on silicone implants. The covalently attached biomembrane-mimicking polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), prevented nonspecific protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion on the silicone surface. More importantly, in vivo capsule formations around PMPC-grafted silicone implants in rats were significantly thinner and exhibited lower collagen densities and more regular collagen alignments than bare silicone implants. The observed decrease in α-smooth muscle actin also supported the alleviation of capsular formations by the biomembrane-mimicking coating. Decreases in inflammation-related cells, myeloperoxidase and transforming growth factor-β resulted in reduced inflammation in the capsular tissue. The biomembrane-mimicking coatings used on these silicone implants demonstrate great potential for preventing capsular contracture and developing biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

  10. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  11. Ankle impingement syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft-tissue and osseous impingement syndromes can be an important cause of chronic ankle pain, particularly in the professional athlete. The classification of ankle impingement syndromes is based to their anatomical location around the tibiotalar joint. The most important impingement syndromes are anterolateral, anterior and posterior impingement with more recent studies describing posteromedial and anteromedial impingement. Usually conventional radiography is the first imaging technique to be performed as it allows assessment of potential bone abnormalities, particularly in anterior and posterior joint compartments. Computed tomography (CT) only plays a role in the assessment of the posterior impingement. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is regarded as the modality of choice as it is able to demonstrate both osseous and soft tissue changes, such as bone marrow edema, capsular and ligametous thickening, and localized synovitis. (orig.)

  12. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  13. The Impact of Breast Implant Location on the Risk of Capsular Contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    developing CC with subglandular compared to submuscular placement of the breast implant. METHODS: A total of 1,283 studies were identified from December 2003 to December 2013 by PUBMED and MEDLINE searches and a manual search strategy. Two levels of screening resulted in 10 studies suitable for meta......-analysis, providing data on a total of 17,520 breast implants. All statistical calculations were performed with Review Manager (RevMan) version 5.2.7. RESULTS: Random-effect (RE) pooled relative risk (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for capsular contraction. The risk of developing capsular....... CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrated a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of capsular contraction with subglandular compared to submuscular breast implant location.Clinical Question: Risk....

  14. Validity of Cyriax's concept capsular pattern for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lemmens, A.M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Voorn, TH.B.

    1998-01-01

    To analyse the validity of Cyriax's concept of the 'capsular pattern' in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee, data on 200 patients were analysed. The capsular pattern with limitations of medial rotation, flexion, and abduction, was not present in a distinct pattern in patients with

  15. Phospholipids trigger Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement during interactions with amoebae and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara J Chrisman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable aspect of the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian hosts is a consistent increase in capsule volume. Given that many aspects of the interaction of C. neoformans with macrophages are also observed with amoebae, we hypothesized that the capsule enlargement phenomenon also had a protozoan parallel. Incubation of C. neoformans with Acanthamoeba castellanii resulted in C. neoformans capsular enlargement. The phenomenon required contact between fungal and protozoan cells but did not require amoeba viability. Analysis of amoebae extracts showed that the likely stimuli for capsule enlargement were protozoan polar lipids. Extracts from macrophages and mammalian serum also triggered cryptococcal capsular enlargement. C. neoformans capsule enlargement required expression of fungal phospholipase B, but not phospholipase C. Purified phospholipids, in particular, phosphatidylcholine, and derived molecules triggered capsular enlargement with the subsequent formation of giant cells. These results implicate phospholipids as a trigger for both C. neoformans capsule enlargement in vivo and exopolysaccharide production. The observation that the incubation of C. neoformans with phospholipids led to the formation of giant cells provides the means to generate these enigmatic cells in vitro. Protozoan- or mammalian-derived polar lipids could represent a danger signal for C. neoformans that triggers capsular enlargement as a non-specific defense mechanism against potential predatory cells. Hence, phospholipids are the first host-derived molecules identified to trigger capsular enlargement. The parallels apparent in the capsular response of C. neoformans to both amoebae and macrophages provide additional support for the notion that certain aspects of cryptococcal virulence emerged as a consequence of environmental interactions with other microorganisms such as protists.

  16. Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS: a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waite Roger L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and hypothesis Based on neurochemical and genetic evidence, we suggest that both prevention and treatment of multiple addictions, such as dependence to alcohol, nicotine and glucose, should involve a biphasic approach. Thus, acute treatment should consist of preferential blocking of postsynaptic Nucleus Accumbens (NAc dopamine receptors (D1-D5, whereas long term activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system should involve activation and/or release of Dopamine (DA at the NAc site. Failure to do so will result in abnormal mood, behavior and potential suicide ideation. Individuals possessing a paucity of serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptors, and an increased rate of synaptic DA catabolism due to high catabolic genotype of the COMT gene, are predisposed to self-medicating any substance or behavior that will activate DA release, including alcohol, opiates, psychostimulants, nicotine, gambling, sex, and even excessive internet gaming. Acute utilization of these substances and/or stimulatory behaviors induces a feeling of well being. Unfortunately, sustained and prolonged abuse leads to a toxic" pseudo feeling" of well being resulting in tolerance and disease or discomfort. Thus, a reduced number of DA receptors, due to carrying the DRD2 A1 allelic genotype, results in excessive craving behavior; whereas a normal or sufficient amount of DA receptors results in low craving behavior. In terms of preventing substance abuse, one goal would be to induce a proliferation of DA D2 receptors in genetically prone individuals. While in vivo experiments using a typical D2 receptor agonist induce down regulation, experiments in vitro have shown that constant stimulation of the DA receptor system via a known D2 agonist results in significant proliferation of D2 receptors in spite of genetic antecedents. In essence, D2 receptor stimulation signals negative feedback mechanisms in the mesolimbic system to induce mRNA expression causing

  17. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  18. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed. PMID:26798506

  19. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Soofi, S.B.; Ochiai, R.L.; Habib, M.A.; Sahito, S.M.; Nizami, S.Q.; Acosta, C.J.; Clemens, J.D.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Group, D.T.K.V.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid

  20. Prevention of capsular opacification after accommodative lens refilling surgery in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; van Kooten, Theo G.

    2011-01-01

    Silicone gel-like polymers have been proposed to replace the cataractous lens and therewith restore both vision and accommodation. Lens replacement is associated with opacification of the capsular bag due to the lens epithelial cell response. In this study, the in vivo effectiveness of a 5 min treat

  1. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  2. Changes of histology and capsular collagen in a rat shoulder immobilization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-lei; AO Ying-fang; CUI Guo-qing; ZHU Jing-xian

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder immobilization can induce adhesion of the joint,capsular contracture or lead to the condition of frozen shoulder.However,little is known about the histological effects of immobilization on the shoulder joint.This study aimed to explore the effect of immobility on the subscapular bursa (SSB) and the joint capsular content,including the distribution of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen,within an immobilized rat shoulder.Methods Forty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control group (n=6) and four immobilization groups (n=10 in each group),in which the left shoulders were immobilized with plaster for 1,2,3 and 4 weeks.At the end of each time point,2 rats from each group were euthanized and shoulders prepared for serial histological observations of the glenohumeral joints,as well as picrosirius red and immunohistochemical observation of type Ⅲ collagen.Histological sections of the remaining rat shoulders were used for the immunohistochemical detection of the capsular content of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen.Results The hyperplastic synovium of the anterior capsule obstructed the communication between the SSB and the glenohumeral joint cavity at 2 and 3 weeks.The adhesion of the SSB appeared at 3 and 4 weeks.The quantitative and qualitative results showed that the capsular contents of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen progressively increased at 2,3 and 4 weeks,and that type Ⅲ collagen was distributed extensively within the joint capsule at 2 and 3 weeks.Conclusion Immobilization of the rat shoulder induced synovial hyperplasia of the joint capsule,adhesion of the SSB and an increase of the capsular content of types Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen.

  3. Combined cataract surgery on a Marfan-syndrome patient (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Zsolt; Szabó, Ilona; Pámer, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Combined cataract surgery of an ectopic lens was performed on a 10 years old girl with Marfan-syndrome. A Cionni capsular tension ring was implanted into the capsular bag, and the bag was pulled to its place and fixed with a scleral suture. Because of the young age of the patient a primary posterior capsulorhexis was performed, through which anterior vitrectomy was carried out and the artificial lens was implanted into the capsular bag. In the literature several surgical solutions are advised for the treatment of the ectopic lens in patients with Marfan-syndrome. We have performed a successful surgery combined with posterior capsulorhexis in our case. Because of its rarity and special surgical solution, we think this case report is interesting and can be helpful in such cases to be published.

  4. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR EXISTENCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS THAT BLOCK OVARIAN GRANULOSA-CELL GROWTH-INVITRO - A PUTATIVE ROLE IN RESISTANT OVARY SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWEISSENBRUCH, MM; HOEK, A; VAN VLIET BLEEKER, I.; SCHOEMAKER, J; DREXHAGE, H

    1991-01-01

    The sera of 26 patients with premature ovarian failure were examined in order to detect immunoglobulin-G (IgGs) that can block FSH-induced in vitro granulosa cell DNA synthesis via, a Feulgen cytochemical bioassay system. The IgGs of four patients with polycystic ovary-like disease, five postmenopau

  6. Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Apicella

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3-beta-D-QuiNAc-(1->2-beta-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 microg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis

  7. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation: Qualitative Classification and Quantitative Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement.This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China.Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I-capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II-capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III-capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed.The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I-120 eyes (38.1%); Type II-157 eyes (49.8%); Type III-38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.572, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation with intraoperative posterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.16, P = 0.122) was observed. The ACOA significantly decreased from Type I to Type II to Type III, the PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased

  8. Structural determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae repeat units in serotype 41A and 41F capsular polysaccharides to probe gene functions in the corresponding capsular biosynthetic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent O.; Skovsted, Ian C.; Paulsen, Berit Smestad;

    2014-01-01

    (1) by anambitionto help close the remaining gaps in S. pneumoniaecapsular polysaccharide structures, and (2)by the attempt to derive functional annotationsof carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides from the determined structures. Anactivitypresent in 41F but not...... genomic information and computational homology searches. In combination with complementary information, NMR spectroscopy considerably simplifiesthe functional annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides......We report the repeating unit structures ofthe native capsular polysaccharidesof S. pneumoniaeserotypes 41A and 41F. Structuraldeterminationsyieldedsix carbohydrate units in the doubly branched repeating unit to givethe following structure for serotype 41A:The structure determinations were motivated...

  9. 肩胛上神经联合肩胛背神经阻滞治疗颈肩部疼痛综合征的临床观察%The clinical observation of suprascapular nerve block combined with dorsal scapular nerve block in the treatment for patients with neck ;and shoulder pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永彬; 李彦平; 罗克金

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察应用肩胛上神经联合肩胛背神经阻滞治疗颈肩部疼痛综合征的临床疗效。方法选择颈肩部疼痛患者30例,随机分为局部痛点封闭组(LB组,n=15)和肩胛上神经联合肩胛背神经阻滞组(NB组,n=15),其中LB组接受局部痛点封闭与耸肩运动康复治疗,而NB组接受肩胛上神经联合肩胛背神经阻滞与耸肩运动康复治疗。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后1周、治疗后3周的疼痛程度、颈部及肩关节活动度。结果两组治疗后疼痛程度均较治疗前显著降低( P ﹤0.05),且NB组治疗后1周和3周的疼痛程度显著低于LB组( P ﹤0.05)。NB组颈椎及肩关节功能活动度在治疗后显著升高( P ﹤0.05),且治疗后1周和3周的颈椎及肩关节功能活动度明显高于LB组( P ﹤0.05)。结论肩胛上神经联合肩胛背神经阻滞治疗颈肩部疼痛综合征可以有效减轻疼痛症状,并明显改善因疼痛所致的颈椎及肩关节功能活动受限。%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of suprascapular nerve block combined with dorsal scapular nerve block in the treatment for patients with neck and shoulder pain syndrome. Methods Thirty patients with neck and shoulder pain syndrome were randomly as-signed group LB(n=15)in which patients received local pain point injection and shoulder rehabilitation and group NB(n=15)in which pa-tients received suprascapular nerve block combined with dorsal scapular nerve block and shoulder rehabilitation. The pain intensity and range of motion in neck and shoulder were observed. Results The pain intensity after the treatment was significantly lower than that before the treatment in both groups( P ﹤0. 05),and the pain intensity after the treatment in group NB was significantly lower than that in group LB( P ﹤0. 05). The range of motion in neck and shoulder after the treatment was significantly greater than that before the treatment in

  10. Ankle impingement syndromes; Impingement-Syndrome am Sprunggelenk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiber, Matthias; Woertler, Klaus [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2010-06-15

    Soft-tissue and osseous impingement syndromes can be an important cause of chronic ankle pain, particularly in the professional athlete. The classification of ankle impingement syndromes is based to their anatomical location around the tibiotalar joint. The most important impingement syndromes are anterolateral, anterior and posterior impingement with more recent studies describing posteromedial and anteromedial impingement. Usually conventional radiography is the first imaging technique to be performed as it allows assessment of potential bone abnormalities, particularly in anterior and posterior joint compartments. Computed tomography (CT) only plays a role in the assessment of the posterior impingement. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is regarded as the modality of choice as it is able to demonstrate both osseous and soft tissue changes, such as bone marrow edema, capsular and ligametous thickening, and localized synovitis. (orig.)

  11. Generation of a murine monoclonal antibody to capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Reyes-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hybridoma technology has enabled the development of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against many antigens. Mabs have several applications in the field of basic research, diagnosis, immunotherapy and vaccine manufacturing processes. Mabs-producing hybridomas against the capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi were obtained, after intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsular polysaccharide Vi conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, and subsequent fusion of lymphocytes isolated of the spleen and myeloma cells SP2/O. A Mab was selected, partially characterized, and named as 4G3E11. The isotype of this Mab was IgG1. It was proved by means of a sandwich ELISA that the 4G3E11 Mab reacts with different concentrations of polysaccharide in samples of the vax-TyVi® vaccine. The Mab obtained in this research could be useful as reagent for the detection and quantitation of polysaccharide Vi in typhoid vaccines.

  12. Ghost Block

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  13. Capsular Gene Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Compared to Serotyping by Latex Agglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, K.; Poulsen, K.; Maione, D.; Rinaudo, C. D.; Baldassarri, L.; Telford, J L; Sorensen, U. B. S.; Kilian, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutina...

  14. Theoretical study on conformational conversion of 1,3-dioxane inside a capsular host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Wang; Zuo Yin Yang; Xiu Li Wang; Jing Chang Zhang; Wei Liang Cao

    2007-01-01

    The conformational conversion of 1,3-dioxane guest encapsulated inside a cylindrical capsular host was investigated with PM3method and single point energies were evaluated by B3LYP method. When entrapped in the capsule, the guest tumbles were slower than that in the free condition. The influences of the inner phase of the capsule on the guest conformational conversion were discussed in detail.

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns cross capsular types

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, P.; Srinivasan, U; ZHANG, L.; BORCHARDT, S.M.; Debusscher, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a genetically diverse organism; when typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple types appear within a single serotype. We tested whether S. agalactiae PFGE types correspond to a specific serotype within individuals, and different individuals from the same geographic area. A total of 872 S. agalactiae isolates from 152 healthy individuals were classified by PFGE and capsular serotype. Serotype V was the most homogeneous (Simpson’s diversity index 0.5...

  16. Capsular switching as a strategy to increase pneumococcal virulence in experimental otitis media model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Vishakha; Stevenson, Abbie; Figueira, Marisol; Orthopoulos, George; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Pelton, Stephen I

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that capsular switch event, in which pneumococcus acquires a new capsule operon by horizontal gene transfer, may result in emergence of strains with increased virulence in acute otitis media. Using serotype 6A strain from a patient with invasive pneumococcal disease and clonally distant serotype 6C strain isolated from asymptomatic carrier we created 6A:6C (6A background with 6C capsule) capsular transformants and applied whole genome macro-restriction analysis to assess conservation of the 6A chassis. Next, we assessed complement (C3) and antibodies deposition on surface of pneumococcal cells and tested capsule recipient, capsule donor and two 6A:6C transformants for virulence in chinchilla experimental otitis media model. Both 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants bound less C3 compared to 6C capsule-donor strain but more compared to serotype 6A capsule-recipient strain. Pneumococci were present in significantly higher proportion of ears among animals challenged with either of two 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants compared to chinchillas infected with 6C capsule-donor strain [p < 0.001] whereas a significantly decreased proportion of ears were infected with 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants as compared to 6A capsule-recipient strain. Our observations though limited to two serotypes demonstrate that capsular switch events can result in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of enhanced virulence for respiratory tract infection.

  17. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Bentley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated. Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines. Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes. We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system. Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1.8 Mbp, almost equivalent to the entire S. pneumoniae chromosomal complement.

  18. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  19. A retrospective study of the indications and outcomes of capsular tension ring insertion during cataract surgery at a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bob Z Wang, Elsie Chan, Rasik B Vajpayee The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Background: The purpose was to determine preoperative indications, intraoperative procedures, and outcomes of capsular tension ring (CTR insertion during cataract surgery. Methods: A review of all patients undergoing cataract surgery with insertion of a CTR between July 2000 and June 2010 was conducted at The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Victoria, Australia. Information relating to each patient's demographic details, preoperative assessment, surgical procedure, and postoperative assessment were obtained. Results: Eighty-four eyes of 82 patients were included in this study. The main indications for CTR insertion were previous trauma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and mature cataracts. Twenty-one eyes (25.0% did not have any obvious preoperative indication. A posterior capsule tear was the most common intraoperative complication (3.6%. An intraocular lens was successfully implanted in the bag in 72 eyes (85.7%. Postoperatively, the most common complications were a decentered intraocular lens (8.3% and persistent corneal edema (6.0%. Overall, 61 eyes (72.6% had better postoperative visual acuity compared with preoperative acuity, with 67 patients (79.8% achieving vision of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: For the majority of cases, CTR use in complex cataract surgeries is associated with improved postoperative outcomes. CTR implantation is most commonly required in patients with known risk factors for zonular instability. Keywords: capsular tension ring, cataract extraction, indications, outcomes

  20. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  1. Huhe Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Huhe Block is located in the mid-west part of Inner Mogolia Autonomous Region, covering an area of 15 079km2, in the range of 109°40'-112°00'E and 39°23()-40°40'N. Topographically. the Fengzhen hill is to the east, the Yinshan Mounts is to the north, the Hetao Plain and Ordos Plateau are respectively in its west and south.The Yellow River flows across this block. The elevation is 1 000 m in the flat area and in the range of 1 000-1 300m. in the plateau area, good for the development of agriculture and industry as well as husbandry. It belongs to inland plateau climate with annually averaged temperature of 8℃, the minimum being -12℃ in winter and the maximum 22℃ in summer.

  2. Effect of zafirlukast on capsular contracture around silicone implants in rats Efeito do zafirlukast na contratura capsular ao redor de implantes de silicone em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Malheiros Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of zafirlukast on capsular contracture around silicone implants by measuring the pressure within the implant, using a rat experimental model. METHODS: Forty adult female Wistar rats were used. Each one received two silicone implants, one with smooth-surface and the other with textured-surface. They were randomly divided into four groups (n=10. The rats of control group I were sacrificed after the implants. The remaining animals were subjected to a daily regimen of intra-peritoneal injection for a period of 90 days and they were distributed as follows: control group II received 0.9% physiological saline solution; experimental group I received zafirlukast 1.25 mg/kg; and experimental group II received zafirlukast 5 mg/kg. The measurement of intra-implant pressure of control group I was determined on the surgery day and in other groups on the ninetieth day, after being sacrificed. RESULTS: In the evaluation of textured implants there was an increase of internal pressure in the control group II, and there was no increase in the experimental groups. Compared to the controls there were not significant differences in smooth implants. CONCLUSION: Zafirlukast reduced the risk of developing capsular contracture around silicone implants with textured surface.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do zafirlukast na contratura capsular ao redor de implantes de silicone, através da aferição da pressão intra-implante, utilizando-se um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos fêmeas Wistar foram utilizados. Cada um recebeu dois implantes de silicone, sendo um com superfície lisa e outro texturizada. Foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10. Os ratos do grupo controle I foram sacrificados após o implante. O restante dos animais foi submetido a um regime diário de injeção intraperitoneal por um período de 90 dias e foram distribuídos: grupo controle II recebeu solução salina fisiológica 0,9%, grupo

  3. PCR characterization and typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae using capsular type-specific, variable number tandem repeat and virulence gene targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Perry, Claire; Elgohari, Suzanne; Hampton, Catherine V

    2010-05-01

    A multiplex PCR is described which detects capsular types K1, K2, K5, K54 and K57, which are those most associated with invasive disease or pathogenicity, a further capsular type (K20), two putative virulence factors (rmpA and wcaG) and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer unit of Klebsiella pneumoniae, facilitating identification of this organism. wcaG encodes capsular fucose production and was associated with capsular types K1 and K54, but was also found in strains of other capsular types; 18 of the 543 isolates screened were PCR-positive for this gene. An eight-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) scheme was designed, which provided discrimination at a level similar to that afforded by PFGE among a panel of 36 isolates representing 29 PFGE types. All isolates tested of the virulent K1 clone of CC23, associated with pyogenic liver abscesses, shared the same VNTR profile, which may be helpful in identifying this clone; such isolates were also PCR-positive for allS. These methods provide a rapid means of characterizing and typing isolates of this important agent of community-acquired and nosocomial infection.

  4. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  5. Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required. Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers. Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was 80.8 years with a range of 42–100 years. 73 underwent arthroplasty and 17 had internal fixation. All observers, including the radiographer were able to make a surgical decision in 90% of the cases based on AP views alone. Lateral radiographs improved the diagnostic accuracy by 6%. The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture. Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra-capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph. Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made.

  6. Ipsilateral Brachial Plexus Block and Hemidiaphragmatic Paresis as Adverse Effect of a High Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, Steven H.; van Geffen, Geert J.; Snoeren, Miranda M.; Gielen, Matthieu J.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thoracic paravertebral block is regularly used for unilateral chest and abdominal surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with an ipsilateral brachial plexus block with Horner syndrome after a high continuous thoracic paravertebral blo

  7. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the...

  8. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype...

  9. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes...

  10. Association of the Pneumococcal Pilus with Certain Capsular Serotypes but Not with Increased Virulence▿

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, Alan; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Hermos, Christina; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; McAdam, Alexander J.; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of a mobile genetic element encoding a pilus-like structure in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the demonstration of a role for the pilus in virulence in mice have led to the proposal of the use of the pilus as a candidate pneumococcal vaccine. We examined the frequency of occurrence of the pneumococcal pilus, as determined by the presence of the rrgC gene, and analyzed its association with virulence, capsular serotypes, and multilocus sequence types in the American Indian pn...

  11. A MEMS-Based Micro Biopsy Actuator for the Capsular Endoscope Using LiGA Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunkil; Koo, Kyo-In; Kim, Gil-Sub; Bang, Seoung Min; Song, Si Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil ``Dan''

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a LiGA (German acronym for LIthografie, Galvanoformung, Abformung) based micro biopsy actuator for the capsular endoscope. The proposed fabricated actuator aims to extract sample tissues inside small gastric intestines, that cannot be reached by conventional biopsy. The actuator size is 10 mm in diameter and 1.8 mm in length. The mechanism is of a slider-crank type. The actuator consists of trigger, rotational module, and micro biopsy tool. The core components are fabricated using the LiGA process, for overcoming the limitations in accuracy of conventional precision machining.

  12. 星状神经节阻滞治疗经前期综合征的研究%Study of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 田斌斌; 顾春亮; 胡百奇; 张瑞杰; 贺淑君; 郭玉娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the curative effect of stellate ganglion block therapy on premenstrual syndrome and the effect on serum estradiol ( E2 ) and progesterone ( P) .Methods 112 patients under stellate ganglion block were selected as observation group, which was treated with the injection 7 days after menstruation once time per 3 days, 4 times for 1 courses, 7 days after the next menstruation the treatment continued, and they patients were treated for 3 menstruation cycles.Some healthy women volunteers with the same age as observation group were selected as control group.Blood samples were collected before and after four different periods of menstrual cycle in both groups to detect serum E2 and P content by radioimmunoassay. The changes of major symptoms of premenstrual syndrome ( premenstrual breast swelling pain, insomnia, dysmenorrhea, men-strual headache, irritability, menstrual edema) were observed during the treatment course, and the total curative effect was e-valuated after 3 cycles of treatment.Results 100 cases of patients completed their treatment in observation group.The level of E2 decreased much in secretion and proliferation stage, P secretion peak was lacking;E2 proliferative phase, secretory phase appeared two peak of stellate ganglion block therapy after 3 cycles, and close to the normal level(P<0.01);P secretion peak return to normal.In the treatment of the third menstrual cycles, the total effective rates of the 6 major symptoms of premenstru-al syndrome, premenstrual breast pain, insomnia, menstrual headache, irritability, the edema were all 100%, that of abdomi-nal pain reached 95%.The total efficiency was 96%after 3 cycles of treatment.Conclusion Hormone level changes periodi-cally in different phases of menstrual cycle, especially serum E2 , P changes is the important mechanism in patients with differ-ent symptoms of premenstrual syndrome;stellate ganglion block through a misaligned on E2 , P hormone level changes periodi-cally to

  13. Isolation of a bacteriophage specific for a new capsular type of Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterization of its polysaccharide depolymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ru Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant infections. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS is an important virulence factor of K. pneumoniae. With 78 capsular types discovered thus far, an association between capsular type and the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae has been observed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate an initially non-typeable K. pneumoniae UTI isolate NTUH-K1790N, the cps gene region was sequenced. By NTUH-K1790N cps-PCR genotyping, serotyping and determination using a newly isolated capsular type-specific bacteriophage, we found that NTUH-K1790N and three other isolates Ca0507, Ca0421 and C1975 possessed a new capsular type, which we named KN2. Analysis of a KN2 CPS(- mutant confirmed the role of capsule as the target recognized by the antiserum and the phage. A newly described lytic phage specific for KN2 K. pneumoniae, named 0507-KN2-1, was isolated and characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequencing of 0507-KN2-1 revealed a 159 991 bp double-stranded DNA genome with a G+C content of 46.7% and at least 154 open reading frames. Based on its morphological and genomic characteristics, 0507-KN2-1 was classified as a member of the Myoviridae phage family. Further analysis of this phage revealed a 3738-bp gene encoding a putative polysaccharide depolymerase. A recombinant form of this protein was produced and assayed to confirm its enzymatic activity and specificity to KN2 capsular polysaccharides. KN2 K. pneumoniae strains exhibited greater sensitivity to this depolymerase than these did to the cognate phage, as determined by spot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report that a group of clinical strains possess a novel Klebsiella capsular type. We identified a KN2-specific phage and its polysaccharide depolymerase, which could be used for efficient capsular typing. The lytic phage and depolymerase also have potential as

  14. Capsular synovial metaplasia mimicking silicone leak of a breast prosthesis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnanandan Sarah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Synovial metaplasia around a prosthesis and in particular around silicone breast implants has been noted by various investigators, but has unknown clinical significance. We report on a patient where a large amount of synovial fluid mimicked rupture of an implant. We believe this to be an unusual clinical presentation of this phenomenon. Review of the English language literature failed to identify a comparable case. Case presentation A 25-year-old woman had undergone bilateral breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons. One implant was subsequently subjected to two attempts at expansion to correct asymmetry. The patient was later found to have a large quantity of viscous fluid around the port of that same prosthesis. Histological assessment of the implant had consequently confirmed capsular synovial metaplasia. This had initially caused the suspicion of a silicone 'bleed' from the implant and had resulted in an unnecessary explantation. Conclusion Capsular synovial metaplasia should be ruled out before the removal of breast implants where a leak is suspected. Manipulation and expansion of an implant may be risk factors for the development of synovial metaplasia.

  15. Effects of Zafirlukast on the Capsular Fibrosis of Silicone Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Hocaoglu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Smooth-surfaced, gel-filled prostheses were implanted in 36 rats. Group A: The day of the operation, 12 animals received Zafirlukast treatment for 14 weeks (oral gavage, once a day, 6 days a week, 4 mg/kg/day; Group B: 10 weeks after the operation, 12 animals received Zafirlukast treatment for 4 weeks; Group C: 12 animals were implanted but did not receive treatment; Group D: 12 animals did not have an operation, but for 14 weeks received oral gavage containing water instead of Zafirlukast. At the end of the 14 weeks, the implants with the surrounding capsules were extracted. Blind macroscopic inspectional evaluation of the capsules was performed, and microscopic capsular thickness measurements were made. Results: The mean capsular thickness was 0.033 mm (SD: 0.011 in Group A, and 0.089 mm (SD: 0.023 and 0.125 mm (SD: 0.025 in Groups B and C, respectively. Differences between Groups A and C and between Groups A and B were significant (p0.05. Similarly, Macroscopic Inspectional Fibrosis Scoring showed a significant difference between Groups A and C and a non-significant difference between Groups B and C. Conclusion: Daily prophylactic oral administration of Zafirlukast immediately after implantation significantly diminishes the development of fibrotic capsules around the silicone prostheses. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 139-146

  16. Structural studies on some capsular antigens from Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the structural studies of bacterial capsular polysaccharides (K-antigens) from Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Klebsiella is presented. There is a general trend in the structural elucidation of polysaccharides towards the analysis of higher oligosaccharides. This trend has been facilitated by advances in modern instrumental techniques for the analysis of oligosaccharides, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structural elucidations of the capsular polysaccharides from E. Coli K37 and K55, and Klebsiella K39 are reported. This elucidation of K-antigens provides an insight into the response of mammalian immune systems to antigenic stimuli. The usefulness of bacteriophage degradation as a technique for the structural elucidation of polysaccharides containing repeating unit structures is emphasized. The bacteriophage degradation of E. coli K55 polysaccharide illustrates that bacteriophage-borne enzymes may be used to degrade chemically related carbohydrate materials. The bacteriophage technique for the structural elucidation of the Klebsiella K39 polysaccharide also illustrates the advantages of this technique where the polysaccharide contains labile glycosidic bonds which are readily cleaved during standard chemical analysis. The enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides allows high yields of specific oligosaccharides to be recovered. The feasibility of analysing small amounts of carbohydrate material has become realistic due to improved instrumental capabilities. At the same time, more detailed information concerning the fine structure of known carbohydrate materials can be elucidated. 421 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs

  17. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征阻塞定位诊断分析%Diagnostic analysis of blocking position of the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)患者的腭后区和舌后区可能造成阻塞的差别。方法:在医院内随机抽取46例OSAHS患者,分别采用纤维喉镜结合Mǚller检查(FPMM)和整夜上气道压力测定(UAPM)两种方法对患者腭后区和舌后区阻塞进行判定。采用UAPM法的患者要求采用阻塞构成比>30%作为判定阻塞的标准。结果:采用UAPM法的患者,腭后区阻塞36例(72%),舌后区阻塞31例(58%)。采用FPMM法的患者,分别采用塌陷度≥75%,塌陷度≥90%,两个不同的数值范围作为判定腭后区阻塞的标准时,腭后区阻塞的例数、检出率及一致性系数随着塌陷度的增大而增大,分别采用塌陷度≥75%,塌陷度≥50%为判定舌后区阻塞的标准时,阻塞的例数、检出率及一致性系数随着塌陷度的增加而降低。结论:用FPMM和UAPM这两种方法对腭后区和舌后区进行判定,腭后区阻塞的一致性高于舌后区,为使FPMM和UAPM这两种方法判断的一致性,可以适当提高FPMM判定腭后区阻塞的标准而降低其判定舌后区阻塞的标准。%Objective:To investigate the difference of pharyngeal and lingual region may cause obstruction in the patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS).Methods:46 cases with OSAHS were randomly selected in the hospital.We used the fiber laryngoscope combined with M agreement ller examination(FPMM) and night of upper airway pressure measurements(UAPM) methods to judge on the obstruction is pharyngeal or lingual region.The cases who used the method of UAPM by blocking ratio>30% as a judge blocked standard.Results:In the cases who used the method of UAPM,36 cases were pharyngeal obstruction(72%),31 cases were obstruction of the lingual region(58%).In the cases who used the method of FPMM, respectively by the collapse degree≥75% ,collapse degree≥90% .Two different numerical range as the judging standard

  18. Efficacy Observation of Stellate Ganglion Block in the Treatment of Post-stroke Shoulder-hand Syndrome in Early Stage%星状神经阻滞治疗脑卒中后早期肩手综合征疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical curative effect of stellate ganglion block ,treating post-stroke shoulder-hand syndrome in early stage. Methods: 60 cases of post-stroke shoulder-hand syndrome in early stage were in treatment of stellate ganglion block. Re-sults: 20 cases were powerfully effective, 37 were valid, and 3 were invalid, the total efficiency was 95%. Conclusion: Stellate gan-glion block in the treatment of early shoulder hand syndrome of edema and pain is clearly effective.%  目的:观察星状神经阻滞治疗脑卒中后早期肩手综合征的临床疗效。方法:60例脑卒中后肩手综合征患者均进行星状神经阻滞治疗。结果:显效20例,有效37例,无效3例,总有效率95%。结论:星状神经阻滞治疗早期肩手综合征疼痛水肿效果明显。

  19. Synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 capsular polysaccharide repeating unit using novel L-FucNAc and D-FucNAc synthons and immunochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Elisa; Proietti, Daniela; Brogioni, Giulia; Romano, Maria R; Cappelletti, Emilia; Tontini, Marta; Berti, Francesco; Lay, Luigi; Costantino, Paolo; Adamo, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections. Glycoconjugates of type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides have been investigated for vaccine application. The proposed structure of type 5 polysaccharide is: →4-β-D-ManNAcA-(1→4)-α-L-FucNAc(3OAc)-(1→3)-β-D-FucNAc-(1→. The stereocontrolled insertion of these three glycosydic bonds is a real synthetic challenge. In the present paper we report the preparation of two novel versatile L- and D-fucosamine synthons from commercially available starting materials. In addition we applied the two building blocks to the synthesis of type 5 trisaccharide repeating unit. The immunochemical properties of the synthesized trisaccharide were assessed by competitive ELISA and by immunodot blot analysis using sera of mice immunized with type 5 polysaccharide conjugated to CRM(197). The results suggest that although the type 5 S. aureus trisaccharide is recognized by specific anti polysaccharide antibodies in dot blot, structures longer than the trisaccharide may be needed in order to significantly compete with the native type 5 polymer in the binding with sera from mice immunized with S. aureus type 5 polysaccharide-CRM(197) conjugate. PMID:23000295

  20. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture

  1. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  2. Serological response following re-vaccination with Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines in healthy adult travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggelin, Louise; Vinnemeier, Christof D; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Johnson-Weaver, Brandi T; Rolling, Thierry; Burchard, Gerd D; Staats, Herman F; Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-08-01

    An injectable Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever is available but vaccine-induced immunity tends to wane over time. The phenomenon of immunotolerance or hyporesponsiveness has earlier been described for polysaccharide vaccines such as pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine and some publications also suggest a possible immunotolerance after revaccination with Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. In this study, post-immunisation antibody concentrations in adult travellers first vaccinated with a Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine (primary vaccination group) were compared with those having received one or more vaccinations previously (multiple vaccinations group). Vaccines administered were Typherix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), Typhim Vi(®) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) or Hepatyrix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline). Blood samples were obtained prior to vaccination (day 0) and on day 28 (-1/+14) after vaccination. Serum Vi-Antigen IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA. Of the 85 subjects included in the per protocol data set, 45 (53%) belonged to the multiple vaccinations group. In both groups, geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination. Pre-vaccination GMCs were lower in the primary vaccination group than in the multiple vaccinations group (3.40 μg/ml versus 6.13 μg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no significant difference in the post vaccination GMCs between groups (11.34 μg/ml versus 14.58 μg/ml, P=0.4). In the multiple vaccinations group, vaccination was performed 18 to 57 months after the last vaccination (median 38 months) and there was a negative correlation between time since last vaccination and antibody concentration on day 0. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a relevant immunotolerance after multiple versus primary vaccination with S. typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines.

  3. Variations in the molecular masses of the capsular exopolysaccharides amylovoran, pyrifolan and stewartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeyer, Martin; Langlotz, Christine; Huber, Anton; Coplin, David L; Geider, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora, causing fire blight of apple, pear and some ornamentals, Erwinia pyrifoliae, causing Asian pear blight, and Pantoea stewartii, causing Stewart's wilt of sweet maize, synthesize capsular extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with a high molecular mass. The EPSs are virulence factors and form viscous aggregates, which participate in clogging vessels of infected plants and causing wilting. The sizes of EPSs produced under different environmental growth conditions were determined by analysis with large pore HPLC columns. Their molecular mass of ca. 5 MDa, when isolated from agar plates, decreases to ca. 1 MDa for E. amylovora amylovoran from freeze-dried supernatants from liquid cultures and to 2 MDa for freeze-dried preparations of P. stewartii stewartan. Size changes were also found following growth in various other media and for different strains. Stewartan, amylovoran and E. pyrifoliae pyrifolan were also shown to be completely degraded by a bacteriophage EPS depolymerase. PMID:22266385

  4. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  5. Transient Automatic Writing Behavior following a Left Inferior Capsular Genu Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital with decreased spontaneity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left inferior capsular genu infarction. 99mTC-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a left-dominant diffuse hypoperfusionin the basal ganglia and frontal lobe. The patient showed abulia and increased writing activity without motor or sensory deficit. The writing was mainly perseverative, and words written along lines were legible and without spatial distortions. This augmented writing behavior disappeared on day 21. The writing characteristic was more similar to automatic writing behavior than hypergraphia. Dissociation between speech and writing behavior was present in our patient. We suggest that a disconnection within the frontal-subcortical circuit contributed to the development of motor perseveration in writing.

  6. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Tamding; Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Spees, Alanna M; Yu, Chenzhou; Kingsbury, Dawn D; Winter, Sebastian E; Hastey, Christine J; Wilson, R Paul; Heinrich, Volkmar; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor (C5aR). Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi) capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  7. Variations in the molecular masses of the capsular exopolysaccharides amylovoran, pyrifolan and stewartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeyer, Martin; Langlotz, Christine; Huber, Anton; Coplin, David L; Geider, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora, causing fire blight of apple, pear and some ornamentals, Erwinia pyrifoliae, causing Asian pear blight, and Pantoea stewartii, causing Stewart's wilt of sweet maize, synthesize capsular extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with a high molecular mass. The EPSs are virulence factors and form viscous aggregates, which participate in clogging vessels of infected plants and causing wilting. The sizes of EPSs produced under different environmental growth conditions were determined by analysis with large pore HPLC columns. Their molecular mass of ca. 5 MDa, when isolated from agar plates, decreases to ca. 1 MDa for E. amylovora amylovoran from freeze-dried supernatants from liquid cultures and to 2 MDa for freeze-dried preparations of P. stewartii stewartan. Size changes were also found following growth in various other media and for different strains. Stewartan, amylovoran and E. pyrifoliae pyrifolan were also shown to be completely degraded by a bacteriophage EPS depolymerase.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz-Aviles, G; Velázquez-Meza, M E; Carnalla-Barajas, M N; Soto-Noguerón, A; Solórzano-Santos, F; Pérez Miravete, A; Gatica-Marquina, R; di Fabio, J L

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) initiative, we conducted a surveillance study to determine the relative prevalence of capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates in children less than 5 years old. We collected 220 isolates and found 33 of the 90 known types, with type 23F as the most common followed by types 6A+B, 14, 19F, and 19A. High penicillin resistance was found in 49 strains (22.2%), 31 belonging to type 23F. Twenty-nine (13.1%) were resistant to erythromycin, 95 (43.1%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 24 (10.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime. No strains were resistant to vancomycin.

  9. Stealthy role of size-driven stresses in biomechanics of breast implants capsular contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraldi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Luca; Cutolo, Arsenio; Carotenuto, Angelo Rosario; Adamo, Ciro; Molea, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Breast Capsular Contracture (BCC) is one of the adverse complications occurring with greater incidence in breast augmentation surgical procedures. Its formation can be interpreted as the conclusive result of the physiological process known as response to a foreign body. From a biochemical standpoint, the formation of the peri-prosthetic capsule is certainly a multifactorial process: many hypotheses concerning its etiology have been suggested in the literature and a number of related pharmacological protocols have been consequently proposed to clinically treat this pathology with the aim to prevent further complications and avoid future re-interventions. However, the vast majority of these theories seems to be only partially supported by clinical outcomes and thus a shared opinion on this matter is still absent among specialists. Within this framework, by starting from clinical observations which highlighted an unexpected correlation between histo-morphological features of fibrotic capsules and overall size of breast implants, the present study investigates the hypothesis that the biomechanical interaction between prosthesis and host tissue may play a crucial role in the biological processes governing the pathological phenomenon at hand. Therefore, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms which could trigger the breast capsular contracture, both simple analytical solutions, in which elasticity and growth are simultaneously taken into account, and more accurate geometrically faithful Finite Element-based numerical simulations have been exploited. The theoretical findings demonstrate that somehow counter-intuitive radial and hoop stress fields occur at the capsula-implant interface in a way such that their combined action, independently from other possible concurrent factors, results significantly amplified for small-size breast prostheses, localized stress peaks in these cases promoting detaching and rippling phenomena actually observed in BCC clinical

  10. Influence of capsular tension ring on posterior capsule opacification in myopic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Halili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the effect of a capsular tension ring (CTR implantation in preventing posterior capsular opacification (PCO after cataract surgery in patients with high myopia. Materials and Methods: In this prospective single-surgeon standardized-surgical-procedure fellow-eye comparison trial, 34 patients with high myopia had phacoemulsification surgery. Although one eye received an acrylic intraocular lens (IOL and CTR, other eye received only an IOL as control. PCO, within the capsulorhexis overlap, was documented by standardized digital retroillumination images at least 2 years post-operatively, and the percentage area of PCO was scored (scale 0%-100% using the POCOman software system. The PCO score and the incidence of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG capsulotomy of groups, and correlations between PCO score and presence of CTR, age, phaco time, refraction, and axial length (AL were determined. Results: The mean time interval from surgery to PCO measurement was 43.4 ± 11.2 months for the eyes with a CTR and 43.1 ± 11.6 months for the controls (P = 0.91. The PCO score of the eyes with a CTR was significantly lower than in the controls (5.9 ± 4.3 vs. 22.3 ± 12.2, respectively; P < 0.001. There were statistically insignificant correlations between PCO score and pre-operative refraction (r = 0.02; P = 0.90, AL (r = 0.03; P = 0.80, phaco time (r = 0.11; P = 0.53, and patient′s age (r = 0.23; P = 0.55. No patient with a CTR had a Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy, but it was six in controls (P = 0.025. Conclusions: CTR implantation seems to be effective in reducing the PCO and Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy rates in high myopic eyes.

  11. Functions of some capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH K-2044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    Full Text Available The growing number of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, commonly acquired in hospitals, has drawn great concern. It has been shown that the K1 and K2 capsular serotypes are the most detrimental strains, particularly to those with diabetes. The K1 cps (capsular polysaccharide locus in the NTUH-2044 strain of the pyogenic liver abscess (PLA K. pneumoniae has been identified recently, but little is known about the functions of the genes therein. Here we report characterization of a group of cps genes and their roles in the pathogenesis of K1 K. pneumoniae. By sequential gene deletion, the cps gene cluster was first re-delimited between genes galF and ugd, which serve as up- and down-stream ends, respectively. Eight gene products were characterized in vitro and in vivo to be involved in the syntheses of UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronic acid and GDP-fucose building units. Twelve genes were identified as virulence factors based on the observation that their deletion mutants became avirulent or lost K1 antigenicity. Furthermore, deletion of kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 (ΔwcaI, ΔwcaG or Δatf, respectively, which are all involved in fucose biosynthesis, led to a broad range of transcriptional suppression for 52 upstream genes. The genes suppressed include those coding for unknown regulatory membrane proteins and six multidrug efflux system proteins, as well as proteins required for the K1 CPS biosynthesis. In support of the suppression of multidrug efflux genes, we showed that these three mutants became more sensitive to antibiotics. Taken together, the results suggest that kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 genes are strongly related to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae K1.

  12. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  13. Different Accumulation Profiles of Multiple Components Between Pericarp and Seed of Alpinia oxyphylla Capsular Fruit as Determined by UFLC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Chen; Hai-Long Li; Yin-Feng Tan; Wei-Wei Guan; Jun-Qing Zhang; Yong-Hui Li; Yuan-Sheng Zhao; Zhen-Miao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are known to not only play a key role in the adaptation of plants to their environment, but also represent an important source of active pharmaceuticals. Alpinia oxyphylla capsular fruits, made up of seeds and pericarps, are commonly used in traditional East Asian medicines. In clinical utilization of these capsular fruits, inconsistent processing approaches (i.e., hulling pericarps or not) are employed, with the potential of leading to differential pharmacological...

  14. Comparative study on effect of acupuncture and lidocaine block for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome%针刺与利多卡因阻滞治疗腰部肌筋膜疼痛综合征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜桂美; 林谋德; 王路英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture at Jiaji(EX-B 2) points mainly for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Methods Sixty-six cases of MPS were randomized into an acupuncture group and a Iidocaine group, 33 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points combined with needling local myofascial trigger points (MTrP), and the lidocaine group was treated with local block at trigger points with lidocaine injection. The treatment was given once every 2 days. After three and five times of the treatment, the simplified McGill scale, Oswestry disability index (ODD and pressure-pain threshold were assessed to compare the therapeutic effects between the two groups. Results After treatment, the scores of simplified McGill and ODI of two groups were obviously reduced while the score of pressure-pain threshold was obviously increased (all P0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points combined with needling MTrP is an effective and safe therapy for lumbar MPS, the therapeutic effect is equal to Iidocaine block.%目的:观察针刺夹脊穴为主治疗腰背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的临床疗效.方法:将符合腰背部MPS诊断的患者66例随机分为针刺组与利多卡因组各33例.针刺组采用针刺腰背部夹脊穴为主,配合肌筋膜触发点局部针刺;利多卡因组采用利多卡因触发点局部阻滞治疗.两组均每3天治疗1次,治疗3次和5次后应用简化McGill量表、Oswestry功能障碍指数问卷表和压痛阈测定来观察两组对腰背部MPS疼痛的影响.结果:针刺组与利多卡因组治疗3次和5次后均较治疗前在简化的McGill量表评分和Oswestry功能障碍评分方面显著下降,压痛阈测定显著升高(均P<0.01).并且在治疗3次和5次后两组之间3项评分均差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论:针刺夹脊穴是治疗MPS的一种有效方法,其疗效与利多卡因局部阻滞法相当.

  15. The effect of segmental neuromyotherapy by blocking on myofascial pain syndrome%节段性神经肌肉疗法阻滞治疗肌筋膜痛综合征的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延砚; 周谋望; 李玳; 刘楠; 李涛; 谷莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of segmental neuromyotherapy(SNMT) by blocking on myofascial pain syndrome patients(MPS), anrl its influence on the patients' motor function recovery.Method: Thirty-two MPS patients were involved in this study, 12 patients' range of motion(ROM) training of knee joints were delayed by pain. All the patients received SNMT therapy by paravertebral block with or without local infiltration, and followed by motor function rehabilitative training. The 0-10 numeric rating scale(NRS) was assessed before and after SNMT therapy, and 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after the treatment. To the patients whose ROM training were impacted by pain, passive ranges of motion(PROM) were measured before and after SNMT therapy, and also 6 months after treatment.Result: The original average NRS marks was 7.57 ± 1.18, immediately decreased to 3.75 ± 1.9 after SNMT, and were 3.68 ± 1.86,3.48 ± 2.03,3.20 + 1.64 and 2.55 ± 1.70 at 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after treatment. All of marks after SNMT changed significantly compared with the marks before treatment(P=0.000). To the patients whose ROM training were impacted by pain, the average PROM was 97.50° ± 30.11° before SNMT therapy and 107.92° ± 29.11° immediately after treatment, 135.83° ± 7.026° 6 months after treatment. Both of the latterchanged significantly (P=0.001 and 0.000 respectively).Conclusion: SNMT by blocking has immediate and long-term effects on MPS. To the patients who havepain-related ROM limitation, SNMT by blocking is helpful to develop the PROM immediately.%目的:观察节段性神经肌肉疗法(SNMT)阻滞治疗用于肌筋膜痛综合征治疗的疗效及对患者运动功能恢复的影响.方法:选取32例肌筋膜痛综合征患者,其中12例患者的疼痛与膝关节活动相关且影响了关节活动度训练的进度.所有患者进行SNMT治疗.SNMT治疗是对患者进行椎旁阻滞,有的患者加局部浸润.SNMT治疗后进行运动

  16. Creative Construction: Unit Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of unit blocks with young children in early childhood education (ECE) settings to expand all areas of the curriculum. Discusses the origin of blocks in ECE programs, presents developmental stages of block play, describes children's building styles, and makes recommendations for getting started in block play for children of…

  17. Bochdalek Hernia As A Cause Of Intermittent AV Block

    OpenAIRE

    Etsadashvili, Kakhaber; Rashid, Haroon Mohammed; Jalabadze, Khatuna; Melia, Anzor

    2011-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is very rare cause of AV block. We report such a patient with sick sinus node syndrome and previous AAIR pacemaker implantation, in which intermittent AV block was diagnosed by 24-hours ECG monitoring and upgrade of pacing system to DDDR was suggested.

  18. Comparison of DNA Dot Blot Hybridization and Lancefield Capillary Precipitin Methods for Group B Streptococcal Capsular Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie M. Borchardt; Foxman, Betsy; Chaffin, Donald O.; Rubens, Craig E.; Tallman, Patricia A.; Manning, Shannon D.; Baker, Carol J.; Marrs, Carl F.

    2004-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) (Streptococcus agalactiae) are a major cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and infants and of invasive disease in pregnant women, nonpregnant, presumably immunocompromised adults, and the elderly. Nine GBS serotypes based on capsular polysaccharide antigens have been described. The serotype distributions among invasive and colonizing isolates differ between pediatric and adult populations and have changed over time. Thus, periodic monitoring of GBS serotype d...

  19. Identification of a Wzy Polymerase Required for Group IV Capsular Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio vulnificus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhamchik, Alina; Wilde, Caroline; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.

    2007-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a human and animal pathogen. The expression of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is essential for virulence. We used a new mini-Tn10 delivery vector, pNKTXI-SceI, to generate a mutant library and identify genes essential for CPS biosynthesis. Twenty-one acapsular mutants were isolated, and the disrupted gene in one mutant, coding for a polysaccharide polymerase (wzy), is described here. A wecA gene initiating glycosyltransferase was among the genes ide...

  20. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A.; Kotb, Mohammed M.; Said, Hatem G.; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M.; ElKady, Hesham A.; ElAssal, Maher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. Methods In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. Results After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex. PMID:25104891

  1. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards & Staff Annual Report & Financials Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of ...

  2. Characterization of the structure and biological functions of a capsular polysaccharide produced by Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunny; Kelley, Kathryn A; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Solinga, Robert; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Misawa, Yoshiki; Lee, Jean C

    2010-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women. S. saprophyticus strain ATCC 15305 carries two staphylococcal cassette chromosome genetic elements, SCC(15305RM) and SCC(15305cap). The SCC(15305cap) element carries 13 open reading frames (ORFs) involved in capsular polysaccharide (CP) biosynthesis, and its G+C content (26.7%) is lower than the average G+C content (33.2%) for the whole genome. S. saprophyticus strain ATCC 15305 capD, capL, and capK (capD(Ssp), capL(Ssp), and capK(Ssp)) are homologous to genes encoding UDP-FucNAc biosynthesis, and gtaB and capI(Ssp) show homology to genes involved in UDP-glucuronic acid synthesis. S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305 CP, visualized by immunoelectron microscopy, was extracted and purified using anionic-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Analysis of the purified CP by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography revealed two types of branched tetrasaccharide repeating units composed of the following: -4)-beta-Glc-(1-3)-Sug-(1-4)-beta-GlcA-(1- | beta-GlcNAc-(1-2) Sug represents two stereoisomers of 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-hexos-4-ulose residues, one of which has an arabino configuration. The encapsulated ATCC 15305 strain was resistant to complement-mediated opsonophagocytic killing by human neutrophils, whereas the acapsular mutant C1 was susceptible. None of 14 clinical isolates reacted with antibodies to the ATCC 15305 CP. However, 11 of the 14 S. saprophyticus isolates were phenotypically encapsulated based on their resistance to complement-mediated opsonophagocytic killing and their failure to hemagglutinate when cultivated aerobically. Ten of the 14 clinical strains carried homologues of the conserved staphylococcal capD gene or the S. saprophyticus gtaB gene, or both. Our results suggest that some strains of S. saprophyticus are encapsulated and that more than one capsular serotype exists.

  3. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico; Giannitelli, Sara M; Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca; Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Cassese, Raffaele; Scuderi, Nicolò; Rainer, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture.

  4. Versatility of Capsular Flaps in the Salvage of Exposed Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Brunetti, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Breast implant exposure due to poor tissue coverage or previous irradiation represents a surgical challenge both in the reconstructive and aesthetic plastic surgery practice. In case of implant extrusion or incipient exposure, the commonly suggested strategies, such as targeted antibiotic therapy, drainage and lavage of the cavity, fistulectomy, and primary closure, may be ineffective leading the surgeon to an unwanted implant removal or to adopt more invasive flap coverage procedures. Breast implant capsule, in its physiological clinical behavior, can be considered as a new reliable source of tissue, which can be used in a wide range of clinical situations. In our hands, capsular flaps proved to be a versatile solution not only to treat breast contour deformities or inframammary fold malpositions but also to salvage exposed breast implants. In this scenario, the use of more invasive surgical techniques can be avoided or simply saved and delayed for future recurrences.(Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2015;3:e340; doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000307; Published online 30 March 2015.

  5. Developing Peptide Mimotopes of Capsular Polysaccharides and Lipopolysaccharides Protective Antigens of Pathogenic Burkholderia Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; Zhang, Jing; Tsai, Shien; Li, Bingjie; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP) and Burkholderia mallei (BM) are two species of pathogenic Burkholderia bacteria. Our laboratory previously identified four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that reacted against Burkholderia capsular polysaccharides (PS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and effectively protected against a lethal dose of BP/BM infections in mice. In this study, we used phage display panning against three different phage peptide libraries to select phage clones specifically recognized by each of the four protective MAbs. After sequencing a total of 179 candidate phage clones, we examined in detail six selected phage clones carrying different peptide inserts for the specificity of binding by the respective target MAbs. Chemically synthesized peptides corresponding to those displayed by the six phage clones were conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin carrier protein and tested for their binding specificity to the respective protective MAbs. The study revealed that four of the six peptides, all derived from the library displaying dodecapeptides, functioned well as "mimotopes" of Burkholderia PS and LPS as demonstrated by a high degree of specific competition against the binding of three protective MAbs to BP and BM. Our results suggest that the four selected peptide mimics corresponding to PS/LPS protective antigens of BP and BM could potentially be developed into peptide vaccines against pathogenic Burkholderia bacteria. PMID:27328059

  6. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Rodas

    Full Text Available We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5% recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

  8. Structure, biosynthesis, and function of bacterial capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ABC transporter-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Lisa M; Whitfield, Chris

    2013-08-30

    Bacterial capsules are formed primarily from long-chain polysaccharides with repeat-unit structures. A given bacterial species can produce a range of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) with different structures and these help distinguish isolates by serotyping, as is the case with Escherichia coli K antigens. Capsules are important virulence factors for many pathogens and this review focuses on CPSs synthesized via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent processes in Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria utilizing this pathway are often associated with urinary tract infections, septicemia, and meningitis, and E. coli and Neisseria meningitidis provide well-studied examples. CPSs from ABC transporter-dependent pathways are synthesized at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane through the concerted action of glycosyltransferases before being exported across the inner membrane and translocated to the cell surface. A hallmark of these CPSs is a conserved reducing terminal glycolipid composed of phosphatidylglycerol and a poly-3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) linker. Recent discovery of the structure of this conserved lipid terminus provides new insights into the early steps in CPS biosynthesis.

  9. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2009-01-01

    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work.

  10. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of protein conjugates of Neisseria meningitidis X capsular polysaccharide fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Morelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine to prevent infections from the emerging Neisseria meningitidis X (MenX is becoming an urgent issue. Recently MenX capsular polysaccharide (CPS fragments conjugated to CRM197 as carrier protein have been confirmed at preclinical stage as promising candidates for vaccine development. However, more insights about the minimal epitope required for the immunological activity of MenX CPS are needed. We report herein the chemical conjugation of fully synthetic MenX CPS oligomers (monomer, dimer, and trimer to CRM197. Moreover, improvements in some crucial steps leading to the synthesis of MenX CPS fragments are described. Following immunization with the obtained neoglycoconjugates, the conjugated trimer was demonstrated as the minimal fragment possessing immunogenic activity, even though significantly lower than a pentadecamer obtained from the native polymer and conjugated to the same protein. This finding suggests that oligomers longer than three repeating units are possibly needed to mimic the activity of the native polysaccharide.

  11. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Heiss, Christian; Roberts, Rosemary A; Schweizer, Herbert P; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide (OPS) deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni cocultured with epithelial cells reduces surface capsular polysaccharide expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcionivoschi, N

    2012-02-01

    The host cell environment can alter bacterial pathogenicity. We employed a combination of cellular and molecular techniques to study the expression of Campylobacter jejuni polysaccharides cocultured with HCT-8 epithelial cells. After two passages, the amount of membrane-bound high-molecular-weight polysaccharide was considerably reduced. Microarray profiling confirmed significant downregulation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) locus genes. Experiments using conditioned media showed that sugar depletion occurred only when the bacterial and epithelial cells were cocultured. CPS depletion occurred when C. jejuni organisms were exposed to conditioned media from a different C. jejuni strain but not when exposed to conditioned media from other bacterial species. Proteinase K or heat treatment of conditioned media under coculture conditions abrogated the effect on the sugars, as did formaldehyde fixation and cycloheximide treatment of host cells or chloramphenicol treatment of the bacteria. However, sugar depletion was not affected in flagellar export (fliQ) and quorum-sensing (luxS) gene mutants. Passaged C. jejuni showed reduced invasiveness and increased serum sensitivity in vitro. C. jejuni alters its surface polysaccharides when cocultured with epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a cross talk mechanism that modulates CPS expression during infection.

  13. Enhanced Bioavailability of EPA From Emulsified Fish Oil Preparations Versus Capsular Triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Bukowski, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    For those individuals who are unable to consume adequate long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCn3) from dietary sources, fish oil supplementation is an attractive alternative Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations (Emulsions S, B and N) on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations in ten healthy volunteers compared to oil capsules over 48 h after a single dose and chylomicron fatty acid (CMFA) was evaluated over 8 h. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and fatty acid concentrations of PLFA and CMFA were determined by gas chromatography and the integrated area under the curve over 40 h (iAUC0-48) was determined. Emulsion S and Emulsion N promoted increased uptake of EPA into PLFA over 48 h when evaluating by iAUC0-48 or individual time points of assessment. No differences were observed between supplements in the CMFA concentrations.

  14. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific antibody secreting cells and protective antibody and Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer induced specific antibody after Vi immunization. Furthermore, antibody derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi antigen. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early antibody responses to non-Vi antigens. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce antibody-mediated protection, was reduced after infection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi antigen and targeting non-Vi antigens as sub-unit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies. PMID:23162127

  15. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella typhi is a B1b antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A; López-Macías, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F

    2012-12-15

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that, in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi Ag, and targeting non-Vi Ags as subunit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies.

  16. Immunological evaluation of Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhi vaccine by serum bactericidal assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Tabaraie, B; Maleknia, S; Shapouri, R; Nejati, M; Pour Mirza Gholi, F; Hedayati, M; Sadati, M; Zahednia, S; Sharifat Salmani, A

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi antigen capsular polysaccharide (Vi-CPS) is a licensed vaccine against typhoid fever. As there is no animal model for S. Typhi fever to evaluate the protective efficacy of the Vi-CPS vaccine, a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is the recommended 'gold standard' to evaluate its potency. Vi-CPS was extracted from S. Typhi Ty6S (CSBPI-B191) using a modified Gotschlich method. Purified Vi-CPS (50 µg) was injected intramuscularly into three groups of five rabbits; group 2 received an additional booster dose of 50 µg Vi-CPS on day 15 and group 3 received two additional boosters on days 15 and 30. The sera obtained from each group were tested by SBA on days 0, 15, 30 and 45. The anti-Vi-CPS titres for groups 1, 2 and 3 on days 15, 30 and 45 were 4, 16 and 16; 4, 32 and 32; and 16, 64 and 64, respectively. Thus, Vi-CPS was shown to be a potent immunogen, as even one dose could induce an efficient bactericidal effect against S. Typhi. Although Vi-CPS is a reliable vaccine, sometimes depolymerization during purification can affect its potency, which can be resolved through a potency test. As the passive haemagglutination test recommended by the World Health Organization does not indicate vaccine potency, we recommend using an SBA to evaluate the bactericidal ability of Vi-CPS.

  17. Bacterial capsular polysaccharide prevents the onset of asthma through T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jenny L; Jones, Mark B; Cobb, Brian A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last four decades, increases in the incidence of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world have been linked to changes in microbial exposure. It is becoming increasingly clear that the normal microbiota in the gut can profoundly alter susceptibility to a wide range of diseases, such as asthma, in which immune homeostasis is disrupted, yet the mechanisms governing this microbial influence remains poorly defined. In this study, we show that gastrointestinal exposure to PSA, a capsular polysaccharide derived from the commensal bacterium Bacteroides fragilis, significantly limits susceptibility to the induction of experimental asthma. We report that direct treatment of mice with PSA generates protection from asthma, and this effect can be given to a naïve recipient by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T cells from PSA-exposed mice. Remarkably, we found that these PSA-induced T cells are not canonical FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, but that they potently inhibit both Th1 and Th2 models of asthma in an IL-10-dependent fashion. These findings reveal that bacterial polysaccharides link the microbiota with the peripheral immune system by activating CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells upon exposure in the gut, and they facilitate resistance to unnecessary inflammatory responses via the production of IL-10. PMID:25347992

  18. Association of the pneumococcal pilus with certain capsular serotypes but not with increased virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Alan; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Hermos, Christina; O'Brien, Katherine L; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; McAdam, Alexander J; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-06-01

    The recent discovery of a mobile genetic element encoding a pilus-like structure in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the demonstration of a role for the pilus in virulence in mice have led to the proposal of the use of the pilus as a candidate pneumococcal vaccine. We examined the frequency of occurrence of the pneumococcal pilus, as determined by the presence of the rrgC gene, and analyzed its association with virulence, capsular serotypes, and multilocus sequence types in the American Indian pneumococcal collection and isolates of S. pneumoniae from blood cultures collected at Children's Hospital Boston. Overall, 21.4% of strains in the American Indian collection had the rrgC gene, but there was no difference between isolates obtained from the nasopharynx and those obtained from sterile sites (blood or cerebrospinal fluid). Vaccine-type strains were significantly more likely than non-vaccine-type strains to have this pilus gene (P types, there was a high concordance (95%) between the multilocus sequence type and the presence or the absence of rrgC. Finally, in the era of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the frequency of rrgC in isolates from Children's Hospital Boston has decreased significantly (42.8% before 2000 versus 21.3% after 2000; P = 0.019). Therefore, our data show that the pilus is present in a minority of strains and is associated with certain serotypes and that its frequency has been reduced by the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:17392439

  19. Evidence for covalent attachment of phospholipid to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.S.; Doelling, V.W.; Graveline, J.F.; McCoy, D.W.

    1985-08-01

    Cells of Haemophilus influenzae type b were grown in a liquid medium containing (TH)palmitate or ( UC)ribose or both for two generations of exponential growth. Radiolabeled type-specific capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), was purified from the culture supernatant by Cetavlon precipitation, ethanol fractionation, and hydroxylapatite and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The doubly labeled ( (TH)palmitate and ( UC)ribose) PRP preparation was found to coelute in a single peak from a Sepharose 4B column, suggesting that both precursors were incorporated into the purified PRP. A singly labeled ( (TH)palmitate) purified PRP preparation was found to be quantitatively immune precipitated by human serum containing antibody against PRP. Only after acid, alkaline, or phospholipase A2 treatment of PRP labeled with (TH)palmitate or (TH)palmitate and ( UC)ribose followed by chloroform-methanol extraction could most of the TH-radioactivity be recovered in the organic phase. The chloroform-soluble acid-hydrolyzed or phospholipase A2-treated product was identified as palmitic acid after thin-layer chromatography. These results strongly suggest that a phospholipid moiety is covalently associated with the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide PRP.

  20. A Rare Manifestation of Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Inês; Faria, Mun Yueh; Pinto, Luís Abegão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To report a case of a patient who developed uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome after an uneventful cataract surgery and to discuss risk factors, diagnostic challenges, management options, and clinical implications. Background: Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome is a rare but potentially serious cataract surgery complication. Clinical manifestations include increased intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber inflammation, and recurrent hyphema or microhyphema. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Plus syndrome also includes accompanying vitreous hemorrhage. Although classically associated with rigid anterior chamber intraocular lenses (lOLs), cases of malpositioning and subluxated posterior chamber lOLs have also been described as possible triggers. Case description: We report a case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who developed UGH Plus syndrome after an uneventful cataract surgery with an lOL implanted in the capsular bag. During postoperative follow-up, persistent intraocular inflammation, increased IOP, hyphema, and vitreous hemorrhage were consistent with this diagnosis. Slit-lamp examination demonstrated progressive localized iris atrophy, compatible with chafing of the posterior iris by the IOL haptic as the trigger for UGH syndrome. A pars plana vitrectomy was performed and a retropupillary intraocular lens was implanted. No further complications occurred during follow-up. Conclusion and clinical significance: Given the increasing prevalence of single-piece lOLs implanted in the capsular bag, it is important to recognize UGH syndrome as a rare but potentially serious complication. How to cite this article: Sousa DC, Leal I, Faria MY, Pinto LA. A Rare Manifestation of Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Syndrome. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(2):76-78. PMID:27536051

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in postpartum stable women with HELLP syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in the liver of stable patients with HELLP syndrome in the puerperium. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August 2005 to July 2006, involving a series of 40 postpartum patients admitted to an obstetric intensive therapy unit in IMIP (Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira) with diagnosis of HELLP syndrome (complete and partial). Complete HELLP syndrome was defined when all laboratory parameters were present and incomplete when one or more but not all laboratory findings were present. All patients had stable clinical conditions and were evaluated with magnetic resonance of the liver and the main findings were recorded. Results. Average maternal age was 26.8 ± 6.4 years and gestational age at delivery was 34 ± 26.8 weeks. The MR imaging was performed between eight and 96 hours after diagnosis of HELLP syndrome (56 ± 31h). The most frequent findings were ascitis in 20% (n = 8), pleural effusion in 17.5% and hepatic steatosis in 7.5%. The periportal intensity signal was normal in all cases. Cases of liver infarction and sub-capsular or parenchymatous hematoma were not observed. Conclusion: Findings of magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in stable HELLP syndrome postpartum patients were few and unspecific. Severe liver injuries such as parenchymatous or sub-capsular hematoma, entailing life risk were not found. Results do not corroborate the use of magnetic resonance as routine examination for stable patients with HELLP syndrome. (author)

  2. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed. PMID:23668185

  3. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed.

  4. Auriculotemporal Syndrome (Frey Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Kevin M; Kim, Young J

    2016-04-01

    Frey syndrome is a common sequela of parotidectomy, and although it is not frequently manifested clinically, it can cause significant morbidity for those affected. Frey syndrome results from synkinetic autonomic reinnervation by transected postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fiber within the parotid gland to the overlying sweat glands of the skin. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to prevent the development of Frey syndrome. For those who develop clinical symptoms of Frey syndrome, objective testing can be performed with a Minor starch-iodine test. Some of the current methods to prevent and treat symptomatic Frey syndrome are reviewed. PMID:26902982

  5. Reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization and Dissemination by a Nonopsonic Capsular Polysaccharide Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Doyle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the nasopharynx (NP is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. The marked reduction in IPD that followed the routine use of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs has been linked to reduced NP colonization with vaccine-included serotypes (STs, with the caveat that PCVs are less effective against pneumonia than against IPD. Although PCV-elicited opsonic antibodies that enhance phagocytic killing of the homologous ST are considered a key correlate of PCV-mediated protection, recent studies question this relationship for some STs, including ST3. Studies with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS of ST3 (PPS3 have shown that nonopsonic, as well as opsonic, antibodies can each protect mice against pneumonia and sepsis, but the effect of these types of MAbs on NP colonization is unknown. In this study, we determined the effects of protective opsonic and nonopsonic PPS3 MAbs on ST3 NP colonization in mice. Our results show that a nonopsonic MAb reduced early NP colonization and prevented ST3 dissemination to the lungs and blood, but an opsonic MAb did not. Moreover, the opsonic MAb induced a proinflammatory NP cytokine response, but the nonopsonic MAb had an antiinflammatory effect. The effect of the nonopsonic MAb on colonization did not require its Fc region, but its antiinflammatory effect did. Our findings challenge the paradigm that opsonic MAbs are required to prevent NP colonization and suggest that further studies of the activity of nonopsonic antibodies could advance our understanding of mechanisms of PCV efficacy and provide novel correlates of protection.

  6. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  7. Anti-biofilm activity: a function of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Marina Dos Santos; Delattre, Cédric; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Wadouachi, Anne; Badel, Stéphanie; Bernardi, Thierry; Michaud, Philippe; Forestier, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix) also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→ 2)-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [→ 4)-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 2,3)-α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 →] and, [→ 4)-β-D-GlcAp-(1 →]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors. PMID:24932475

  8. Anti-Biofilm Activity: A Function of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Goncalves, Marina; Delattre, Cédric; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Wadouachi, Anne; Badel, Stéphanie; Bernardi, Thierry; Michaud, Philippe; Forestier, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix) also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→]; [→4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→]; [α-d-Galp-(1→]; [→2,3)-α-d-Galp-(1→]; [→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→] and, [→4)-β-d-GlcAp-(1→]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors. PMID:24932475

  9. Anti-biofilm activity: a function of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dos Santos Goncalves

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→ 2-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [→ 4-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 2,3-α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 3-β-D-Galp-(1 →] and, [→ 4-β-D-GlcAp-(1 →]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors.

  10. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  11. Recurrent congenital heart block in neonatal lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria C; Gómez-Puerta, José A; Albert, Dimpna; Ferrer, Queralt; Girona, Josep

    2007-07-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is the main complication of neonatal lupus (NL) and is strongly associated with the presence of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. The recurrence of CHB in subsequent pregnancies in mothers with these antibodies is uncommon, occurring in approximately 15% of cases. We describe here a case of recurrent CHB in a previously asymptomatic mother with Sjögren syndrome and discuss the current strategies for the prevention and treatment of CHB in NL.

  12. Comparison of the antibody responses to the 77 Klebsiella capsular types in ankylosing spondylitis and various rheumatic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahly, H; Kekow, J; Podschun, R.; Schaff, M; Gross, W. L.; Ullmann, U

    1994-01-01

    The production of antibodies to Klebsiella capsular polysaccharides was measured in sera from either HLA-B27-positive (HLA-B27+) or HLA-B27-negative (HLA-B27-) patients with classical ankylosing spondylitis (n = 54). These sera were compared with sera from patients with various rheumatic diseases (n = 82) and HLA-B27+ or HLA-B27- healthy individuals (n = 85). All sera were analyzed by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to each of the 77 Klebsiella serotypes. The sera from ...

  13. Eficacia de la vacuna meningocócica de polisacárido capsular del grupo C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Enríquez Jesús

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Este trabajo consiste esencialmente en una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica sobre los efectos, intensidad y duración de la respuesta serológica, así como sobre la eficacia, efectividad y seguridad de la vacuna meningocócica de polisacárido capsular del grupo C. MÉTODOS: Búsqueda en repertorio MEDLINE en el periodo 1970-1996. Búsqueda específica de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y estudios de intervención prospectivos en humanos con vacunas de polisacáridos capsulares de meningococo en el mismo repertorio y periodo. Análisis crítico de literatura científica y síntesis de evidencia. RESULTADOS: La vacuna de polisacárido capsular del serogrupo C es considerada segura y ha mostrado una eficacia superior al 85% en adultos y niños mayores, 70% (IC95%: 5-91% en niños menores de 5 años y 55% (IC90%: 14-76% en niños de 2-3 años. La vacuna no se ha mostrado eficaz en niños menores de 2 años. La duración de niveles de anticuerpos protectores disminuye con la edad. La proporción de niños menores de 6 años efectivamente protegidos al año de la vacunación es baja. La vacunación no limita la respuesta serológica de vacunaciones ulteriores. CONCLUSIONES: La vacuna meningocócica de polisacárido capsular del serogrupo C está indicada en adultos y niños mayores de 2 años como protección contra la enfermedad meningocócica causada por este serogrupo en situaciones de alto riesgo de enfermedad. La escasa protección que ofrece la vacuna en los menores de 2 años, la limitada eficacia en menores de 5 años y la corta duración de la inmunidad que confiere a estas edades, hace que la vacunación rutinaria no esté recomendada y que la vacuna se use fundamentalmente en el control de brotes epidémicos causados por serogrupo C.

  14. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  15. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  16. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  17. The Effect of Culture Condition on Type 5 Capsular Polysaccharide Production of Staphylococcus aureus from Diary Cattle%培养条件对奶牛金葡菌5型荚膜多糖产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正涛; 张乃生; 刘庆涛; 杨琦; 尹荣兰

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The effect of different culture conditions on type 5 capsular polysaccharide production of Staphylococcus aureus from diary cattle was studied to provide simple way for CP production and preparation and laid foundation for carrying out new polysaccharide vaccine research.[Method]Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from milk sample of sick dairy cattle and capsular polysaecharide serotypes were identified.Type 5 capsular polysaccharide was cultured on BHI,solid columbia and med110 culture media.Glucose and lactose were taken as carbon sources for every culture media in solid and liquid state.Therefore 9 different culture conditions were taken to study the effect of cuhure conditions on capsular polysaccharide production.[Result]Different culture conditions indicated that compared with columbia culture media,BHI culture media could decline capsular polysaccharide production and mod110 culture media could increase capsular polysaccharide production.While for same culture media,solid culture media was better for capsular polysaccharide production,meanwhile,taken lactose as carbon source could increase capsular polysaccharide production.

  18. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  19. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  20. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  1. Modification of a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of immunoglobulin G and M antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, J P; Hickox, P G; Lepow, M. L.; Pollara, B; Venezia, R A

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the usual indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for detection of antibody responses, a modified direct ELISA technique was used to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to pneumococcal capsular types 1, 3, 9N, and 23F in humans. Individual capsular polysaccharides were covalently bound to poly-L-lysine before adsorption to the solid phase. The coupling reaction was enhanced by maintenance of a constant pH of 8.2 after the addition of all reactants...

  2. Down-Regulation of the kps Region 1 Capsular Assembly Operon following Attachment of Escherichia coli Type 1 Fimbriae to d-Mannose Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, William R.; Beck, Michael T.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Pinkner, Jerry; Woolever, Nathan L.; Larson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A differential-display PCR procedure identified the capsular assembly gene kpsD after Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Limiting-dilution reverse-transcribed PCRs confirmed down-regulation of the kpsD gene, and Northern blot and lacZ fusion analyses showed down-regulation of the kpsFEDUCS region 1 operon. KpsD protein levels fell, and an agglutination test showed less K capsular antigen on the surface following the bacterial ligand-receptor interactio...

  3. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.)

  4. Phase variable expression of capsular polysaccharide modifications allows Campylobacter jejuni to avoid bacteriophage infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Camilla Holst Sørensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities on earth and can be found in every niche where their bacterial hosts reside. The initial interaction between phages and Campylobacter jejuni, a common coloniser of poultry intestines and a major source of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, is not well understood. Recently, we isolated and characterised a phage F336 resistant variant of C. jejuni NCTC11168 called 11168R. Comparisons of 11168R with the wildtype lead to the identification of a novel phage receptor, the phase variable O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN moiety of the C. jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS. In this study we demonstrate that the 11168R strain has gained cross-resistance to four other phages in our collection (F198, F287, F303 and F326. The reduced plaquing efficiencies suggested that MeOPN is recognized as a receptor by several phages infecting C. jejuni. To further explore the role of CPS modifications in C. jejuni phage recognition and infectivity, we tested the ability of F198, F287, F303, F326 and F336 to infect different CPS variants of NCTC11168, including defined CPS mutants. These strains were characterised by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We found that in addition to MeOPN, the phase variable 3-O-Me and 6-O-Me groups of the NCTC11168 CPS structure may influence the plaquing efficiencies of the phages. Furthermore, co-infection of chickens with both C. jejuni NCTC11168 and phage F336 resulted in selection of resistant C. jejuni bacteria, which either lack MeOPN or gain 6-O-Me groups on their surface, demonstrating that resistance can be acquired in vivo. In summary, we have shown that phase variable CPS structures modulate phage infectivity in C. jejuni and suggest that the constant phage predation in the avian gut selects for changes in these structures leading to a continuing phage-host co-evolution.

  5. The balanced two-string technique for sulcus intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hesham A; Sabry, Heba Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm). Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°). Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  6. Arthroscopic Latarjet and Capsular Shift (ALCS) procedure: a new "freehand" technique for anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepak N

    2015-03-01

    Anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone loss has been described as "bony-instability," and this condition is usually treated with an anterior glenoid bone grafting procedure (Latarjet procedure). The Latarjet procedure involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim, and is traditionally performed as an open surgical procedure. Recently, an arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure has been described; the technique necessitates the use of specialized instrumentation and involves excision of the entire anterior capsule to facilitate coracoid fixation. We describe a new "freehand" arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure, and, in addition, a simultaneous capsular shift to further optimize mid and end range stability. This technique eliminates the use of additional instrumentation and can be done using routine arthroscopic instruments. Preliminary experience with this technique suggests that the arthroscopic Latarjet and capsular shift is a technically demanding procedure. Glenohumeral capsule can be preserved, and this should be attempted wherever possible to optimize stability. Additional specialized instrumentation would probably reduce surgical time; however, the procedure can be performed with routine instruments.

  7. Mid-Long Term Results in the Arthroscopic Selective Capsular Release and Manipulation Treatment of Frozen Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Haluk; Seckin, Mustafa Faik; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Kilinc, Eray; Akman, Senol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to present mid-long term functional outcomes of patients who underwent arthroscopic selective capsular release and manipulation for frozen shoulder refractory to conservative treatment. Methods: Between 2006 and 2012, 32 patients presented to our clinic with the diagnosis of frozen shoulder. 24 shoulders of 22 patients treated with arthroscopic selective capsular release and manipulation were included in the study. Functional results were analyzed with Constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (range 1-7 years). Results: We detected an average increase in passive range of motion in flexion 72°, abduction 90°, abduction-internal rotation 33°, and abduction-external rotation 38°, adduction-external rotation at 37° compared to the preoperative status. Constant shoulder score increased by an average of 44 points after surgery. Eighteen (82%) patients were satisfied with the operation. Three of four patients whose symptoms persisted had resistant diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Frozen shoulder is one of the most well-known causes of shoulder pain and disability. Although surgery has a good rate of success it does not help in all cases. Unsatisfactory results may be experienced in patients who have diabetes mellitus as a confounding factor.

  8. The Balanced Two-String Technique for Sulcus Intraocular Lens Implantation in the Absence of Capsular Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm. Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°. Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  9. Fabrication of a Micro-Fluid Gathering Tool for the Gastrointestinal Juice Sampling Function of a Versatile Capsular Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-il Dan Cho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a micro-fluid gathering tool for a versatile capsular endoscope that employs a solid chemical propellant, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN. The proposed tool consists of a micro-heater, an AIBN matrix, a Venturi tube, a reservoir, an inlet, and an outlet. The micro-heater heats the AIBN matrix to be decomposed into by-products and nitrogen gas. This nitrogen gas generates negative pressure passing through the Venturi tube. The generated negative pressure inhales a target fluid from around the inlet into the reservoir. All the parts are designed to be embedded inside a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 17 mm and a height of 2.3 mm in order to integrate it into a versatile developmental capsular endoscope without any scaledown. Two sets of the proposed tools are fabricated and tested: one is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and the other is made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. In performance comparisons, the PDMS gathering tool can withstand a stronger pulling force, and the PMMA gathering tool requires a less negative pressure for inhaling the same target fluid. Due to the instant and full activation of the thin AIBN matrix, both types of gathering tool show analogous performance in the sample gathering evaluation. The gathered volume is approximately 1.57 μL using approximately 25.4 μL of AIBN compound.

  10. Fabrication of a micro-fluid gathering tool for the gastrointestinal juice sampling function of a versatile capsular endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-In; Lee, Sangmin; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a micro-fluid gathering tool for a versatile capsular endoscope that employs a solid chemical propellant, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The proposed tool consists of a micro-heater, an AIBN matrix, a Venturi tube, a reservoir, an inlet, and an outlet. The micro-heater heats the AIBN matrix to be decomposed into by-products and nitrogen gas. This nitrogen gas generates negative pressure passing through the Venturi tube. The generated negative pressure inhales a target fluid from around the inlet into the reservoir. All the parts are designed to be embedded inside a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 17 mm and a height of 2.3 mm in order to integrate it into a versatile developmental capsular endoscope without any scaledown. Two sets of the proposed tools are fabricated and tested: one is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the other is made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In performance comparisons, the PDMS gathering tool can withstand a stronger pulling force, and the PMMA gathering tool requires a less negative pressure for inhaling the same target fluid. Due to the instant and full activation of the thin AIBN matrix, both types of gathering tool show analogous performance in the sample gathering evaluation. The gathered volume is approximately 1.57 μL using approximately 25.4 μL of AIBN compound.

  11. TREATMENT OF COMPRESSION SYNDROME OF CERVICAL POSTERIOR BRANCH BY CERVICAL NERVE BLOCK OUTSIDE VERTEBRAL CANAL AND MANIPULATION%椎管外颈神经阻滞加手法治疗颈神经后支卡压综合症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希; 袁君君

    2001-01-01

    为探讨评价颈神经后支卡压综合症的诊治方法,根据YabukiS等对颈神经解剖学的研究,结合临床回顾性地分析了89例颈神经后支卡压综合症患者椎管外颈神经阻滞及手法治疗的效果。经平均6个月随访,结果47例单纯行颈神经阻滞术者,治愈38例,占80.1%;42例配合手法治疗者,全部治愈,占100%。组间比较(P<0.05),两组治愈率有明显差异。提示对病因不明及无明显神经体征的头、颈肩痛患者,应诊断为颈神经后支卡压综合症,与颈神经后支在关节突出部位的卡压有关。椎管外颈神经阻滞配合手法治疗,是一种针对性强、有效的治疗方法。%To explore the diagnostic and therapeutic methods of compressionsyndrome of cervical posterior branch, according to Yabukis'research about anatomy of cervical nerve, analyze retrospectively the therapeutic effect of compression syndrome of cervical posterior branch(89 cases) with cervical nerve block outside vertebral canal and manipulation. The average follow-up time was half a year. 38 out of 47 patients were cured with cervical nerve block and the curative rate was 80%, but other 42 patients were all cured with cervical nerve block outside vertebral canal and manipulation, the curative rate was 100%. There was a significant difference(P<0.05) in two groups. For head-neck-shoulder pain patients without clear cause and obvious nervous signs, they should be diagnosed as compression syndrome of cervical posterior branch, which related to being compressed of cervical posterior branch at the articular process. It was suggested that cervical nerve block outside vertebral canal with manipulation was a pointed and effective therapeutic method.

  12. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  13. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  14. Bi Syndrome (Arthralgia Syndrome)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG En-qin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The word 'Bi' (痹) in Chinese means an obstruction.Bi Syndrome refers the syndrome characterized by the obstruction of qi and blood in the meridians due to the invasion of external pathogenic wind, cold and dampness, manifested as soreness, pain, numbness,heavy sensation, swelling of joints and limbs, limitation of movements and so on.

  15. A simplification of the enzyme-linked immunospot technique. Increased sensitivity for cells secreting IgG antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Sparholt, S; Juul, L;

    1992-01-01

    A simplified enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique is described for the detection of cells secreting antibodies to tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP). By combining the cell suspension with the enzyme-linked secondary...

  16. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  17. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-11-16

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review.

  18. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, ...

  19. [Effectiveness of sympathetic block using various technics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, W

    1987-07-01

    Blocking of sympathetic conduction aims at permanent or temporary elimination of those pain pathways conducted by the sympathetic nervous system. In order to provide an objective evaluation of sufficient blocking effect, earlier inquiries referred to parameters such as: (1) observation of clinical signs such as Horner's syndrome, Guttman's sign, anhidrosis, extended venous filling; (2) difference in skin temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C between blocked and unblocked side; (3) increase in amplitude of the pulse wave; and (4) depression of the psychogalvanic reflex (PGR) on the blocked side (Fig. 1). In clinical practice, these control parameters are effective because they are time-saving, technically simple, and highly evidential. Further parameters for evaluating sympathetic blockade are examination of hydrosis by means of color indicators such as bromocresol and ninhydrin, oscillometry, and plethysmography. The effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion and sympathetic trunk blocks has been verified by various authors. In a clinical study, 16 patients were divided into four groups in order to test the effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after spinal anesthesia with 3 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group I) and 4 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group II) and after peridural anesthesia with 15 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group III) and 20 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group IV) by means of temperature difference, response of pulse wave amplitude and PGR between blocked lower and unblocked upper extremity, and sensory levels of block. The patients were classified as ASA I and II; their ages varied from 20 to 63 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Different Accumulation Profiles of Multiple Components Between Pericarp and Seed of Alpinia oxyphylla Capsular Fruit as Determined by UFLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites are known to not only play a key role in the adaptation of plants to their environment, but also represent an important source of active pharmaceuticals. Alpinia oxyphylla capsular fruits, made up of seeds and pericarps, are commonly used in traditional East Asian medicines. In clinical utilization of these capsular fruits, inconsistent processing approaches (i.e., hulling pericarps or not are employed, with the potential of leading to differential pharmacological effects. Therefore, an important question arises whether the content levels of pharmacologically active chemicals between the seeds and pericarps of A. oxyphylla are comparable. Nine secondary metabolites present in A. oxyphylla capsular fruits, including flavonoids (e.g., tectochrysin, izalpinin, chrysin, apigenin-4',7-dimethylether and kaempferide, diarylheptanoids (e.g., yakuchinone A and B and oxyphyllacinol and sesquiterpenes (e.g., nootkatone, were regarded as representative constituents with putative pharmacological activities. This work aimed to investigate the abundance of the nine constituents in the seeds and pericarps of A. oxyphylla. Thirteen batches of A. oxyphylla capsular fruits were gathered from different production regions. Accordingly, an ultra-fast high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. We found that: (1 the nine secondary metabolites were differentially concentrated in seeds and fruit capsules; (2 nootkatone is predominantly distributed in the seeds; in contrast, the flavonoids and diarylheptanoids are mainly deposited in the capsules; and (3 the content levels of the nine secondary metabolites occurring in the capsules varied greatly among different production regions, although the nootkatone levels in the seeds were comparable among production regions. These results are helpful to evaluating and elucidating pharmacological activities of A. oxyphylla

  1. Different accumulation profiles of multiple components between pericarp and seed of Alpinia oxyphylla capsular fruit as determined by UFLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Guan, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Li, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Yuan-Sheng; Qin, Zhen-Miao

    2014-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are known to not only play a key role in the adaptation of plants to their environment, but also represent an important source of active pharmaceuticals. Alpinia oxyphylla capsular fruits, made up of seeds and pericarps, are commonly used in traditional East Asian medicines. In clinical utilization of these capsular fruits, inconsistent processing approaches (i.e., hulling pericarps or not) are employed, with the potential of leading to differential pharmacological effects. Therefore, an important question arises whether the content levels of pharmacologically active chemicals between the seeds and pericarps of A. oxyphylla are comparable. Nine secondary metabolites present in A. oxyphylla capsular fruits, including flavonoids (e.g., tectochrysin, izalpinin, chrysin, apigenin-4',7-dimethylether and kaempferide), diarylheptanoids (e.g., yakuchinone A and B and oxyphyllacinol) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., nootkatone), were regarded as representative constituents with putative pharmacological activities. This work aimed to investigate the abundance of the nine constituents in the seeds and pericarps of A. oxyphylla. Thirteen batches of A. oxyphylla capsular fruits were gathered from different production regions. Accordingly, an ultra-fast high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated. We found that: (1) the nine secondary metabolites were differentially concentrated in seeds and fruit capsules; (2) nootkatone is predominantly distributed in the seeds; in contrast, the flavonoids and diarylheptanoids are mainly deposited in the capsules; and (3) the content levels of the nine secondary metabolites occurring in the capsules varied greatly among different production regions, although the nootkatone levels in the seeds were comparable among production regions. These results are helpful to evaluating and elucidating pharmacological activities of A. oxyphylla capsular

  2. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  3. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  4. Capsule Contraction Syndrome with a Microincision Foldable Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Balestrazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we present 2 cases of capsule contraction syndrome (CCS. In both cases, a hydrophilic acrylic Akreos MI60 (Bausch and Lomb intraocular lens (IOL was implanted in the capsular bag through microincision cataract surgery, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. Since CCS has been described after the implantation of every IOL type, it is unlikely that the Akreos MI60 chemical and physical properties may cause CCS. When CCS occurs with IOLs composed of increasingly flexible materials that are inserted through incisions of decreasing size, a severe dislocation and deformation of IOL optics and haptics may develop. In both cases illustrated here, Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy was highly effective. Hence, also based on the literature, which reports severe complications as a result of surgical intervention, it is suggested that Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy be the first line of CCS treatment when the luxation of an IOL capsular bag is absent.

  5. Cognitive and behavioral heterogeneity in genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.L. Pegoraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns.

  6. Growing Up with Their Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of traditional wooden blocks in fifth-grade curriculum. Notes that use of blocks can teach communication, teamwork, precision, and arithmetic concepts. Also describes four easy classroom block projects. (TM)

  7. PIRIFORMIS SYNDROME: A CLINICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Piriformis Syndrome is a cause for Low back pain whi ch is most of the times misdiagnosed as it may mimic with various other con ditions. Abnormal condition of the Piriformis muscle such as hypertrophy, inflammation, or anatomic variations may lead to this condition. Reported incidence rates for Piriformis S yndrome among patients with low back pain vary widely, from 5% to 36%. Etiology of Piriformis Syndrome is also variable. It can be primary due to anatomical problems or secondary due to vario us other causes like trauma, local ischemia, limb-length discrepancy etc. Diagnosis of Piriformis Syndrome is complex. History with various clinical tests along with MRI, EMG (El ectromyography and Diagnostic blocks may help to diagnose this condition. Here is a review of Piriformis syndrome for better understanding of the problem so that the diagnosis a nd management are appropriate. KEY WORDS:Piriformis Syndrome.

  8. Analysis in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry can be considered as an additional method to physical dosimetry for estimating dose absorption after exposure to ionizing radiation. Fully validated as well as new promising approaches in this field are reviewed. Recent experiments, carried out in our laboratory, on the analysis of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes are presented. The possible relevance of differential human individual response to ionizing radiation, in view of the occurrence of radiosensitive syndromes, for the estimation of the absorbed dose in human is also discussed

  9. Ultrasound guided selective cervical nerve root block and superficial cervical plexus block for surgeries on the clavicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Shanthanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the anaesthetic management of two cases involving surgeries on the clavicle, performed under superficial cervical plexus block and selective C5 nerve root block under ultrasound (US guidance, along with general anaesthesia. Regional analgesia for clavicular surgeries is challenging. Our patients also had significant comorbidities necessitating individualised approach. The first patient had a history of emphysema, obesity, and was allergic to morphine and hydromorphone. The second patient had clavicular arthritis and pain due to previous surgeries. He had a history of smoking, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, along with daily marijuana and prescription opioid use. Both patients had an effective regional block and required minimal supplementation of analgesia, both being discharged on the same day. Interscalene block with its associated risks and complications may not be suitable for every patient. This report highlights the importance of selective regional blockade and also the use of US guidance for an effective and safe block.

  10. Block diagonal and schur complement preconditioners for block-toeplitz systems with small size blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, WK; Ng, MK; Wen, YW

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement preconditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers where this fixed number depends only on the size of the block. Hence, conjugate gradient type methods, when applied to solv...

  11. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in postpartum stable women with HELLP syndrome; Ressonancia magnetica hepatica em puerperas estaveis com sindrome HELLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Rita Marinho Ribeiro; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Santos, Aleksana Regina Viana Dutra; Lima, Ana Luiza Medeiros Vasconcelos de [Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Atencao a Mulher. Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Obstetrica

    2008-09-15

    Objectives: To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in the liver of stable patients with HELLP syndrome in the puerperium. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August 2005 to July 2006, involving a series of 40 postpartum patients admitted to an obstetric intensive therapy unit in IMIP (Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira) with diagnosis of HELLP syndrome (complete and partial). Complete HELLP syndrome was defined when all laboratory parameters were present and incomplete when one or more but not all laboratory findings were present. All patients had stable clinical conditions and were evaluated with magnetic resonance of the liver and the main findings were recorded. Results. Average maternal age was 26.8 {+-} 6.4 years and gestational age at delivery was 34 {+-} 26.8 weeks. The MR imaging was performed between eight and 96 hours after diagnosis of HELLP syndrome (56 {+-} 31h). The most frequent findings were ascitis in 20% (n = 8), pleural effusion in 17.5% and hepatic steatosis in 7.5%. The periportal intensity signal was normal in all cases. Cases of liver infarction and sub-capsular or parenchymatous hematoma were not observed. Conclusion: Findings of magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in stable HELLP syndrome postpartum patients were few and unspecific. Severe liver injuries such as parenchymatous or sub-capsular hematoma, entailing life risk were not found. Results do not corroborate the use of magnetic resonance as routine examination for stable patients with HELLP syndrome. (author)

  13. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  14. 翳风穴体表电刺激联合星状神经节阻滞治疗急性期Hunt 综合征的临床研究%Clinical Research on Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation at Yifeng Acupoint(TE1 7) Combined with Stellate Ganglion Block in Treating Hunt Syndrome at Acute Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕素芳; 李鑫; 苏心镜

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察翳风穴体表电刺激联合星状神经节阻滞(SGB)对急性期 Hunt 综合征的临床疗效与应激激素水平的影响。方法选择临床确诊的急性期 Hunt 综合征患者56例,按照就诊时间随机分为观察组和对照组,每组28例。对照组采用常规药物(口服泛昔洛韦颗粒剂、甲钴胺胶囊)治疗,观察组在对照组常规药物治疗的基础上,联合翳风穴体表电刺激与星状神经节阻滞,观察并比较2个疗程结束后2组患者疼痛程度、疱疹消退时间、面瘫恢复时间及治疗前后肾上腺素(E)、去甲肾上腺素(NE)含量。结果治疗后,观察组疼痛程度(VAS 评分)、疱疹消退时间以及面瘫恢复时间均低于对照组,P <0.05;治疗后2组患者 E、NE 含量与治疗前比较,P <0.05,观察组与对照组比较,P <0.05。结论翳风穴体表电刺激联合 SGB 治疗急性期 Hunt 综合征临床疗效确切,且能降低患者的应激反应,避免了因应激反应增强而导致的其他并发症。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical therapeutic effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation at Yifeng acupoint (TE1 7) combined with stellate ganglion block in treating Hunt syndrome at acute stage and their influence on levels of stress hormones.METHODS 56 cases diagnosed with Hunt syndrome at acute stage were divided into observation group and control group based on consultation time,with 28 cases in each group.Patients in the control group were given conventional therapy (oral famciclovir granules and mecobalamin capsules),while those in the observation group were further given transcutaneous electrical stimulation of Yifeng acupoint(TE1 7) and stellate ganglion block,apart from the conventional therapy.After two courses of treatment,pain degree,regression time of herpes,recovery time of facial paralysis,adrenaline and noradrenaline content were observed and comparison were made before and after treatment.RESULTS Pain degree(vas pain

  15. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  16. Hepatic venous outflow block in a young patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghavidel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatic venous outflow block or Budd-Chiari syndrome is a severe liver disease with a 3 years survival rate of 50%. Several conditions have been implicated as a cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome, including myeloproliferative disorders, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, the presence of lupus anti-coagulant, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and others. In a small number of cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with the presence of lupus anticoagulant. Anticardiolipin antibodies ...

  17. A Place for Block Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  18. Treatment of fetal heart block with maternal steroid therapy : case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breur, JMPJ; Visser, GHA; Kruize, AA; Stoutenbeek, P; Meijboom, EJ

    2004-01-01

    The presence of maternal autoantibodies to SS-A/Ro and/or SS-B/La is associated with the development of fetal heart block. There are data suggesting that maternal treatment with steroids might reverse heart block. We report on a pregnancy in a mother with secondary Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupu

  19. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  20. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  1. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  2. 星状神经节阻滞治疗难治性灼口综合征临床观察%Adopting stellate ganglion block to treat refractoriness burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先略; 唐祎; 徐靳; 梅祖胜; 杨宗珍

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨采用星状神经节阻滞(stellate ganglion block,SGB)疗法治疗难治性灼口综合征的临床疗效及作用机制.方法:以4 cm长注射针在C6横突结节正上方垂直刺入,达骨质,退针2 mm回吸无血液和脑脊液,注入1%利多卡因5 ml.采用视觉模拟评分法(visual analogue scale,VAS)对疗效进行评估.结果:48例中,痊愈23例(48%),好转21例(44%),无效4例(8%),总有效率达92%.结论:SGB用于难治性灼口综合征的治疗可获得较确切的临床疗效.

  3. Denervação capsular percutânea no tratamento da displasia coxofemoral canina Percutaneous hip denervation for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    André Luis Selmi; Bianca Mota Penteado; Bruno Testoni Lins

    2009-01-01

    A displasia coxofemoral canina (DCF) é uma afecção ortopédica freqüente, comumente dolorosa, decorrente de instabilidade e que leva à doença articular degenerativa. Várias formas de tratamento cirúrgico são descritas, entre elas a denervação capsular a céu aberto. Neste trabalho, é descrita a denervação capsular percutânea e seus efeitos em 92 cães com sensibilidade dolorosa na articulação do quadril atribuída à DCF. Foram avaliados os seguintes aspectos: o grau de claudicação (CLAUD), a dor ...

  4. Edit Distance with Block Deletions

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Shapira; Storer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Several variants of the edit distance problem with block deletions are considered. Polynomial time optimal algorithms are presented for the edit distance with block deletions allowing character insertions and character moves, but without block moves. We show that the edit distance with block moves and block deletions is NP-complete (Nondeterministic Polynomial time problems in which any given solution to such problem can be verified in polynomial time, and any NP problem can be converted into...

  5. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  6. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmar KeithE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  7. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith E. Volmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  8. Polymorphism, duplication, and IS1-mediated rearrangement in the chromosomal his-rfb-gnd region of Escherichia coli strains with group IA and capsular K antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Drummelsmith, J; Amor, P A; Whitfield, C

    1997-01-01

    Individual Escherichia coli strains produce several cell surface polysaccharides. In E. coli E69, the his region of the chromosome contains the rfb (serotype O9 lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis) and cps (serotype K30 group IA capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis) loci. Polymorphisms in this region of the Escherichia coli chromosome reflect extensive antigenic diversity in the species. Previously, we reported a duplication of the manC-manB genes, encoding enzymes involved in GDP-manno...

  9. Gene Content and Diversity of the Loci Encoding Biosynthesis of Capsular Polysaccharides of the 15 Serovar Reference Strains of Haemophilus parasuis

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Kate J; Weinert, Lucy A; Luan, Shi-Lu; Peters, Sarah E; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Harris, David; Angen, Øystein; Aragon, Virginia; Parkhill, Julian; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Wren, Brendan W.; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease, a systemic disease of pigs, and is also associated with pneumonia. H. parasuis can be classified into 15 different serovars. Here we report, from the 15 serotyping reference strains, the DNA sequences of the loci containing genes for the biosynthesis of the group 1 capsular polysaccharides, which are potential virulence factors of this bacterium. We contend that these loci contain genes for polysaccharide capsule structures, an...

  10. Pneumonia due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K16 in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Tan, Che-Kim; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Kao, Chiang-Lian; Wang, Jin-Town; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptoccocus, but no Klebsiella pneumoniae were responsible for bacterial coinfections during the 2009 and previous influenza pandemics. We hereby report a case with concurrent bacteremic pneumonia due to an unusual capsular serotype K16 K. pneumoniae and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer. Such a coinfection has not previously been described. PMID:22153762

  11. Capsular Polysaccharide and O-Specific Antigen Divergently Modulate Pulmonary Neutrophil Influx in an Escherichia coli Model of Gram-Negative Pneumonitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Thomas A.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Priore, Roger L.; Carlino, Ulrike B.; Helinski, Jadwiga D.; Knight, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    Enteric gram-negative bacilli cause a severe, often life-threatening pneumonia. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of this infection may lead to improved treatment. Nearly all of the responsible gram-negative bacilli possess capsular polysaccharides and/or an O-specific antigen as part of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that these surface polysaccharides may modulate the pulmonary host response. To investigate this, a rat pneumonitis model was used, and pulmonary ne...

  12. Posterior capsular opacification: Incidence and factors influencing and rate of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in diabetic and uveitic patients and after multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Elgohary, M A

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examined the incidence and factors affecting the rate of posterior capsular opacification (PCX)), the most common complication of cataract surgery, in diabetic and uvcitic patients and in patients with multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). These patients arc particularly sensitive to PCO development because of the risks associated with Nd:YAG capsulotomy in the former two groups and the potential effect on visual function in the latter group. PCO rate was estimated both retrospect...

  13. Multicenter comparison of levels of antibody to the Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlone, G M; Frasch, C E; Siber, G R; Quataert, S; Gheesling, L L; Turner, S H; Plikaytis, B D; Helsel, L O; Dewitt, W. E.; Bibb, W F

    1992-01-01

    There is no standard immunoassay for evaluating immune responses to meningococcal vaccines. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure total levels of antibody to Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide. Five laboratories measured the antibody levels in six paired pre- and postvaccination serum samples by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Methylated human serum albumin was used to bind native group A polysaccharide to microtiter plate surfaces. The ...

  14. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  15. Rapid and reliable identification of Staphylococcus aureus capsular serotypes by means of artificial neural network-assisted Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Tom; Wenning, Mareike; Barbagelata, María Sol; Fricker, Martina; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides (CP) are important virulence factors and represent putative targets for vaccine development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a high-throughput method to identify and discriminate the clinically important S. aureus capsular serotypes 5, 8, and NT (nontypeable). A comprehensive set of clinical isolates derived from different origins and control strains, representative for each serotype, were used to establish a CP typing system based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques. By combining FTIR spectroscopy with artificial neuronal network (ANN) analysis, a system was successfully established, allowing a rapid identification and discrimination of all three serotypes. The overall accuracy of the ANN-assisted FTIR spectroscopy CP typing system was 96.7% for the internal validation and 98.2% for the external validation. One isolate in the internal validation and one isolate in the external validation failed in the classification procedure, but none of the isolates was incorrectly classified. The present study demonstrates that ANN-assisted FTIR spectroscopy allows a rapid and reliable discrimination of S. aureus capsular serotypes. It is suitable for diagnostic as well as large-scale epidemiologic surveillance of S. aureus capsule expression and provides useful information with respect to chronicity of infection.

  16. Variabilidad de la síntesis de RANKL por linfocitos T frente a distintos serotipos capsulares de Porphyromonas gingivalis Variability in the RANKL synthesis by T lymphocytes in response to different Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Navarrete

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Las periodontitis representan un grupo heterogéneo de infecciones periodontales cuya etiología son las bacterias residentes en el biofilm subgingival. Aunque este biofilm está constituido por una amplia variedad de especies bacterianas, sólo un número limitado de especies, como Porphyromonas gingivalis, se ha asociado a la etiología de la enfermedad. P. gingivalis expresa diversos factores de virulencia que pueden causar daño directo a los tejidos del hospedero; sin embargo, su mayor patogenicidad involucra la inducción de una respuesta inmuno-inflamatoria, durante la cual se secretan una amplia variedad de citoquinas, quimioquinas y mediadores inflamatorios que pueden inducir la destrucción de los tejidos de soporte de los dientes y la pérdida de ellos. Método: En esta investigación, se evaluó si los distintos serotipos capsulares (K de P. gingivalis pueden determinar los niveles de síntesis de RANKL, citoquina clave en la destrucción del hueso alveolar durante la periodontitis. Para ello, se cuantificaron los niveles de expresión de RANKL mediante PCR cuantitativa y los niveles de secreción mediante ELISA en linfocitos T activados en presencia de los serotipos capsulares K1-K6 de P. gingivalis, y estos se correlacionaron a los niveles de expresión de los factores de transcripción asociados a cada uno de los fenotipos de linfocitos efectores: Th1 (T-bet, Th2 (GATA-3, Th17 (RORC2 y Treg (Foxp3. Resultados: Mayores niveles de expresión y secreción de RANKL fueron detectados en linfocitos T activados en presencia de los serotipos K1 y K2 de P. gingivalis, en comparación a los detectados ante los otros serotipos. Además, estos mayores niveles de RANKL se correlacionaron positivamente con los niveles de expresión de RORC2. Conclusión: Estos datos demuestran que la síntesis de RANKL por linfocitos T se restringe a ciertos serotipos capsulares de P. gingivalis (K1 y K2 y permiten sugerir que los serotipos K1 y K2

  17. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  18. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  19. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  20. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone ... cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  1. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cushing's syndrome, also called hypercortisolism , is a rare endocrine disorder caused by chronic exposure of the body's tissues ... removing the tumor while minimizing the chance of endocrine deficiency or long-term ... for Cushing's Syndrome Clinical Trials ...

  2. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of ...

  3. National Down Syndrome Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... info@ndss.org Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q& ... More » Follow us Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q& ...

  4. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? What are the ... Syndrome Additional Resources for Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is one of the most ...

  5. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  6. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  7. Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii 1053 having the KL91 capsule biosynthesis gene locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Popova, Anastasiya V; Nikitina, Anastasia S; Babenko, Vladislav V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii 1053 is the type strain for the maintenance of specific bacteriophage AP22, which infects a fairly broad range of A. baumannii strains circulating in Russian clinics and hospitals. A capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from cells of strain 1053 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide repeating unit was established: -->4)-β-D-ManpNAcA-(1-->4)-β-D-ManpNAcA-(1-->3)-α-D-FucpNAc-(1--> where ManNAcA and FucNAc indicate 2-acetamido-2-deoxymannuronic acid and 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxygalactose, respectively. A polysaccharide having the same repeating unit but a shorter chain was isolated by the phenol-water extraction of bacterial cells. Sequencing of the CPS biosynthesis gene locus showed that A. baumannii 1053 belongs to a new group designated KL91. The gene functions assigned putatively by a comparison with available databases were in agreement with the CPS structure established.

  8. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  9. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  10. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene A; Perry, Mark R; Chen, Hongjing; Needham, James; Houghton, Raymond L; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Hubbard, Mark A; Kozel, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA), the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation), whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis. PMID:25942409

  11. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-02-26

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution.

  12. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Dumping Syndrome Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ...

  13. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  14. Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priori Silvia G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel clinical entity characterized by ST segment elevation in right precordial leads (V1 to V3, incomplete or complete right bundle branch block, and susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death has been described by Brugada et al. in 1992. This disease is now frequently called "Brugada syndrome" (BrS. The prevalence of BrS in the general population is unknown. The suggested prevalence ranges from 5/1,000 (Caucasians to 14/1,000 (Japanese. Syncope, typically occurring at rest or during sleep (in individuals in their third or fourth decades of life is a common presentation of BrS. In some cases, tachycardia does not terminate spontaneously and it may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and lead to sudden death. Both sporadic and familial cases have been reported and pedigree analysis suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In approximately 20% of the cases BrS is caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene on chromosome 3p21-23, encoding the cardiac sodium channel, a protein involved in the control of myocardial excitability. Since the use of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD is the only therapeutic option of proven efficacy for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiac arrest, the identification of high-risk subjects is one of the major goals in the clinical decision-making process. Quinidine may be regarded as an adjunctive therapy for patients at higher risk and may reduce the number of cases of ICD shock in patients with multiple recurrences.

  15. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  16. [Perioperative analgesia with continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2007-02-01

    Recently, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. But single injection techniques have a limited duration of postoperative analgesia. Then, continuous peripheral nerve blocks have taken an important position in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing an effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. As adults, indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on the analysis of individual benefits/risks ratio. Main indications are intense postoperative pain surgical procedures, with or without postoperative rehabilitation, and complex regional pain syndrome. Contraindications to these procedures are rather similar to those in adults, plus parental and/or children refusal. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation in children, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appeared to facilitate nerve and plexus approach identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may theoretically mask a compartment syndrome after trauma surgical procedures. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the most appropriate drug for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rates and concentrations of local anaesthetic. These techniques may facilitate early ambulation by an improved pain management or even postoperative analgesia at home with disposable pumps. One might infer from the current review that excellent pain relief coupled with a reduction of side effects would contribute to improve the quality of life and to decrease the frequency of disabling behavioural modifications in children, sometimes psychologically injured by hospital stay and postoperative pain. PMID:17174518

  17. Refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  18. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  19. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  20. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  1. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  2. Structure and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide 10F by carbohydrate engineering in Streptococcus oralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinghua; Shelat, Nirav Y; Bush, C Allen; Cisar, John O

    2010-07-30

    Although closely related at the molecular level, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of serotype 10F Streptococcus pneumoniae and coaggregation receptor polysaccharide (RPS) of Streptococcus oralis C104 have distinct ecological roles. CPS prevents phagocytosis of pathogenic S. pneumoniae, whereas RPS of commensal S. oralis functions as a receptor for lectin-like adhesins on other members of the dental plaque biofilm community. Results from high resolution NMR identified the recognition region of S. oralis RPS (i.e. Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha) in the hexasaccharide repeat of S. pneumoniae CPS10F. The failure of this polysaccharide to support fimbriae-mediated adhesion of Actinomyces naeslundii was explained by the position of Galf, which occurred as a branch in CPS10F rather than within the linear polysaccharide chain, as in RPS. Carbohydrate engineering of S. oralis RPS with wzy from S. pneumoniae attributed formation of the Galf branch in CPS10F to the linkage of adjacent repeating units through sub terminal GalNAc in Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha rather than through terminal Galf, as in RPS. A gene (wcrD) from serotype 10A S. pneumoniae was then used to engineer a linear surface polysaccharide in S. oralis that was identical to RPS except for the presence of a beta1-3 linkage between Galf and GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha. This polysaccharide also failed to support adhesion of A. naeslundii, thereby establishing the essential role of beta1-6-linked Galf in recognition of adjacent GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha in wild-type RPS. These findings, which illustrate a molecular approach for relating bacterial polysaccharide structure to function, provide insight into the possible evolution of S. oralis RPS from S. pneumoniae CPS. PMID:20507989

  3. Binding of purified and radioiodinated capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A strains to capsule-free mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, J.M.; Mitchell, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Strains 6, 15, 98, 110, and 145 of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A vary in capsule size, animal virulence, and susceptibility to in vitro phagocytosis. The isolated capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) differ in monosaccharide composition ratios and molecular size, as determined by gel filtration. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the binding of CPSs to capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans and to examine CPSs from these strains for differences in their ability to bind, to determine whether such differences might explain the variation in the pathobiology of these strains. CPSs were partially periodate oxidized, tyraminated, iodinated with /sup 125/I, and used in binding studies with two capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans, strain 602 and Cap59. Binding was specific for yeast species and for polysaccharide and was saturable, which is consistent with a receptor-mediated mechanism of attachment. Binding occurred rapidly and was only slowly reversible. Binding was also independent of pH from pH 5.5 to 8, of cation concentrations, and of competition by sugars up to 1.0 M concentrations. Only a portion of CPS was capable of binding, and strains varied in the extent to which their CPS bound. CPS-15-IV (peak IV was the major polysaccharide peak on DEAE-cellulose chromatography of CPS from strain 15) had the highest proportion of binding (40%), followed by CPS from strains 98, 6, 145, 110, and 15-III (peak III was an earlier eluting fraction of CPS from strain 15). The CPSs differed similarly in their ability to competitively inhibit binding. Treatment of CPS, but not yeast cells, with proteinase XIV abolished binding without altering the CPS gross structure. Treatment of yeast cells with proteases, heat, or formaldehyde did not alter binding, and both strain 602 and Cap59 bound CPS similarly. Binding to encapsulated yeast cells was minimal.

  4. Cross-reactive immune response induced by the Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine against Salmonella Paratyphi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, S H; Kantele, J M; Kantele, A

    2014-03-01

    There are no vaccines in clinical use against paratyphoid fever, caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A and B or, rarely, C. Oral Salmonella Typhi Ty21a typhoid vaccine elicits a significant cross-reactive immune response against S. Paratyphi A and B, and some reports suggest cross-protective efficacy against the disease. These findings are ascribed to the O-12 antigen shared between the strains. The Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine has been shown to elicit antibodies reactive with O-9,12. Twenty-five volunteers immunized with the parenteral Vi vaccine (Typherix(®) ) were explored for plasmablasts cross-reactive with paratyphoid strains; the responses were compared to those in 25 age- and gender-matched volunteers immunized with Ty21a (Vivotif(®) ). Before vaccination, 48/50 vaccinees had no plasmablasts reactive with the antigens. Seven days after vaccination, 15/25 and 22/25 Vi- and Ty21a-vaccinated volunteers had circulating plasmablasts producing antibodies cross-reactive with S. Paratyphi A, 18/25 and 23/25 with S. Paratyphi B and 16/25 and 9/25 with Paratyphi C, respectively. Compared to the Ty21a group, the Vi group showed significantly lower responses to S. Paratyphi A and B and higher to S. Paratyphi C. To conclude, the Vi vaccine elicited a cross-reactive plasmablast response to S. Paratyphi C (Vi antigen in common) and less marked responses to S. Paratyphi A and B than the Ty21a preparation. S. Paratyphi A and B both being Vi-negative, the result can be explained by trace amounts of bacterial cell wall O-12 antigen in the Vi preparation, despite purification. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined.

  5. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, I L; Lowe, C U; Thapa, R; Gurubacharya, V L; Shrestha, M B; Cadoz, M; Schulz, D; Armand, J; Bryla, D A; Trollfors, B

    1987-10-29

    We conducted a pilot study followed by a large clinical trial in Nepal of the use of the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi (Vi) as a vaccine to prevent typhoid fever. In the pilot study, involving 274 Nepalese, there were no significant side effects of the Vi vaccine; about 75 percent responded with a rise in serum antibodies of fourfold or more. In the clinical trial, residents of five villages were given intramuscular injections of either Vi or, as a control, pneumococcus vaccine dispensed in coded, randomly arranged, single-dose syringes. There were 6907 participants, of whom 6438 were members of the target population (5 to 44 years of age); each was visited every two days. Those with temperatures of 37.8 degrees C or higher for three consecutive days were examined and asked to give blood for culture. Typhoid was diagnosed as either blood culture-positive or clinically suspected on the basis of bradycardia, splenomegaly, and fever, with a negative blood culture. Seventeen months after vaccination, the codes were broken for the 71 patients meeting the criteria for either culture-positive or clinically suspected typhoid. The attack rate of typhoid was 16.2 per 1000 among the controls and 4.1 per 1000 among those immunized with Vi (P less than 0.00001). The efficacy of Vi was 72 percent in the culture-positive cases, 80 percent in the clinically suspected cases, and 75 percent in the two groups combined. These data provide evidence that Vi antibodies confer protection against typhoid. Surveillance continues to determine the duration of Vi-induced immunity.

  6. Mouse dendritic cells pulsed with capsular polysaccharide induce resistance to lethal pneumococcal challenge: roles of T cells and B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Cohen

    Full Text Available Mice are exceedingly sensitive to intra-peritoneal (IP challenge with some virulent pneumococci (LD50 = 1 bacterium. To investigate how peripheral contact with bacterial capsular polysaccharide (PS antigen can induce resistance, we pulsed bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC of C57BL/6 mice with type 4 or type 3 PS, injected the BMDC intra-foot pad (IFP and challenged the mice IP with supra-lethal doses of pneumococci. We examined the responses of T cells and B cells in the draining popliteal lymph node and measured the effects on the bacteria in the peritoneum and blood. We now report that: 1 The PS co-localized with MHC molecules on the BMDC surface; 2 PS-specific T and B cell proliferation and IFNγ secretion was detected in the draining popliteal lymph nodes on day 4; 3 Type-specific resistance to lethal IP challenge was manifested only after day 5; 4 Type-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of only some of the mice, but B cells were essential for resistance; 5 Control mice vaccinated with a single injection of soluble PS did not develop a response in the draining popliteal lymph node and were not protected; 6 Mice injected with unpulsed BMDC also did not resist challenge: In unprotected mice, pneumococci entered the blood shortly after IP inoculation and multiplied exponentially in both blood and peritoneum killing the mice within 20 hours. Mice vaccinated with PS-pulsed BMDC trapped the bacteria in the peritoneum. The trapped bacteria proliferated exponentially IP, but died suddenly at 18-20 hours. Thus, a single injection of PS antigen associated with intact BMDC is a more effective vaccine than the soluble PS alone. This model system provides a platform for studying novel aspects of PS-targeted vaccination.

  7. Block Voter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sampaio, C I N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of $N_{PCS}$ spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighbouring counterparts. We consider the collective behaviour of the entire system with varying PCS size. When $N_{PCS}>2$, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter $q_{c}$ which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that how large the PCS is more power of persuasion it has. It also seems that the resulting critical behaviour is Ising-like independent of the range of the interactions.

  8. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  9. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  10. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  11. Second trimester hepatic rupture in a 35 year old nulliparous woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2009-01-01

    The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets) is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10-20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation.

  12. Waardenburg syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, A P; Newton, V E

    1997-01-01

    Auditory-pigmentary syndromes are caused by physical absence of melanocytes from the skin, hair, eyes, or the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Dominantly inherited examples with patchy depigmentation are usually labelled Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Type I WS, characterised by dystopia canthorum, is caused by loss of function mutations in the PAX3 gene. Type III WS (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome, with abnormalities of the arms) is an extreme presentation of type I; some but not all patients are ho...

  13. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  14. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  15. Sweet Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Sever, Lale; Çalışkan, Salim; Kodakoğlu, Ramazan; Mat, Cem; Kaner, Gültekin; Arısoy, Nil

    1996-01-01

    Sweet syndrome is a vasculitis characterized with fever leucocytosis neutrophilia and dermal neutrophilic infiltration In children Sweet syndrome usually occurs with secondary to infection and in adults to malignancy We report a Sweet syndrome in a five years old girl with respiratory infections otitis dactylitis long lasting fever and cutaneous rash A neutrophilic dermal infiltration is noted in cutaneous biopsy These signs have disappeared with corticosteroid treatment In conclusion Sweet s...

  16. One stage rescue procedure after capsular contracture of breast implants with autologous fat grafts collected by water assisted liposuction (“BEAULI Method”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueberreiter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing number of patients with silicone implants for breast augmentation or reconstruction we are confronted with more and more cases of capsular contracture. Not every case is resolved by resection of the capsule and exchange of implants. Many patients rather bear the consequences of severe fibrosis than to have their implants removed. The one stage procedure of implant removal and lipofilling proved to be highly efficient with good to excellent results and high patient satisfaction. Between January 2008 and October 2012 a total of 64 patients (124 breasts with capsular fibrosis Baker III to IV were treated with autologous fat grafts collected with the body-jet by water-assisted liposuction (“BEAULI Method”. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the breasts was performed in 5 patients preoperatively and 6 month postoperatively, a clinical examination and photo documentation of all patients was done on day 1 and after 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The procedure included implant removal and lipofilling of the subcutaneous and intramuscular space in a single procedure by means of the BEAULI Method. The average gross amount of grafted fat was 260 ml. The average drainage time was one day. The shape of the breast changed to a more natural and ptotic form. Negative side effects like oily cysts or infections were not observed. The time of the overall procedure including liposuction was 70±15 min. Reoccurring capsular contracture is one of the hazards in plastic surgery. Until now the treatment of choice after more than two failed implant changes combined with resection of the capsule is usually the final removal of implants with or without possible additional autologous tissue transfer (microvascular flaps. We could add a relatively simple and efficient procedure to resolve and improve those cases by autologous fat transfer using water-assisted liposuction and the BEAULI Method.

  17. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Marfan Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Marfan Syndrome Print A ... a genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, ...

  18. What Is Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NDSS Home » Down Syndrome » What Is Down Syndrome? What Is Down Syndrome? In every cell in the ... chromosome 21 causes the characteristics of Down syndrome. What Causes Down Syndrome? Regardless of the type of ...

  19. The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W.K. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...

  20. Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...

  1. Arthrography and its value in comparison with fixation radiography in the diagnosis of lesions to the capsular ligament of the ankle joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From May 1981 till May 1982, we consistently performed arthography of the injured joint and fixation radiography according to Scheuba (pressure: 15 kp) of both ankle joints for reasons of comparison in all patients with a distorsion trauma of the ankle joint and with suspected lesions to the ligaments. 259 cases were used for the assessment. Fixation radiography should not be used any more. Mere clinical examination combined with the case history can be assumed to be superior to fixation radiography still. Arthrography clearly is the more sensitive method for the diagnosis of injuries to the external capsular ligament of the ankle joint. (orig./SHA)

  2. STUDY TO EVALUATE THE ADDITIONAL BENEFIT OF THE HYDROLIC CAPSULAR DISTENTION USING NORMAL SALINE AND STEROID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FROZEN SHOULDERS TREATED WITH CONVENTIONAL PHYSIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many treatment options have been advocated for the self - limiting disease of the frozen shoulder, there is no robust evidence of the superiority of one over other . This study intended to evaluate the outcome of hydrolic capsular distension followed by physiotherapy and its comparison with only physiotherapy regime in treatment of frozen shoulder. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Evaluate the additional benefit of the hydrolic capsular distension using normal saline and steroid in the management of the frozen shoulder treated with conventional physiotherapy . MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized prospective study we have studied total 50 cases within the age group of 40 - 70 years with idiopathic frozen shoulder. They were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Patients in the first group were treated with shoulder joint capsular distension using normal saline and steroid under local anesthesia at outpatient department followed by physiotherapy and the patients in second group were treated with physiotherapy only. The aim was to obtain earlier pain relief and earlier relief from functional disability. Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI & Visual analogue scale (VAS score was used as a tool for evaluation and comparison. RESULTS: After confounding all the demographic factors it was found that the intra as well as inter group change in SPADI score revealed statistically extremely significant difference (p value - <0.0001 at the end of 12 th week. Hydrotherapy group being superior than the only physiotherapy group. VAS score showed statistically extremely significant improvement in hydrotherapy group at the end of 1 st week (p value - <0.0001 as compared to not much improvement in only physiotherapy group (p value - 0.0830. Similar results were observed with the SPADI score values at the end of first week, where 80% patient in hydrotherapy group felt some improvement in performing daily activities at the same time no one was quoted

  3. Pyrosequencing-based analysis reveals a novel capsular gene cluster in a KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate identified in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Pablo Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important virulence factor of Klebsiella pneumoniae is the production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS, a thick mucus layer that allows for evasion of the host's defense and creates a barrier against antibacterial peptides. CPS production is driven mostly by the expression of genes located in a locus called cps, and the resulting structure is used to distinguish between different serotypes (K types. In this study, we report the unique genetic organization of the cps cluster from K. pneumoniae Kp13, a clinical isolate recovered during a large outbreak of nosocomial infections that occurred in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Results A pyrosequencing-based approach showed that the cps region of Kp13 (cpsKp13 is 26.4 kbp in length and contains genes common, although not universal, to other strains, such as the rmlBADC operon that codes for L-rhamnose synthesis. cpsKp13 also presents some unique features, like the inversion of the wzy gene and a unique repertoire of glycosyltransferases. In silico comparison of cpsKp13 RFLP pattern with 102 previously published cps PCR-RFLP patterns showed that cpsKp13 is distinct from the C patterns of all other K serotypes. Furthermore, in vitro serotyping showed only a weak reaction with capsular types K9 and K34. We confirm that K9 cps shares common genes with cpsKp13 such as the rmlBADC operon, but lacks features like uge and Kp13-specific glycosyltransferases, while K34 capsules contain three of the five sugars that potentially form the Kp13 CPS. Conclusions We report the first description of a cps cluster from a Brazilian clinical isolate of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. The gathered data including K-serotyping support that Kp13’s K-antigen belongs to a novel capsular serotype. The CPS of Kp13 probably includes L-rhamnose and D-galacturonate in its structure, among other residues. Because genes involved in L-rhamnose biosynthesis are absent in humans, this pathway may represent

  4. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  5. Covariant Approaches to Superconformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Khandker, Zuhair U; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with N-extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

  6. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  7. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K. Gupta, Ritu Gupta, Sunil Dutt Sharma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turner Syndrome is one of the important chromosomal disorders characterised by loss (total or part ofsex chromosome. The manifestations being peripheral edema, short stature, extra skin fold, webbing ofneck, renal and cardiovascular anomalies, sexual infantilism, learning disability etc. We present here aone month female baby who had classical features of Turner Syndrome. The karyotape analysis wasconsistent with the diagnosis.

  8. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep;

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  9. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. ... anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do ...

  10. Bloom's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III ...

  11. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  12. Franceschetti syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Kasat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable expressivity. It is commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS. It is named after E. Treacher Collins who described the essential components of the condition. It affects both genders equally. This article reports a case of TCS in an 18-year-old female.

  13. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan AB.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is an important cause of short stature in girls and primer amenorrhea in young women that is usually caused by loss of part or all of an X chromosome. This topic will review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome.

  14. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  15. Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panov, Nenad; Stojanov, H; Sumanov, Gorgi; Panova, Blagica; Stojanovski, Angel; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Trajanovski, D; Asanova, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing work responsibilities, allocation of duties, loss of energy and motivation in everyday activities, emotional exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, insuffi cient time for rest and recreation, dissatisfaction in private life. All these symptoms can be cause of Burnout Syndrome. Aim: To see the importance of this syndrome, the consequences of job dissatisfaction, the environment, family and expression in drastic chan...

  16. Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K. Digra, Deep Aman Singh, Vikram Gupta, Ghanshyam Saini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a 11 year old boy and his father both Noonan’s. Noonan syndrome occurs in 1 out of 2000live births. Short stature, webbing of neck, pectus carinatum or pectus excavatum, hypertelorismcubitus valgus, epicanthus, downward slanted palpebral fissures, ptosis, microganthia and earabnormalities are the common features of Noonan syndrome.

  17. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  18. Approach to Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada Syndrome was initially described by Brugada brothers in their seminal paper published in the Journal of American College of Cardiology in 1992. The syndrome was characterized by syncopal episodes and/or sudden cardiac death in association with right bundle branch block pattern with ST segment elevation in right precordial leads. Genetic basis involving mutations in sodium channel (SCN5A was first described in 1998. But SCN5A mutations account for only about a fifth of the clinical cases of Brugada syndrome. Mutations in several other genes have been documented in later studies (at least 16 of them, though SCN5A mutation is the commonest. Life threatening ventricular arrhythmias with a structurally normal heart was the usual pattern in initial reports. But later on it was noted that several persons with similar ECG pattern never had any arrhythmias in their life time. There was significant variation in the severity of presentation between different regions of the world, with more malignant phenotypes noted in South East Asian countries.

  19. Environmental pH, O2 and Capsular Effects on the Geochemical Composition of Statoliths of Embryonic Squid Doryteuthis opalescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Navarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spawning market squid lay embryo capsules on the seafloor of the continental shelf of the California Current System (CCS, where ocean acidification, deoxygenation and intensified upwelling lower the pH and [O2]. Squid statolith geochemistry has been shown to reflect the squid’s environment (e.g., seawater temperature and elemental concentration. We used real-world environmental levels of pH and [O2] observed on squid-embryo beds to test in the laboratory whether or not squid statolith geochemistry reflects environmental pH and [O2]. We asked whether pH and [O2] levels might affect the incorporation of element ratios (B:Ca, Mg:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Pb:Ca, U:Ca into squid embryonic statoliths as (1 individual elements and/or (2 multivariate elemental signatures, and consider future applications as proxies for pH and [O2] exposure. Embryo exposure to high and low pH and [O2] alone and together during development over four weeks only moderately affected elemental concentrations of the statoliths, and uranium was an important element driving these differences. Uranium:Ca was eight-times higher in statoliths exposed to low pHT (7.57–7.58 and low [O2] (79–82 µmol·kg−1 than those exposed to higher ambient pHT (7.92–7.94 and [O2] (241–243 µmol·kg−1. In a separate experiment, exposure to low pHT (7.55–7.56 or low [O2] (83–86 µmol·kg−1 yielded elevated U:Ca and Sr:Ca in the low [O2] treatment only. We found capsular effects on multiple elements in statoliths of all treatments. The multivariate elemental signatures of embryonic statoliths were distinct among capsules, but did not reflect environmental factors (pH and/or [O2]. We show that statoliths of squid embryos developing inside capsules have the potential to reflect environmental pH and [O2], but that these “signals” are generated in concert with the physiological effects of the capsules and embryos themselves.

  20. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...... or more intermediate data blocks. The output data blocks are those that are at the ends of the paths and have no succeeding data blocks. The optimisation procedure finds weights for the input data blocks so that the size of the total loadings for the output data blocks are maximised. When the optimal...... weight vectors have been determined, the score and loading vectors for the data blocks in the path are determined. Appropriate adjustment of the data blocks is carried out at each step. Regression coefficients are computed for each data block that show how the data block is estimated by data blocks...

  1. Combined special capsular tension ring and toric IOL implantation for management of post-DALK high regular astigmatism with subluxated traumatic cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Kandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 18-year-old male who has undergone phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL (AcrySof IQ SN6AT9 after fixation of lens capsule with Cionni′s capsular tension ring (CTR for subluxated traumatic cataract with high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. He underwent right eye DALK for advanced keratoconus four years earlier. He had history of trauma one year later with displaced clear crystalline lens into  anterior chamber and graft dehiscence, which was repaired successfully. The graft survived, but patient developed cataract with subluxated lens, for which phacoemulsification with implantation of toric IOL was done. Serial  topography showed regular corneal astigmatism of -5.50 diopter (K 1 42.75 D @130°, K 2 48.25 D @40°. At 10-month follow-up, the patient has BCVA 20/30 with + 0.75 DS/- 1.75 DC @ 110°. The capsular bag is quite stable with well-centered IOL. Combination of Cionni′s ring with toric IOL could be a good option to manage such complex cases.

  2. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  3. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  4. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  5. The Shamrock lumbar plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauter, Axel R; Ullensvang, Kyrre; Niemi, Geir;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Shamrock technique is a new method for ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus blockade. Data on the optimal local anaesthetic dose are not available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the effective dose of ropivacaine 0.5% for a Shamrock lumbar plexus block. DESIGN: A...... prospective dose-finding study using Dixon's up-and-down sequential method. SETTING: University Hospital Orthopaedic Anaesthesia Unit. INTERVENTION: Shamrock lumbar plexus block performance and block assessment were scheduled preoperatively. Ropivacaine 0.5% was titrated with the Dixon and Massey up......-and-down method using a stepwise change of 5 ml in each consecutive patient. Combined blocks of the femoral, the lateral femoral cutaneous and the obturator nerve were prerequisite for a successful lumbar plexus block. PATIENTS: Thirty patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgery completed the study...

  6. Denervação capsular percutânea no tratamento da displasia coxofemoral canina Percutaneous hip denervation for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A displasia coxofemoral canina (DCF é uma afecção ortopédica freqüente, comumente dolorosa, decorrente de instabilidade e que leva à doença articular degenerativa. Várias formas de tratamento cirúrgico são descritas, entre elas a denervação capsular a céu aberto. Neste trabalho, é descrita a denervação capsular percutânea e seus efeitos em 92 cães com sensibilidade dolorosa na articulação do quadril atribuída à DCF. Foram avaliados os seguintes aspectos: o grau de claudicação (CLAUD, a dor por escala analógica visual, a perimetria da coxa (PC e os graus máximos de extensão (GME e flexão (GMF passiva do quadril imediatamente antes da cirurgia e aos sete, 15, 30, 180 e 360 dias de pós-operatório (p.o.. Os animais foram pré-medicados e submetidos à anestesia geral inalatória e, posteriormente, a borda acetabular crânio-dorsal foi denervada por meio da introdução percutânea de um pino de Steinman com aproximadamente 4,5mm de diâmetro. A CLAUD e a dor foram analisadas por meio da ANOVA e do teste de Friedman. A PC, a GME e a GMF foram analisadas por meio da ANOVA e do teste de Tukey. Foi observada melhora significativa na CLAUD e dor a partir dos 15 dias de p.o. A GME apresentou aumento significativo já aos 30 dias de p.o., enquanto que a PC apresentou aumento significativo após os 60 dias de p.o. Conclui-se que a denervação capsular percutânea é alternativa cirúrgica eficaz em restabelecer a movimentação do quadril displásico e promove melhora significativa da dor e claudicação.Canine hip dysplasia is a common painfull orthopedic disorder, resulting from articular instability and causing degenerative joint disease. Several treatment options are available, including capsular denervation. This study describes the results of percutaneous capsular denervation in 92 dogs diagnosed with hip dysplasia. Lameness (LAM and pain on palpation (PN were determined using a visual analogue scale (VAS, muscle girth

  7. Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, P M; Makambwa, E

    2015-10-01

    Kounis syndrome is characterised by a group of symptoms that manifest as unstable vasospastic or non-vasospastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. It was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and coronary artery spasm or even myocardial infarction. Since then, this condition has evolved to include a number of mast cell activation disorders associated with acute coronary syndrome. There are many triggering factors, including reactions to multiple medications, exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome comprises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital organs. The incidence of this condition is difficult to establish owing to the number of potential instigating factors and its relatively infrequent documentation in the literature.We report the case of an HIV-negative 39-year-old man with no coronary risk factors or family history of premature coronary artery disease, who developed Kounis syndrome after the administration of fluoroquinolone for dysuria. However, to the best of our knowledge,no data on the incidence and prevalence of Kounis syndrome in South Africa have ever been reported in the literature. The recent understanding of Kounis syndrome has led to the condition being classified into three syndrome variants. PMID:26636160

  8. HYDROLETHALUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydrolethalus Syndrome (HLS is a rare lethal genetic syndrome, recognized as a consequence of a study on Meckle syndrome in Finland .1 HLS is characterized by multiple developmental defects of fetus which include fetal hydrocephalus, agenesis of corpus callosum, absent midline structures of brain, Cleft lip and cleft palate, defective lobulation of lungs, micrognathia and very characteristic abnormality of polydactyly. About 80% of patients have polydactyly, in hands it is postaxial and preaxial in feet with duplicated big toe. A highly characteristic hallux duplex is seen in almost no other situation .2 Club feet is also common.

  9. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Ruth H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis (NA syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes

  10. Hubris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David

    2008-08-01

    Hubris syndrome is associated with power, more likely to manifest itself the longer the person exercises power and the greater the power they exercise. A syndrome not to be applied to anyone with existing mental illness or brain damage. Usually symptoms abate when the person no longer exercises power. It is less likely to develop in people who retain a personal modesty, remain open to criticism, have a degree of cynicism or well developed sense of humour. Four heads of government in the last 100 years are singled out as having developed hubris syndrome: David Lloyd George, Margaret Thatcher, George W Bush and Tony Blair.

  11. Bloqueo neurolítico del tercer ganglio simpático dorsal en pacientes con síndrome de Raynaud: Una serie de casos Neurolytic blocking third dorsal simpathetic ganglion in patients with Raynaud´s syndrome: A number of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Flores Cantisani

    2013-04-01

    sympathetic block ad using neurolytic agents in the thoracic ganglia T2 and T3 considered synaptic stations that are distributed in the upper limb. Objective: The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of neurolytic block of the third dorsal ganglion due to Raynaud's syndrome in a series of cases. Material and methods: A review of records of eight cases with Raynaud's phenomenon that presented multifactorial origin were conducted on Clinic of the Pain located in the Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Monterrey Nuevo León, México. Cases: Eight patients from 41 to 72 years old were medically treated for Raynaud's phenomenon using sympathicolysis dorsal third node. Conclusions: Raynaud's phenomenon with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 25% has an increased sympathetic activity. The ischemic pain that is determined by total or partial failure in the oxygen transport to tissues was reduced in these patients by performing a selective sympathicolysis in the thoracic ganglia T2 and T3 considered synaptic stations that are distributed in the upper limb. It was demonstrated in this study that this treatment is selective with less adverse effects to the patients.

  12. Block Curricula: A Guide to Teaching with Unit Blocks and Hollow Blocks in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phyllis; Tiedemann, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for preschool teachers was designed for use with wooden unit and hollow blocks to foster a variety of math, science, language, and social skills. Following an introduction to the curriculum and a discussion of cooperative learning and stages of block building, the guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 of the guide, "Unit…

  13. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  14. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  15. [Mobius syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  16. Gardner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndromes. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic. How common is ... detected X-ray or computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan of the small bowel if adenomas are ...

  17. [Heptopulmonary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Antonio; Díaz, Ainhoa; Iruzubieta, Paula; Salcines, José Ramón; Crespo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by the presence of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and arterial hypoxemia. It is usually associated with cirrhosis of any origin, but has been described in other liver diseases, both acute and chronic, and not always associated with portal hypertension. The gold standard method to detect pulmonary vascular dilations is contrast enhancement echocardiography with saline and is essential for the diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome. These dilatations reflect changes in the pulmonary microvasculature (vasodilatation, intravascular monocyte accumulation, and angiogenesis) and induce a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or even true intrapulmonary shunts, which eventually trigger hypoxemia. This syndrome worsens patients' prognosis and impairs their quality of life and may lead to the need for liver transplantation, which is the only effective and definitive treatment. In this article, we review the etiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic features of this syndrome. PMID:25840463

  18. Piriformis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... medical help immediately if: You have sudden severe pain in your lower back or legs, along with muscle weakness or numbness ...

  19. Potter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter phenotype ... In Potter syndrome, the primary problem is kidney failure. The kidneys fail to develop properly as the baby is ... kidneys normally produce the amniotic fluid (as urine). Potter phenotype refers to a typical facial appearance that ...

  20. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home ... children, the thyroid is important for normal growth and development. Children with Pendred syndrome, however, rarely have problems ...

  1. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  2. Block copolymer patterns and templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Li

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the chemical and physical aspects of patternable block copolymers and their use for nanostructure fabrication. The patternability of block copolymers results from their ability to self-assemble into microdomains and the manipulation of these patterns by a variety of physical and chemical means. Procedures for achieving long-range lateral order, as well as orientation order of microdomain patterns, are discussed. The level of control that these strategies afford has enabled block copolymers to be used as templates for fabricating a variety of nanostructures.

  3. Turner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; G Sree Vijayabala; KS Prem Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate th...

  4. Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes Pendred's syndrome in three siblings of a consanguineous marriage, belonging to Rahimyar Khan. The children presented with deafmutism and goiters. The investigations included scintigram, perchlorate discharge test and audiometery. The perchlorate discharge was positive in index case. Bilateral sensorineural hearing defect was detected on Pure Tone Average (PTA) audiometry. Meticulous clinical and laboratory evaluation is mandatory for the detection of rare disorders like Pendred's syndrome. (author)

  5. Neonatal lupus syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyon, J P; Rupel, A; Clancy, R M

    2004-01-01

    The neonatal lupus syndromes (NLS), while quite rare, carry significant mortality and morbidity in cases of cardiac manifestations. Although anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies are detected in > 85% of mothers whose fetuses are identified with congenital heart block (CHB) in a structurally normal heart, when clinicians applied this testing to their pregnant patients, the risk for a woman with the candidate antibodies to have a child with CHB was at or below 1 in 50. While the precise pathogenic mechanism of antibody-mediated injury remains unknown, it is clear that the antibodies alone are insufficient to cause disease and fetal factors are likely contributory. In vivo and in vitro evidence supports a pathologic cascade involving apoptosis of cardiocytes, surface translocation of Ro and La antigens, binding of maternal autoantibodies, secretion of profibrosing factors (e.g., TGFbeta) from the scavenging macrophages and modulation of cardiac fibroblasts to a myofibroflast scarring phenotype. The spectrum of cardiac abnormalities continues to expand, with varying degrees of block identified in utero and reports of late onset cardiomyopathy (some of which display endocardial fibroelastosis). Moreover, there is now clear documentation that incomplete blocks (including those improving in utero with dexamethasone) can progress postnatally, despite the clearance of the maternal antibodies from the neonatal circulation. Better echocardiographic measurements which identify first degree block in utero may be the optimal means of approaching pregnant women at risk. Prophylactic therapies, including treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, await larger trials. In order to achieve advances at both the bench and bedside, national research registries established in the US and Canada are critical.

  6. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  7. Learning about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What ... Down syndrome? People who have Down syndrome have learning difficulties, mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearance, and ...

  8. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ...

  9. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  10. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two different brands of salmonella typhi VI capsular polysaccharide vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of multi-drug-resistant Salmonella strains highlights the need for better preventive measures, including vaccination. Safeand immunologic vaccines have been developed based on purified VI polysaccharide. OBJECTIVE: To compare the immune response elicited by two different brands of Salmonella Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViCPS. SETTING AND DESIGN: Double blind, randomized (3:1, controlled, parallel, phase III study was conducted at two centres in India to compare the safety and immunogenicity of TypbarTM, the investigational vaccine with an already marketed vaccine "X", in healthy subjects aged between 12 -25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample size of 184 subjects was calculated. Subjects were randomly distributed in two groups, immunized with single dose of TypbarTM or Vaccine "X". Serum samples were taken before 7 days and 4 weeks after immunization for the determination of antibodies to Vi polysaccharide, by ELISA method. Safety was assessed by physical examination, laboratory parameters before and after vaccination and by monitoring adverse events. Statistics: The geometric mean antibody titre (GMT 4 weeks after vaccination was compared from respective pre-vaccination values by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Geometric mean of antibody levels before and after immunization and the ratio between them (Mann-Whitney test, the Seroconversion rates (Z test of proportions and the adverse events (Fisher′s exact testand Chi square test, were compared between two groups. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. P values and 95% confidence intervals were estimated in two-tailed fashion. RESULTS: 153 subjects (TypbarTM =116 and Vaccine "X" =37 were studied. 71.6% (95% CI=63.4%-79.8% and 75.7% (95% CI=64.9% - 89.5% were the seroconversion rates with TypbarTM and vaccine "X" respectively. The GMT values for Vi antibodies induced after TypbarTM and vaccine "X" were 10.23 TypbarTM and 13.46 mg

  11. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  12. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment...

  13. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  14. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  15. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Pascal; Vaudenay, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  16. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  17. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  18. Fat Embolism Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullin М.М.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fat embolism syndrome (FES, and the complications occurring in fractures of long bones or pelvic bones are considered. Clinical picture classically develops after “lucid space“, then appear pulmonary and neurological manifestations combined with petechial hemorrhage. Basic theories of FES pathophysiology are analyzed. Early signs are likely to be caused by mechanic vascular occlusion by fat globules. Vascular occlusions in FES are frequently temporary or partial as fat globules block capillary blood flow incompletely due to their flowability and deformity. The diagnosis is made based on clinical presentations using A.R. Gurd’s criteria (1970. Laboratory and instrumental methods are used for clinical diagnosis confirmation or therapy monitoring. The treatment is aimed mainly at supporting respiratory function and hemodynamics stabilization. Prevention, early diagnosis and adequate symptomatic treatment are of primary importance.

  19. Surgical treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip using a modified-Hardinge approach with a Z-shaped capsular incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip is a rare condition, and the surgical treatment approach for this condition requires complete removal of loose bodies combined with synovectomy. While these, procedures are generally accepted as the optimal treatment method, this is still controversial topic. Recent studies have reported that open surgical procedures remain acceptable for synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. These procedures include the dislocation of the femoral head, and complications such as femoral head necrosis and bursitis or great trochanter non-union due to trochanteric osteotomy have been reported. The present study reports a modified technique for surgical dislocation through a Z-shaped capsular incision without trochanteric flip osteotomy for the treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip.

  20. Surgical Treatment of Synovial Osteochondromatosis of the Hip Using a Modified-Hardinge Approach with a Z-Shaped Capsular Incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yu; Fukunishi, Shigeo; Nishio, Shoji; Fujihara, Yuki; Fukui, Tomokazu; Okahisa, Shohei; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-12-28

    Synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip is a rare condition, and the surgical treatment approach for this condition requires complete removal of loose bodies combined with synovectomy. While these, procedures are generally accepted as the optimal treatment method, this is still controversial topic. Recent studies have reported that open surgical procedures remain acceptable for synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. These procedures include the dislocation of the femoral head, and complications such as femoral head necrosis and bursitis or great trochanter non-union due to trochanteric osteotomy have been reported. The present study reports a modified technique for surgical dislocation through a Z-shaped capsular incision without trochanteric flip osteotomy for the treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. PMID:26793291

  1. Children with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine failure have long-term bactericidal antibodies against virulent Hib strains with multiple capsular loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Payne, Kelly; Ladhani, Shamez N; Findlow, Helen; Slack, Mary; Borrow, Ray

    2016-07-25

    Children who develop invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease after immunisation with a highly-effective conjugate vaccine are more likely to have been infected with Hib strains possessing multiple copies of the capsulation locus. Using a recently-validated serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay, we tested convalescent sera from 127 Hib vaccine failure cases against clinical Hib strains expressing 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus. SBA titres correlated weakly with anti-capsular IgG antibody concentrations and there was no association between SBA geometric mean titres and number of capsulation locus copies. After infection, children with Hib vaccine failure were equally protected against Hib strains with 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus. PMID:27317452

  2. No diagnostic utility of antibody patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis vs. patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, L T; Loft, A G; Christiansen, A A;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibody response patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes can discriminate patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) from patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). METHOD: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies against K. pneumoniae...... ankylosing spondylitis (AS) served as the negative and positive control groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in IgG and IgA seropositivity against all serotypes between the axSpA, non-axSpA, and LBP groups. No significant correlations were found between anti-Klebsiella antibodies and age, gender, HLA-B27......: The antibody patterns against K. pneumoniae serotypes K2, K26, K36, and K50 did not discriminate between early axSpA and non-specific LBP....

  3. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, K. (Streptococcus Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weis Bentzon, M. (Department of Biostatistics, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au).

  4. Children with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine failure have long-term bactericidal antibodies against virulent Hib strains with multiple capsular loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Payne, Kelly; Ladhani, Shamez N; Findlow, Helen; Slack, Mary; Borrow, Ray

    2016-07-25

    Children who develop invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease after immunisation with a highly-effective conjugate vaccine are more likely to have been infected with Hib strains possessing multiple copies of the capsulation locus. Using a recently-validated serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay, we tested convalescent sera from 127 Hib vaccine failure cases against clinical Hib strains expressing 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus. SBA titres correlated weakly with anti-capsular IgG antibody concentrations and there was no association between SBA geometric mean titres and number of capsulation locus copies. After infection, children with Hib vaccine failure were equally protected against Hib strains with 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus.

  5. M-ficolin binds selectively to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 19B and 19C and of a S. mitis strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Troels Rønn; Hansen, Annette G; Sørensen, Uffe B S;

    2012-01-01

    of infections. We investigated the binding selectivity by examining the binding of M-ficolin to a panel of more than 100 different streptococcal strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis) each expressing distinct polysaccharide structures. M-ficolin binding was observed for three strains only......, the pneumococcal serotypes 19B and 19C and a single mitis strain expressing a similar polysaccharide structure. The bound M-ficolin, in association with MASP-2, mediated complement factor C4 cleavage. Binding to the bacteria was inhibitable by N-acetyl glucosamine indicating that the interaction with the bacterial...... surface takes place via the fibrinogen-like domain. The common N-acetyl mannosamine residue present in the structures of the four capsular polysaccharides of group 19 is linked via a phosphodiester bond. This residue is apparently not a ligand for M-ficolin since the lectin binds to two of the group 19...

  6. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  7. Antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Crowther, Mark; Branch, Ware; Khamashta, Munther A

    2010-10-30

    The antiphospholipid syndrome causes venous, arterial, and small-vessel thrombosis; pregnancy loss; and preterm delivery for patients with severe pre-eclampsia or placental insufficiency. Other clinical manifestations are cardiac valvular disease, renal thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, and cognitive impairment. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets; and overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. Of the different antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant is the strongest predictor of features related to antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy of thrombosis is based on long-term oral anticoagulation and patients with arterial events should be treated aggressively. Primary thromboprophylaxis is recommended in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and probably in purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with aspirin and heparin. Hydroxychloroquine is a potential additional treatment for this syndrome. Possible future therapies for non-pregnant patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are statins, rituximab, and new anticoagulant drugs. PMID:20822807

  8. Discovery and expression of 3 siglecs-like in Oreochromis niloticus neutrophil, and their interaction with group B streptococcal sialylated capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junjian; Wei, Yuanzheng; Ye, Xing; Sun, Chengfei; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Maixin; Du, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhihang

    2016-05-01

    Sialic acid - binding immunoglobulin - like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the largest superfamily of immune receptors; they recognize sialic acid and are mainly expressed in immune cells. Studies on mammals indicate that Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) evade immune reactions by interacting with the host immune cells via the sialic acid of sialylated capsular polysaccharides. However, it is currently unknown if fish-derived GBS can interact with Siglecs to evade host immunity. In this study, we examined the binding of FITC-GBS with neutrophils to determine the presence of receptors that binds with GBS. Furthermore, 3 Siglec-like genes, (OnSiglec-1-like/-4b-like/-14-like) from the neutrophils cDNA were screened by PCR. All the genes had specific domains (immunostimulation and immunosuppression domains), conserved amino acid residues, and sialic acid polysaccharide binding sites that are found in mammalian Siglecs. Flow cytometry of Siglecs-like/COS-7 cells and ELISA of Siglecs/Ex-Fc fusion proteins confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like have high binding activity with GBS. Erythrocytes adhesion assays and sialylated glycans binding assay confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like bind to sialic acid polysaccharides. Siglecs-like had high expression levels in the spleen, gill, and kidney in Oreochromis niloticus by qPCR. After experimental infection, Siglec-1-like/-14-like showed a significant upregulated initially and later downregulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and gill. However, Siglec-4b-like was downregulated in most tissues, except that in liver. The results indicate that 3 OnSiglecs-like may recognize GBS sialylated capsular polysaccharides. GBS infections led to significant changes in Siglecs-like expression in immune-related tissues. However, immunostimulation or immunosuppression via the recognition of GBS by different Siglecs-like molecules requires additional studies.

  9. Discovery and expression of 3 siglecs-like in Oreochromis niloticus neutrophil, and their interaction with group B streptococcal sialylated capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junjian; Wei, Yuanzheng; Ye, Xing; Sun, Chengfei; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Maixin; Du, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhihang

    2016-05-01

    Sialic acid - binding immunoglobulin - like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the largest superfamily of immune receptors; they recognize sialic acid and are mainly expressed in immune cells. Studies on mammals indicate that Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) evade immune reactions by interacting with the host immune cells via the sialic acid of sialylated capsular polysaccharides. However, it is currently unknown if fish-derived GBS can interact with Siglecs to evade host immunity. In this study, we examined the binding of FITC-GBS with neutrophils to determine the presence of receptors that binds with GBS. Furthermore, 3 Siglec-like genes, (OnSiglec-1-like/-4b-like/-14-like) from the neutrophils cDNA were screened by PCR. All the genes had specific domains (immunostimulation and immunosuppression domains), conserved amino acid residues, and sialic acid polysaccharide binding sites that are found in mammalian Siglecs. Flow cytometry of Siglecs-like/COS-7 cells and ELISA of Siglecs/Ex-Fc fusion proteins confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like have high binding activity with GBS. Erythrocytes adhesion assays and sialylated glycans binding assay confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like bind to sialic acid polysaccharides. Siglecs-like had high expression levels in the spleen, gill, and kidney in Oreochromis niloticus by qPCR. After experimental infection, Siglec-1-like/-14-like showed a significant upregulated initially and later downregulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and gill. However, Siglec-4b-like was downregulated in most tissues, except that in liver. The results indicate that 3 OnSiglecs-like may recognize GBS sialylated capsular polysaccharides. GBS infections led to significant changes in Siglecs-like expression in immune-related tissues. However, immunostimulation or immunosuppression via the recognition of GBS by different Siglecs-like molecules requires additional studies. PMID:26847490

  10. Factores etiológicos implicados en la contractura capsular en mamoplastia de aumento estética: estudio prospectivo observacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Piña-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. La contractura capsular (CC es la complicación más común y frustrante en mujeres que se han sometido a cirugía de aumento mamario con fines estéticos. La causa es actualmente desconocida y se considera que a menudo participan varios factores conjuntamente. Material y Método. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo observacional de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte de pacientes y llevado a cabo durante 4 años en la Clínica Ruber de Madrid. Resultados. Determinamos que el ejercicio físico es un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo de CC, con una probabilidad 5 veces mayor de desarrollo en pacientes que lo realizan respecto a las que no lo practican; sobre todo los ejercicios relacionados con la movilidad de los miembros superiores, entre ellos los aeróbicos suaves, la natación y la musculación. El ejercicio físico actuaría como principal causa de fricción entre cápsula e implante rugoso, y llegado un momento, dicha fricción originaría pequeñas roturas en la cápsula periprotésica generando una respuesta inflamatoria. El brazo hábil dominante resultó ser un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo de contractura, determinando el lado de la mama que se contractura. Los hallazgos microbiológicos de las cápsulas periprotésicascontracturadas demostraron que un mayor grado de contractura en aquellos implantes en los que hubo resultados microbiológicos positivos, encontrando Propionibacteriumacnes y especies de estafilococos coagulasa negativos. Conclusiones. Las pacientes con implantes mamarios que realizan ejercicio físico habitual presentan mayor riesgo de sufrir contractura capsular mamaria.

  11. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  12. Microcephaly syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this article is to review microcephaly from a genetics point of view, especially with regard to the process of identification of syndromes in which small head circumference occurs. Microcephaly can be due to either genetic or environmental causes. It can be the only positive finding or may be part of a syndrome of congenital anomalies. The genetic etiology can be caused by autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked genes or various types of chromosome anomalies. Some of the gene mutations have been identified recently. Syndromic microcephaly is associated with a large number of conditions. Some can be diagnosed, or at least suspected, based on their characteristic facial dysmorphism, and others can be searched for using databases of genetic disorders.

  13. Refeeding syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Swagata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death.

  14. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  15. Eisenmengers syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G;

    2009-01-01

    -to-left shunt and cyanosis. Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome suffer a high risk of complications in connection with acute medical conditions, extra-cardiac surgery and pregnancy. This article describes the precautions that should be taken to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. Udgivelsesdato......Congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunt can induce proliferation, vasoconstriction and thrombosis in the pulmonary vascular bed. Eventually, the patient may develop Eisenmenger syndrome defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension caused by high pulmonary vascular resistance with right...

  16. Morbihan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Veraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks.

  17. Rapunzel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 18-year-old single female patient, presented with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habit. Clinically she was anemic, cachectic, and depressed. Abdominal examination revealed mobile epigastric mass. The scalp alopecia and endoscopy coupled by computed tomography scan, confirmed the diagnoses of trichobezoar, but it was not diagnosed as Rapunzel syndrome except after laparotomy, gastrotomy, and enterotomy. There are less than 16 cases of Rapunzel syndrome described worldwide, and this is the first case to be described in the middle east. (author)

  18. Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  19. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  20. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  1. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  2. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  3. Morbihan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Francia, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face) in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks).

  4. Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Risbaf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome is a dominant autosomal familial disorder. The manifestations begin at an early age and a combination of phenotypic abnormalities such special facial appearance, jaw cysts and skeletal anomalies are seen in this disease. A 22-year-old woman referred to Zahedan Dental School complaining of pain on the left cheek. During the examination, several cutaneous lesions in the neck, pits in palm and sole and multiple jaw cysts were observed. According to the clinical symptoms, lesion biopsy and reports of Gorlin syndrome radiography were presented.

  5. Burnout syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bábská, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the so-called burnout syndrome, which, as I believe, is getting to be a serious problem in today´s busy world. This issue deserves a full attention especially from those concerned – workers in assisting professions. What usually precedes the burnout syndrome is a big enthusiasm and motivation for work in which a potential patient can help other people and get them out of their troubles, sometimes he /she feels even like having a mission. However, without kno...

  6. Avaliação do uso do anel endocapsular modificado em casos de subluxação traumática do cristalino Evaluation of the modified capsular tension ring in cases of traumatic lens subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meira Villano Marques

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento do anel modificado de tensão capsular em cataratas traumáticas com subluxação, analisando a acuidade visual, centração do saco capsular, pseudofacodonese, seguimento pós-operatório, e complicações intra e pós-operatórias. LOCAL: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois olhos de 22 pacientes com perda traumática de suporte zonular foram submetidos à facoemulsificação utilizando lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior e o implante do anel capsular modificado. O exame pré-operatório incluiu melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC, a presença ou ausência de facodonese, descentração do cristalino e prolapso vítreo. A avaliação pós-operatória incluiu MAVC, presença de pseudofacodonese, centração do implante, necessidade de vitrectomia e outras complicações. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um olhos (95,45% tiveram melhora da MAVC. O exame pré-operatório revelou facodonese em 11 olhos (50% e nenhum olho apresentou pseudofacodonese. No exame pré-operatório, a descentração sintomática estava presente em 10 olhos (45,45%. Todos os olhos apresentaram centração do complexo saco capsular/LIO no pós-operatório. Prolapso vítreo foi diagnosticado antes da cirurgia em 9 olhos (40,90% e a vitrectomia foi necessária em 11 olhos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do anel modificado de tensão capsular resultou em boa centração do complexo saco capsular/lente intra-ocular nos olhos estudados com catarata traumática e perda de suporte zonular.PURPOSE: To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring (MCTR in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications. SETTING: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with traumatic loss of zonular support had phacoemulsification using PCIOL and MCTR

  7. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  8. Projectors, Shadows, and Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" R^{d+1,1}. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

  9. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  10. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Vis; K. van Engelen; J. Timmermans; B.C. Hamel; B.J.M. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Althou

  11. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  12. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, B. J.; van Engelen, K.; Vis, J.C.; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B C J

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Although variable expression is known to be present in Marfan syndrome, phenotypic expression of Marfan syndrome in our patient might be masked by the co-occurrence of Down syndrome. (Neth Heart J 2009;1...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  14. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  15. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  16. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  17. Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... writing, painting, or making music help focus the mind on other things. There's speculation that the composer Mozart had TS. Find support. The Tourette Syndrome Association sponsors support groups with others who understand the challenges of TS. Take control. People with TS can feel more in control ...

  18. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    a variety of infectious complications. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is necessary to avoid severe complications or death. Close collaboration with local microbiologist is pivotal. Treatment consists of longterm treatment with penicillin and metronidazole. This is a case report of Lemierre's syndrome....

  19. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their hearing within the first year of life. Progressive vision loss caused by retinitis pigmentosa becomes occurs in childhood. ... type III have progressive hearing loss and vision loss beginning in the first few decades of life. Unlike the other forms of Usher syndrome, infants ...

  20. Robinow Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gökalp

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Robinow syndrome is characterized by dwarfism demonstrating short-limbed extremities, vertebral malsegmentation/malformation (hemivertebra, costal dysplasia, genital hypoplasia, and fetal facial appearance (wide and prominent forehead, hypertelorism, small and wide nose, molar hypoplasia, and retrognathia. It is a rare genetic disease which may present with either mild autosomal dominant form or severe recessive form. Vertebral and costal abnormalities are common diagnostic signs that may be severe. The disease presents with kyphoscoliosis and chest abnormalities along with thoracic vertebral fusion and hemivertebral appearance. Ribs may demonstrate fusion. Based on those involvements, the disease can be categorized as spondylothoracic, spondylocostal, ischiovertebral dysplasia, and cervicofaciothoracic syndrome.Diagnosis is established by the help of clinical characteristics. Radiography might contribute to the diagnosis by revealing changes in the skeletal system. Case Report: A three-year-old male patient presented with operated left undescendent testis and buried penis. On physical examination, he also had a dysmorphic face characterized by macrocephaly, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, a flattened nasal bridge, triangular-fish mouth, gingival hypertrophy and left hand clinodactyly. Radiographic examination documented mesomelic shortening of the radius-ulna, malsegmentation of the thoracal spine and the ribs fusion.Conclusion: Robinow syndrome is a rare syndrome which can be diagnosed by typical facial appearance and radiologic findings. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 44-7

  1. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions are High blood pressure High blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels High levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood Low ...

  3. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it. PMID:27088791

  4. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  5. Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, I. van der

    2007-01-01

    Noonan Syndrome (NS) is characterised by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. The incidence of NS is estimated to be between 1:1000 and 1:2500 live births. The main facial features of NS are hypertelorism with down-slanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and low-set

  6. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome.

  7. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome. PMID:24291881

  8. A REVIEW ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS GENES OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE%无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)荚膜多糖合成基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开毓; 黄锦炉; 肖丹; 王均; 黄凌远

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important zoonotic pathogen in human, animal and fish. The capsular poly-saccharides on the cell surface have been recognized as virulence factors, of which the forming processes are regulated by the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) genes. The capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes exist in capsular polysaccharide operon of S. agalactiae genome, which were predicted to participate in the origination of capsular polysaccharide synthesis, polymerization of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, transport and anchor the product to the cell surface. Therefore, the cps genes achieve new applications of diagnostic techniques and the construction of attenuated mutant strains. In this paper, the basic properties of cps genes, as well as their transcription regulation, coding proteins and biological functions, regulation mechanism of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and serotyping, and application of construction of mutant strains are analyzed and discussed. We looked forward to providing a theoretical reference on the new functions research and innovative applications of S. agalactiae cps genes.%无乳链球菌是一种人畜鱼共患的重要病原菌,菌体表面的荚膜多糖是公认的毒力因子,其合成过程受荚膜多糖合成基因的调控.荚膜多糖合成基因存在于荚膜多糖操纵子中,参与无乳链球菌荚膜多糖的合成启动、寡糖和多糖的聚合以及外输并锚定于菌体表面,在新型诊断技术和减毒突变株的构建方面取得良好的应用.本文首次就cps基因的基本属性、转录调节、编码蛋白及其生物功能、对荚膜多糖合成的调控机理、在血清分型和突变株构建的应用这六个方面进行深入分析和讨论,以期为GBS cps基因的新功能研究和创新应用提供理论参考.

  9. Planning Block Play Experiences for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Playing with blocks can facilitate the creative, social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development of young children. This article presents information and activities concerning block play and its role in young children's experience. Topics covered include: (1) types of blocks; (2) selection of blocks and accessories; (3) planning of the…

  10. STATINS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Patel*, T. D. Goswami, A. D. Sharma and B. S. Arora

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors with intrinsic antioxidant properties, exert profound and broad-reaching effects on various types of tissues. By blocking an early step of the mevalonate pathway, statins inhibit proliferation of several cell types including vascular smooth muscles, hepatocytes, and several neoplastic cell lines. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Some common treatments lifestyle changes, insulin-sensitizing agents.

  11. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  12. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  13. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  14. Building block filtering and mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage evolutionary method, the BBF-GA is introduced. BBF-GA is an acronym for building block filtering genetic algorithm. During the first stage, an ensemble of fast evolutionary algorithms is used to explore the search space. The best individual found by each of these evolutionary algorithm

  15. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  16. Recurrent Miller fisher syndrome : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitajayalakshmi S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Miller fisher syndrome (MFS is a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with MFS. A case with two episodes of MFS within four years is reported. He presented with findings of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, areflexia, and oropharyngeal weakness and mild distal sensory impairment during both episodes. Electrophysiological findings showed reduced compound muscle action potentials and sensory nerve action potentials with no evidence of conduction blocks. Nerve biopsy showed segmental demyelination. MRI of brain was normal. He responded well to immunoglobulins during both episodes suggesting that immunomodulating drugs have a role in the treatment of MFS.

  17. Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberto Souto da; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Nascimento, Lívia Barbosa; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  18. The Source for Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  19. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  20. Innovative masonry blocks for partition walls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Graça; Poletti, Elisa; Medeiros, Pedro; Mendonça, Paulo; Carvalho, Pedro; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Camões, Aires; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to propose a non structural system of partition walls with monolithic blocks based on a composite material resulting from an admixture of cork and textile fibers combined with a non cement binder, gypsum. These blocks consist of two half blocks which have to be connected during laying process. The developed blocks were first tested under compressive and flexural loading in order to derive their mechanical behaviour. Different curing conditions were applied to the blocks dur...

  1. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, S M

    1998-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  2. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  3. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, Stephen M.; Collaboration, UKQCD

    1997-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  4. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  5. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a...... medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and...

  6. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  7. Research on Degradation of Type 9Ⅴ Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide%9Ⅴ型肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴非; 赵秋敏; 金永杰; 孙倩; 李剑; 周长林

    2013-01-01

    肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖分子质量较大,在制备结合疫苗的过程会有诸多不便,如溶液黏度大、结合过程易过度交联形成凝胶、不易于过滤以及纯化,而荚膜多糖分子片段化是降低其分子质量的有效途径.文章选取了酸水解和超声降解两种方法分别处理9Ⅴ型肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖.利用不同相对分子质量的葡聚糖在HPLC上的保留时间绘制标准曲线,计算处理后多糖相对分子质量,并通过核磁共振检测结构稳定性,免疫双扩散检测抗原性.实验结果表明,在适宜的条件下,酸水解和超声降解均能有效降低肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖分子质量,减少重复单元,保留重复单元内部结构,保留时间从5.7 min延长到8.25 min,相对分子质量约为580 k.但是酸水解方法破坏了多糖的抗原完整性,而超声降解可以良好保持.%In the process of the preparation of conjugate vaccines, there will be a lot of inconvenience due to the high molecular weight of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide, for example, the viscosity of the solution is high, the binding process is easy to over cross-link to form a gel and it is difficult to be filtered and purified. The fragmentation of the capsular polysaccharide molecules can effectively reduce its molecular weight. Acid hydrolysis and ultrasonic degradation are selected to reduce the molecular weight of type 9V pneumonia capsular macromolecules polysaccharide. Using different relative molecular weight dextrans and their retention time on HPLC, the standard curve to calculate the relative molecular weight can be drawn. Structural stability can be detected by NMR and antigenicity can be detected by double immunodiffusion. The results showed that the acid hydrolysis and the ultrasonic degradation can effectively decrease the relative molecular weight of pneumonia polysaccharides by reducing duplication units. Retention time increased from 5. 7 min to 8. 25 min and Mr

  8. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marrakchi, S.; Kammoun, I.; S. Kachboura

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG), as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old ...

  10. Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome with Precocious Puberty in an 8-Year-Old Boy due to a Large Unilateral Adrenal Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad Rajib; Alam, Md. Mashiul; Nabi, Junaid; Kibria, Mahzabin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease which is a component of the McCune-Albright syndrome is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a boy with Cushing's syndrome who presented with obesity and growth retardation. The child was hypertensive. The biochemical evaluation revealed that his serum cortisol levels were 25.80 μg/dL, with a concomitant plasma ACTH level of 10.0 pg/mL and nonsuppressed serum cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) to be 20.38 μg/dL. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a 8 × 6 × 5 cm left adrenal mass with internal calcifications. Following preoperative stabilization, laparotomy was carried out which revealed a lobulated left adrenal mass with intact capsule weighing 120 grams. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cortical neoplastic lesion, suggestive of adrenal adenoma; composed of large polygonal cells with centrally placed nuclei and prominent nucleoli without capsular and vascular invasion. On the seventh postoperative day, cortisol levels were within normal range indicating biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. On followup after three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement and had lost moderate amount of weight and adrenal imaging was found to be normal. PMID:23533838

  11. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharon Turban; Paul J Thuluvath; Mohamed G Atta

    2007-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a "functional" and reversible form of renal failure that occurs in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. The distinctive hallmark feature of HRS is the intense renal vasoconstriction caused by interactions between systemic and portal hemodynamics. This results in activation of vasoconstrictors and suppression of vasodilators in the renal circulation. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, as well as current and emerging therapies of HRS are discussed in this review.

  12. Marfan syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Eesha; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar

    1997-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, with skeletal, ligamentous, orooculofacial, pulmonary, abdominal, neurological and the most fatal, cardiovascular manifestations. It has no cure but early diagnosis, regular monitoring and preventive lifestyle regimen ensure a good prognosis. However, the diagnosis can be difficult as it is essentially a clinical one, relying on family history, meticulous physical examination and investigation of involved organ sy...

  13. Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Manish; Kavadu, Paresh; Chougule, Sachin

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of Waardenburg syndrome in a female child aged 2yrs. Petrus Johannes Waardenburg(1) , a Dutch Ophthalmologist in 1951 described individuals with retinal pigmentary differences who had varying degrees of hearing loss and dystopia canthorum (i.e., latral displacement of inner canthi of eyes). The disease runs in families with a dominant inheritance pattern with varying degree of clinical presentation. Patient usually present with heterochromic iris, pigmentary abnormalities of ...

  14. Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tagra Sunita; Talwar Amrita; Walia Rattan Lal; Sidhu Puneet

    2006-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features ...

  15. Turner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Akcan AB.

    2007-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by partial or complete monosomy-X. TS is associated with certain physical and medical features including estrogen deficiency, short stature and increased risk for several diseases with cardiac conditions being among the most serious. Girls with TS are typically treated with growth hormone and estrogen replacement therapies to address short stature and estrogen deficiency. The cognitive-behavioral phenotype associated with TS includ...

  16. Robinow Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Gökalp; Erdal Eren; Zeynep Yazıcı; Halil Sağlam

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Robinow syndrome is characterized by dwarfism demonstrating short-limbed extremities, vertebral malsegmentation/malformation (hemivertebra), costal dysplasia, genital hypoplasia, and fetal facial appearance (wide and prominent forehead, hypertelorism, small and wide nose, molar hypoplasia, and retrognathia). It is a rare genetic disease which may present with either mild autosomal dominant form or severe recessive form. Vertebral and costal abnormalities are common diagnostic si...

  17. Apert's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gudipaneni Ravi; Jyothsna, Mandapati; Ahmed, Syed Basheer; Sree Lakshmi, Ketham Reddy

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apert's syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial malforma­tion and symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. Craniofacial deformities include cone-shaped calvarium, fat forehead, prop-tosis, hypertelorism and short nose with a bulbous tip. Intraoral findings include high arched palate with pseudocleft, maxillary transverse and sagittal hypoplasia with concomitant dental crowding, skeletal and dental anterior open bite...

  18. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  19. Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbury-Smith, Marc R.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Asperger syndrome (AS) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder of social interaction, communication, and a restricted range of behaviors or interests. Although not generally associated with intellectual disability, the severe social disability and, in many cases, associated mental health and other medical problems, result in disability throughout life. The diagnosis is often delayed, sometimes into adulthood, which is unfortunate because there are now a range...

  20. Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bastiaenen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brugada syndrome demonstrates characteristic electrocardiogram features and is a significant cause of sudden death in young adults with overtly normal cardiac structure and function. The genetic basis has not yet been fully elucidated but our understanding of the causative mutations and modifiers of arrhythmic events is advancing rapidly alongside sequencing technologies. We expect that the future will include risk stratification according to genotype and management tailored to the genetic diagnosis.

  1. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.

  2. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia. PMID:25744163

  3. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  4. Reye syndrome - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  5. Narcotic Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intolerance Malabsorption Narcotic Bowel Syndrome Radiation Therapy Injury Short Bowel Syndrome Symptoms & Causes Treatments Nutrition and Diet Managing Secondary Effects Medications Surgery Daily Living with SBS Resources SMA Syndrome Volvulus ...

  6. Iliotibial band syndrome - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    IT band syndrome - aftercare; Iliotibial band friction syndrome - aftercare ... If you have iliotibial band syndrome you may notice: Mild pain on the outside of your knee when you begin to exercise, which goes ...

  7. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NDSS Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self- ... community standards for adult behavior. How Can Healthy Sexuality be Encouraged for Individuals with Down Syndrome? Creating ...

  8. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  9. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease with recurrent thromboses and pregnancy complications (90% are female patients that can be primary and secondary (with concomitant autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombotic but also act directly with brain tissue. One clinical and one laboratory criterion is necessary for the diagnosis of APS. Positive serological tests have to be confirmed after at least 12 weeks. Clinical picture consists of thromboses in many organs and spontaneous miscarriages, sometimes thrombocytopaenia and haemolytic anaemia, but neurological cases are the most frequent: headaches, stroke, encephalopathy, seizures, visual disturbances, Sneddon syndrome, dementia, vertigo, chorea, balism, transitory global amnesia, psychosis, transversal myelopathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome. About 50% of strokes below 50 years of age are caused by APS. The first line of therapy in stroke is anticoagulation: intravenous heparin or low-weight heparins. In chronic treatment, oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are used, warfarin and aspirin, mostly for life. In resistant cases, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are necessary. Prognosis is good in most patients but some are treatment-resistant with recurrent thrombotic events and eventually death.

  10. CREST Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Köksüz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of CREST syndrome (calsinosis cutis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, oesophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia with all of the five major symptoms. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of erythema, rigidity and pain on the plantar surface of the feet. She had had Raynaud’s phenomenon for 20 years and oesophageal reflux for five years. Her face had become masklike and there was prominent telangiectasies on her face and hands. Sclerosis were confined to the fingers (sclerodactyly. Direct X-ray graphy demonstrated calcinosis cutis on the left hand and suprapatellar region. She was treated with nifedipine 30 mg/day, acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/day for Raynaud’s phenomenon and famotidine 40 mg/day, metoclopramide HCL 30 mg/day for oesophageal dysmotility. Her complaints were partially relieved after the treatment. This case had all of the five major symptoms of CREST syndrome, and we aimed to emphasize the major symptoms and complications of CREST syndrome. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 48-50

  11. Healing reaction to mammary prostheses covered by textured silicone and silicone foam in rats Reação capsular aos revestimentos de próteses mamárias de silicone texturizado e espuma de silicone em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Maria S. Rojas Balderrama; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho; Osvaldo Malafaia; Nicolau Gregori Czeczko; Uli Alexandre Dietz; Danielle Giacometti Sakamoto; Leandra Pauletto Muniz Bittencourt

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the capsular reaction to two different coverings of silicone prosthesis through the biophysical characteristic of adherence and microscopical aspects of the inflammatory reaction and collagen formation. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were used. In the dorsum of each animal a silicone elastomer with a smooth superficies and another coated with texturized silicone (Mentor) was implanted. Another one, with the same smooth superficies and other coated with silicone foam (Life...

  12. Reconsideration the treatment scheme of capsular contracture after augmentation mammoplasty%隆乳术后包膜挛缩处理方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中生; 陈光平; 汪海滨; 徐翔; 蔡冰; 伍艳群; 罗盛康

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨直视下经乳晕切口对假体隆乳术后不同情况下包膜挛缩的有效处理方法.方法:2009年1月~2012年10月,对65例假体隆乳术后包膜挛缩进行治疗,均采用乳晕切口,视原假体植入腔隙及乳腺、胸大肌厚度等条件采取重新剥离腔隙、去除或不去除包膜组织甚至Ⅱ期手术的方法,术中严格止血. 结果:本组65例术后均获得随访,随访时间8个月~42个月,平均随访时间15.2个月,术后包膜挛缩复发者2例,其余病例乳房外观均满意.结论:应用直视下乳晕切口对假体隆乳术后包膜挛缩进行个性化的有效处理,术后包膜挛缩复发率较低.%Objective To discuss the effective methods to remove the fibrous capsules after augmentation mammoplasty with periareolar incision.Methods From 2009 Jan to 2012 Oct,65 cases were treated in periareolar incision.According to the different layers of implants and the thickness of breast and pectoralis major,different methods were adopted,such as stripping the layers again,removing or leaving the fibrous capsules or adaping the second-stage operation.All were strictly stopped bleeding.Results 65 cases were all followed up from 8~42months(15.2months on average)postoperatively.2 cases relapsed of capsular contracture while others got better effects.Conclusion Personalized treatment for capsular contracture after augmentation mammoplasty using periareolar incision can reduce the recurrence.

  13. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  14. Capsular tension ring implantation for zonular abnormalities%囊袋张力环植入治疗晶状体悬韧带异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红深

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results of phacoemulsification with capsular tension ring (CTR) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for cataracts with zonular abnormalities.Methods This prospective study comprised sixteen cataracts of 10 patient swith weakness or partially broken ciliary zonule.After insertion of a CTR,phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed.Results Postoperative follow-up were six months,two patients lost follow-up.At the last postoperative examination,best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the eiht patients(13 eyes)were all increased.In the-bag fixation of CTR was achieved in all eyes.IOL implanted was not centered only in one eye 6 months after surgery.Posterior capsular opacification was found in three eyes,Conclusions Phacoemulsification with CTR and IOL implantation iS effective and safe for subluxated lenses,M-CTR scleral fixation is necessarysupplernent for severely subluxated lenses and progressive cases.%目的 探讨超声乳化联合囊袋张力环(CTR)及人工晶状体(IOL)植入术治疗白内障有悬韧带异常者的手术效果.方法 10例16只眼具有晶状体悬韧带松弛或部分断裂的白内障,施行超声乳化联合CTR及IOL植入手术.结果 术后随访6月,有2例失访.末次检查8例13只眼的最佳矫正视力(BCVA)都有增进,所有术眼CTR都位于囊袋内,仅有1只眼在术后6个月IOL位置轻度偏中心,3只眼轻度后囊膜混浊.结论 对半脱位晶状体采用超声乳化白内障吸除联合CTR及IOL植入是一安全有效的手术,严爵半脱位和有进展的病例才需作改良CTR(M-CTR)巩膜缝合固定术.

  15. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...... as truncated differentials. In addition to that, we also investigate the security of SIMON against different linear cryptanalysis methods, i.e., classic linear,and linear hull attacks. we present a connection between linear characteristic and differential characteristic, multiple linear and differential...

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Mental Nerve Block and Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment for Intractable Postherpetic Neuralgia: Three Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hae Gyun; Park, Pyung Gul; Kim, Won Joong; Park, Yong Hee; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Koo, Gill Hoi; Shin, Hwa Yong

    2013-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most difficult pain syndromes to treat. Invasive treatments may be considered when patients fail to obtain adequate pain relief from noninvasive treatment approaches. Here, we present three cases of PHN in the mandibular branch treated with ultrasound-assisted mental nerve block and pulsed radiofrequency treatment. None of the patients had adequate pain relief from the medical therapy, so we performed the mental nerve block on the affected side under...

  17. Toy Blocks and Rotational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, G U; Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Jully, Isabel R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the theory of the "falling chimney," which deals with the breaking of tall structures in mid-air, when they fall to the ground. We describe how to reproduce these effects using small-scale models built with toy blocks. We also present an improved and more effective way to perform and analyze these interesting experiments, by using video capture software together with a digital video camera.

  18. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  19. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marrakchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG, as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a “false positive” of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  20. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  1. Inherited ichthyosis: Syndromic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kozo

    2016-03-01

    Among diseases that cause ichthyosis as one of the symptoms, there are some diseases that induce abnormalities in organs other than the skin. Of these, diseases with characteristic signs are regarded as syndromes. Although these syndromes are very rare, Netherton syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome, and Refsum syndrome have been described in texts as representative ones. It is important to know the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms in order to establish an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling including a prenatal diagnosis.

  2. Some new construction methods of variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ceranka, Bronisław; Graczyk, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Some new construction methods of the variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks are given. They are based on the specialized product of incidence matrices of the balanced incomplete block designs.

  3. 神经肌肉阻滞剂对急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者预后影响的荟萃分析%The effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱田; 高景利; 李晓岚; 冷玉鑫; 姚智渊; 朱曦

    2013-01-01

    目的 系统评价神经肌肉阻滞剂(NMBA)对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者预后的影响.方法 通过检索美国国家医学图书馆PubMed数据库、Cochrane临床试验数据库、生物医学与药理学文摘数据库(EMBASE)、荷兰《医学文摘》、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)和中国期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)等文献数据库,系统收集全世界范围内NMBA治疗ARDS患者的随机对照临床试验(RCT)文献.按Cochrane系统评价方法筛选试验、评价质量、提取资料,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行meta分析.结果 最终纳入符合入选标准的文献3篇,共计研究对象431例患者.合并结果显示:与对照组比较,给予NMBA可显著降低ARDS患者28 d病死率[Peto比值比(OR) =0.57,95%可信区间(95%CI)为0.37 ~ 0.88,P=0.01],有较少的气压伤发生率(OR=0.42,95% CI为0.20~0.91,P=0.003);获得性肌无力的发生率与对照组比较相似,无统计学意义(OR=1.20,95%CI为0.67~ 2.14,P=0.54).与对照组比较,在应用NMBA后48 h,总PEEP(OR=0.09,95%CI为-0.50~0.68,P=0.77)、平台压(Pplat,OR=0.62,95%CI为-0.32~1.57,P=0.20)呼吸机相关参数无明显统计学差异;各试验组间统计学无异质性(P>0.1,I 2<50%);在应用NMBA后120 h,总PEEP较对照组降低(OR=-1.22,95%CI为-2.39-0.04,P=0.04),Pplat与对照组比较有统计学差异(OR=-2.61,95% CI为-4.50~-0.73,P=0.007).结论 早期应用NMBA治疗ARDS患者能降低患者28 d病死率,改善预后.%Objective To determine the effects of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods PubMed database,the Cochrane Library,EMBASE,Excepta Media,CBM,CNKI and other sources were used for retrieving the pertinent literature.All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on NMBA treating ARDS patients were enrolled.The Cochrance Collaboration's software RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis.Two authors independently extracted data

  4. Rosuvastatin blocks hERG current and prolongs cardiac repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Isabelle; Vigneault, Patrick; Drolet, Benoît; Turgeon, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    Blocking of the potassium current I(Kr) [human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)] is generally associated with an increased risk of long QT syndrome (LQTS). The 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, is a methanesulfonamide derivative, which shows structural similarities with several I(Kr) blockers. Hence, we assessed the effects of rosuvastatin on cardiac repolarization by using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. Patch clamp experiments on hERG-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells established the potency of rosuvastatin to block hERG [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) = 195 nM]. We showed in isolated guinea pig hearts that 195 nM rosuvastatin prolonged (basic cycle length of 250 ms; p cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance gene (MDR1)] and influx [organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1] transporters involved in the disposition and cardiac distribution of the drug. Genetic polymorphisms observed for BCRP, MDR1, and OATP2B1, and IC(50) determined for hERG blocking lead us to propose that some patients may be at risk of rosuvastatin-induced LQTS.

  5. Spatial Breakdown in Spatial Construction: Evidence from Eye Fixations in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara; Pagani, Barney

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of executive and spatial representational processes in impaired performance of block construction tasks by children with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic defect that results in severely impaired spatial cognition. In Experiment 1, we examined performance in two kinds of block construction tasks, Simple Puzzles, in…

  6. Effect of Co-Implantation of a Capsular Tension Ring on Clinical Outcomes after Cataract Surgery with Monofocal Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hun; Kim, Do Wook; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to evaluate the effect of co-implantation of a preloaded capsular tension ring (CTR) and aberration-free monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) on clinical outcomes and visual quality after cataract surgery. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent cataract surgery were randomized into two groups that were implanted with a CTR and IOL (group 1, 26 eyes) or an IOL only (group 2, 26 eyes). At 1 and 3 months after surgery, visual acuity, refractive errors, refractive prediction errors, ocular aberrations, and modulation transfer function (MTF) were analyzed. At 3 months postoperatively, anterior chamber depth (ACD) and contrast sensitivity were evaluated. Results Group 1 showed greater hyperopic shift, which caused the refractive prediction error at 3 months after surgery to be significantly different between the two groups (p=0.049). Differences in ACD between the preoperative and postoperative periods tended to be greater in group 1 than in group 2. At 3 months postoperatively, internal MTF values at 20, 25, and 30 cycles per degree were significantly better in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.034, 0.017, and 0.017, respectively). Contrast sensitivity showed comparable results at almost all spatial frequencies between the groups. Conclusion Regarding visual acuity and quality, both groups showed comparable results. Co-implantation of a CTR and aberration-free monofocal IOL was associated with hyperopic refractive outcomes. Surgeons should consider the position of the IOL when planning co-implantation of a CTR and IOL. PMID:27401657

  7. [Isolation of a highly purified capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella typhi)--Vi-antigen and its use in serological diagnosis of typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesheva, A M; Aparin, P G; L'vov, V L

    2002-01-01

    For use in differential diagnostics of typhoid fever, samples of the capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (usually named Vi-antigen) were isolated and characterized by physicochemical and serological methods. It was shown that only the sample of Vi-antigen with the minimal (0.57%) admixture of the corresponding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from S. typhi retained a high serological activity in the tests with monoreceptor anti-Vi sera. However, it exhibited a substantially weaker reaction with sera from normal donors and patients with acute nontyphoid salmonelloses, than Vi-antigen preparations with a higher (0.8-1.2%) LPS content. The chromatographically pure Vi-antigen was purified by triple reprecipitation with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The content of the LPS admixture in the resulting Vi-antigen samples was quantitatively determined by GC. A high purification level of the Vi-antigen from the LPS admixture allows us to hope that this preparation could serve as a basic component of the test system for the diagnostics of typhoid fever. The English version of the paper.

  8. Immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, R Leon; Khan, M Imran; Soofi, Sajid B; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; You, Young A; Habib, M Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Manna, Byomkesh; Dutta, Shanta; Acosta, Camilo J; Ali, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Clemens, John D

    2014-05-01

    The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 μg of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up.

  9. Application of capsular tension ring in surgery for cataract with lens subluxation%囊袋张力环在不全脱位晶状体白内障手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To anality the application value of capsular tension ring in surgery for cataract with lens subluxation.Methods 12 patients( 12 eyes) diagnosed cataract with lens subluxation were involved.All patients received phacoemulsification with capsular tension ring and intraocular lens implantation.Results All patients completed 3 months of follow up.The intraocular lens of all patients were no moving and the intraocular pressuea of all patients were nomal.At the last postoperative examination,best corrected visual acuities of all eyes were increased.The visual acuities of 6 eyes were up 0.6 and 3 eyes were between 0.4 ~ 0.5,the visual acuities of 3 eyes were belowe 0.3.These was no serious complications in this study.Conclusion Capsular tension ring can maintain the stability of capsular of lens during surgery and wide the application rang of posterior chamber intraocular lens.Application of capsular tension ring can keep the stability of intraocular lens.It is helpful for vision increasing.%目的 分析囊袋张力环在伴晶状体不全脱位白内障超声乳化手术中的应用价值.方法 对12例(12眼)晶状体不全脱位白内障行囊袋内植入张力环联合超声乳化及后房型人工晶体植入.结果 术后随访3月,12例人工晶体均正位,眼压在正常范围,术后视力均较术前提高,0.6以上6眼,0.4~0.5者3眼,0.3以下者3眼.无严重并发症.结论 囊袋张力环能够保持白内障手术时晶状体囊袋的稳定性,拓宽了后房型人工晶体植入术的适用范围,防止术后人工晶体偏位,有助于患者视力的恢复.

  10. Morvan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  11. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Lata

    2012-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension.This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys,where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration,which ultimately results in uraemia.The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites.Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output.Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure,but refractory ascites,and its impact on prognosis is less negative.Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method,nevertheless,only a few patients can receive it.The most suitable "bridge treatments" or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin.Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response.Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term.Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS.

  12. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Shaoling Plaster in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis with the Insufficiency of Liver and Kidney,the Syndrome of Static Blood Blocking Collaterals:A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, and Randomized Study%芍灵消增贴治疗骨性关节炎(肝肾不足、瘀血阻络证)的疗效及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文岳; 谢利民; 张跃; 胡镜清; 吕发明; 李洪久; 昝强; 孙庆; 谷福顺

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价芍灵消增贴治疗骨性关节炎(肝肾不足、瘀血阻络证)疗效及安全性.方法:采用随机双盲多中心安慰剂平行对照的研究方法.共入组患者480例,芍灵消增贴组360例,安慰剂组120例,疗程1周.以LequesneMG指数和疼痛评分(Visual Analog Scales,VAS)作为疗效评价指标.结果:基于LequesneMG指数评估,芍灵消增贴组总有效率67.5%,安慰剂组28%(P<0.05);芍灵消增贴组及安慰剂组LequesneMG指数总评分由疗前13.28±4.44和12.94±4.78分别下降至疗后7.90±3.97和9.86±4.29(P<0.05);芍灵消增贴组及安慰剂组VAS疼痛评分由疗前6.48±1.406.15±1.60分别下降至疗后4.09±1.70和4.71±1.70 (P<0.05);不良反应发生率芍灵消增贴组5%,安慰剂组4.2%,差异无统计学意义.结论:芍灵消增贴治疗骨性关节炎安全有效.%Objective:To evaluate the curative effect and safety of Shaoling plaster in osteoarthritis with the insufficiency of liver and kidney,the syndrome of static blood blocking collaterals.Methods:A double-blind,placebo-controlled,and randomized study were used,and a total of 480 osteoarthritis cases enrolled in the treatment for 1 week.The subjects were treated by Shaoling plaster (n=360) or placebo plaster (n=120),and the efficacy was evaluated by Lequesne MG Index and Visual Analog Scales (VAS).Results:The total effective rate of Shaoling plaster group was higher than placebo group (67.5% vs.28%,P<0.05).Lequesne MG scores of Shaoling plaster group decreased from (13.28±4.44) to (7.90±3.97),while the placebo group from (12.94±4.78) to (9.86±4.29) (P<0.05) ; VAS scores of Shaoling plaster group decreased from (6.48±1.40) to (4.09±1.70),while the placebo group from (6.15±1.60) to (4.71±1.70) (P<0.05).The adverse-event rate was not different significantly between Shaoling plaster group and placebo group (5% vs.4.2%).Conclusion:Shaoling plaster is effective and safe in the treatment of osteoarthritis

  14. Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Srivastava, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome is one of the most common causes of complex disability in girls. It is characterized by early neurological regression that severely affects motor, cognitive and communication skills, by autonomic dysfunction and often a seizure disorder. It is a monogenic X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder related to mutation in MECP2, which encodes the methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2. There are several mouse models either based on conditional knocking out of the Mecp2 gene or on a t...

  15. [Ascher's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, F; Sandrock, D; Merten, H A; Hönig, J F

    1991-01-01

    Ascher's syndrome is composed of the triad blepharochalasis, double lip and goitre. In many of the cases reported in the literature this typical constellation of symptoms is not complete; particularly the struma is not mandatorily involved. A 58-year-old patient with this rare disease who exhibited blepharochalasis and double upper and lower lip is presented. Additionally, subclinical hypothyroidism and alopecia areata totalis were found. In differential diagnosis other causes of double lips or enlargement of the lips must be considered. PMID:1817784

  16. [Piriformis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erauso, Thomas; Pégorie, Anne; Gaveau, Yves-Marie; Tardy, Dominique

    2010-09-20

    Sciatic pain is often misleading and establishing the link with a local muscular cause can be difficult and lead to errors, especially when faced with a young sportsman, with typical discogenic pain. Simple, specific and reproducible tests enable a better identification and treatment of a muscular cause or canal syndrome. Physiotherapy, or local infiltrations are generally very efficient, and sufficient. Surgery may be considered only in a very limited number of cases, lack of response to the first line treatment and then only if it is the absolute diagnosis, diagnosis which must remain a diagnosis of exception, more so of exclusion. PMID:21033479

  17. Griscelli syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, H; Geikowski, A; Chin, T F; Chau, D; Arshad, A; Abu Bakar, K; Krishnan, S

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of Griscelli Syndrome (GS). Our patient initially presented with a diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphistiocytosis (HLH). Subsequent microscopic analysis of the patient's hair follicle revealed abnormal distribution of melanosomes in the shaft, which is a hallmark for GS. Analysis of RAB27A gene in this patient revealed a homozygous mutation in exon 6, c.550C>T, p.R184X . This nonsense mutation causes premature truncation of the protein resulting in a dysfunctional RAB27A. Recognition of GS allows appropriate institution of therapy namely chemotherapy for HLH and curative haemotopoeitic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25500851

  18. Olmsted Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirka C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old Sikh man had palmoplantar keratoderma, flexion deformity of digits, universal alopecia, keratotic plaques at the angles of mouth, gluteal cleft, knees and dorsal aspects of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand; features of Olmsted syndrome. He had normal nails, teeth, oral mucosa and normal joint movements. Treatment with acitretin, 25mg/day for three and a half months, followed by 25mg once daily alternating with 50mg once daily for 3 months resulted in significant improvement.

  19. Jacobsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossfeld Paul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears. Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from ~7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be

  20. CREST Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe Köksüz; Zeynep Nurhan Saraçoğlu; Ayşe Esra Koku-Aksu; İlham Sabuncu; Cengiz Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of CREST syndrome (calsinosis cutis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, oesophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia) with all of the five major symptoms. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of erythema, rigidity and pain on the plantar surface of the feet. She had had Raynaud’s phenomenon for 20 years and oesophageal reflux for five years. Her face had become masklike and there was prominent telangiectasies on her face and hands. Sclerosis were ...

  1. Refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentebella, Judy; Kerner, John A

    2009-10-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is the result of aggressive enteral or parenteral feeding in a malnourished patient, with hypophosphatemia being the hallmark of this phenomenon. Other metabolic abnormalities, such as hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, may also occur, along with sodium and fluid retention. The metabolic changes that occur in RFS can be severe enough to cause cardiorespiratory failure and death. This article reviews the pathophysiology, the clinical manifestations, and the management of RFS. The key to prevention is identifying patients at risk and being aware of the potential complications involved in rapidly reintroducing feeds to a malnourished patient.

  2. Myofascial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Carli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is common cause one of musculoskeletal pain and it is characterized by trigger points (TP, limited range of motion in joints and local twitch response (LTR during mechanical stimulation of the TP. Trigger point is a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. The spot is tender when pressed and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction and autonomic phenomena. Palpation is reliable diagnostic criterion for locating TP in patients. Treatment is based on anesthetise TP, stretch and spray, local pression and physical activity.

  3. OCULO-CEREBRO-RENAL SYNDROME (LOWE'S SYNDROME)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    Oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome (Lowe's syndrome) is characterized by mental and motor retardation, cataract, glaucoma and renal abnormalities. It is an X-linked recessive metabolic disease. Two brothers suffering from Lowe's syndrome are reported. Their mother with lenticular opacities and peculiar facial appearance is in concordance with the obligate carrier. The ocular changes and heridity are discussed.

  4. Multigrid Methods for General Block Toeplitz Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Huckle; Jochen Staudacher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss multigrid methods for symmetric positive definite Block Toeplitz matrices. Our Block Toeplitz systems are general in the sense that the individual blocks are not necessarily Toeplitz. We investigate how transfer operators for prolongation and restriction have to be chosen such that our multigrid algorithms converge quickly. We will point out why these transfer operators can be understood as block matrices as well. We explain how our new algorithms can also be combined...

  5. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  6. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  7. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  8. Ultrasound findings in fetal congenital heart block associated with maternal anti-Ro/SSA and Anti-La/SSB antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jasmine; Clark, Toshi J; Tan, Justin H; Delaney, Shani; Jolley, Jennifer A

    2015-03-01

    We present the sonographic features of a second-trimester fetus diagnosed with a bradyarrhythmia at 19 weeks' gestation. The mother carried a diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome, including the presence of SSA and SSB antibodies. Ultrasound M-mode and fetal echocardiogram revealed the etiology of the bradycardia to be a complete fetal congenital heart block, likely due to transplacental passage of autoimmune anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies. Consequential to the congenital heart block, the fetus developed hydrops fetalis at 21 weeks' gestational age. We discuss the 2 major etiologies of congenital heart block and the implications in subsequent pregnancies.

  9. KBG syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brancati Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract KBG syndrome is a rare condition characterised by a typical facial dysmorphism, macrodontia of the upper central incisors, skeletal (mainly costovertebral anomalies and developmental delay. To date, KBG syndrome has been reported in 45 patients. Clinical features observed in more than half of patients that may support the diagnosis are short stature, electroencephalogram (EEG anomalies (with or without seizures and abnormal hair implantation. Cutaneous syndactyly, webbed short neck, cryptorchidism, hearing loss, palatal defects, strabismus and congenital heart defects are less common findings. Autosomal dominant transmission has been observed in some families, and it is predominantly the mother, often showing a milder clinical picture, that transmits the disease. The diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical findings as the aetiology is unknown. The final diagnosis is generally achieved after the eruption of upper permanent central incisors at 7–8 years of age when the management of possible congenital anomalies should have been already planned. A full developmental assessment should be done at diagnosis and, if delays are noted, an infant stimulation program should be initiated. Subsequent management and follow-up should include an EEG, complete orthodontic evaluation, skeletal investigation with particular regard to spine curvatures and limb asymmetry, hearing testing and ophthalmologic assessment.

  10. Myasthenic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, M E

    2011-03-01

    The neuromuscular junction is vulnerable to autoimmune attack both at the pre-synaptic nerve terminal and at the post-synaptic muscle membrane. Antibodies directed to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the muscle surface are the cause of myasthenia gravis in the majority of cases. Myasthenia gravis is an acquired condition, characterised by weakness and fatigability of the skeletal muscles. The ocular muscles are commonly affected first, but the disease often generalises. Treatment includes symptom control and immunosuppression. The thymus gland plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and thymectomy is indicated in certain subgroups. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is associated with antibodies directed to the voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies at the pre-synaptic nerve terminal. It is an acquired condition and, in some cases, may be paraneoplastic, often secondary to underlying small cell lung carcinoma. Clinical presentation is distinct from myasthenia gravis, with patients often first presenting with lower limb muscle fatigability and autonomic symptoms. Congenital myasthenic syndromes are inherited neuromuscular disorders due to mutations in proteins at the neuromuscular junction. Various phenotypes exist depending on the protein mutation. Treatment is directed towards symptom control and immunosuppression is not indicated. PMID:21365067

  11. Sotos syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier-Daire Valérie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (

  12. Marfan Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Marfan Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Marfan Syndrome Print A ... the Doctor en español Síndrome de Marfan About Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome is a progressive genetic disorder ...

  13. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  14. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  15. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    -intestinal symptoms and types of cancers differs.Clinical awareness and early diagnosis of HPS is important, as affected patients and at-risk family members should be offered genetic counselling and surveillance. Surveillance in children with HPS might prevent or detect intestinal or extra-intestinal complications......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as......-intestinal cancer. The syndromes are rare and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.The diagnosis of HPS has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, but can sometimes be difficult as the severity of symptoms range considerably from only a few symptoms to very severe cases - even within the same family...

  16. Leopard syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract LEOPARD syndrome (LS, OMIM 151100 is a rare multiple congenital anomalies condition, mainly characterized by skin, facial and cardiac anomalies. LEOPARD is an acronym for the major features of this disorder, including multiple Lentigines, ECG conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonic stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensorineural Deafness. About 200 patients have been reported worldwide but the real incidence of LS has not been assessed. Facial dysmorphism includes ocular hypertelorism, palpebral ptosis and low-set ears. Stature is usually below the 25th centile. Cardiac defects, in particular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mostly involving the left ventricle, and ECG anomalies are common. The lentigines may be congenital, although more frequently manifest by the age of 4–5 years and increase throughout puberty. Additional common features are café-au-lait spots (CLS, chest anomalies, cryptorchidism, delayed puberty, hypotonia, mild developmental delay, sensorineural deafness and learning difficulties. In about 85% of the cases, a heterozygous missense mutation is detected in exons 7, 12 or 13 of the PTPN11 gene. Recently, missense mutations in the RAF1 gene have been found in two out of six PTPN11-negative LS patients. Mutation analysis can be carried out on blood, chorionic villi and amniotic fluid samples. LS is largely overlapping Noonan syndrome and, during childhood, Neurofibromatosis type 1-Noonan syndrome. Diagnostic clues of LS are multiple lentigines and CLS, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and deafness. Mutation-based differential diagnosis in patients with borderline clinical manifestations is warranted. LS is an autosomal dominant condition, with full penetrance and variable expressivity. If one parent is affected, a 50% recurrence risk is appropriate. LS should be suspected in foetuses with severe cardiac hypertrophy and prenatal DNA test may be performed. Clinical management should

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  18. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27250821

  19. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  20. Radiculoplexopathy with conduction block caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Palmer, William; Cros, Didier

    2005-02-01

    The authors report a case of cervicobrachial radiculoplexopathy with proximal conduction block (CB), associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The patient presented with pain, paresthesias, and monomelic weakness in the left C7-8, and T1 myotomes. The illness was monophasic with rapid recovery. Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated CB in the proximal left median and ulnar nerve segments. The authors conclude that this syndrome resulted from a postinfectious process following acute EBV infection. PMID:15699388