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Sample records for capstone depleted uranium

  1. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  2. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92

  3. Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crew members and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation

  4. Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Fletcher; Roszell, Laurie E.; Daxon, Eric G.; Guilmette, Ray A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2009-02-26

    Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crewmembers and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation.

  5. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  6. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. PMID:19204482

  7. Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols I: Uranium Concentration in Aerosols as a Function of Time and Particle Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing depleted uranium were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time particularly within the first minute after the shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% 30 min after perforation. In the Bradley vehicle, the initial (and maximum) uranium concentration was lower than those observed in the Abrams tank and decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in the cyclone samplers, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h post perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages from the Abrams tank tests ranged from 38% to 72% and, in most cases, varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Results with the Bradley vehicle ranged from 18% to 29% and were not specifically correlated with particle size

  8. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols I: uranium concentration in aerosols as a function of time and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Traub, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing DU were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time, particularly within the first minute after a shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s after perforation, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% after 30 min. The initial and maximum uranium concentrations were lower in the Bradley vehicle than those observed in the Abrams tank, and the concentration levels decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in a cyclone sampler, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h after perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages ranged from 38 to 72% for the Abrams tank with conventional armor. In most cases, it varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Neither the Abrams tank with DU armor nor the Bradley vehicle results were specifically correlated with particle size and can best be represented by their average uranium mass concentrations of 65

  9. Assessing the Renal Toxicity of Capstone Depleted Uranium Oxides and Other Uranium Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary target for uranium toxicity is the kidney. The most frequently used guideline for uranium kidney burdens is the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) value of 3 (micro)g U/g kidney, a value that is based largely upon chronic studies in animals. In the present effort, we have developed a risk model equation to assess potential outcomes of acute uranium exposure. Twenty-seven previously published case studies in which workers were acutely exposed to soluble compounds of uranium (as a result of workplace accidents) were analyzed. Kidney burdens of uranium for these individuals were determined based on uranium in the urine, and correlated with health effects observed over a period of up to 38 years. Based upon the severity of health effects, each individual was assigned a score (- to +++) and then placed into an Effect Group. A discriminant analysis was used to build a model equation to predict the Effect Group based on the amount of uranium in the kidneys. The model equation was able to predict the Effect Group with 85% accuracy. The risk model was used to predict the Effect Group for Soldiers exposed to DU as a result of friendly fire incidents during the 1991 Gulf War. This model equation can also be used to predict the Effect Group of new cases in which acute exposures to uranium have occurred

  10. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, issued today the following statement: The IAEA has been involved in United Nations efforts relating to the impact of the use of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition in Kosovo. It has supported the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the assessment which it is making, at the request of the Secretary-General, of that impact. In this connection, in November 2000, Agency experts participated in a UNEP-led fact-finding mission in Kosovo. DU is only slightly radioactive, being about 40% as radioactive as natural uranium. Chemically and physically, DU behaves in the same way as natural uranium. The chemical toxicity is normally the dominant factor for human health. However, it is necessary to carefully assess the impact of DU in the special circumstances in which it was used, e.g. to determine whether it was inhaled or ingested or whether fragments came into close contact with individuals. It is therefore essential, before an authoritative conclusion can be reached, that a detailed survey of the territory in which DU was used and of the people who came in contact with the depleted uranium in any form be carried out. In the meantime it would be prudent, as recommended by the leader of the November UNEP mission, to adopt precautionary measures. Depending on the results of the survey further measures may be necessary. The Agency, within its statutory responsibilities and on the basis of internationally accepted radiation safety standards, will continue to co-operate with other organizations, in particular WHO and UNEP, with a view to carrying out a comprehensive assessment. Co-operation by and additional information from NATO will be prerequisites. The experience gained from such an assessment could be useful for similar studies that may be carried out elsewhere in the Balkans or in the Gulf. (author)

  11. DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

  12. Depleted Uranium Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers radiological and toxic impact of the depleted uranium on the human health. Radiological influence of depleted uranium is less for 60 % than natural uranium due to the decreasing of short-lived isotopes uranium-234 and uranium-235 after enrichment. The formation of radioactive aerosols and their impact on the human are mentioned. Use of the depleted uranium weapons has also a chemical effect on intake due to possible carcinogenic influence on kidney. Uranium-236 in the substance of the depleted uranium is determined. The fact of beta-radiation formation in the uranium-238 decay is regarded. This effect practically is the same for both depleted and natural uranium. Importance of toxicity of depleted uranium, as the heavier chemical substance, has a considerable contribution to the population health. The paper analyzes risks regarding the use of the depleted uranium weapons. There is international opposition against using weapons with depleted uranium. Resolution on effects of the use of armaments and ammunitions containing depleted uranium was five times supported by the United Nations (USA, United Kingdom, France and Israel did not support). The decision for banning of depleted uranium weapons was supported by the European Parliament

  13. Depleted uranium in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, depleted uranium ammunition is regarded as nuclear weapons and meets with fierce opposition. The fact that US Marines mistakenly fired bullets containing depleted uranium on an island off Okinawa during training exercises in December 1995 and January 1996, also contributes. The overall situation in this area in Japan is outlined. (P.A.)

  14. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  15. Uses of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depleted uranium is that in which percentage of uranium-235 fission executable is less than 0.2% or 0.3%. It is usually caused by the process of reprocessing the nuclear fuel burning, and also mixed with some other radioactive elements such as uranium 236, 238 and plutonium 239. The good features of the depleted uranium are its high density, low price and easily mined. So, the specifications for depleted uranium make it one of the best materials in case you need to have objects small in size, but quite heavy regarding its size. Uses of deplet ed uranium were relatively increased in domestic industrial uses as well as some uses in nuclear industry in the last few years. So it has increased uses in many areas of military and peaceful means such as: in balancing the giant air crafts, ships and missiles and in the manufacture of some types of concrete with severe hardness. (author)

  16. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  18. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  19. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  20. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  1. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  2. Uranium: myths and realities the depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is an element whose name causes worry. The uranium properties are very unknown for people. However the element plays an important roll in the Earth as responsible of numerous natural phenomena, which are vital for life evolution. An example of the low knowledge about uranium has been the Balkan syndrome. A relation between cancers and the use of depleted uranium in ammunition in the Balkan War has been pretended to be established. From the beginning, this hypothesis could have been discarded as it has been confirmed and stated in recent reports of UNEP Commissions who have studied this matter. (Author)

  3. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% 235U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a 235U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved

  4. Civil use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the civilian exploitation of depleted uranium is briefly reviewed. Different scenarios relevant to its use are discussed in terms of radiation exposure for workers and the general public. The case of the aircraft accident which occurred in Amsterdam in 1992 involving a fire, is discussed in terms of the radiological exposure to bystanders. All information given has been obtained on the basis of an extensive literature search and are not based on measurements performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements

  5. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  6. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  7. Simulating distinguish enriched uranium from depleted uranium by activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting uranium material is an important work in arms control Active detection is an efficient method for uranium material. The paper focuses on the feasibility that can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by MCNP program. It can distinguish the enriched uranium and the depleted uranium by the curve of relationship between fission rate of uranium material and thickness of moderator.Advantages of 252Cf and 14 MeV neutron sources are discussed in detecting uranium material through calculation. The results show that 252Cf neutron source is better than 14 MeV one. Delayed neutrons are more easily detected than delayed gamma ray at measurement aspect. (authors)

  8. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  9. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  10. Depleted uranium. Nuclear related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) has found a military application in Golf War, in Bosnia and in Yugoslavia (Kosovo). In military sense it was very efficient. But the fact that some parts of that ammunition are manufactured from depleted uranium, low level radioactive waste, implies other aspects of this application like radiological, ecological, jurist, ethical and psychological. The subject of this paper is just physical aspect. There are several problems concerning this aspect: production of DU, total amount of DU in the world, 235U/238U relation, radioactivity of DU, measurements, and presence of other radionuclides like plutonium. DU is by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. Total amount of DU in the world is about one million tons with an annual increase of 30 000 t. The content of 235U in DU can vary in the range 0.16-0.3%. The total radioactivity of DU is a consequence of 7 radionuclides and amounts 39.42 Bq/mg. This include alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity. Because of characteristics of this radioactivity it is difficult to prospect the terrain except at the site of action. During the impact of DU rods four types of DU particles could be produced: whole penetrators, penetrator parts, big aerosols (>10 μm) and small aerosols (<10 μm). Most of these particles fall locally, although some of them could be find several tens of kilometers away. All these problems have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. SRP scientific meeting: depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was organised by the SRP to review current research and discuss the use, dispersion into the environment and radiological impact of depleted uranium (DU) by the UK and US in recent military conflicts. In addition to other presentations, there were two short presentations by T Cabianca and P Danesi of the IAEA concerning investigations into the DU legacy in Kuwait and the IAEA contribution to environmental contamination assessments of DU in Kosovo. In Kuwait the on-going study is limited to an assessment of the potential radiological consequences of DU residues in three types of site: open desert where DU was fired, farmland where DU was fired and DU storage facilities. The Kuwaiti government has also requested the IAEA to formulate a structured approach to deal with remediating such sites and disposing of the resulting material. In Kosovo the study investigated sand and soil samples from areas where DU had been fired. DU particulates were found in sizes up to 40 μm, but generally much smaller, typically about 5 μm, with 5% less than 1.5 μm in size. These particles were found to contain 90% DU and 1% Ti. Plutonium was also detected, but this was attributed to the 1960s bomb testing programme. This was an informative, well attended meeting that stimulated varied debate between delegates. It revealed that there is still much to learn concerning the effects of depleted uranium in the human body and highlighted the limitations of conventional dose estimates made using ICRP models. A balance must be struck between the operational requirements of the armed forces and acceptable levels of environmental contamination arising from any conflict they are involved in. Most importantly, as a scientific consensus is developed, a clear and consistent approach to providing key information to the public should be adopted, to build confidence in the radiation protection profession

  12. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Sidney A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  13. Radiative characteristics of depleted uranium bomb and it is protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the developing process of depleted uranium bombs described in the first part, the radiative characteristics and mechanism of depleted uranium bombs are analyzed emphatically. The deeper discussion on protection of depleted uranium bombs is proceeded

  14. Toxicological issues after depleted uranium weapons attacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the uranium enrichment for producing nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. DU is used in the military as an armor-piercing projectile due to its hardness, strength, and density. A lot of DU weapons were fired in the Gulf War, and bring about critical environmental and internal contamination. Therefore, DU becomes suddenly a hot issue. Some toxicological problems after DU weapons attacked have been reviewed, which include features of internal DU contamination. Hazard of wound contamination and inhalation with insoluble uranium, and other urgent toxicological issues. The healthy effects of implanted with depleted uranium pellets were illustrated in particular

  15. Department of Energy depleted uranium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its strategic supply of depleted uranium, the Department of Energy is studying reuse of the material in nuclear radiation shields, military hardware, and commercial applications. the study is expected to warrant a more detailed uranium recycle plan which would include consideration of a demonstration program and a program implementation decision. Such a program, if implemented, would become the largest nuclear material recycle program in the history of the Department of Energy. The bulk of the current inventory of depleted uranium is stored in 14-ton cylinders in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The radioactive 235U content has been reduced to a concentration of 0.2% to 0.4%. Present estimates indicate there are about 55,000 UF6-filled cylinders in inventory and planned operations will provide another 2,500 cylinders of depleted uranium each year. The United States government, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, considers the depleted uranium a highly-refined strategic resource of significant value. A possible utilization of a large portion of the depleted uranium inventory is as radiation shielding for spent reactor fuels and high-level radioactive waste. To this end, the Department of Energy study to-date has included a preliminary technical review to ascertain DOE chemical forms useful for commercial products. The presentation summarized the information including preliminary cost estimates. The status of commercial uranium processing is discussed. With a shrinking market, the number of chemical conversion and fabrication plants is reduced; however, the commercial capability does exist for chemical conversion of the UF6 to the metal form and for the fabrication of uranium radiation shields and other uranium products. Department of Energy facilities no longer possess a capability for depleted uranium chemical conversion

  16. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted 238U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  17. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  18. Depleted Uranium and Its Effects on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes contemporary scientific knowledge of depleted uranium effects on human health due to its use in military conflicts. The discussion covers cases of minimal risk due to external irradiation resulting from the storage and handling of depleted uranium ammunition and, in contrast, important toxicological and radio-toxicological risks of late effects resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of dust particles produced by the burning of the core of the anti-tank ammunition.

  19. Depleted Uranium and Its Effects on Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Hon; Jan Österreicher; Leoš Navrátil

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes contemporary scientific knowledge of depleted uranium effects on human health due to its use in military conflicts. The discussion covers cases of minimal risk due to external irradiation resulting from the storage and handling of depleted uranium ammunition and, in contrast, important toxicological and radio-toxicological risks of late effects resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of dust particles produced by the burning of the core of the anti-tank ammunition.

  20. Depleted uranium during the Kosovo war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the depleted uranium (DU) in the war and civil aims is considered. There are characterized the head parts of projectiles (drifts) from DU, used during Balkan wars, are described. The uranium isotope activity and exposure dose rates from β, γ and photon radiation of the drifts are investigated. The content of uranium and plutonium isotopes in the soil samples are measured. It is concluded that DU cannot exercise the acute influence on the health of military man and civil population

  1. Depleted uranium speciation in the Bratoselce soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the air strikes in 1999, about thirteen hundred projectiles with depleted uranium were fired into the Bratoselce, South Serbia. A study providing insight into physical chemical behaviour of depleted uranium originated from dissolved 'material' of projectile penetrators in the contaminated soil have been conducted. Samples were treated according to Tarriers modified procedure of five-step sequential extraction. Suitable choice of solvents for sequential extraction simulated the real conditions in the environment. Fractions are further analysed by alpha spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry methods to determine the uranium isotopes and trace or major elements. The results indicated potential substrates for depleted uranium compounds in the investigated environment, with specific soil composition that is essential for prediction of its mobility and bioavailability in certain conditions. (author)

  2. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  3. Depleted uranium and the Gulf War syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some military personnel involved in the 1991Gulf War have complained of continuing stress-like symptoms for which no obvious cause has been found. These symptoms have at times been attributed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in shell casings which are believed to have caused toxic effects. Depleted uranium is natural uranium which is depleted in the rarer U-235 isotope. It is a heavy metal and in common with other heavy metals is chemically toxic. It is also slightly radioactive and could give rise to a radiological hazard if dispersed in finely divided form so that it was inhaled. In response to concerns, the possible effects of DU have been extensively studied along with other possible contributors to Gulf War sickness. This article looks at the results of some of the research that has been done on DU. (author)

  4. Gammaspectrometric determination of depleted uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three years of monitoring the content of natural radionuclides as well as radionuclides of artificial origin in all samples in the south part of the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro indicated that there was widespread, low-level contamination by depleted uranium at this region. High activity of depleted uranium was found in the soil samples taken at the points where the penetrators were found. We used high resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets. The collected soil samples were cleaned of plants and stones, dried at 105 deg. C - 110 deg. C till constant weight for 24-48 h. After this, the samples were ground, sieved, and measure in cylindrical geometry. Gamma activity was determined by gamma spectrometry measurements using HP Ge detector (ORTEC), with relative efficiency of 25% and energy resolution of 1.85 keV (1332.5 keV 60Co). The analyser system conducts a peak search, energy assignment, quantification and nuclide identification in acquired spectra. Time of measurement varied from 60000 s to 250000 s. Depleted uranium was found in the soil samples from Vranje region and cape Arza (Montenegro). There are four fenced areas in Vranje region (Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan) and one in the Montenegro (cape Arza) where we have found depleted uranium penetrators. The 238U and 235U specific activities and their isotopic composition correspond to depleted uranium (238U/235U ratio from 35 to 77). (author)

  5. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  6. Ecological and corrosion behavior of depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Mirjana D.; Lačnjevac Časlav M.; Mihajlović Marija L.; Petrović Marija V.; Šoštarić Tanja D.; Petrović Jelena T.; Lopičić Zorica R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution with radionuclides, particularly uranium and its decay products is a serious global problem. The current scientific studies estimated that the contamination originating from TENORM, caused by nuclear and non-nuclear technologies, has significantly increased natural level of radioactivity in the last thirty years. During the last decades all the more were talking about the "new pollutant" - depleted uranium (DU), which has been used i...

  7. Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most circumstances, measurement of uranium excreted in urine at known times after exposure is potentially the most sensitive method for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems associated with this approach are that natural uranium is always present in urine because of the ingestion of natural uranium in food and drink, and that the uncertainties in the intakes as assessed from excretion measurements can be quite large, because many assumptions concerning the exposure characteristics (time pattern of exposure, route of intake, chemical form, solubility, biokinetics within the body) must be made. Applying currently available methods and instruments for the measurement of uranium in urine samples, DU incorporations of levels relevant with respect to potential health hazards can be detected reliably, even a long time after exposure. (author)

  8. Long-term management and use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products resulting from the process of enrichment of natural uranium, or reprocessed uranium, are enriched uranium products as the light fraction and depleted uranium (uranium tails) as the heavy fraction. If the source material is natural uranium, the mass ratios of uranium products and uranium tails can be derived relatively easily from the required enrichment level of the uranium product (product assay (% of U-235)) and the selected depletion level of the uranium tails (tails assay (% of U-235)). The paper discusses among other aspects the dependence of the tails mass on the required enrichment level of the relevant uranium product, for various tails assays. (orig./CB)

  9. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  10. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  11. Ecological and corrosion behavior of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radionuclides, particularly uranium and its decay products is a serious global problem. The current scientific studies estimated that the contamination originating from TENORM, caused by nuclear and non-nuclear technologies, has significantly increased natural level of radioactivity in the last thirty years. During the last decades all the more were talking about the "new pollutant" - depleted uranium (DU, which has been used in anti-tank penetrators because of its high density, penetration and pyrophoric properties. It is estimated that during the Gulf War, the war in Bosnia and Yugoslavia and during the invasion of Iraq, 1.4 million missiles with depleted uranium was fired. During the NATO aggression against the ex Yugoslavia in 1999., 112 locations in Kosovo and Metohija, 12 locations in southern Serbia and two locations in Montenegro were bombed. On this occasion, approximately 10 tons of depleted uranium were entered into the environment, mainly on land, where the degree of contamination ranged from 200 Bq / kg to 235 000 Bq/kg, which is up to 1000 times higher than the natural level. Fourteen years ago there was very little information about the behavior of ecological systems damaged by DU penetrators fired. Today, unfortunately, we are increasingly faced with the ―invisible threat" of depleted uranium, which has a strong radioactive and hemotoxic impact on human health. Present paper provides a detailed overview of the current understanding of corrosion and corrosion behavior of DU and environmental factors that control corrosion, together with indicators of environmental impact in order to highlight areas that need further attention in developing remediation programs.

  12. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  13. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  14. Depleted Uranium Penetrators : Hazards and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Rao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The depleted uranium (DU alloy is a state-of-the-art material for kinetic energy penetrators due to its superior ballistic performance. Several countries use DU penetrators in their main battle tanks. There is no gamma radiation hazard to the crew members from stowage of DO rounds. Open air firing can result in environmental contamination and associated hazards due to airborne particles containing essentially U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/. Inhalation of polluted air only through respirators or nose masks and refraining form ingestion of water or food materials from contaminated environment are safety measures for avoiding exposure to uranium and its toxicity. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate helps in urinary excretion of uranium that may have entered the body.

  15. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  16. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  17. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980`s, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality.

  18. Depleted Uranium Penetrators : Hazards and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S S; T. Balakrishna Bhat

    1997-01-01

    The depleted uranium (DU) alloy is a state-of-the-art material for kinetic energy penetrators due to its superior ballistic performance. Several countries use DU penetrators in their main battle tanks. There is no gamma radiation hazard to the crew members from stowage of DO rounds. Open air firing can result in environmental contamination and associated hazards due to airborne particles containing essentially U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/. Inhalation of polluted air only through resp...

  19. The MOD depleted uranium program independent review board : closure report

    OpenAIRE

    B. Smith

    2007-01-01

    This closure report was prepared by the MOD’s Depleted Uranium Independent Review Board (IRB; see Appendix A for membership) and summarises the review board’s general observations in respect of MOD’s depleted uranium research programme and the associated independent review process. The report starts by providing an introduction to MOD’s research programme on the health and environmental consequences of depleted uranium (DU), membership of the IRB, the operation of the review...

  20. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  1. Development of heavy concrete mixed with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressive strength and shielding performance tests of heavy weight concrete mixed with depleted Uranium (Depleted Uranium Concrete) were carried out. The depleted uranium pellets (φ 8 mm, height 9.5 mm) were mixed into cement paste instead of coarse aggregate. Specimens with nominal specific gravity of 3.2 - 5.4 were manufactured. The results of the compression strength test showed that compressive strength of more than 30 MPa was obtained with the specimens having the nominal specific gravity of more than 5 and it was confirmed from the shielding performance tests that Depleted Uranium Concrete has shielding corresponding to its nominal specific gravity. (author)

  2. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?; Uranium appauvri: perturbateur metabolique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, Maamar; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, Direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, Laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, Service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  3. Vacancy Formation Enthalpy in Polycrystalline Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K. R.; Lynn, K. G.; Weber, M. H.; Okuniewski, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy was performed as a function of temperature and beam energy on polycrystalline depleted uranium (DU) foil. Samples were run with varying heat profiles all starting at room temperature. While collecting Doppler-Broadening data, the temperature of the sample was cycled several times. The first heat cycle shows an increasing S-parameter near temperatures of 400K to 500K much lower than the first phase transition of 941K indicating increasing vacancies possibly due to oxygen diffusion from the bulk to the surface. Vacancy formation enthalpies were calculated fitting a model to the data to be 1.6± 0.16 eV. Results are compared to previous work [3,4].

  4. Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

  5. Cost estimate report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a cost analysis of the long-term storage of depleted uranium in the form of uranium metal. Three options are considered for storage of the depleted uranium. These options are aboveground buildings, partly underground vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are presented. In the first case, all the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) generated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) prior to July 1993 would be stored at the storage facility (100% Case). In the second case, half the depleted uranium metal would be stored at this storage facility (50% Case). In the third case, one-quarter of the depleted uranium metal would be stored at the storage facility (25% Case). The technical basis for the cost analysis presented in this report is principally found in the companion report, ANL/EAD/TM-100, ''Engineering Analysis Report for the Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride: Storage of Depleted Uranium Metal'', prepared by Argonne National Laboratory

  6. Use, effects and legal standing of depleted uranium munitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides a brief description of depleted uranium and its use in weapons. Several exposure scenarios are described, and examples of the use of DU ammunition in training, testing, and combat are provided. A summary of depleted uranium's health and environmental effects follows, and the paper concludes with a brief analysis of the legal standing of DU munitions under international humanitarian law

  7. Levels of depleted uranium in Kosovo soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Environment Programme has performed a field survey at 11 sites located in Kosovo, where depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions were used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during the last Balkans conflict (1999). Soil sampling was performed to assess the spread of DU ground contamination around and within the NATO target sites and the migration of DU along the soil profile. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U activity concentration ratios have been used as an indicator of natural against anthropogenic sources of uranium. The results show that levels of 238U activity concentrations in soils above 100 Bq.kg-1 can be considered a 'tracer' of the presence of DU in soils. The results also indicate that detectable ground surface contamination by DU is limited to areas within a few metres from localised points of concentrated contamination caused by penetrator impacts. Vertical distribution of DU along the soil profile is measurable up to a depth of 10-20 cm. This latter aspect is of particular relevance for the potential risk of future contamination of groundwater. (author)

  8. Levels of depleted uranium in Kosovo soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, U.; Stellato, L.; Jia, G.; Rosamilia, S.; Gaudino, S.; Barbizzi, S.; Belli, M

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has performed a field survey at 11 sites located in Kosovo, where depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions were used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during the last Balkans conflict (1999). Soil sampling was performed to assess the spread of DU ground contamination around and within the NATO target sites and the migration of DU along the soil profile. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U activity concentration ratios have been used as an indicator of natural against anthropogenic sources of uranium. The results show that levels of {sup 238}U activity concentrations in soils above 100 Bq.kg{sup -1} can be considered a 'tracer' of the presence of DU in soils. The results also indicate that detectable ground surface contamination by DU is limited to areas within a few metres from localised points of concentrated contamination caused by penetrator impacts. Vertical distribution of DU along the soil profile is measurable up to a depth of 10-20 cm. This latter aspect is of particular relevance for the potential risk of future contamination of groundwater. (author)

  9. Removal of depleted uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of soil and water with depleted uranium (DU) has increased public health concerns due to the chemical toxicity of DU at elevated dosages. For this reason, there is great interest in developing methods for DU removal from contaminated sources. Two DU laden soils, taken from U.S. Army sites, were characterized for particle size distribution, total uranium concentration and removable uranium. Soil A was found to be a well graded sand containing a total of 3210 mg/kg DU (3.99 x 104 Bq/kg, where a Becquerel (Bq) is a unit of radiation). About 83% of the DU in the fines fraction (particle diameter 4 Bq/kg)) was associated with the carbonate, iron and manganese oxide and organic matter fractions of the material. Soil B was classified as a sandy silt with total DU of 1560 mg/kg (1.94 x 104 Bq/kg). The DU content in the fines fraction was 5171 mg/kg (6.43 x 104 Bq/kg). Sequential extraction of the Soil B fines fraction indicated that 64% of the DU was present either as soluble U(VI) minerals or as insoluble U(IV). Citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide were used in batch experiments to extract DU from the fines fraction of both soils. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were relatively successful for Soil A (50-60% DU removal), but not for Soil B (20-35% DU removal). Hydrogen peroxide was found to significantly increase DU extraction from both soils, attaining removals up to 60-80%

  10. Determination of depleted uranium in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process for nuclear fuel. According to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, a confirmatory method for the quantification of DU in freeze-dried fish was developed by isotope ratio dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IR-DRC-ICP-MS). A preliminary study was performed to determine the following parameters: instrumental detection limit (IDL), isotopic ratio measurement limit (IRML), percentage of DU (PDU) in presence of natural uranium (NU) and limit of quantification (LoQDU). The analyses were carried out by means of IR-DRC-ICP-MS. Ammonia was the reaction gas used for the dynamic reaction cell. In addition, a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS) was employed to calculate the within-laboratory reproducibility. For the confirmatory method the following parameters were determined: (a) trueness; (b) precision; (c) critical concentrations alpha and beta (CCα, CCβ); (d) specificity; (e) stability. Trueness was assessed by using the recovery tests. The recovery and within-laboratory reproducibility were determined by fortifying the blank digested solution of dogfish tissue: six aliquots were fortified at 1, 1.5 and 2 times the LOQDU with 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 ng L-1 or 4.16, 6.24, 8.32 μg kg-1 with a recovery of -8.2, +9.5 and +9.6%, respectively and a within-laboratory reproducibility (three analytical run) of 15.5, 8.0 and 11.0%, respectively. The results for the decision limit and the detection capability were: CCα = 11.69 ng L-1 and CCβ = 19.8 ng L-1. The digested solutions resulted to be stable during testing time (60 days) and the method can be considered highly specific as well

  11. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  12. Decommissioning plan depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee, Inc. (Aerojet) is decommissioning its California depleted uranium (DU) manufacturing facility. Aerojet has conducted manufacturing and research and development activities at the facility since 1977 under a State of California Source Materials License. The decontamination is being performed by a contractor selector for technical competence through competitive bid. Since the facility will be released for uncontrolled use it will be decontaminated to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In order to fully apply the principles of ALARA, and ensure the decontamination is in full compliance with appropriate guides, Aerojet has retained Rogers and Associaties Engineering Corporation (RAE) to assist in the decommissioning. RAE has assisted in characterizing the facility and preparing contract bid documents and technical specifications to obtain a qualified decontamination contractor. RAE will monitor the decontamination work effort to assure the contractor's performance complies with the contract specifications and the decontamination plan. The specifications require a thorough cleaning and decontamination of the facility, not just sufficient cleaning to meet the numeric cleanup criteria

  13. Verification of Depleted Uranium in non-Nuclear use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes a system for the verification of depleted uranium-being recognized by the International Atomic Energy as a Nuclear which should be accounted for and put under Nuclear Safeguards even if it is used for non-nuclear applications such as in shielding against gamma radiation in Radiotherapy facilities, industrial radiography systems or as counterweights in air craft. Measurement of depleted uranium is performed by employing Non-Destructive Assay techniques, which use a gamma-ray spectrometer system and/or a neutron coincidence counter system. Results show that the used techniques can detect the presence of depleted uranium in the investigated materials. Also, quantitative values of U-235 enrichment and mass content of the assayed material could be obtained with a precision of better than 7%. This work would find important applications for the verification and control of depleted uranium for the purposes of Nuclear Safeguards

  14. Mass measurement of depleted uranium components with coincidence neutron count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of the mass measurement of depleted uranium components was studied with active and passive coincidence neutron count. A well neutron coincidence counter was used to measure the coincidence neutron counts of the depleted uranium components with various mass. Am-Be source was selected as the external neutron source for induced fission in the active measurement, and a shield was optimized to reduce the accidental coincidence counts. In the active measurement, the maximum relative deviation of the linear fit mass from the nominal mass of the depleted uranium components is 11.71%, compared to 4.05% in the passive measurement. It is proved that because of the weakening of the shape influence, the passive method is more accurate and reliable to measure the mass of depleted uranium components than the active method. (authors)

  15. Nondestructive testing of 105mm depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an information update concerning the nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) for depleted uranium penetrator (XM774, XM833) quality inspection and evaluation. This report covers NDT activities from August to November, 1979

  16. Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons in Contemporary Military Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor-Yarwood, Ifesinachi Marybenedette

    2014-01-01

    This research note examines the use of depleted uranium weapons in contemporarymilitary interventions and the hazardous effects of their use. It also demonstratesattempts made by the United States and the United Kingdom to block anyinternational efforts to ban the use of these weapons. Although there is no laboratory evidence, experiential evidence from Iraq indicates that depleted uranium weapons are dangerous to human health and the environment. This research note argues that the United Nat...

  17. Regulation of new depleted uranium uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates how the existing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory structure and pending modifications would affect full deployment into radiologically uncontrolled areas of certain new depleted uranium (DU) uses being studied as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's DU uses research and development program. Such new DU uses include as catalysts (for destroying volatile organic compounds in off-gases from industrial processes and for hydrodesulfurization [HDS] of petroleum fuels), semiconductors (for fabricating integrated circuits, solar cells, or thermoelectric devices, especially if such articles are expected to have service in hostile environments), and electrodes (for service in solid oxide fuel cells, in photoelectrochemical cells used to produce hydrogen, and in batteries). The report describes each new DU use and provides a detailed analysis of whether any existing NRC licensing exemption or general license would be available to users of products and devices manufactured to deploy the new use. Although one existing licensing exemption was found to be possibly available for catalysts used for HDS of petroleum fuels and one general license was found to be possibly available for catalysts, semiconductors, and electrodes used in hydrogen production or batteries, existing regulations would require most users of products and devices deploying new DU uses to obtain specific source material licenses from the NRC or an Agreement State. This situation would not be improved by pending regulatory modifications. Thus, deployment of new DU uses may be limited because persons having no previous experience with NRC or Agreement State regulations may be hesitant to incur the costs and inconvenience of regulatory compliance, unless using a DU-containing product or device offers a substantial economic benefit over nonradioactive alternatives. Accordingly, estimating the risk of deploying new DU-containing products and devices in certain

  18. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  19. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF6 is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings

  20. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  1. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB)

  2. Plasma hydrogen reduction of uranium from depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process scheme of plasma hydrogen reduction of waste by 235U uranium hexafluoride, preparation of metal uranium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is proposed. Results of the experimental investigations into the basic stages of this process scheme: production of the U - F - H-plasma, production and separation of uranium melt and anhydrous of hydrogen fluoride are treated. Level of plasma and high frequency technique for the realization of the plasma hydrogen process of conversion of waste UF6 for metal uranium and anhydrous HF was analyzed

  3. Uranium and the War: The effects of depleted uranium weapons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army revealed in March 2003 that it dropped between 320 and 390 tons of depleted uranium during the Gulf War-the first time the material was ever used in combat-and it is estimated that more still has been dropped during the current invasion, though there have been no official counts as yet. Nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants require highly radioactive uranium, so the uranium 238 is removed from the naturally occurring uranium by a process known as enrichment. Depleted uranium is the by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Depleted uranium was a major topic of discussion during a Feb. 24 forum at Santa Cruz with speakers from the Iraq Veterans Against War (IVAW). The panel consisted of five members of the IVAW chapter in Olympia, Washington who visited Santa Cruz as part of a speaking tour of the west coast. These members of the IVAW believe that their experiences in the Gulf War were the beginnings of what will be a long-term health problem in the region. A study conducted by the Pentagon in 2002 predicted that every future battlefield will be contaminated with depleted uranium. Up-to-date health information from Iraq is difficult to come by. But a November report from Al-jazeera concluded that the cancer rate in Iraq has increased tenfold, and the number of birth defects has multiplied fivefold times since the 1991 war. The increase is believed to be caused by depleted uranium.

  4. Health and environmental effects of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge accumulated till the end of the 20th century is mentioned briefly. More attention is paid to recent findings. Recent studies of uranium contamination of the Persian Gulf and Balkan War veterans have been conducted in the U.S. and Canada by studying distribution of isotopes of DU in the veterans of the NATO and Allied forces who were accidentally contaminated with DU either in the form of imbedded shrapnel or inhalation of uranium contaminating dust. The studies of the U.S. armed forces Research Institute in Bethesda Maryland on the shrapnel wounded veteran's demonstrated increased concentration of the isotopes of DU in the urine eight years after the Persian Gulf War. In contrast non-governmental uranium research groups such as Uranium Medical Centre reported increased urinary excretion of four isotopes of DU in the Allied forces veterans exposed to DU containing dust ten years after the exposure. These studies were confirmed by two methods. Neutron activation analysis confirmed presence of DU in the urine of seven Persian Gulf veterans with ratios significantly different from the natural uranium and in the range of DU, ten years after exposure from inhalation. The veterans of the Allied forces contaminated by inhalation in the Persian Gulf War were also analyzed for the uranium presence for their body fluids, tissues and urine by the method of mass spectrometry. These results presented at the International Conferences in Dublin Ireland, Paris France and New York U.S.A. indicate significant presence of four uranium isotopes in over 60% of contaminated veterans being in the range of DU. The ratio of the uranium isotopes 235/238 is in the range of DU if higher than 137.8. It was found to be in the DU ratio 62% examined by the mass spectrometry analysis. Isotopic composition of natural enriched and DU should be for U238/99.3, U235/0.7 and U234/0.006 and for enriched uranium 99.01, 2.96 and 0.03, while for DU respective ratios are 99.75, 0.25 and 0.005. This

  5. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  6. Depleted uranium report from the Health Council of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Council of the Netherlands, which is an independent scientific advisory body established in 1902 to advise the government and Parliament on the current level of knowledge with respect to public health issues', has recently published an overview report on depleted uranium. The title of the report is Health risks of exposure to depleted uranium' and it is freely available in both English and the original Dutch language. A brief summary of the report that was published on 16 May 2001 is presented here. The use of ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) in Kosovo and elsewhere in the Balkans has provoked disquiet in Europe. In the Netherlands, concern over the release of this material had already been aroused previously following the crash of the El-Al airliner in the Bijlmermeer district of Amsterdam in 1992. It was against this background that the President of the Health Council decided to set up a Committee charged with the task of reviewing the health risks of exposure to DU and the preventive measures required for individuals present in areas where DU has been released into the environment. After reviewing the properties of uranium in general and depleted uranium in particular, and presenting data on the occurrence of the element in the environment and biological tissues, the committee assessed the chemical and radiological health effect of uranium and uranium compounds. The Health Council Committee concludes that radioactive contamination of the lungs is the principal health risk to be considered in connection with exposure to slightly soluble uranium compounds in the atmosphere. For soluble compounds, the chemical toxic effect in the kidneys is the primary consideration. The toxicological effects are to some extent concordant with those of other heavy metals. For relevant exposure scenarios the Committee does not anticipate that exposure to DU will result in a demonstrable increased risk of diseases and symptoms among exposed individuals as a

  7. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Perko; Anđelić Tomislav; Zekić Ranko; Kovačević Milojko S.; Vasić Vladimir; Savić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR FORMED PROJECTILE OF DEPLETED URANIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋顺成; 高平; 才鸿年

    2003-01-01

    The numerical simulation for forming projectile of depleted uranium alloy with the SPH ( Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic ) algorithm was presented. In the computations the artificial pressures of detonation were used, i. e. , the spatial distribution and time distribution were given artificially. To describe the deformed behaviors of the depleted uranium alloy under high pressure and high strain rate, the Johnson-Cook model of materials was introduced. From the numerical simulation the formed projectile velocity,projectile geometry and the minimum of the height of detonation are obtained.

  9. Semiconductor neutron detectors using depleted uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Craig A.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Schwellenbach, David; Meek, Thomas; Shaver, Brandon; Cunningham, Taylor; Auxier, Jerrad Philip

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on recent attempts to develop and test a new type of solid-state neutron detector fabricated from uranium compounds. It has been known for many years that uranium oxide (UO2), triuranium octoxide (U3O8) and other uranium compounds exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a broad range of electrical properties. We seek to exploit these characteristics to make a direct-conversion semiconductor neutron detector. In such a device a neutron interacts with a uranium nucleus, inducing fission. The fission products deposit energy-producing, detectable electron-hole pairs. The high energy released in the fission reaction indicates that noise discrimination in such a device has the potential to be excellent. Schottky devices were fabricated using a chemical deposition coating technique to deposit UO2 layers a few microns thick on a sapphire substrate. Schottky devices have also been made using a single crystal from UO2 samples approximately 500 microns thick. Neutron sensitivity simulations have been performed using GEANT4. Neutron sensitivity for the Schottky devices was tested experimentally using a 252Cf source.

  10. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  11. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. PMID:24594921

  12. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  13. DURABILITY OF DEPLETED URANIUM AGGREGATES (DUAGG) IN DUCRETE SHIELDING APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, Catherine H.; Dole, Leslie R.

    2003-02-27

    The depleted uranium (DU) inventory in the United States exceeds 500,000 metric tonnes. To evaluate the possibilities for reuse of this stockpile of DU, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has created a research and development program to address the disposition of its DU(1). One potential use for this stockpile material is in the fabrication of nuclear shielding casks for the storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuels. The use of the DU-based shielding would reduce the size and weight of the casks while allowing a level of protection from neutrons and gamma rays comparable to that afforded by steel and concrete. DUAGG (depleted uranium aggregate) is formed of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) sintered with a synthetic-basalt-based binder. This study was designed to investigate possible deleterious reactions that could occur between the cement paste and the DUAGG. After 13 months of exposure to a cement pore solution, no deleterious expansive mineral phases were observed to form either with the DUO2 or with the simulated-basalt sintering phases. In the early stages of these exposure tests, Oak Ridge National Laboratory preliminary results confirm that the surface reactions of this aggregate proceed more slowly than expected. This finding may indicate that DUAGG/DUCRETE (depleted uranium concrete) casks could have service lives sufficient to meet the projected needs of DOE and the commercial nuclear power industry.

  14. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF6 from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory

  15. Depleted uranium weapons and international law: A precautionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. McDonald; J.K. Kleffner; B. Toebes

    2008-01-01

    This books provides an in-depth analysis of the international legal aspects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition and armour. The military use of DU has been surrounded by considerable controversy, mainly as regards the health and environmental risks that such use entails. The debate about

  16. High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.

  17. Characteristics of depleted uranium for the storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics for the hydrogen storage was investigated using depleted uranium that was the waste of nuclear fuel manufacturing. Activation process was conducted to heat the experimental vessel to 450 .deg. C under vacuum and the reaction temperature was room temperature. The absorption reaction between hydrogen and depleted uranium was very fast with rapid increasing of temperature and reached to the saturated state within 10 minutes. The ratio of hydrogen to uranium was 2.95 and the amounts of absorbed hydrogen were 3.5 liter after one hour of reaction. The experimental results of reproducibility showed the similar tendencies after third reaction. The reaction of hydrogen and deuterium showed similar tendencies and the initial reaction rate of deuterium was slower than that of hydrogen. The desorption of absorbed hydrogen started around 250 .deg. C. It was confirmed that the almost absorbed hydrogen was desorbed by heating to 450 .deg. C

  18. Depleted uranium in the environment - an issue of concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural uranium (U) occurs in soils in typical concentrations of a few parts per milion. U-238 is the most abundant isotope in natural uranium (fraction by weight in natural uranium is 99.28%) and decays into other radioactive elements. A radioactive waste product of uranium enrichment is known as 'depleted uranium' (DU) which is basically natural uranium in which the fissionable U-235 isotopic content has been reduced from 0.71% to 0.2-0.3%. It is practically pure alpha emitter, only selected (in=growth) daughter products are gammaand beta emitters. Comparison of radioactivity shows that the total activity in 1mg of natural uranium is 25.28 Bq and in1 mg of DU is 14.80 Bq. The radioactivity of DU is 60% of that of natural uranium. Currently in the USA alone, there are about 600.000 tonnes of DU in storage. DU is cheap and it is available in large quantities. It is widely used as ballast or counterbalances in ships and aircrafts, as radiation shielding and in non-nuclear civil applications requiring hugh density material. (author)

  19. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  20. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County, New Mexico. On December 30, 2009, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc. (IIFP), a...

  1. The consequences and hazards of depleted uranium weapons used by US army since gulf war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Military equipment and development of depleted uranium weapon in USA, the depleted uranium weapon used in gulf war by USA army, personnel irradiation in the gulf war, and the protection in the gulf war are introduced. The radioactivity, radioactive characteristics, chemical toxicity and hazard of the depleted uranium are also introduced

  2. Depleted uranium munitions - where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are very different views on the health hazards of DU munitions. Most of the concerns of veterans and their advisors focus on the radiological effects of DU and consequently these are the focus of this editorial. Effects on the kidney and environmental consequences are, however, considered in the second of the Royal Society reports and the main conclusions of both of the reports are outlined in the summary document published in this issue of the journal. The main radiological concerns focus on the irradiation of lung tissues from inhaled DU particles and irradiation resulting from the translocation of inhaled particles to the thoracic lymph nodes.The overwhelming scientific view, presented in the two Royal Society reports and in other independent reviews, is that the main risks of exposure to DU aerosols are an increase in lung cancer and (from chemical toxicity) damage to the kidney, although these are likely to be evident only following substantial intakes. The equivalent doses to the thoracic lymph nodes following inhalation of DU particles are about ten times greater than those to the lung, but the former tissue is considered to be relatively insensitive to radiation-induced cancers. So far, large-scale epidemiological studies of UK and US Gulf War veterans have shown no increase in mortality from cancer, or kidney disease, but these studies need to be continued to see if any significant excess mortality from these causes appears. As mentioned previously, more sensitive epidemiological studies should be possible if groups of soldiers who have known exposures to DU can be identified. Adverse reproductive effects have been observed in rodents exposed to uranium although most of these effects are evident after relatively large daily intakes of uranium. The possibility of effects on reproductive health (from DU or other toxic exposures) is being studied in both UK and US Gulf War veterans. Results from the UK epidemiological study are not yet available but

  3. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture.

  4. Is depleted uranium a threat to health and the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue has come to the fore in recent years now that Norwegian military personnel have been sent to regions of the world where ammunition made of depleted uranium has been used. A number of surveys have been conducted in the Balkans, so far indicating no health hazards to people present in these areas. However, the latest international surveys show that contamination may be long-lasting. Tonje Sekse represented the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority at the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) inspection tour to Serbia and Montenegro in the autumn of 2001. The report, entitled ''Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'' was published by UNEP in March 2002.(author)

  5. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 109 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 235U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 238U, (0.2 - 0.3) % of 235U, 0.001 % of 234U, and only traces of 234Th, 234Pa and 231Th. If traces of the isotopes 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 106 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 238U and its decay products 234Th and 234Pa which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 106 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 235U and 231Th (0.16 · 106 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  6. Processing of depleted uranium for sub-atomic particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 1000 metric tons of Depleted Uranium (DU) is being used in three advanced detectors at CERN (UA-1), Fermilab (DZero), and DESY (Zeus). Nearly all of the approximately 25,000 precision DU Sheet metal components assembled into these detectors have been produced at Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the manufacturing procedures used to make these components and offers suggestions to help reduce cost of future detectors

  7. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Population Exposure to Depleted Uranium in the Han Pijesak Region

    OpenAIRE

    Zora S. Žunić; Rodoljub Simović; Zoran Ćurguz; Olivera Čuknić; Jerzy Mietelski; Predrag Ujić; Igor Čeliković; Predrag Kolarž; Branko Predojević

    2011-01-01

    In September 1995 the Han Pijesak area of Republic of Srpska was heavily attacked by Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition. In this area, from 2003 to 2004, during one year, the components of natural ionizing radiation sources like radon, thoron, and gamma radiation were measured. In addition, during the same period, the samples of soil, moss, and lichen were collected in order to identify the content of technologically enhanced natural radionuclides in them and particularly their isotopic ratios,...

  9. Uranio impoverito: perch'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    CERN Document Server

    D'Abramo, G

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of the author of understanding the reasons of the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  10. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Depleted Uranium: Protection by Beta-Glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the toxicity of uranyl acetate (UA), a soluble salt of depleted uranium (DU). We examined the ability of the two antioxidants, beta-glucan and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), to prevent UA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using rat-isolated kidney mitochondria. Beta-glucan (150 nM) and BHT (20 nM) attenuated UA-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidat...

  11. Uranio impoverito: perch\\'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  12. Military use of depleted uranium: assessment of prolonged population exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Giannardi, C.; Dominici, D.

    2001-01-01

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposu...

  13. Depleted uranium exposure and health effects in Gulf War veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Squibb, Katherine S.; McDiarmid, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Health effects stemming from depleted uranium (DU) exposure in a cohort of Gulf War veterans who were in or on US Army vehicles hit by friendly fire involving DU munitions are being carefully monitored through the Baltimore Veterans Affairs (VA) DU Follow-Up Program initiated in 1993. DU exposure in this cohort has been directly measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) isotopic analysis for DU in urine specimens. Soldiers with embedded DU fragments continue to excr...

  14. The health effects of depleted uranium munitions: a summary

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, B.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. In response to this concern the Royal Society set up an independent, expert working group to investigate the health effects of DU munitions. The Royal Society has now produced two reports, and this summary covering the key conclusions and recommendations from both reports. The part I report considered the increased risks of radiation-induced cancer from exposures to DU...

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  16. The back-end question for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium primarily composed of the isotope uranium-238 (U-238). DU is useful because of its very high density. Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and containers used to transport radioactive materials. Military uses include defensive armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles. A review of present and future situation of DU inventories in the world points out the back-end of the depleted uranium cycle as a future important question: what are the possible destinations of the relatively large quantities of DU produced by the nuclear industry in the past and in the future? An evaluation of the alternatives for the final destination of DU is carried out: recycle and re-use, now and in the future, is one of the options. Immediate use deals with re-enrichment of part of the tails, while future uses may regard the extraction of more LEU (Low-Enriched Uranium), and the use in the fuel cycle of breeder reactors. In all these cases, the implicit store option requires a disposal option that is recoverable. Innovative civil uses of DU in perspective are described in the paper, such as for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) waste packages. This appears to be a valid alternative to the pure waste disposal option: DU has a unique chemical capability for SNF disposal applications (criticality control and suppressing SNF uranium dioxide matrix dissolution). The 'waste only' option can foresee seawater dilution (four billion tons of U in equilibrium with the ocean seabed), geological disposal (different European/U.S. requirements for heavy metals), and shallow land burial in the US (with chemical and radiological issues). (authors)

  17. Transpassive electrodissolution of depleted uranium in alkaline electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To aid in removal of oralloy from the nuclear weapons stockpile, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are decontaminating oralloy parts by electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline electrolytes composed of sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. To improve the process, electrodissolution experiments were performed with depleted uranium to understand the effects of various operating parameters. Sufficient precipitate was also produced to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the uranium oxide precipitates from the electrolyte before it enters the decontamination fixture. In preparation for the experiments, a potential-pH diagram for uranium was constructed from thermodynamic data for fully hydrated species. Electrodissolution in unstirred solutions showed that uranium dissolution forms two layers, an acidic bottom layer rich in uranium and an alkaline upper layer. Under stirred conditions results are consistent with the formation of a yellow precipitate of composition UO3·2H2O, a six electron process. Amperometric experiments showed that current efficiency remained near 100% over a wide range of electrolytes, electrolyte concentrations, pH, and stirring conditions

  18. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF6. The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed

  19. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  20. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, Marco E-mail: durante@na.infn.it; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-07-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 {mu}Sv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity.

  1. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, N.S., E-mail: nsl3@alumni.leicester.ac.uk [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.R. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-20

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 {mu}g g{sup -1}; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 {+-} 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A plot of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U against {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3235}U/{sup 238}U, (3.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -5236}U/{sup 238}U, and (7.1 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6234}U/{sup 238}U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g{sup -1} DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  2. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 μg g-1, with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 μg g-1; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 ± 40 μg g-1. A plot of 236U/238U against 235U/238U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 ± 0.06) x 10-3235U/238U, (3.2 ± 0.1) x 10-5236U/238U, and (7.1 ± 0.3) x 10-6234U/238U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g-1 DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

  3. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and health impact of DU use. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemo toxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. After deposition on the ground, resuspension takes place, if the DU containing particle size sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposure to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, bio monitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation. (author)

  4. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J.; Corbin, Rob; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2014-03-01

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time-temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal.

  5. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time–temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal

  6. Depleted uranium (DU) mobility in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 the Balkan's conflict lead NATO war planes to leave 10x103 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment of Kosovo and neighbouring states (UNEP, 2001). DU behaves in the same manner in the environment as natural uranium and it can be traced with isotopic analysis due to the fact that DU has the isotopic composition of 0.2% 235 U and 99.8% 238 U as opposed to natural uranium which has 0.7% 235 U and 99.3% 238 U. DU is a waste product of the nuclear industry which enrich nuclear fuel by 235 U. Large stock piles of DU therefore exist in countries that produce nuclear energy and/or nuclear weapons. The DU is given to the weapons industry for free (or cheap) and has been a popular choice for armour penetrating arsenal due to the high density of uranium (19 g cm-3 ) and therefore its high penetrating power. Indeed the arsenal used in Kosovo consisted of DU penetrators that were shot from A-10 aeroplanes. They weigh roughly 300 g and have the shape of a fat 9 cm long pencil. (author)

  7. The health effects of depleted uranium munitions: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. In response to this concern the Royal Society set up an independent, expert working group to investigate the health effects of DU munitions. The Royal Society has now produced two reports, and this summary covering the key conclusions and recommendations from both reports. The part I report considered the increased risks of radiation-induced cancer from exposures to DU on the battlefield. Part II dealt with the risks from the chemical toxicity of uranium, non-malignant radiation effects from DU intakes, the long-term environmental consequences of the deployment of DU munitions and responses to part I including issues arising at a public meeting to discuss the part I report. (author)

  8. Depleted uranium and radiation - induced lung cancer and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports of leukaemias and other cancers among servicemen who took part in the 1991 Gulf war or in the more recent operations in the Balkans are of continuing interest, as is the possibility, however slight, that depleted uranium (DU) is one of the causative factors. This commentary includes the results of a UK epidemiological study on the mortality of Gulf war veterans and , although not containing information on DU exposure, gives data on overall levels of mortality and therefore carries more weight than anecdotal reports. Also included are brief summaries on radiation-induced lung cancer in uranium workers as well as radiation-induced leukaemia in Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients ankylosing spondylitis treated using x-rays. This commentary concludes with a critique of Iraqi cancer statistics as well as giving information on environmental contamination in Kosovo and the use of DU ammunition. (author)

  9. Effects of depleted uranium on decomposition and soil bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soil microcosm experiment was used to analyze effects of depleted uranium on soil community function. Uranium treatment levels were 0, 50, 500, 5,000, 10,000, and 25,000 ppm. Decomposition was followed through measurement of mass loss of several different plant litter types, as well as through analysis of soil respiration. Litter types tested were lignin, cellulose, and both high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen grass. Functional diversity of soil bacteria was assessed using the BIOLOG system of sole carbon source utilization. There was a significant reduction in litter decomposition at the 25,000 ppm level versus the control for all litter types except the high-nitrogen grass. Changes in functional diversity of the soil bacterial communities were more pronounced. Changes were observed both in terms of the number of carbon sources utilized, as well as in the intensity of utilization

  10. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options)

  11. Depleted-Uranium Weapons: the Whys and Wherefores

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform present-day tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10%, and it disappears when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform DU alloys, enabling the production of ...

  12. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  13. The state of knowledge about the potential risks associated to depleted uranium used in weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brigs back the actual knowledge on uranium and its chemical and radiological toxicity. It pays particular attention to discuss the elements allowing to assess the risks linked to the man exposure to depleted uranium. (N.C.)

  14. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Panikkar Bindu; Brugge Doug; Hindin Rita

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to...

  15. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic composition was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry. There was a little deviation of U/Th ratio from the average values in some soil samples. Presence of 236U as well as depleted uranium was observed in 235U/238U ratio measurement in the same soil sample.

  16. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: evidence of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by an ion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic composition was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry. There was a little deviation of U/Th ratio from the average values in some soil samples. Presence of 236U as well as depleted uranium was observed in 235U/238U ratio measurement in the same soil sample. (author)

  17. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  18. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g-1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10-5 g-1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10-5 g-1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  19. Depleted uranium. A post-war disaster for environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the preparations for the The Hague Appeal for Peace '99 conference in the Netherlands, Laka decided to make a brochure about the use of depleted uranium in conventional weaponry and its consequences. The idea was born because of the short time reserved during the session for the presentation of all details about depleted uranium (DU). Although the word 'depleted uranium' may suggest no harmful impact from radiation, this brochure will clarify the real radiotoxic (and chemotoxic) properties of DU. Laka asked several 'insiders' to take part in the completion of the brochure. Thanks to their efforts, we have been able to present well-documented articles for activists, scientists, scholars and students to share with them valuable information about the hazardous impact of DU contamination and its consequences on human health and the environment. Taking notice of the growing military use of DU, we must consider not only the increased threats of radioactive battlefields but also the whole dirty cycle in the uranium industry connected with the DU technology and its impact on health and the environment in the surroundings of test areas and in the uranium industry itself. The contents of all the contributions are under the responsibility of the authors.The titles of the contributions are (1) Depleted uranium. A by-product of the nuclear chain; (2) Depleted uranium weapons. Lessons from the 1991 Gulf War; (3) Gulf War veterans and depleted uranium; (4) The next testing site for depleted uranium weaponry; (5) Depleted uranium. The thoughts of the first British Gulf War veteran to be tested for, and found to be poisoned with depleted uranium; (6) The health of the Iraqi people; (7) Uranium pollution from the amsterdam 1992 plane crash; and (8) an overview od organizations involved in campaigns against depleted uranium. refs

  20. Repository criticality control for 233U using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US is evaluating methods for the disposition of excess weapons-usable 233U, including disposal in a repository. Isotopic dilution studies were undertaken to determine how much depleted uranium (DU) would need to be added to the 233U to minimize the potential for nuclear criticality in a repository. Numerical evaluations were conducted to determine the nuclear equivalence of different 235U enrichments to 233U isotopically diluted with DU containing 0.2 wt% 235U. A homogeneous system of silicon dioxide, water, 233U, and DU, in which the ratio of each component was varied, was used to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. In terms of preventing nuclear criticality in a repository, there are three important limits from these calculations. 1. Criticality safe in any nonnuclear system: The required isotopic dilution to ensure criticality under all conditions, except in the presence of man-made nuclear materials (beryllium, etc.), is ≅1.0% 235U in 238U. The equivalent 233U enrichment level is 0.53 wt% 233U in DU. 2. Critically safe in natural systems: The lowest 235U enrichment found in a natural reactor at shutdown was approximately1.3%. French studies, based on the characteristics of natural uranium ore bodies, indicate that a minimum enrichment of approximately1.28% 235U is required for criticality. These data suggest that nuclear criticality from migrating uranium is not realistic unless the 235U enrichments exceed approximately1.3%, which is a result that is equivalent to 0.72% 233U in DU. 3. Criticality safety equivalent to light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF): The 233U can be diluted with DU so that the uranium criticality characteristics match SNF uranium. Whatever repository criticality controls are used for SNF can then be used for 233U. The average LWR SNF assay (after decay of plutonium isotopes to uranium isotopes) is 1.5% 235U equivalent in 238U. This is equivalent to diluting 233U to 0.81% in DU

  1. Depleted uranium in the food chain at south of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (D U) is uranium with low content of 2351) produced as a result of uranium enrichment. Du has high density (19.05 g/c m3), which is 2.54 more than Iron, so it's high penetrating power makes it preferable as emanations with high penetration power. It was used in second Gulf ware in 1991 for first time. The radioactivity of soil, plants, fruit, meat, milk and water is measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples of soil, plants and tomato fruit were selected from the tomato farms near Basra city south of Iraq and 6 control samples from other farms not contaminated with depleted uranium (Du). Also samples of meats, milk and water were collected in January 2003. Radioactivity of these samples was measured using Gamma-ray spectrograph system with high purity Germanium detector with resolution of 2.2 keV at the energy of 1332.3 keV of Co-60. The system is connected to P C Pentium 111 with PCA program. Results: The measurements show that radiation equilibrium between 234Th and 226R existed with the range between (0.86-1.16) in uncontaminated soil samples. For contaminated soil samples radiation equilibrium between 234Th and Pa-234m existed with the range between (0.928- 0.956). The mathematical equations of Kosovo team were used. Results show that the soils of two farms were contaminated with (D U). The radioactivity of 226R for plants ranging from 5.97 to 7.26 and for tomato fruits samples between 9.16 to 12.4 Bq/kg. Comparing these values with the control radioactivity which range between 6.25 to 7.34 for fruits and 13.3 to 13.9 Bq/kg for plants indicate that these samples were not contaminated with D U. Conclusion: The soil samples of two farms were contaminated with D U but the fruit of these farms was not contaminated with D U may be due to its high molecular weight and not being water soluble. The radioactivity of 226R for different kinds of meat and milk for animal grazing near destroyed tanks contaminated with

  2. Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Giannardi, C

    2001-01-01

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

  3. Military use of depleted uranium: assessment of prolonged population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by the use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code was used to evaluate the average effective dose at depths of 1, 10, 20 cm of contaminated soil, in a residential farming scenario. Critical pathways and groups are identified in soil inhalation and ingestion; critical group is identified in children playing with the soil. From the available information on DU released at targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can produce toxicological hazards. The annual dose limit for the population can be exceeded within a few years from DU deposition for soil inhalation. As a result, clean up at targeted sites must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special measures must be adopted anyway to reduce unaware exposures

  4. Exercise-book n.5: the production of depleted uranium weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several articles have been published on the subject of the use of depleted uranium. There is not a lot researches in France on this subject. The aim of this report is to fill this gap but equally to wonder about this ill-considered use of depleted uranium. (N.C.)

  5. Advanced spent-fuel waste package fill material: Depleted uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) particles has been investigated as fill material inside repository waste packages containing light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The use of DUO2 fill may eliminate repository criticality concerns, reduce radionuclide release rates from the repository, and dispose of excess depleted uranium

  6. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about ten times more than same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (author)

  7. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about then times more then same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (authors)

  8. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C Y P; Cheng, S H; Yu, K N

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. PMID:27060238

  9. Assessment of depleted uranium in South-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hossein; Najafi, Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used in a number of conflicts most notably during the Gulf War in Iraq and existence of it has been reported in Kuwait by IAEA experts. Due to heavy sand storms prevailing into the direction to South West of Iran transporting sand originating from Iraq, the probability that DU could be moved is considered high. Therefore it was decided to take some air and soil samples near border line and some nearest cities. The study was focused on finding DU in air and soil of these south-west provinces. 22 air samples and 20 soil samples were collected and analyzed on their contents of uranium isotopes by alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. The air and soil samples have been measured by use of an alpha-beta counter and by a gamma spectrometer, respectively. Results showed that there is no radiation impact from DU and so no DU has been transported via sand storms since all results were obtained below the detection limit. PMID:23792362

  10. Assessment of depleted uranium in South-Western Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used in a number of conflicts most notably during the Gulf War in Iraq and existence of it has been reported in Kuwait by IAEA experts. Due to heavy sand storms prevailing into the direction to South West of Iran transporting sand originating from Iraq, the probability that DU could be moved is considered high. Therefore it was decided to take some air and soil samples near border line and some nearest cities. The study was focused on finding DU in air and soil of these south-west provinces. 22 air samples and 20 soil samples were collected and analyzed on their contents of uranium isotopes by alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. The air and soil samples have been measured by use of an alpha-beta counter and by a gamma spectrometer, respectively. Results showed that there is no radiation impact from DU and so no DU has been transported via sand storms since all results were obtained below the detection limit. -- Highlights: • 22 Air samples and 20 soil samples have got for this study. • Soil samples were kept 21 days for Radon and its daughters decay. • All the samples were counted 60,000 s by gamma spectrometer. • Findings were compared to natural ratio of 235U/238U

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DUPOLY TO RECYCLE DEPLETED URANIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUPoly, depleted uranium (DU) powder microencapsulated in a low-density polyethylene binder, has been demonstrated as an innovative and efficient recycle product, a very durable high density material with significant commercial appeal. DUPoly was successfully prepared using uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) ''green salt'' obtained from Fluor Daniel-Fernald, a U.S. Department of Energy reprocessing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. Samples containing up to 90 wt% UF4 were produced using a single screw plastics extruder, with sample densities of up to 3.97 ± 0.08 g/cm3 measured. Compressive strength of as-prepared samples (50-90 wt% UF4 ) ranged from 1682 ± 116 psi (11.6 ± 0.8 MPa) to 3145 ± 57 psi (21.7 ± 0.4 MPa). Water immersion testing for a period of 90 days produced no visible degradation of the samples. Leach rates were low, ranging from 0.02 % (2.74 x 10-6 gm/gm/d) for 50 wt% UF4 samples to 0.72 % (7.98 x 10-5 gm/gm/d) for 90 wt% samples. Sample strength was not compromised by water immersion. DUPoly samples containing uranium trioxide (UO3), a DU reprocessing byproduct material stockpiled at the Savannah River Site, were gamma irradiated to 1 x 109 rad with no visible deterioration. Compressive strength increased significantly, however: up to 200% for samples with 90 wt% UO3. Correspondingly, percent deformation (strain) at failure was decreased for all samples. Gamma attenuation data on UO3 DUPoly samples yielded mass attenuation coefficients greater than those for lead. Neutron removal coefficients were calculated and shown to correlate well with wt% of DU. Unlike gamma attenuation, both hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous materials interact to attenuate neutrons

  12. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab

  13. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camins, I.; Shinn, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Measured and calculated fast neutron spectra in a depleted uranium and lithium hydride shielded reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, G. P.; Mueller, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of MeV neutron were made at the surface of a lithium hydride and depleted uranium shielded reactor. Four shield configurations were considered: these were assembled progressively with cylindrical shells of 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, and 3-centimeter-thick depleted uranium. Measurements were made with a NE-218 scintillation spectrometer; proton pulse height distributions were differentiated to obtain neutron spectra. Calculations were made using the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DOT and ENDF/B (version 3) cross sections. Good agreement between measured and calculated spectral shape was observed. Absolute measured and calculated fluxes were within 50 percent of one another; observed discrepancies in absolute flux may be due to cross section errors.

  15. Characterization of uranium isotopic abundances in depleted uranium metal assay standard 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certified reference material (CRM) 115, Uranium (Depleted) Metal (Uranium Assay Standard), was analyzed using a TRITON Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer to characterize the uranium isotope-amount ratios. The certified 235U/238U 'major' isotope-amount ratio of 0.0020337 (12) in CRM 115 was determined using the total evaporation (TE) and the modified total evaporation (MTE) analytical techniques. In the MTE method, the total evaporation process is interrupted on a regular basis to allow correction of background from peak tailing, internal calibration of the secondary electron multiplier detector versus the Faraday cups, peak-centering, and ion source re-focusing. For the 'minor' 234U/238U and 236U/238U isotope-amount ratio measurements using MTE, precision and accuracy comparable to conventional analyses are achieved, without compromising the quality of the 235U/238U isotope-amount ratios. Characterized values of the 234U/238U and 236U/238U isotope-amount ratios in CRM 115 are 0.000007545 (10) and 0.000032213 (84), respectively. The 233U/238U isotope-amount ratio in CRM 115 is estimated to be -9. The homogeneity of the CRM 115 materials is established through the absence of any statistically significant unit-to-unit variation in the uranium isotope-amount ratios. The measurements leading to the certification of uranium isotope-amount ratios are discussed. (author)

  16. Variations of the isotopic ratios of uranium in environmental samples containing traces of depleted uranium: theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using conventional analysis, such as γ spectrometry and a spectrometry, for the detection of traces of depleted uranium (DU) in environmental samples has been investigated. The expected values have been compared with the experimental results obtained by using mollusc samples gathered in the Adriatic Sea. The analysis has shown that it is possible to detect DU, if the percentage composition is about 20% depleted uranium and 80% natural uranium, for a sample containing 10 Bq.kg-1 of 238U. The possibility of extending this approach to samples with any given uranium concentration is investigated. (author)

  17. Simulation study for the purification of depleted uranium product in FBTR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for the purification of depleted uranium product obtained after partitioning of uranium and plutonium in the third cycle of FBTR fuel reprocessing. Uranium and plutonium were partitioned and recovered by AUC method. It is observed from the study that plutonium recovery is quantitative (100%) if Pu concentration is 0.6 g/L. (author)

  18. Effect of twinning on texture evolution of depleted uranium using a viscoplastic self-consistent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ductility and fracture toughness is a major stumbling block in using depleted uranium as a structural material. The ability to correctly model deformation of uranium can be used to create process path methods to improve its structural design ability. The textural evolution of depleted uranium was simulated using a visco-plastic self consistent model and analyzed by comparing pole figures of the simulations and experimental samples. Depleted uranium has the same structure as alpha uranium, which is an orthorhombic phase of uranium. Both deformation slip and twin systems were compared. The VPSC model was chosen to simulate this material because the model encompasses both low-symmetry materials as well as twinning in materials. This is of particular interest since depleted uranium has a high propensity for twinning, which dominates deformation and texture evolution. Simulated results were compared to experimental results to measure the validity of the model. One specific twin system, the {176}[512] twin, was of specific notice. The VPSC model was used to simulate the influence of this twin on depleted uranium and was compared with a mechanically shocked depleted uranium sample. Under high strain rate shock deformation conditions, the {176}[512] twin system appears to be a dominant deformation system. By simulating a compression process using the VPSC model with the {176}[512] twin as the dominant deformation mode, a favorable comparison could be made between the experimental and simulated textures. (authors)

  19. Oxidation experiment of metal uranium waste for the treatment of depleted uranium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted on the oxidation behavior of U-Ti chips(Depleted Uranium, DU chips) using an XRD and a thermogravimetric analyzer in the temperature range from 250 to 500 .deg. C in air. At the temperature lower than 400 .deg. C, DU chips were converted to UO2, U3O7 and U3O8 whereas at the temperature higher than 400 .deg. C, DU chips were completely converted to U3O8, the most stable form of uranium oxide. The activation energy for the oxidation of U-Ti chips is found, 44.9 kJ/mol and the oxidation rate in terms of weight gain (%) can be expressed as ; dW/dt=8.4 x 102 e(-44.9 kJ/mol /RT) wt %/min (250≤T(deg. C)≤500) where W=weight gain (%), t=time and T=temperature

  20. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the parallels may

  1. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes 238U and 235U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting inhalation

  2. Partitioning ratio of depleted uranium during a melt decontamination by arc melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the optimum operational condition for a melting decontamination, the effects of the basicity, slag type and slag composition on the distribution of depleted uranium were investigated for radioactively contaminated metallic wastes of iron-based metals such as stainless steel (SUS 304L) in a direct current graphite arc furnace. Most of the depleted uranium was easily moved into the slag from the radioactive metal waste. The partitioning ratio of the depleted uranium was influenced by the amount of added slag former and the slag basicity. The composition of the slag former used to capture contaminants such as depleted uranium during the melt decontamination process generally consists of silica (SiO2), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Furthermore, calcium fluoride (CaF2), magnesium oxide (MgO), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) were added to increase the slag fluidity and oxidative potential. The partitioning ratio of the depleted uranium was increased as the amount of slag former was increased. Up to 97% of the depleted uranium was captured between the ingot phase and the slag phase. The partitioning ratio of the uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity and composition of the slag. The optimum condition for the removal of the depleted uranium was a basicity level of about 1.5. The partitioning ratio of uranium was high, exceeding 5.5x103. The slag formers containing calcium fluoride (CaF2) and a high amount of silica proved to be more effective for a melt decontamination of stainless steel wastes contaminated with depleted uranium

  3. DUPoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogeneous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles

  4. Reproduction of a model of lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation in canine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Duan, Yun-You; He, Wen-Bo; Feng, Hua-Song; Ning, Hao-Yong; Ju-yi WEN; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Xiu-jie PAN; Zhen-shan CAO; Mao-xiang ZHU; Xu, Qin-Zhi; Ping-kun ZHOU; Xin-min DING

    2011-01-01

    Objective To reproduce a canine model of subacute lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation.Methods Twenty-six dogs were randomized into the control group(CG,n=6),low-dose group(LG,n=10).and high-dose group(HG,n=10).All of them underwent tracheal intubation.In control group,0.2ml/kg of normal saline was intratracheally given.In low dosage group,10mg/kg of depleted uranium(LG),and in high dose group 100mg/ml of depleted uranium(HG) was introduced.The survival time of animals was obser...

  5. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry; L'uranium et les armes a l'uranium appauvri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, R

    2000-07-01

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  6. Mitochondrial toxicity of depleted uranium: protection by Beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the toxicity of uranyl acetate (UA), a soluble salt of depleted uranium (DU). We examined the ability of the two antioxidants, beta-glucan and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), to prevent UA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using rat-isolated kidney mitochondria. Beta-glucan (150 nM) and BHT (20 nM) attenuated UA-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. Beta-glucan and BHT also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria. Our results show that beta-glucan and BHT prevented UA-induced mitochondrial outer membrane damage as well as release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. UA also decreased the ATP production in isolated mitochondria significantly inhibited with beta-glucan and BHT pre-treatment. Our results showed that beta-glucan may be mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and suggested this compound as a possible drug candidate for prophylaxis and treatment against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24250581

  7. Phyto remediation of Depleted Uranium from Contaminated Soil and Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was used to test the effect of ph, citric acid, phosphoric acid, and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the uptake and the translocation of depleted uranium (DU). The experiments was performed in hydroponic cultures and environmental soil samples collected from Qatar. The results of hydroponic experiment indicated that DU accumulated more in the roots than leaves, in the plants that was grown in contaminated water. The presence of phosphoric acid, citric acid, or EDTA showed different patterns of DU uptake. Higher transfer factor was observed when phosphoric acid was added. When EDTA was added, higher DU uptake was observed. The data suggested the DU was mostly retained to the root when EDTA was added. Also, the experiments were applied on environmental soil samples collected from Qatar. The presence of phosphoric acid, citric acid, or EDTA showed different patterns of DU uptake for the three different soil samples. The addition of EDTA increased the DU uptake in the sunflowers planted in the three types of soils. The results indicated that, generally, DU accumulated more in the roots compared to leaves and stems, except when soil was spiked with phosphoric acid. The translocation ratio was limited but highest ( 1.4) in the sunflower planted in soil S2705 when spiked with phosphoric acid. In the three soils tested, the result suggested higher DU translocation of sunflower with the presence of phosphoric acid.

  8. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

  9. Detection of the ultimate content of uranium of depleted ammunition in different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islamović Safija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to determine the ultimate detectable content of uranium arising from depleted uranium ammunition in different natural materials, namely, soil, gravel, wood by γ-spectrometry. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP report has confirmed following findings: (a it is not possible to detect uranium-containing ammunition by any available instrument in the soil deeper than 40 cm; (b the scintillation detector MC PHAR, due to its high sensitivity (above 80 keV, is considered to be the ideal detector for low energy γ-irradiation, which is characteristic for depleted uranium.

  10. Effects of grain size and strain rate on compressive behavior for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compressive stress-strain curves of depleted uranium with different grain sizes were obtained over a wide range of strain rates ranging from 10-3 S-1 to 103 S-1 by static compression test and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus, combined with strain frozen technique and optical micrography, the effects of grain size and strain rate on compressive behavior for depleted uranium were discussed. Results show that twinning is the dominant deformation mechanism at the early deformation stage, and the coadjustment and fragmentation of grains are the dominant mechanism when deformation continues. Twinning possess is the major contribution and has lower strength when grain size is larger. Two kinds of depleted uranium with different grain sizes has strong' strain rate sensitivity, the number of activated twining systems is smaller when the strain rate is getting higher. Finally, a special form of the Johnson-Cook model was used to describe the mechanical response for depleted uranium. (authors)

  11. Isotopic investigation of the colloidal mobility of depleted uranium in a podzolic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harguindeguy, S; Crançon, P; Pointurier, F; Potin-Gautier, M; Lespes, G

    2014-05-01

    The mobility and colloidal migration of uranium were investigated in a soil where limited amounts of anthropogenic uranium (depleted in the 235U isotope) were deposited, adding to the naturally occurring uranium. The colloidal fraction was assumed to correspond to the operational fraction between 10 kDa and 1.2 μm after (ultra)filtration. Experimental leaching tests indicate that approximately 8-15% of uranium is desorbed from the soil. Significant enrichment of the leachate in the depleted uranium (DU) content indicates that uranium from recent anthropogenic DU deposit is weakly bound to soil aggregates and more mobile than geologically occurring natural uranium (NU). Moreover, 80% of uranium in leachates was located in the colloidal fractions. Nevertheless, the percentage of DU in the colloidal and dissolved fractions suggests that NU is mainly associated with the non-mobile coarser fractions of the soil. A field investigation revealed that the calculated percentages of DU in soil and groundwater samples result in the enhanced mobility of uranium downstream from the deposit area. Colloidal uranium represents between 10% and 32% of uranium in surface water and between 68% and 90% of uranium in groundwater where physicochemical parameters are similar to those of the leachates. Finally, as observed in batch leaching tests, the colloidal fractions of groundwater contain slightly less DU than the dissolved fraction, indicating that DU is primarily associated with macromolecules in dissolved fraction. PMID:24387914

  12. Lies covered by the United Nations. Deafening silence on the depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the pressure of international agencies of humane assistance, the WHO did not present a synthesis report on the impacts of the depleted uranium used in the nuclear weapons during the Kosovo war. This paper denounces the attitude of the WHO and the United State Government and the non information of people facing the environmental and biological impacts of the depleted uranium. (A.L.B.)

  13. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO2 or U03) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250 degree C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U03 powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm3 and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm3, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U03 was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm3, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm3 (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U03 showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U02 and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U03 could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting

  14. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, C; Milodowski, A E; Baker, A C

    2014-02-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm(-2) y(-1) and 2.5-48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. PMID:24315120

  15. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT-/-) and corresponding wild-type (MT+/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT-/- or MT+/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT-/- mice significantly increased than in MT+/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT-/- mice. The apoptosis rate in MT-/- mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT-/- mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT-/- mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. PMID:26148447

  16. Ultrasonic thickness sampling plan for the depleted uranium hexafluoride program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages depleted uranium hexafluoride that is stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders located at three DOE sites. The disposition of any particular cylinder for storage, handling, and transfer is based on the condition of the cylinder, where condition is ultimately reflected by the minimum wall thickness of a cylinder. Currently, the wall thickness of a cylinder may be measured using either a hand-held ultrasonic transducers or an automated scanner. At the Portsmouth site, the cylinder program is currently committed to a sampling plan that requires sampling 10% of the cylinders moved during the cylinder relocation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present a statistically-based sampling plan to be considered for use within the three site cylinder management program. This plan is designed to meet the following objectives: (1) allow determination of the current condition of the cylinder populations within the accuracy and confidence specified by cylinder program management, and (2) be sufficient for the models to be used for modeling purposes. The first objective does not require modeling in the sense of making assumptions about the corrosion process for the populations involved. By avoiding such additional assumptions, this may result in stronger statements to be made about the populations in question. Assumptions must be made regarding corrosion of the cylinders through time. The second objective depends on the particular model used. In this report, two basic methods are used in determining sample sizes. The sample sizes are intended to be conservative because it may be that other models are developed for use within the Program

  17. Groundwater calculations for depleted uranium disposed of as uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses calculations performed to estimate the impacts on groundwater from the long-term disposal of depleted uranium in the form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) in a trench, vault, and mined cavity. The calculations were done for a deep groundwater system, typical of conditions in the western United States. They were performed for two initial inventories of UF4: 500,000 and 630,000 metric tons. Disposal was in either 30- or 50-gal drums. All of the contaminant and radioactivity concentrations at the water table are predicted to be very low, even for a fairly mobile compound. In general, concentrations after 1,000 years at the water table would be about an order of magnitude greater for disposal in a deep mine than for disposal in a trench or vault. The largest activity concentration at the water table after 1,000 years would be derived from a failed mine that releases a fairly mobile and very soluble uranium complex; it would be about 8.6 x 10-6 pCi/L for 500,000 metric tons of UF4 disposed of in 30-gal drums. The smallest activity concentrations at the water table after 1,000 years would, in general, be derived from a failed trench (1.2 x 10-9 pCi/L), if the contaminant reached the water table as schoepite. Although all the activity concentrations at the water table after 1,000 years are predicted to be small, maximum activity concentrations could still be large, even after dilution. Maximum activity concentrations of uranium would exceed 900 pCi/L for a failed disposal facility if a very soluble and mobile uranium complex formed. If the solubility of the uranium compound was small (2.4 x 10-3 g/L), the resulting activity concentrations would be small, less than 2.5 pCi/L. The estimated time for these maximum concentrations would range from 65,000 to 2,000,000 years

  18. Contamination by depleted uranium (Du) in South Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, L. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Physics and Biophysics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Todorovic, J. [Environmental And Radiation Protection Laboratory, Institute Of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Bozic, P.; Stevanovic, Z. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade, Dept. Of Pathology And Biochemistry, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The paper present the results of the study on D.U. (depleted uranium) contamination in the environment and possible effects on animal healths in the region o f Bujanovac. Samples of soil, feed, leaves, grass, lichen, moss, honey and water were collected randomly in 2003/2004 in the vicinity of the target area (500-1000 m) and 5 km from the target area. Activity of the radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 7}Be) in soils, grass, lichen, moss and honey was determined on Hp Ge detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. Total alpha and beta activity in water was determined on proportional alpha/beta counter (Canberra 2400, efficiency for alpha emitters 11%, efficiency for beta emitters 30%). Non significantly higher values of concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U were measured in the immediate vicinity of the targeted site, but {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio in soils indicated the natural origin of uranium. On both sites the contents of radionuclides in soils were in the range of values measured in soils in Belgrade (2002-2005), at the mountain Stara Planina (1999) and in the region. The soil was found to be poor in potassium. In mosses and lichen, high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 7}Be, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were found, while in leaves and grass there were lower concentrations of K, due to soil poor in K. As for uranium, there were no significant variations due to the sites, and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were close to values measured in vegetation in the vicinity of power plants 0.07-0.08. In honey, both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U were below the minimal detectable concentrations. Total alpha and total beta activities measured in water showed no significant differences between the sites, and the obtained values were in range of the permissible values for drinking water in S.M.N. (total alpha activity <0

  19. Contamination by depleted uranium (Du) in South Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper present the results of the study on D.U. (depleted uranium) contamination in the environment and possible effects on animal healths in the region o f Bujanovac. Samples of soil, feed, leaves, grass, lichen, moss, honey and water were collected randomly in 2003/2004 in the vicinity of the target area (500-1000 m) and 5 km from the target area. Activity of the radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb, 238U, 235U, 137Cs, 7Be) in soils, grass, lichen, moss and honey was determined on Hp Ge detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. Total alpha and beta activity in water was determined on proportional alpha/beta counter (Canberra 2400, efficiency for alpha emitters 11%, efficiency for beta emitters 30%). Non significantly higher values of concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 235U were measured in the immediate vicinity of the targeted site, but 235U/238U activity ratio in soils indicated the natural origin of uranium. On both sites the contents of radionuclides in soils were in the range of values measured in soils in Belgrade (2002-2005), at the mountain Stara Planina (1999) and in the region. The soil was found to be poor in potassium. In mosses and lichen, high concentrations of 137Cs, 7Be, 226Ra and 210Pb were found, while in leaves and grass there were lower concentrations of K, due to soil poor in K. As for uranium, there were no significant variations due to the sites, and 235U/238U activity ratios were close to values measured in vegetation in the vicinity of power plants 0.07-0.08. In honey, both 238U and 235U were below the minimal detectable concentrations. Total alpha and total beta activities measured in water showed no significant differences between the sites, and the obtained values were in range of the permissible values for drinking water in S.M.N. (total alpha activity <0.1 Bq/L, total beta activity <1 Bq/L) Samples of blood of cows and sheep bred in the area were collected randomly in 2003 and 2004, from

  20. Use of gamma camera for measurement of the internal contamination with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium from radioactive wastes is used for manufacturing bullets used in Iraq, Republic of Serbia and Yugoslavia. These bullets are extremely dense and capable of penetrating heavily armored vehicles. Their medical importance lies in the fact that the bullets contain seventy percent depleted uranium which creates aerosolized particles less than five microns in diameter, small enough to be inhaled, after spontaneous bullet burn at impact. Nuclear medicine scientists must be aware of this and be prepared to measure internal contamination of persons exposed to this radioactive material. Whole body counters (WBC) represent appropriate equipment for this purpose but their availability in developing countries is not sufficient. Gamma camera is an alternative. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of depleted uranium, iodine and technetium for gamma cameras was measured in this paper. Low energy X-ray 100 KeV with 20% windows are used for the depleted uranium detection. About 40% gamma emissions from depleted uranium fall within these limits. The activities measured (50-100 Bq) are about ten times higher then on WBC (5 Bq). This does not limit the use of gamma cameras for measurement of lung or whole body internal contamination with depleted uranium. (author)

  1. Depleted uranium in Kosovo: results of a survey by gamma spectrometry on soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, J; Lemmens, M; Zizi, M

    2002-10-01

    The presence of depleted uranium in the soil of former Yugoslavia after the 1999 conflict raised great public concern all over the world. The so-called Balkan-syndrome is often linked with depleted uranium contamination. An excellent compilation of data about DU and its possible impact on health and environment can be found in the 1999 UNEP report and publications from the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. Unfortunately, very few systematic and reliable data on the possible depleted uranium concentrations were until now available. Some of these rare data are only available on the web, without adequate information about the experimental procedure used. To clarify the situation, a systematic survey was started in the summer of 2000 as a collaborative effort between Ghent University (Physics Laboratory) and the Belgian Ministry of Defense (Medical Service). From 50 sites selected all over Kosovo, 150 soil samples were measured in the laboratory with a high-resolution gamma-spectrometer. Some sites (14) were explicitly selected based on military information on the use of depleted uranium munitions in the vicinity. After careful analysis we can conclude that there is no indication of any depleted uranium contamination on these 50 sites with a minimal detectable activity of 15 Bq; this corresponds approximately to 1 mg depleted uranium in a typical sample (100-150 g). PMID:12240731

  2. A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium by γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium reagent was developed by measuring and analyzing the γ-ray spectra of some reagents with no standard source. The counting rates (R) of photoelectric peaks of γ-rays from nuclides with the same radioactivity divided by their emission probability (B) are expressed as a function of γ-ray energy. The radioactivities of 234Th and 234mPa and 21.72 times that of 235U are equal to the radioactivity of 238U in natural uranium. Therefore, the plot of 21.72-fold R/B for 235U should be on a curve fitted to the points for 234Th and 234mPa in natural uranium. Depleted uranium with a 235U isotopic composition of less than 0.68% could be discriminated from natural uranium in the case of a reagent containing 4.0 g of uranium

  3. Health and environmental problems of using antiarmour munitions containing depleted uranium core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970s, core of depleted uranium commenced to be introduced into the breakthrough antitank munitions of various calibers and types in order to considerably enhance their effectiveness due to extremely high density in comparison with steel. The health and environmental threats of using this munitions and other weaponry where depleted uranium has been utilised as counterbalance stem from the pyrophoric character of uranium, burnt due to material deformation and friction when penetrating armour targets creating thus highly respirable aerosol of uranium oxides that are deposited in alveoli after being inhaled or in other tissues after being ingested. Composition and main properties of depleted uranium are presented. Chronic effects of deposited particles of uranium oxides are due to internal irradiation of sensitive organs at proceeding radioactive decay accompanied with alpha irradiation. Long-term internal irradiation by radionuclides producing alpha-rays leads to proved risk of increased incidence of carcinoma and leukaemia not to speak on chronic chemical toxicity of uranium, independent of its isotopic composition. Environmental impact of extensive use of munitions with depleted uranium in the recent armed conflicts is assessed. (authors)

  4. Environmental impacts of options for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated options for managing its depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) inventory in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (PEIS) of April 1999. Along with the impacts from other management options, the PEIS discussed the environmental impacts from the disposal of depleted uranium oxide, which could result from the chemical conversion of depleted UF6. It has been suggested that the depleted UF6 could also be converted to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) and disposed of. This report considers the potential environmental impacts from the disposal of DOE's depleted UF6 inventory after its conversion to UF4. The impacts were evaluated for the same three disposal facility options that were considered in the PEIS for uranium oxide: shallow earthen structures, belowground vaults, and mines. They were evaluated for a dry environmental setting representative of the western United States. To facilitate comparisons and future decision making, the depleted UF4 disposal analyses performed and the results presented in this report are at the same level of detail as that in the PEIS

  5. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Crean, D.E; Livens, F. R.; Sajih, M; Stennett, M. C.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.N.; Hyatt, N.C

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soil...

  6. Detection of the ultimate content of uranium of depleted ammunition in different materials

    OpenAIRE

    Islamović Safija; Selimović Renato

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the ultimate detectable content of uranium arising from depleted uranium ammunition in different natural materials, namely, soil, gravel, wood by γ-spectrometry. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report has confirmed following findings: (a) it is not possible to detect uranium-containing ammunition by any available instrument in the soil deeper than 40 cm; (b) the scintillation detector MC PHAR, due to its high sensitivity (above 80 keV), i...

  7. Transformation of human osteoblast cells to the tumorigenic phenotype by depleted uranium-uranyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A C; Blakely, W F; Livengood, D; Whittaker, T; Xu, J.; Ejnik, J W; Hamilton, M. M.; Parlette, E; John, T S; Gerstenberg, H M; Hsu, H

    1998-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a dense heavy metal used primarily in military applications. Although the health effects of occupational uranium exposure are well known, limited data exist regarding the long-term health effects of internalized DU in humans. We established an in vitro cellular model to study DU exposure. Microdosimetric assessment, determined using a Monte Carlo computer simulation based on measured intracellular and extracellular uranium levels, showed that few (0.0014%) cell nuclei...

  8. ZPR-3 Assembly 11: A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average 235U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was 235U or 239Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core 235U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark

  9. Environmental fate of depleted uranium at three sites contaminated during the balkan conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on depleted uranium fate in the sites contaminated during the 1999 war conflict in Serbia was conducted in phases until the clean up activities were completed. The ammunition remains found at the locations in the surface soil were collected in the first phase during the radiation survey of the affected areas. The most of depleted uranium penetrators left buried deep into the ground exposed to the weathering and corrosion processes. The contamination level in the air, water, soil and bio -indicators was controlled all the time by routine gamma and alpha spectrometry measurements. Depleted uranium migration was studied through the soil profile surrounding the penetrator during the 2001 at the Bratoselce location showing the contamination level fall to the 1% of its value at approximately 15 cm distance to the source. The samples taken from the soil layers at different distances in the profile are subjected to a modified Tessiers five-step sequential extraction procedure. The uranium and heavy metals contents were determined in the obtained fractions. Results have specified carbonates and iron hydrous-oxides as the most probable substrates for uranium physical/chemical associations formed in the soil for the time elapsed. A very strong dependence of substrate onto contamination level was found. The correlation of uranium and other heavy metals was obtained. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U ratios are determined in extracts by alpha spectrometry after appropriate radiochemical separation procedure and thin alpha sources electroplating. The analysis has shown the share of depleted in total uranium content in exchangeable, carbonate, hydrous or crystalline iron/manganese, organic and residue phases indicating the bioavailability of depleted uranium present in the soil. The results are discussed related to detailed geochemical analysis of the particular soil type common for this region. Depleted uranium content in soil samples taken at the locations after the cleanup

  10. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERKO VUKOTIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 234U/238U activities indicates the presence of depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup action, due to resuspension and soil disturbance in the contaminated teritory.

  11. Safeguards on the depleted uranium used in gamma ray irradiator as shield material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium used in gamma ray irradiator as the shielding material was not completely investigated and properly reported by the Atomic Energy Act until now, The IAEA required to report the status of the companies using small amount of uranium and information for 42 NDT companies was declared in 1999. And IAEA inspector visited some company to confirm their declarations. The Additional protocol proposed as the strengthened safeguards system by the IAEA, which was ratified through the national assembly on February 9, 2004, and was entered into force on February 19, 2004. The government is investigating the amount, purpose and location of depleted uranium in the area of non-nuclear use.

  12. Uranium ores and depleted uranium in the environment, with a reference to uranium in the biosphere from the Erzgebirge/Sachsen, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Erzgebirge ('Ore Mountains') area in the eastern part of Germany was a major source of uranium for Soviet nuclear programs between 1945 and 1989. During this time, the former German Democratic Republic became the third largest uranium producer in the world. The high abundance of uranium in the geological formations of the Erzgebirge are mirrored in the discovery of uranium by M. Klaproth close to Freiberg City in 1789 and the description of the so-called 'Schneeberg' disease, lung cancer caused in miners by the accumulation of the uranium decay product, radon, in the subsurfaces of shafts. Since 1991, remediation and mitigation of uranium at production facilities, rock piles and mill tailings has taken place. In parallel, efforts were initiated to assess the likely adverse effects of uranium mining to humans. The costs of these activities amount to about 6.5 109 Euro. A comparison with concentrations of depleted uranium at certain sites is given

  13. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Paducah site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Paducah site, near Paducah, Kentucky. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Paducah site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF6 inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  14. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem (±2.4) to 0.04 mrem (±0.13) and translate to less than 1 x 10-6 detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 x 10-6 detriments to about 1 x 10-3 detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site

  15. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China); Peng, Shuangqing [Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Science, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Wang, Weidong, E-mail: wwdwyl@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: yuhui_hao@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  16. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  17. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  18. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium Dust Particles: Results of a New Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is mostly composed of U-238, a naturally radioactive isotope. Concerning chemical toxicity, uranium, being a heavy metal, is known to have toxic effects on specific organs in the body, the kidneys in particular. Its effects are similar to those of other heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. Scientific evidence resulting both from in vitro and in vivo analyses shows that current models of the mechanisms of toxicity of uranium dust are not fully satisfactory. They should be refined in order to obtain more effective responses and predictions regarding health effects. In particular, radiotoxicity potential of Depleted Uranium dust originated by military use of this material for ammunition must be re-evaluated taking into account the bystander effect, the dose enhancing effect and other minor phenomena. Uranium dust has both chemical and radiological toxicity: the synergistic aspect of the two effects has to be accounted for, in order to arrive to a complete description of the phenomenon. The combination of the two different toxicities (chemical and radiological) of depleted uranium is attempted here for the first time, approaching the long-term effects of Depleted Uranium, and in particular the carcinogenetic effects. A case study (Balkan war, 1999) is discussed. (Author)

  19. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: → Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 μg/L. → Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. → DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 μg DU/L. → The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  20. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Palluel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.palluel@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.porcher@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.f [Universite de Lyon, INRA, EFPA-SA, Environmental Science Laboratory (LSE), ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 {mu}g/L. Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 {mu}g DU/L. The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  1. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments

  2. Estimating the lung burden from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU), biological samples show the presence of a synthetic mixture of natural uranium and DU. By partitioning the uranium in the 24-h urine sample along the isotopic fractions of natural uranium and DU, one can study the kinetics of these subpopulations independently. A linear model is developed to estimate the lung burden of DU from measurements of DU in 24-h urine samples, years after inhalational exposure to aerosols of DU. This model takes into account the intracellular dissolution of the retained particles and the precipitation of a significant fraction of the dissolved DU as insoluble uranyl phosphates. (authors)

  3. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, N. S.; Chenery, S.R.N.; R. R. Parrish

    2009-01-01

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960’s and ’70’s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7 – 2.1 μg g-1, with a weighted geometric mea...

  4. Measurement and analysis of fission rates in depleted uranium and depleted uranium–polyethylene shells with neutrons from D-T reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate the concept design of a novel fusion–fission hybrid energy reactor, a depleted uranium assembly and a combined assembly of uranium and polyethylene were designed and assembled based on a depleted uranium spherical shell and a polyethylene spherical shell. The distribution of the fission rates for the depleted uranium and enriched uranium in the two assemblies, as a function of the distance of the detection position to the centre, was measured using a plate fission chamber bombarded by D-T neutrons. The addition of a polyethylene shell significantly changed the neutron spectrum; in particular, the neutron fluxes with energies of 1 MeV and lower were changed. Using MCNP5 and the attached libraries, the fission rate experiments were simulated, and the experimental configuration, including the wall of the experimental hall, was described in detail in the model. The fission rate distributions for depleted uranium and enriched uranium in the two assemblies were reproducible. The difference between the calculated results with different libraries and different tallies is as small as 1.0%. By considering the neutron flux, the fission rate and the C/E values, it is concluded that the fission rates of depleted uranium and enriched uranium induced by the fast neutrons were overestimated, and it is proposed that the fission parameters of uranium for fast neutrons should be re-evaluated, or the margin of the concept design should be enlarged, to make the concept effective. (author)

  5. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Study on depleted uranium at the airplane accident in Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The El Al airplane, which crashed in the urban area Bijlmermeer in Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 4th, 1992, contained balance weights of depleted uranium. Part of the balance weights has not been found after the disaster and its not sure what happened with the lost part. One of the options is that the uranium atomized during or after the fire. To clarify this the Dutch Civil Aviation Authority (RLD) ordered the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) to study the fore-mentioned option on the basis of the following questions: (1) at which temperature will depleted uranium atomize and thus be released into the air?; (2) at which temperature will depleted uranium burn?; and (3) what is the chance that depleted uranium will atomize under the conditions as they occurred during the aircraft accident in the Bijlmermeer? The overall impression is that during the fire little if any uranium oxide has been released into the air. Because of lack of knowledge about the actual conditions, partial or complete oxidation can not be excluded with cast-iron certainty. 16 refs

  7. Energies and media nr 28. Uranium mining exploitations and residues. Uranium mines in Niger. Depleted uranium as a by-product of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (USA, China, India, UK, Sweden, Italy and France), this publication addresses the issue of uranium mining exploitations and of their residues. It comments the radioactivity in mining areas, briefly discusses the issue of low doses, describes the uranium ore and its processing, indicates which are the various residues of the mining activity (sterile uncovered tailings, non exploitable mineralized rocks, ore and residue processing, residue radioactivity, mine closing down, witnesses on health in ancient mines). Some reflections are stated about uranium mines in Niger, and about depleted uranium as a by-product of the enrichment activity

  8. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article includes a historical preface about uranium, discovery of portability of sequential fission of uranium, uranium existence, basic raw materials, secondary raw materials, uranium's physical and chemical properties, uranium extraction, nuclear fuel cycle, logistics and estimation of the amount of uranium reserves, producing countries of concentrated uranium oxides and percentage of the world's total production, civilian and military uses of uranium. The use of depleted uranium in the Gulf War, the Balkans and Iraq has caused political and environmental effects which are complex, raising problems and questions about the effects that nuclear compounds left on human health and environment.

  9. The Evaluation of Uranium-236 Isotopic Dilution with the Addition of Depleted Uranium to Supernatant Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laboratory-scale results on experiments performed to examine the feasibility of isotopic dilution of uranium-235 in supernatant liquid storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The isotopic dilution tests were accomplished by adding an alkaline depleted uranium solution to small portions of simulated and actual storage tank waste solutions with enriched U-235 compositions. Based on the laboratory observations, recommendations were made, which involved the addition of significant quantities of uranyl carbonate solution to over four million liters of U-235 enriched waste stored in Tank 43H at SRS to reduce the risk for criticality. A post-uranyl carbonate addition analysis on the tank supernate confirmed the effectiveness of depleted uranium in isotopic dilution of U-235. The U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H was isotopically diluted from an original high of over 4 wt percent down to less than 0.5 wt percent as predicted from the laboratory investigations

  10. Effects of drop testing on scale model shipping containers shielded with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three scale model shipping containers shielded with depleted uranium were dropped onto an essentially unyielding surface from various heights to determine their margins to failure. This report presents the results of a thorough posttest examination of the models to check for basic structural integrity, shielding integrity, and deformations. Because of unexpected behavior exhibited by the depleted uranium shielding, several tests were performed to further characterize its mechanical properties. Based on results of the investigations, recommendations are made for improved container design and for applying the results to full-scale containers. Even though the specimens incorporated specific design features, the results of this study are generally applicable to any container design using depleted uranium

  11. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy

  12. On problems related to the deployment of depleted uranium weapons in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely long-term environmental and health effects of the deployment of weapons containing depleted uranium (DU) in the Balkans are discussed. To determine whether depleted uranium or spent reactor fuel was used in the weapons, knowledge is required of the 235 U to 238 U activity (or concentration) ratio in the measured samples. To this end, and to distinguish between uranium originating from natural and man-made sources, we discuss some of the methodology and metrology issues involved in performing alpha- and gamma- spectrometry of uranium in environmental and human samples. We present results of nuclear spectrometry performed on DU core deposits from the aluminium jacket of a PGU-14 bullet found in South Serbia. We draw attention to aspects involving ionising radiation, which are likely to be of importance when formulating a prognosis of the possible environmental and health impact of the deployment of DU weapons, indicating the importance of the inhalation pathway in children. (author)

  13. A critical look at UNEP reports concerning depleted uranium on Yugoslav territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Marko M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical look at UNEP Reports concerning depleted uranium on Yugoslav territory is presented in this paper. The subjects of the analysis are summarized as remarks high-lighting the following three points: (a those concerning the use of terms significant and insignificant doses (risks, (b those concerning the use of 1 mSv as a border between these two risk types and (c those concerning the composition of ex pert UNEP Teams investigating the depleted uranium issue. To start with, the assumption that it should be possible to express the risks (con sequences caused by the in take of depleted uranium ( by ingestion/ inhalation and/ or external exposure to b and g rays from depleted uranium as insignificant or significant for comparison purposes is, in our view, in collision with the linear non thresh old hypothesis, still valid in the radiation protection field. Secondly, the limit of 1 mSv per year as a reference dose level between insignificant and significant risks (con sequences is not accept able in the case of military depleted uranium contamination. This is because the reference level of 1 mSv, according to the ICRP Recommendation, can be used in the optimization of radiation protection as an additional annual dose limit for members of the public solely for useful practices. Military usage of depleted uranium can not be classified as being useful for both sides - the culprit and the victim alike. Our third objection concerns the composition of ex pert UNEP teams for Kosovo (Desk Assessment Group, Scientific Reviewer Group, and UNEP Scientific Mission as not being representative enough, bearing in mind all UN member-countries. This last objection may be rather difficult to understand for any one viewing it from the perspective other than that of the victims.

  14. Biological Monitoring for Depleted Uranium Exposure in U.S. Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Carrie D.; Engelhardt, Susan M.; Squibb, Katherine S.; McDiarmid, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Background As part of an ongoing medical surveillance program for U.S. veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU), biological monitoring of urine uranium (U) concentrations is offered to any veteran of the Gulf War and those serving in more recent conflicts (post-Gulf War veterans). Objectives Since a previous report of surveillance findings in 2004, an improved methodology for determination of the isotopic ratio of U in urine (235U:238U) has been developed and allows for more definitive evalu...

  15. Assessing depleted uranium (DU) contamination of soil, plants and earthworms at UK weapons testing sites

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, I.W.; Graham, M C; Mackenzie, A. B.; Ellam, R.M.; Farmer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) weapons testing programmes have been conducted at two locations within the UK. An investigation was therefore carried out to assess the extent of any environmental contamination arising from these test programmes using both alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry techniques. Uranium isotopic signatures indicative of DU contamination were observed in soil, plant and earthworm samples collected in the immediate vicinity of test firing points and targets, but contamination...

  16. The morphologies and compositions of depleted uranium particles from an environmental case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, N. S.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; R. R. Parrish; Chenery, S.R.N.; Hainsworth, S. V.; Kemp, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Uraniferous particles from contaminated environmental samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), and microfocus extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (μEXAFS) spectroscopy. The particles of interest are uranium oxides, which were released into the environment by the combustion of scrap depleted uranium (DU) metal at a factory in Colonie, NY, USA. Most of the identified particles appear to have primary, ‘as emitted’ ...

  17. Toxicity of depleted uranium complexes is independent of p53 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Heintze, Ellie; Aguilera, Camille; Davis, Malia; Fricker, Avery; Li, Qiang; Martinez, Jesse; Matthew J. Gage

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein is one of the key checkpoints in cellular response to a variety of stress mechanisms, including exposure to various toxic metal complexes. Previous studies have demonstrated that arsenic and chromium complexes are able to activate p53, but there is a dearth of data investigating whether uranium complexes exhibit similar effects. The use of depleted uranium (DU) has increased in recent years, raising concern about DU’s potential carcinogenic effects. Previous s...

  18. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    OpenAIRE

    PERKO VUKOTIC; MILOJKO KOVACEVIC; TOMISLAV ANDJELIC; MIRJANA RADENKOVIC

    2004-01-01

    Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 2...

  19. Early results of studies on the levels of depleted uranium excreted by Balkan residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine samples collected from residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo were analysed to determine their natural and depleted uranium content using MC-ICP-MS. All may have been exposed to depleted uranium released as a consequence of the deployment of armour-piercing rounds by the US Air Force. A 236U tracer was employed to determine chemical recovery. Early results suggest that the levels of natural and depleted uranium excretion by the subjects, which ranged in age from 1 to 71 years, ranged from 2.8 - 58.2 ng d-1 and 1.3 - 46.3 ng d-1 , respectively. The results suggest accumulated body burdens of depleted uranium ranging from close to zero to 46 μg. All the body burdens predicted are lower than published values for the uranium content of the body (90μg) and health effects are not predicted. Further studies are underway to check the provenance of the results. (author)

  20. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  1. A critical look at UNEP reports concerning depleted uranium on Yugoslav territory

    OpenAIRE

    Ninković Marko M.; Glišić Ružica

    2005-01-01

    A critical look at UNEP Reports concerning depleted uranium on Yugoslav territory is presented in this paper. The subjects of the analysis are summarized as remarks high-lighting the following three points: (a) those concerning the use of terms significant and insignificant doses (risks), (b) those concerning the use of 1 mSv as a border between these two risk types and (c) those concerning the composition of ex pert UNEP Teams investigating the depleted uranium issue. To start with, the assu...

  2. Behaviour of depleted uranium as metal hydride in a storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydrides is considered a safe and modern technique. The metal hydrides offer a great opportunity for improvement of tritium processing. They allow the design of safe, compact and efficient tritium handling equipment. The paper presents our experience in developing a technology of making experimental hydride storage vessels for tritium handling and processing. The vessel, using depleted uranium as metallic matrix, was tested to determine the experimental conditions for activation, loading and desorption hydrogen. Using depleted uranium, a hydrogen/metal ratio (H/Me) of 2.9 could be achieved. The equipment was tested by successive absorption/desorption cycles. (authors)

  3. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  4. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages

  5. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  6. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation

  7. Absorption, accumulation and biological effects of depleted uranium in Peyer's patches of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestive tract is the entry route for radionuclides following the ingestion of contaminated food and/or water wells. It was recently characterized that the small intestine was the main area of uranium absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This study was designed to determine the role played by the Peyer's patches in the intestinal absorption of uranium, as well as the possible accumulation of this radionuclide in lymphoid follicles and the toxicological or pathological consequences on the Peyer's patch function subsequent to the passage and/or accumulation of uranium. Results of experiments performed in Ussing chambers indicate that the apparent permeability to uranium in the intestine was higher (10-fold) in the mucosa than in Peyer's patches ((6.21 ± 1.21 to 0.55 ± 0.35) x 10-6 cm/s, respectively), demonstrating that the small intestinal epithelium was the preferential pathway for the transmucosal passage of uranium. A quantitative analysis of uranium by ICP-MS following chronic contamination with depleted uranium during 3 or 9 months showed a preferential accumulation of uranium in Peyer's patches (1355% and 1266%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months) as compared with epithelium (890% and 747%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months). Uranium was also detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (∼5-fold after contamination with DU). The biological effects of this accumulation of depleted uranium after chronic contamination were investigated in Peyer's patches. There was no induction of the apoptosis pathway after chronic DU contamination in Peyer's patches. The results indicate no change in the cytokine expression (Il-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1) in Peyer's patches and in mesenteric lymph nodes, and no modification in the uptake of yeast cells by Peyer's patches. In conclusion, this study shows that the Peyer's patches were a site of retention for uranium following the chronic ingestion of this radionuclide, without any biological consequences of such

  8. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of 238U, 235U and 234U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of 238U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to α and β counting and the results of the α counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level, expressed in terms of Bq cm-2, by using

  9. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.; Brown, R. [Dstl Environmental Sciences Dept., Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants PO12 2DL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 234}U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of {sup 238}U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to {alpha} and {beta} counting and the results of the {alpha} counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level

  10. Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact

  11. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium....

  12. Measurements of Radioactive Contamination In Kosovo Battlefields Due to the Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons by NATO Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last war in the Balkan area (Kosovo-Serbia War, spring-summer 1999), NATO forces admitted the use of weapons containing Depleted Uranium. In particular, 30 mm bullets being fired by A-10 anti-tank aircraft and probably all Tomahawk Cruise missiles in this action contain depleted uranium

  13. Study on the effect factor of the absolute fission rates measured by depleted uranium fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute fission rates was measured by the depleted uranium fission chamber. The efficiency of the fission fragments recorded in the fission chamber was analyzed. The factor influencing absolute fission rates was studied in the experiment, including the disturbing effect between detectors and the effect of the structural material of the fission chamber, etc

  14. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikkar Bindu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to teratogenicity of depleted uranium. Results Animal studies firmly support the possibility that DU is a teratogen. While the detailed pathways by which environmental DU can be internalized and reach reproductive cells are not yet fully elucidated, again, the evidence supports plausibility. To date, human epidemiological data include case examples, disease registry records, a case-control study and prospective longitudinal studies. Discussion The two most significant challenges to establishing a causal pathway between (human parental DU exposure and the birth of offspring with defects are: i distinguishing the role of DU from that of exposure to other potential teratogens; ii documentation on the individual level of extent of parental DU exposure. Studies that use biomarkers, none yet reported, can help address the latter challenge. Thoughtful triangulation of the results of multiple studies (epidemiological and other of DU teratogenicity contributes to disentangling the roles of various potentially teratogenic parental exposures. This paper is just such an endeavor. Conclusion In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU.

  15. Actinide analysis of a depleted uranium penetrator from a 1999 target site in southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of 236U in depleted uranium (DU) ammunition used during the Balkans conflict in the 1990s, concern has been expressed about the possibility that other nuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle and, in particular, transuranium nuclides, might be present in this type of ammunition. In this paper, we report the results of uranium and plutonium analyses carried out on a depleted uranium penetrator recovered from a target site in southern Serbia. Our data show the depleted nature of the uranium and confirm the presence of trace amounts of plutonium in the penetrator. The activity concentration of 239+240Pu, at 45.4±0.7 Bq kg-1, is the highest reported to date for any penetrator recovered from the Balkans. This concentration, however, is comparable to that expected to be present naturally in uranium ores and, from a radiological perspective, would only give rise to a very small increase in dose to exposed persons compared to that from the DU itself

  16. Civilian and military uses of depleted uranium. Environmental and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium is a by-product of the process of enrichment of natural uranium and is classified as a toxic and radioactive waste; it has a very high density (approximately 19 g cm-3), a remarkable ductility and a cost low enough to be attractive for some particular technical applications. Civilian uses are essentially related to its high density, but the prevailing use is however military (production of projectiles). From the radioactive point of view, the exposure to depleted uranium can result from both external irradiation as well as internal contamination. The associated risks are however mainly of chemical-toxicological kind and the target organ is the kidney. In the present note the recent military uses and the possible effects of its environmental diffusion are discussed

  17. Determination of natural and depleted uranium in urine at the ppt level: an interlaboratory analytical exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical exercise was initiated in order to determine those analytical procedures with the capacity to measure uranium isotope ratios (238U/235U) in urine samples containing less that 1μ uranium /L urine. A host laboratory was tasked with the preparation of six sets (12 samples per set) of synthetic urine samples spiked with varying amounts of natural and depleted (0.2% 235U) uranium. The sets of samples contained total uranium in the range 25 ng U/L urine to 770 ng U/L urine, with isotope ratios (238U/235U) from 137.9 (natural uranium) to 215 (∼50% depleted uranium). Sets of samples were shipped to five testing laboratories (four Canadian and one European) for total and isotopic assay. The techniques employed in the analyses included sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS), quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). Full results were obtained from three testing labs (ICP-SF-MS, ICP-Q-MS and TIMS). Their results, plus partial results from the NAA lab, have been included in this report. Total uranium and isotope ratio results obtained from ICP-SF-MS and ICP-Q-MS were in good agreement with the host lab values. Neutron activation analysis and TIMS reported total uranium concentrations that differed from the host lab. An incomplete set of isotopic ratios was obtained from the NAA lab with some results reporting enriched uranium (%235U > 0.7). Based on the reported results, the four analytical procedures were ranked: ICP-SF-MS (1), ICP-Q-MS (2), TIMS (3) and NAA (4). (author)

  18. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30keV gallium ions or 16kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U86Ga14, (UC)70Ga30 and U81Cs9, (UC)79Cs21, respectively.

  19. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekhaus, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Teslich, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U₈₆Ga₁₄, (UC)₇₀Ga₃₀ and U₈₁Cs₉, (UC)₇₉Cs₂₁, respectively.

  20. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar; Fujimoto Kenzo; Čeliković Igor; Ujić Predrag; Žunić Zora S.

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic c...

  1. Effect of biosubstances on the depleted uranium-hydrogen peroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the chemical toxicity of depleted uranium is in the center of wide interest, because of its military use. Hamilton et al. reported the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the uranium-hydrogen peroxide system. Miller et al. reported the DNA damage by depleted uranium, suggesting a little affect of alpha-decay. The effort should be, therefore, concentrated on the study of ROS formation by DU under various conditions. In the present study, the characteristics and the mechanism of hydroxyl radical formation in the depleted uranium (DU)-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) system and the effects of anti-oxidants on the system were studied. Hydroxyl radical were produced both in UO22+ - H2O2 and UO2+ - H2O2 systems. Kinetic study of these systems indicated that the hydroxyl radical formation in the UO22+ - H2O2 system could be described as a stepwise reaction process including the reduction of UO22+ to UO2+ by H2O2 and the Fenton-type reaction of UO2+ with H2O2. Glucose and glucosamine, acting as ordinal radical scavengers in the UV-irradiated H2O2 system, indicated quite different behaviors each other in the UO22+ - H2O2 system. Amino acids and peptides little bit depressed the hydroxyl radical formation both in the UV-irradiated H2O2 and the UO22+ - H2O2 systems. These results indicated that the behavior of biosubstances in the UO22+ - H2O2 system could be explained by the direct elimination of hydroxyl radical and the coupling of UO22+ ion with these compounds. Both effects are possible to raise the chemical toxicity of depleted uranium.

  2. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo heavily shelled with depleted uranium rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Luigi A.; Frati, Luisa; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specific differences, mainly due to differences in the exposed surface area of the lichens. The uranium concentrations in lichen samples were rather similar at a site heavily shelled with DU ammunition and at a control site. Unexpectedly, the highest uranium concentrations were found at the control site. The observed U distribution can be explained by contamination of lichen thalli by soil particles. The soil geochemistry was similar at the two sampling sites. The 235U/ 238U ratios in the soil samples suggested a modest DU contribution only at the heavily shelled site. Measurements of U isotopes in lichens did not reveal DU pollution at the control site. The U isotopic ratios in lichens at the shelled site showed variable figures; only two samples were clearly contaminated by DU. There were no signs of contamination by other trace elements.

  3. Determination of average fission fraction produced by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average fission fraction of 238U caused by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume depleted uranium has been determined. The measured value of pf238U (R∞depleted)14 was 0.897 ± 0.036. Measurements were also completed for neutron flux distribution and average fission fraction of 235U isotope in depleted uranium sphere. Values of pf238U (Rdepleted) have been obtained by using a series of uranium spheres. For a sphere with Φ 600 the pf23'8U (R300depleted) is 0.823 ± 0.041, the density of depleted uranium assembly is 18.8g/cm3 and total weight of assembly is about 2.8t

  4. Cleanup of buried depleted uranium from Trench 1 at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes was conducted in the summer of 1998 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site at Trench 1. Extensive and rigorous planning, which included following the principles of the Integrated Safety Management System and enhanced work planning, was carried out to ensure that the remedial action was conducted safely. This approach relied predominantly on the involvement of workers, technical support groups and the project staff. Feedback throughout the project and incorporation of lessons learned were also essential in resolving issues in an effective and efficient manner. Because of the high levels of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls found in the drums of depleted uranium wastes, the material could not be shipped to the treatment subcontractor for recycling as originally planned. (author)

  5. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium migration offsite from an ordnance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The military utilizes ordnance loaded with depleted uranium in order to maximize armor penetrating capabilities. These weapons are tested on open ranges where the weapons are fired through a cloth target and impact into the soil. This paper examines the potential environmental impact from use of depleted uranium in an open setting. A preliminary pathway analysis was performed to examine potential routes of exposure to nonhuman species in the vicinity and ultimately to man. Generic data was used in the study to estimate the isotopic mix and weight of the ordnance. Key factors in the analysis included analyzing the physics of weapon impact on soil, chemical changes in material upon impact, and mechanisms of offsite transport (including atmospheric and overland transport). Non-standard exposure scenarios were investigated, including the possibility of offsite contaminant transport due to range grassfires. Two radiological assessment codes, MEPAS (Multi media Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) and RESRAD were used to help analyze the scenarios

  6. Shielding analysis of depleted uranium silicate filler concept for spent fuel canister designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) has been proposed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This concept suggests the use of small, depleted-uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transportation, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel. Use of this backfdl material would substantially reduce external dose rates from a waste canister, allowing a reduction of the amount of external shielding required. This paper summarizes the results of scoping studies to estimate the dose reduction from the use of DUSCOBS in a conceptual canister design, and to determine what design modifications are required to offset the increased mass of the system, while simultaneously maintaining sufficient shielding to meet external dose rate limits

  7. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144 ± 10 μg DU kg-1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 μg of DU g-1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70 ± 8 μg DU kg-1), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed

  8. Screening for depleted uranium in the United Kingdom armed forces: who wants it and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, N.; Iversen, A; Unwin, C.; Hull, L; Wessely, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depleted uranium (DU) use has been implicated in the poor health of many service personnel who have served in the Gulf and the Balkans. Although the health related risks are thought to be small the UK government has offered to set up a voluntary screening programme for service personnel. This study aimed to find out the characteristics and possible exposures to DU for those personnel who desire DU screening.

  9. Health risks following exposure to aerosols produced by the use of depleted uranium weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that recent incontrovertible evidence defines the existence of a very large error in the presently accepted model for the health consequences of exposure to low-level man-made radioactivity, and that therefore this same model which underpins the presently accepted assessment of harm from Depleted Uranium, is likely to be similarly flawed. In addressing this issue, the question is asked if Scientific Method has been properly used in the historical assessment of risk from exposure to low-level radiation, and it is suggested that it has not. In order to explain how DU may be having a serious impact on health at what is conventionally seen as low dose, the cellular and molecular basis of radiation action must be examined. Two possible mechanisms which address the particular type of radiation exposure involved with Depleted Uranium are outlined, and it is argued that these types of exposure cannot be modelled by the system of assessment of risk used by ICRP and based on the external irradiation which occurred at Hiroshima. Some evidence which supports this new model is briefly reviewed and it is shown how it applies to the Depleted Uranium controversy. Recent evidence on the dispersion of battlefield DU and its consequences is also reviewed. The structure of the lecture is as follows: 1. Background; 2. Depleted uranium: properties; 3. Errors in the ICRP low level radiation risk model (The Chernobyl Infants, Minisatellite DNA in Chernobyl children); 4. Radiation risk and Scientific Method; 5. Mechanistic considerations (Averaging dose, Cellular responses to radiation: the Burlakova dose response, The Second Event Theory, Second Events from DU particles, Energy density and risk, Beta emissions from DU, Environmental mobility of the DU particles, Conclusions on mechanism); 6. Sea coast cancer risks and resuspended hot particles; and 7. Recent evidence on DU exposure risks and response by UK government (DU, leukemia, cancer and birth defects in Iraq, DU in

  10. The Evolution of Depleted Uranium as an Environmental Risk Factor: Lessons from Other Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne E.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is used in both civilian and military applications. Civilian uses are primarily limited to ballast and counterweights in ships and aircraft with limited risk of environmental release. The very nature of the military use of DU releases DU into the environment. DU released into the environment from military use takes the form of large fragments that are chemically unchanged and dust in the form of oxides. DU dust is nearly insoluble, respirable and shows little mobility in...

  11. Benefits/impacts of utilizing depleted uranium silicate glass as backfill for spent fuel waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment has been made of the benefits and impacts which can be derived by filling a spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canister with depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass at a reactor site. Although the primary purpose of the DUS glass fill would be to enhance repository performance assessment and control criticality of geologic times, a number of benefits to the waste management system can be derived from adding the DUS glass prior to shipment from the reactor site

  12. Followup on audit of depleted uranium metal production at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 29, 1989, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Inspector General issued audit report No. DOE/IG-0277, ''Depleted Uranium Metal Production at Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio.'' The audit concluded that DOE could save about $101 million by (1) completing a program to qualify commercial vendors to produce depleted uranium metal, (2) preproducing depleted uranium for future years, and (3) cancelling planned capital expenditures for projects not required for preproduction. The purpose of the current audit was to follow up on the previous audit report recommendations to determine whether corrective actions were taken and the intended results were achieved. Management adequately addressed most of the prior audit report recommendations that resulted in cost avoidances of $119.3 million. However, all planned capital expenditures for production processes were not cancelled, and a Fernald site development plan was not completed. This was attributed to not developing an action plan to implement prior audit report recommendations. As a result, $17.5 million was spent during Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 for the purchase and installation of production equipment that will never be used for production at Fernald. Management concurred with the findings and recommendations. Details of the findings are the subject of Part II of the report. Management and auditor comments are in Part III

  13. Physicochemical characterisation of depleted uranium (DU) particles at a UK firing test range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) particles were isolated from soils at Eskmeals, UK, where DU munitions have been tested against hard targets and unfired DU buried in soils for corrosion studies. Using electron microscopy and X-ray analyses, three classes of particles were identified: (1) DU aerosols and fragments, typically 1-20 μm diameter, composed mainly of uranium as UO2 and U3O8, (2) solidified molten particles, typically 200-500 μm diameter, composed of U, mixed with Fe from target materials and (3) deposits and coatings, often of metaschoepite on sand grains up to 500 μm diameter. The first two particle types are derived from firing impacts, the last from corrosion of buried uranium metal. Alpha and mass spectrometry allowed quantitative elemental and isotopic characterisation of DU-containing particulate environmental samples.

  14. Health surveillance of personnel engaged in decontamination of depleted uranium contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the NATO actions against Serbia and Montenegro, 112 locations were highly contaminated with depleted uranium-112 locations in Kosovo, 7 in the south of Serbia and 1 in Montenegro. Contaminated regions were marked, isolated and some of them decontaminated. In this paper we present the health surveillance protocol created for personnel engaged in decontamination of contaminated regions of Pljackovica and Bratoselce. They were examined and selected before decontamination and only healthy professionals (36 and 28) were engaged. Examination included: general clinical assessment, complete blood count with differential white blood cells; biochemical analysis of blood and urine, specifically renal and liver functions tests, cytogenetic tests (chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test), and laser fluorometry of 24-h urine sample and gamma spectrometry of the same if the levels were elevated. After the decontamination in the first group no clinical or biochemical changes were found, but in 3 of 36 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations. In the second group, in 3 of 28 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations and in 3 of them laser fluorometry analysis showed elevated levels of uranium (>3 μg/l in two, and >5 μg/l in one of them). Gamma spectrometry showed that it was not depleted, but naturally occurring uranium. Additionally performed analysis showed they were from the same village which is in the zone of highly elevated uranium level in ground and water. Three months later no chromosomal changes were found. (authors)

  15. Using of Nuclear Track Detector C R-39 To Measure Depleted Uranium Concentration of Mother's Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological samples of mother's milk were collected from Iraqi southern provinces (Basrah,Messan,Al-Muthana,Thikar) and Baghdad province to measure uranium concentration of the samples by using track technique of fission fragments as a result from uranium atom fission with thermal neutrons from neutrons source 241Am-Be with activity 16Ci and neutron flux of 5000n/cm2.s on using nuclear track detector C R-39.It was found that the high percentage of depleted uranium concentration on the samples from Muthana province, which accounted as 4.183ppm therefore the samples was taken from the provinces (Thikar,Basrah,Baghdad), which was accounted the depleted uranium concentration as following (1.243,2.172,2.875)ppm respectively, with appear a small concentration percentage in the Messan province which was accounted (0.230)ppm.Although, this concentration was been on the one baby food menu from mother's milk nutrition.In this research,the concentration of some essential trace elements in human breast milk, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg,was measured in the samples was taken from the above provinces by using atomic absorption technique and the result was indicated appear change in the concentration of the elements of the samples

  16. Biological effects of embedded depleted uranium (DU). Summary of Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Persian Gulf War resulted in injuries of US Coalition personnel by fragments of depleted uranium (DU). Fragments not immediately threatening the health of the individuals were allowed to remain in place, based on long-standing treatment protocols designed for other kinds of metal shrapnel injuries. However, questions were soon raised as to whether this approach is appropriate for a metal with the unique radiological and toxicological properties of DU. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is investigating health effects of embedded fragments of DU to determine whether current surgical fragment removal policies remain appropriate for this metal. These studies employ rodents implanted with DU pellets as well as cultured human cells exposed to DU compounds. Results indicate uranium from implanted DU fragments distributed to tissues far-removed from implantation sites, including bone, kidney, muscle, and liver. Despite levels of uranium in the kidney that were nephrotoxic after acute exposure, no histological or functional kidney toxicity was observed. However, results suggest the need for further studies of long-term health impact, since DU was found to be mutagenic, and it transformed human osteoblast cells to a tumorigenic phenotype. It also altered neurophysiological parameters in rat hippocampus, crossed the placental barrier, and entered fetal tissue. This report summarizes AFRRI's depleted uranium research to date

  17. Health surveillance of personnel engaged in decontamination of depleted uranium contaminated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B. [Military Medical Academy, Radiological Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [ESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Fortuna, D.; Milenkovic, M. [NBH Military Educational Center, Krusevac, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    After the NATO actions against Serbia and Montenegro, 112 locations were highly contaminated with depleted uranium-112 locations in Kosovo, 7 in the south of Serbia and 1 in Montenegro. Contaminated regions were marked, isolated and some of them decontaminated. In this paper we present the health surveillance protocol created for personnel engaged in decontamination of contaminated regions of Pljackovica and Bratoselce. They were examined and selected before decontamination and only healthy professionals (36 and 28) were engaged. Examination included: general clinical assessment, complete blood count with differential white blood cells; biochemical analysis of blood and urine, specifically renal and liver functions tests, cytogenetic tests (chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test), and laser fluorometry of 24-h urine sample and gamma spectrometry of the same if the levels were elevated. After the decontamination in the first group no clinical or biochemical changes were found, but in 3 of 36 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations. In the second group, in 3 of 28 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations and in 3 of them laser fluorometry analysis showed elevated levels of uranium (>3 {mu}g/l in two, and >5 {mu}g/l in one of them). Gamma spectrometry showed that it was not depleted, but naturally occurring uranium. Additionally performed analysis showed they were from the same village which is in the zone of highly elevated uranium level in ground and water. Three months later no chromosomal changes were found. (authors)

  18. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  19. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  20. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  1. High prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in female breast cancer among an Iraqi population exposed to depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Dujaily, Esraa A.; Al-Janabi, Asad A; Pierscionek, Tomasz; Yasseen, Akeel A

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the rate of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) immunohistochemical overexpression in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, a region that was exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpression was correlated with common clinicopathological parameters such as age, grade, stage, tumor size and lymph node involvement to determine if any particular biomarker for exposure to depleted uranium c...

  2. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Fišter Svetlana L.; Jović Slavoljub Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 anim...

  3. Reproduction of a model of lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce a canine model of subacute lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation.Methods Twenty-six dogs were randomized into the control group(CG,n=6,low-dose group(LG,n=10.and high-dose group(HG,n=10.All of them underwent tracheal intubation.In control group,0.2ml/kg of normal saline was intratracheally given.In low dosage group,10mg/kg of depleted uranium(LG,and in high dose group 100mg/ml of depleted uranium(HG was introduced.The survival time of animals was observed in one month after intratracheal introduction of various agents,and chest CT scan was performed in the survived animals.They were sacrificed for pathological examination of lung tissues on the 31st day post of them intratracheal introduction of various agents.Results During the observation period,no animal died in CG,one dog in LG died on the 22nd day and 9 of them survived longer than 30 days.All the animals in HG group died within 30 days with a mean survival time of 11.2±8.9 days(median=12d.In comparison with the HG,significant difference on survival time was found between LG and CG,while no significant difference was found between the latter 2 groups(P=0.439.Pathologically,changes were noted in lung tissue of LG,such as escape of inflammatory cells into alveoli,hemorrhage and hyaline membrane formation in alveolar space,dilatation and congestion of alveolar capillaries,and infiltration of inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue.CT scanning revealed patchy effusion and solid consolidation in the left lung.Conclusion The canine model of subacute lung injury induced by a dose of 2mg/kg depleted uranium introduced through tracheal intubation is suitable for the study of subacute toxicity induced by depleted uranium.

  4. Efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of CBMIDA for removing uranium in rats after parenteral injections of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of oral administration of the chelating agent catechol-3, 6-bis(methyliminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA) for removing uranium from rats after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injections of depleted uranium (DU) was examined and the results with those by the i.p. injection of CBMIDA were compared. In Experiment 1, after a single i.p. injection of 8 mg kg-1 of DU of rat's body weight, 35 8-week-old male rats were divided into seven groups consisting of five rats each. Three groups were administered with CBMIDA 240, 720 or 1200 mg kg-1 of rat's body weight orally once a day, and three other groups received an i.p. injection of 240, 480 or 720 mg kg-1 CBMIDA for 3 d, starting 30 min after DU injection on the first day. One DU group received no CBMIDA. The remaining five intact rats were used as a control group. Rats were killed 6 d after DU injection. In Experiment 2, the 35 male rats that received a single i.m. injection of 8 mg kg-1 DU were divided into seven groups, and the rats of each group received the same doses of CBMIDA on the same schedules of treatment as those described in Experiment 1. The results obtained in Experiment 1 indicated that orally administered CBMIDA significantly increased the excretion of uranium at doses of 720 and 1200 mg kg-1 and decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidney, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. The lack of increases in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in serum indicated that CBMIDA is efficacious in preventing the renal dysfunction caused by uranium. In Experiment 2, oral administration of CBMIDA significantly increased uranium excretion and significantly decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidneys, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. However, these effects of CBMIDA on the i.m.-injected DU were lower than those of the i.p.-injected DU in Experiment 1. These

  5. Effects of chelating agent CBMIDA on the toxicity of depleted uranium administered subcutaneously in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the acute toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) after subcutaneous injection as a simulated wounds model, and the effects of the chelating agent catechol-3,6-bis(methyleiminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA), by local treatment in rats. First, to examine the initial behavior and toxicity of uranium of different chemical forms, male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 4 and 16 mg/kg DU (pH 1) in a solution of pH 1 and 7, respectively, and were killed 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours later. After the injection of DU(pH1), about 60 % of the uranium was retained for first 1-3 hours at the injected sites, and then decreased to 16% at 24 hours in the 4 mg/kg DU group; however, the uranium did not change significantly in the 16 mg/kg DU group. Urinary excretion rates of uranium increased in a time-independent manner after the injection. Depositions of uranium in the liver, kidneys and femur were found at 1 hour after DU injection, with significant increases in serum and urinary biochemical markers indicating acute and severe damage. The results of the DU (pH 7) injection were useful for estimating the toxicity of uranium by the chemical changes in the body. Second, CBMIDA (480mg/kg) was infused into the DU-injected site at 0, 10, 30, 60 min and 24 hours after the subcutaneous injection of 4 mg/kg DU (pH 1 and 7). When CBMIDA was administered within 120 min after DU (pH 1) injection, the uranium at the injected sites decreased to 4-17% of that in the no-treatment DU (pH 1) group, and was excreted effectively in the urine and feces, with decreased levels in the kidneys and femur. The results indicated that the subcutaneously injected uranium acutely induced severe damage in the DU-injected sites and organs after DU intake, relating to chemical forms of uranium by pH and that local treatment of CBMIDA was effective in decreasing the acute toxicity of uranium if carried out as early as possible (at least within 2 hours) after DU administration. (author)

  6. Study on decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison with some flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison of flavonoids, the decorporation effect of flavonoids with catechol group, chelating agent of catechols amino carboxylic acid type (8102) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were studied under DU exposure and Wistar rats as animal model. In 3d later after injecting DU with dose of 20 mg/kg and then injecting flavonoids with dose of 10 mg/kg in abdomen, the mortality, uranium contents, kidney function and pathological observation of kidney were investigated. It has been found that nearly 20% mortality occurs both in the T2 and in T1 groups meanwhile 30% mortality occurs in the control group. But death has not been observed in 8102 group. The concentration of excreted urine uranium increases and the level of serum uranium decreases when T2 used. The retention of uranium in kidney with T2 group also increases. Large reducing of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum has been observed in 8102 and F1 groups, and reducing of creatinine has also been observed in F2, T1 and T2 groups. The serious injury of kidney has not been observed in T2 group. The protection efficiency can be listed as T2> 8102>T1>F1>QU. It has been revealed that flavonoid T2 is the most effective protector from the damage and poison of DU. (authors)

  7. Contamination with radionuclides and depleted uranium as a result of NATO aggression against Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It appears that the amount of depleted uranium (DU) is approaching 106 tons at world level. Depleted uranium is a by-product in uranium enrichment process. As such, and at the same time being low radioactive, DU has legal status of low-level radioactive waste. On the other hand, DU is natural present in nature. This is the reason why many claim that it cannot produce major damage if discharged in the environment and that it can be used for ammunition construction material. To regret, DU due to its remarkable physical and mechanical properties has been widely used for the military purposes only. Nowadays many armies have it as a part of standard ammunition stock. To much less extend, it has been used as a shield for various types of armored vehicles. So far, DU has been extensively used on a large scale at several locations on the globe. The most important ones are the test area in Mohave Desert, USA, Gulf War, Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and most recently NATO aggression on Yugoslavia. As a result of extensive DU use, there are many pro and contras regarding DU harmful effects on the environment and life in general. On the subject expert opinion strongly disagree, while public opinion is very much against its use, in particular for military purpose.From the existing experience on the DU impact on the life and environment it is evident that DU can create harmful effects. So far, humans were of prime importance and most of the observations, results and discussions refer to humans, but also there is a growing concern for the biota in general. This paper summarizes some of the known facts regarding depleted uranium, its use as a material for ammunition manufacturing and possible harmful affects in connection with it. Paper also suggests some of the measures that could be considered to follow and remedy the current DU contamination of Kosovo and Metohija, and some other spots in FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  8. Calculation of depleted uranium concentration in dental fillings samples using the nuclear track detector CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of depleted uranium in dental fillings samples, which were obtained some hospital and dental office, sale of materials deployed in Iraq. 8 samples were examined from two different fillings and lead-filling (amalgam) and composite filling (plastic). concentrations of depleted uranium were determined in these samples using a nuclear track detector CR-39 through the recording of the tracks left by of fragments of fission resulting from the reaction 238U (n, f). The samples are bombarded by neutrons emitted from the neutron source (241Am-Be) with flux of ( 105 n. cm-2. s-1). The period of etching to show the track of fission fragments is 5 hours using NaOH solution with normalization (6.25N), and temperature (60 oC). Concentration of depleted uranium were calculated by comparison with standard samples. The result that obtained showed that the value of the weighted average for concentration of uranium in the samples fillings (5.54± 1.05) ppm lead to thr filling (amalgam) and (5.33±0.6) ppm of the filling composite (plastic). The hazard- index, the absorbed dose and the effective dose for these concentration were determined. The obtained results of the effective dose for each of the surface of the bone and skin (as the areas most affected by this compensation industrial) is (0.56 mSv / y) for the batting lead (amalgam) and (0.54 mSv / y) for the filling composite (plastic). From the results of study it was that the highest rate is the effective dose to a specimen amalgam filling (0.68 mSv / y) which is less than the allowable limit for exposure of the general people set the World Health Organization (WHO), a (1 mSv / y). (Author)

  9. In Vitro Immune Toxicity of Depleted Uranium: Effects on Murine Macrophages, CD4+ T Cells, and Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Bin; Fleming, James T.; Schultz, Terry W.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process and shares chemical properties with natural and enriched uranium. To investigate the toxic effects of environmental DU exposure on the immune system, we examined the influences of DU (in the form of uranyl nitrate) on viability and immune function as well as cytokine gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages and splenic CD4+ T cells. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells were exposed to various concentrations of DU, and cel...

  10. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion

  11. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources. PMID:27002520

  12. Optimal configuration of power distribution of a research reactors by depleted uranium use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor project requires that the thermal power density distribution be as uniform as possible in order to minimize temperature peaks which limit the total power. This work describes the calculations aimed at determining an optimized distribution of depleted uranium in a graphite-moderated, air cooled cylindrical core loaded with natural uranium. Cross section calculations were performed with the Hammer code while 3D flux and power distributions were generated with the CITATION code. It has been found that the use of depleted uranium renders a more uniform flux and power distribution. The effect, which results from a decrease in the power density (and consequently, also in the temperature) in the hottest channels, allows the overall power to be further raised within the safety limits. In addition, the proposed method also provides a means to arbitrarily reduce the excess reactivity when necessary. Finally, it also leads to the creation of an over moderated region with higher thermal neutron fluxes which could be used for irradiation experiments. (author)

  13. Improvement of the laboratory model that simulates the migration of depleted uranium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve the migration model of depleted uranium and confirm the reliability of the laboratory model. Methods: The improved laboratory model of DU migrating in soils has been set up. Method of stratified sampling has been adopted. The uranium element content and 235U/238U were determined by ICP-MS and the depths of DU migration identified. Results: The depth of DU migration was 9 cm ∼ 11 cm, 25 cm ∼ 29 cm, and 35 cm or more, corresponding to the rain pH of 5.6, 4.0, and 3.0 respectively. The depth of DU migration in Chinese experiment module of DU, French DU testing field, battle ground in Kosovo was Over 25 cm, 30 cm and 10 cm-20 cm. Conclusion: Acid rain has promoted the migration of depleted uranium. The migration depths in experiments coincide with the depth measured on the spots polluted by DU, which illustrates the laboratory model has been designed successfully in the main. (authors)

  14. Radioecological survey at selected sites hit by depleted uranium ammunitions during the 1999 Kosovo conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, Umberto; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Gaudino, Stefania; Jia, Guogang; Ocone, Rita; Pati, Alessandra; Rosamilia, Silvia; Stellato, Luisa [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Via V. Brancati, 48-00144, Rome (Italy); Roberto Danesi, Pier; Campbell, Michael [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2001-12-17

    A field study, organised, coordinated and conducted under the responsibility of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), took place in Kosovo in November 2000 to evaluate the level of depleted uranium (DU) released into the environment by the use of DU ammunition during the 1999 conflict. Representatives of six different scientific organisations took part in the mission and a total of approximately 350 samples were collected. During this field mission, the Italian National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) collected water, soil, lichen and tree bark samples from different sites. The samples were analysed by {alpha}-spectroscopy and in some cases by inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The 234U/238U and 235U/238U activity concentration ratios were used to distinguish natural from anthropogenic uranium. This paper reports the results obtained on these samples. All water samples had very low concentrations of uranium (much below the average concentration of drinking water in Europe). The surface soil samples showed a very large variability in uranium activity concentration, namely from 20 Bq kg{sup -1} (environmental natural uranium) to 2.3x10{sup 5} Bq kg{sup -1} (18000 mg kg{sup -1} of depleted uranium), with concentrations above environmental levels always due to DU. The uranium isotope measurements refer to soil samples collected at places where DU ammunition had been fired; this variability indicates that the impact of DU ammunitions is very site-specific, reflecting both the physical conditions at the time of the impact of the DU ammunition and any physical and chemical alteration which occurred since then. The results on tree barks and lichens indicated the presence of DU in all cases, showing their usefulness as sensitive qualitative bio-indicators for the presence of DU dusts or aerosols formed at the time the DU ammunition had hit a hard target. This result is particularly interesting considering that at some sites

  15. Natural and depleted uranium in the topsoil of Qatar: Is it something to worry about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scientific studies on Uranium in the arid environment are almost absent. • Qatar is closed to Iraq and Iran where the two countries were exposed to long wars. • The paper introduces baseline study integrates chemistry, instrumentation and GIS mapping. • The study opens new horizons for similar studies on the field using similar approach. - Abstract: This study examines uranium in soils of Qatar to investigate whether there is any detectable traces of depleted uranium (DU). 409 soil samples were collected using a 10 km grid system throughout the State of Qatar. The U concentrations and isotopic compositions (235U/238U) were determined using an ICP-MS. The U concentrations range from 0.05 to 4.7 mg/kg and the 235U/238U isotopic signatures are in the range 0.007–0.008, i.e. comparable to the isotopic ratio in natural uranium (NU). The distribution of these concentrations in the topsoil were used to see correlations with locations of pollution point sources and environmentally hot areas associated with human activity: industrial estates, solid waste dumping sites, wastewater treatment plants, sea harbors, airports, and public transport network. New thematic maps were built using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The results showed that there is no linkage between the occurrence, distribution, concentrations and isotopic ratios of U and these hotspots. More importantly, due to the low concentration of organic matter (OM) in soils of Qatar, very limited P-fertilization, the alkaline nature of soil (pH 8) and low Fe/Mn contents make soil uranium concentrations very low. The residential areas, including the capital Doha, had the lowest total concentrations of uranium and isotopic ratios of the country while the northern and western parts showed the highest values

  16. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and recently as the Balkan Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and the health impact of the use of DU. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemotoxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to the low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha-radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. Depending on aerosol speciation, inhalation may lead to a protracted exposure of the lung and other organs. After deposition on the ground, resuspension can take place if the DU containing particle size is sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposures to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, biomonitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. Urine, feces, hair and nails record recent exposures to DU. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation

  17. The use of ammunition containing depleted uranium in NATO aggression against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, among the proofs that NATO forces, during their aggression against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, used the ammunition with depleted uranium (DU) are cited the following: Live 30 mm API PGU-14/B rounds and their fragments found and soil contaminated by uranium-238 registered at locations in the regions where NATO acted by A-10 aircraft. Main data for the ammunition with DU found are given. Experience gained from the radiological inspection of the contaminated areas is presented. From consultations with the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences U-238 activity of 200 Bq/kg was established as the permissible level of contamination in these contaminated regions. The characteristics of the regions, with the maximum radioactivity registered 230 to 1100 times higher than permitted at the one of them, are practically invariable. Therefore, the evidence of DU ammunition usage by NATO is verifiable. Also, methods for measuring DU ammunition fragments radioactivity, contamination level of samples and uranium - 238 radioactive decay characteristics, provide reproducibility of radiological inspection and sample analysis and reliability of the measured values and their examination by any qualified institution or organisation. Chemical activity of uranium oxides implies that environmental contamination is to be expected in the neighbourhood countries as well. (author)

  18. Effects of depleted uranium on oxidative stress, detoxification, and defence parameters of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the by-product of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to oxidative stress, detoxification, and the defence system in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Several parameters were recorded: phenoloxidase-like (PO) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and 7-ethoxyresrufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Experiments were performed on adult and larvae D. rerio. Adult fish were exposed for 28 days at 20 μg U/L followed by a 27-day depuration period. Eggs of D. rerio were exposed for 4 days at 0, 20, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg U/L. Results showed that DU increased ROS production both in adult and in larvae even at the low concentrations tested and even during the depuration period for adult D. rerio. DU also modified PO-like activity, both in the D. rerio adult and larvae experiments, but in a more transient manner. EROD activity was not modified by DU, but sex effects were shown. Results are discussed by way of comparison with other known effects of uranium in fish. Overall, these results show that the mechanisms of action of DU in fish tend to be similar to the ones existing for mammals. These results encourage the development and use of innate immune biomarkers to understand the effects of uranium and, more generally, radionuclides on the fish immune system. PMID:23052361

  19. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both nominal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structure materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describesa two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature. The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracmm resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as win be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term ''structural credit'' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.)

  20. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH4HCO3. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH4HCO3 and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents

  1. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

  2. The use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO aggression against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that DU (depleted uranium) weaponry was extensively used during the 'Desert Storm' operation in Iraq. There is no doubt that NATO used DU ammunition in Bosnia in 1994 and 1995. It is also common knowledge that many NATO armies are equipped with DU ammunition in various calibers (from 20 up to 155 mm) as a standard part of certain weapon systems. These facts, as a result of literature research, as well as Yugoslav Army (YA) intelligence data on the eve of the aggression clearly showed that NATO most probably would use DU ammunition. (author)

  3. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, T E

    1999-01-01

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

  4. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    OpenAIRE

    Liolios, Theodore E.

    1999-01-01

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern due to the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study some worst-case scenaria are assumed in order to assess the risk for Yugoslavia and its neighboring countries . The risk is proved to be negligible for the neighboring countries while for Yugoslavia itself evidence is given that any increase in total long-term cancer mortality will be so low that it will ...

  5. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  6. Use of lanthanum bromide detectors to augment site surveys for depleted uranium - 59169

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of systems have now been described for use in surveying sites for anthropogenic radiological contamination. Virtually all of these include use of sodium iodide detectors and register detection data with global positioning satellite data. This paper demonstrates how lanthanum bromide detectors can be used to augment existing field surveys in a manner to reduce uncertainty in areas of low count rates and to discriminate between depleted uranium and naturally occurring uranium. The survey system described is equipped with large (20 x 20 x 100 cm) sodium iodide (Alpha Spectra) and 7.5 x 7.5 cm lanthanum bromide (Saint Gobain) detectors. Additional radiological detection equipment (DigiBase) was obtained from ORTEC with survey data collected in the List Mode. Data collected in surveys were then used to generate digital maps using GeoSoft's Oasis Montaj. Software has been developed to automatically identify areas of increased count rates using user-defined thresholds. This software can collect the count data for the masked area and generate a composite spectrum that can be compared to a reference spectrum believed to represent an uncontaminated area. Ratios of counts attributed to protactinium-234m (Pa-234m) are compared to counts attributed to Bismuth-214 (Bi- 214) for both the composite filed survey spectrum and the reference spectrum. Soil samples have been collected from selected sites over a range of soil and geology types for the purpose of collecting data comparing high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and lanthanum bromide (LaBr) detector spectra. These samples have come from areas believed to be devoid of depleted uranium contamination and from areas expected to have higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium. A library of HPGe and LaBr spectra have been collected comparing: (1) background soil samples with, (2) spectra from the same samples that have been doped with half the remediation threshold activity of depleted uranium, and (3) the

  7. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes (234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238U/235U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238U/235U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234U/238U ratio was 6.5 x 10-5±5.7 x 10-6. The 236U/238U ratio was l.7 x 10-7±1.9 x 10

  8. Depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) management system--a decision tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Management System (DMS) is being developed as a decision tool to provide cost and risk data for evaluation of short-and long-term management strategies for depleted uranium. It can be used to assist decision makers on a programmatic or site-specific level. Currently, the DMS allows evaluation of near-term cylinder management strategies such as storage yard improvements, cylinder restocking, and reconditioning. The DMS has been designed to provide the user with maximum flexibility for modifying data and impact factors (e.g., unit costs and risk factors). Sensitivity analysis can be performed on all key parameters such as cylinder corrosion rate, inspection frequency, and impact factors. Analysis may be conducted on a system-wide, site, or yard basis. The costs and risks from different scenarios may be compared in graphic or tabular format. Ongoing development of the DMS will allow similar evaluation of long-term management strategies such as conversion to other chemical forms. The DMS is a Microsoft Windows 3.1 based, stand-alone computer application. It can be operated on a 486 or faster computer with VGA, 4 MB of RAM, and 10 MB of disk space

  9. Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarap, Nataša B; Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Nikolić, Jelena D; Kovačević, Milojko S

    2014-06-01

    In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Pljačkovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

  10. Examination of the health status of populations from depleted-uranium-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the NATO air strikes on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in 1999, depleted-uranium ammunition was used on 112 locations, mainly Kosovo, in the south of Serbia, and one location in Montenegro. Blood samples of residents from depleted-uranium-contaminated areas were gathered and blood cell and chromosomal aberrations were analyzed. During the last 3 years blood samples from 21 residents of Kosovo (Strpce), from 29 residents from the south of Serbia (the Vranje and Bujanovac regions), and from 19 technical television workers from the site of Pljackovica, in the vicinity of Vranje, were collected. Blood samples from 33 residents of central Serbia and 46 occupational workers exposed to X-rays were used as controls. All subjects studied were without any clinical symptoms of disease. The examinations included general clinical assessment; urine samples for α-and γ-spectrometry analysis; complete blood counts; ratio-percentages of blood cells in stained (Giemsa) capillary smears, individual leukocyte line elements; morphological changes observed under a microscope; the presence of immature forms or blasts; and leukocyte enzyme activity [alkaline phosphatase leukocyte (APL)]. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in 200 peripheral blood lymphocytes in mitosis. An increased incidence of rogue cells and chromosomal aberrations was found in the blood of the residents of Vranje and Bujanovac, but this was below the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing irradiation. Blast cells were not found. Blood counts were decreased in only a few samples, while morphological changes of both nuclei and cytoplasm were marked in individuals in south and central Serbia. Enzymatic activity (as measured by the APL score) was decreased in samples with chromosomal aberrations and cyto-morphological changes in subjects from the south of Serbia. The contamination level measured by this examination was low. Because of

  11. Results of the analysis of the intercomparison samples of the depleted uranium dioxide SR-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of a homogeneous powder of depleted uranium dioxide, SR-30, were distributed to 38 laboratories in December 1980 for intercomparison of the precisions and accuracies of wet chemical assay. 16 laboratories reported their results. 12 laboratories applied titration procedures, 11 of them methods derived from the Davies and Gray procedure, 1 laboratory used controlled potential coulometry, 1 laboratory used fluorimetry, 1 laboratory U-232 spiking/alpha-spectrometry. One laboratory did not indicate the method applied. An analysis of variance yields for each laboratory the estimates of the measurement errors, the dissolution or treatment errors and the random calibration errors. The measurement errors vary between 0.01% and 3.41% relative. The differences to the reference value vary between -5.29% and +6.49% uranium, but 13 laboratories agree within +/-1% uranium with the reference value. The mean bias of these 13 laboratories is equal to +0.201% U. The standard deviation of the biases of these 13 laboratories is equal to 0.361% U. (author)

  12. Repository Criticality Control with Depleted-Uranium-Dioxide Cermet Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that the structural components and internal basket structures of waste packages (WPs) be constructed of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermets. The cermet contains 2 DUO2 imbedded in a steel matrix. The WPs are filled with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and placed 2 in a geological repository. The WP provides a handling container for placement of SNF in the repository and is an engineered barrier to delay SNF degradation and subsequent release of radionuclides. SNF and other fissile wastes contain enriched uranium and transuranic fissile isotopes; thus, the potential for nuclear criticality exists. Most of the transuranic fissile isotopes, such as 239Pu, will have decayed to 233U or 235U before significant fissile-isotope migration from the degraded SNF or other fissile waste forms has occurred. Consequently, post-closure repository criticality issues are primarily from the fissile isotopes of uranium. As the WP degrades, the 238U in the DUO2-steel cermet would mix with the degrading SNF and isotopically dilute 233U and 235U to levels that would ensure that post-closure criticality would not occur

  13. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. PMID:23998894

  14. Neutron spectra in thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-loaded light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical feasibility of using plutonium mixed with natural uranium in one-third of the cores of light water reactors (LWRs) has been sufficiently demonstrated. A number of reactors in Europe are currently operated with one-third mixed-oxide cores. If the option of burning excess plutonium in conventional LWR reactors in this country is selected, it has been estimated that the long-term disposition of the excess plutonium would take many decades. This time can be significantly reduced if the plutonium is burned in a fast breeder reactor. However, in the present economic and political climate, such an approach is difficult to implement. On the other hand, if the neutron spectrum in an LWR core is hardened, the well-developed and well-understood LWR can accomplish the goal of effectively burning excess plutonium to convert to proliferation-resistive fuel such as 233U. The authors present some fundamental characteristics of thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-fueled LWRs. High fuel burnup levels can be achieved by tightening the lattice of an LWR loaded with thorium and depleted uranium and plutonium (nitride or oxide) and increasing the plutonium content. The neutron spectrum in such a reactor is very hard and tends to approach that of a Na-cooled fast reactor. Instead of Zircaloy, stainless steel can be used as fuel cladding and structural material since it has a low fast neutron capture cross section. Supercritical steam, generated at high pressures, can be used as coolant. If the cladding and structural materials used in this reactor can withstand corrosion in water under high-irradiation conditions, high conversion ratios of thermal heat to electricity will be possible

  15. The state of knowledge about the potential risks associated to depleted uranium used in weapons; Etat des connaissances sur les risques potentiels associes a l'uranium appauvri utilise dans les armes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This document brigs back the actual knowledge on uranium and its chemical and radiological toxicity. It pays particular attention to discuss the elements allowing to assess the risks linked to the man exposure to depleted uranium. (N.C.)

  16. Search for the truth about the NATO use of depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia - truth under the DU carpet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having produced thousands atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs USA and other members of NATO possess large amount of nuclear waste, which also includes depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is natural uranium out of which 0.5% of Uranium-235 isotope is removed to be used for atomic bombs and nuclear fuel. Produced in this way, 'depleted uranium' is still highly radioactive. In one kilogram of such uranium 25 million radioactive decays take place in one second. During the NATO war against Yugoslavia in 1999 their planes A-10 fired the shells containing 272 grams of depleted uranium as they did previously in the Gulf war with Iraq and in 1995 against the Serbs in former Bosnia and Herzegovina. The effects of this 'dirty weapon', forbidden by international conventions, have been already known as disastrous, causing not only human but ecological consequences as well. That is why depleted uranium got the name: metal of dishonor. After long denial, on May the 3rd American General Chuck Weld has confessed that NATO aviation is using ammunition with depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia in Kosovo and Metohija. Number of the locations under the fire of depleted uranium after the war was rising with time. At the beginning NATO information contained small number of such 'targets', 20-30. When the soldiers of the UN peacekeeping forces at Kosovo became ill, NATO was forced to reveal the new data of the used depleted uranium. In their report from January 24, 2001 (Updated on February 8 same year) they claim that 112 locations in Kosovo and Montenegro were exposed to depleted uranium rounds fired from the guns GAU-8 of A-10 planes. According to this report one can estimate the use of about 9 tons of depleted uranium. Our careful analysis points to many mistakes, lack of data, misleading conclusions and contradictions. At least 115 locations were contaminated by depleted uranium. The minimal number of rounds could be close to 43,300, e.g. minimum 12 tons of depleted uranium

  17. Determination of depleted uranium in environmental samples by gamma-spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of depleted uranium (DU) in military operations causes the contamination of the target area due to DU dispersion in the environment. Since the isotopic abundance of uranium in DU is different than that in nature, the only evidence of DU contamination is the disruption of the natural isotopic abundance of 238U and 235U. For the investigation of the existence of such a disruption, the accurate determination of 235U and 238U is necessary. The Nuclear Engineering Section of the National Technical University of Athens (NES-NTUA) uses high-resolution LEGe detectors and especially developed gamma spectroscopic analysis techniques for the determination of 238U, and 235U and subsequently for the isotopic abundance of the uranium isotopes in the sample. 235U is determined from the analysis of the multiplet photopeak at 186 keV. DU may be detected with this technique provided that the 238U activity of the DU is higher than ∼20% of that of 238U in the natural uranium of the sample. The analyses of surface soil samples collected well before the dispersion of depleted uranium in Kosovo by NES-NTUA, made evident that Kosovo is an area of high natural background, with a pronounced surface soil variation in natural uranium content, and 238U activity reaching values as high as 330 Bqkg-1 . It was also observed that disturbance of radioactive equilibrium among the nuclides of the uranium series is quite often observed due to leaching and weathering, with the ratio of the activities of 238U and 226 Ra ranging from 0.17 to 5.5. After the military operations in Kosovo, surface soil and vegetation samples as well as DU penetrators were analysed in NES-NTUA. Among the soil samples analysed we found that some of those collected around a DU penetrator crater were contaminated by DU, with 238U activity exceeding 2 kBqkg-1 , and ratio of 238U/226 Ra exceeding the value of 10. In these soil samples, the natural isotopic abundance of the uranium isotopes was significantly disrupted

  18. Effects of depleted uranium on the health and survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gould, W.R.; Fresquez, P.R.; Finger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used as a substitute for the fissionable enriched uranium component of atomic weapons tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (Los Alamos, NM, USA) since the early 1950s, resulting in considerable concentrations of DU in the soils within the test sites. Although the movement of DU into major aquatic systems has been shown to be minimal, there are many small-order ephemeral streams and areas of standing water in canyons throughout LANL that may be affected by inputs of DU via runoff, erosion, and leaching. Ninety-six-hour acute and 7-d chronic toxicity assays were conducted to measure the toxicity of DU on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. A 14-d water-only assay was conducted to measure survival and growth of Hyalella azteca. The estimated median lethal concentration (LC50) to produce 50% mortality of the test population for the 96-h Ceriodaphnia dubia assay was 10.50 mg/L. Reproductive effects occurred at a lowest-observable-effect concentration ???3.91 mg/L with a no-observable-effect concentration of 1.97 mg/L. The estimated 14-d LC50 for the Hyalella azteca assay was 1.52 mg/L No significant relationship was detected between growth and DU concentrations. Concentrations at which toxicity effects were observed in this study for both invertebrates exceeded concentrations of total uranium observed in runoff from LANL lands. Thus, it is likely that current runoff levels of uranium do not pose a threat to these types of aquatic invertebrates.

  19. Environmental and health consequences of depleted uranium use in the 1991 Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, Henryk; Bou-Rabee, Firyal

    2004-03-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the 235U radionuclide enrichment processes for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. DU in the metallic form has high density and hardness as well as pyrophoric properties, which makes it superior to the classical tungsten armour-piercing munitions. Military use of DU has been recently a subject of considerable concern, not only to radioecologists but also public opinion in terms of possible health hazards arising from its radioactivity and chemical toxicity. In this review, the results of uranium content measurements in different environmental samples performed by authors in Kuwait after Gulf War are presented with discussion concerning possible environmental and health effects for the local population. It was found that uranium concentration in the surface soil samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 microg g(-1) with an average value of 1.1 microg g(-1), much lower than world average value of 2.8 microg g(-1). The solid fallout samples showed similar concentrations varied from 0.3 to 1.7 microg g(-1) (average 1.47 microg g(-1)). Only the average concentration of U in solid particulate matter in surface air equal to 0.24 ng g(-1) was higher than the usually observed values of approximately 0.1 ng g(-1) but it was caused by the high dust concentration in the air in that region. Calculated on the basis of these measurements, the exposure to uranium for the Kuwait and southern Iraq population does not differ from the world average estimation. Therefore, the widely spread information in newspapers and Internet (see for example: [CADU NEWS, 2003. http://www.cadu.org.uk/news/index.htm (3-13)]) concerning dramatic health deterioration for Iraqi citizens should not be linked directly with their exposure to DU after the Gulf War. PMID:14664872

  20. CHANGES OF INDICATORS OF THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND HAEMOPOIESIS AT INKORPORATION OF THE DEPLETED URANIUM IN THE EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Gerasimov; R. V. Afanasyev; O. Yu. Terezanov

    2015-01-01

    In article is considered the experiment with incorporation of the solution of the mixed oxides of the depleted uranium to laboratory animals (the rats) and following the cytological study of the peripheral blood and marrow after influence. The changes of indicators of the peripheral blood and haemopoiesis of experimental animals are indicative of the effort processes of indemnification, that shows depleted uranium’s radioactive and toxicological effects and insolvency of natural protective me...

  1. Epi-genetics modifications induced by a depleted uranium exposure in the zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombeau, K.; Pereira, S.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Bourdineaud, J.P. [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC (France); Ravanat, J.L. [INAC/Scib UMR E3 CEA-UJF (France)

    2014-07-01

    The work presented here integrates in the general framework of assessment of effects of chronic exposure to low doses of radionuclides. This evaluation necessarily involves the study of the mechanisms of toxic action at the cellular or subcellular level, in order to better understand the processes of propagation of effects to the level of the populations or ecosystems. As such, the question of the mechanisms underlying the trans-generational effects and the adaptive capacity of organisms is central, both in humans and in animal species. Epigenetic refer to changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, and which are transmitted in a hereditary manner by mitosis or meiosis. The latter plays a key role in these trans-generational effects. Among these changes, DNA-methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic parameters. This work is part of a PhD, included in the European COMET project (Euratom 7. Framework Program), and focuses on epigenetic modifications induced in zebra fish after a chronic exposure to radionuclides. Male and female fishes were exposed to 2 and 20 μg.L{sup -1} of depleted uranium for 24 days. After 7 and 24 days of exposure, brain, gonads, and eyes were collected in order to study changes in DNA methylation. In addition, genotoxicity was measured by the γH2AX assay. The overall changes in DNA methylation were studied by AFLP-MS and HPLC-MS, in order to know if the exposure to depleted uranium changes the global status of DNA methylation. We have found a decrease in the global level of methylation in the eyes of males after 24 days of exposure, the diminution being much more important and significant at the higher concentration of exposure (11.79 ± 3.62 against 52.43 ± 3.01 for controls) This study will be refined by analyzing the methylation of specific regions of the genome, because it represent the sequences of genes involved in major physiological functions and that may be subject to variations in the methylation

  2. Epi-genetics modifications induced by a depleted uranium exposure in the zebra fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here integrates in the general framework of assessment of effects of chronic exposure to low doses of radionuclides. This evaluation necessarily involves the study of the mechanisms of toxic action at the cellular or subcellular level, in order to better understand the processes of propagation of effects to the level of the populations or ecosystems. As such, the question of the mechanisms underlying the trans-generational effects and the adaptive capacity of organisms is central, both in humans and in animal species. Epigenetic refer to changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, and which are transmitted in a hereditary manner by mitosis or meiosis. The latter plays a key role in these trans-generational effects. Among these changes, DNA-methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic parameters. This work is part of a PhD, included in the European COMET project (Euratom 7. Framework Program), and focuses on epigenetic modifications induced in zebra fish after a chronic exposure to radionuclides. Male and female fishes were exposed to 2 and 20 μg.L-1 of depleted uranium for 24 days. After 7 and 24 days of exposure, brain, gonads, and eyes were collected in order to study changes in DNA methylation. In addition, genotoxicity was measured by the γH2AX assay. The overall changes in DNA methylation were studied by AFLP-MS and HPLC-MS, in order to know if the exposure to depleted uranium changes the global status of DNA methylation. We have found a decrease in the global level of methylation in the eyes of males after 24 days of exposure, the diminution being much more important and significant at the higher concentration of exposure (11.79 ± 3.62 against 52.43 ± 3.01 for controls) This study will be refined by analyzing the methylation of specific regions of the genome, because it represent the sequences of genes involved in major physiological functions and that may be subject to variations in the methylation of the

  3. Influence of hydraulic and geomorphologic components of a semi-arid watershed on depleted-uranium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the fate and transport of depleted uranium away from high explosive firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory in north-central New Mexico. Investigations concentrated on a small, semi-arid watershed which drains 5 firing sites. Sampling for uranium in spring/summer/fall runoff, snowmelt runoff, in fallout, and in soil and in sediments revealed that surface water is the main transport mechanism. Although the watershed is less than 8 km2, flow discontinuity was observed between the divide and the outlet; flow discontinuity occurs in semi-arid and arid watersheds, but was unexpected at this scale. This region, termed a discharge sink, is an area where all flow infiltrates and all sediment, including uranium, deposits during nearly all flow events; it is estimated that the discharge sink has provided the locale for uranium detention during the last 23 years. Mass balance calculations indicate that over 90% of uranium expended still remains at or nearby the firing sites. Leaching experiments determined that uranium can rapidly dissolve from the solid phase. It is postulated that precipitation and runoff which percolate vertically through uranium-contaminated soil and sediment are capable of transporting uranium in the dissolved phase to deeper strata. This may be the key transport mechanism which moves uranium out of the watershed

  4. Effect of catechins and tannins on depleted uranium-induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of polyphenols on plasmid DNA strand breaks by depleted uranium were studied using four catechins: (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); seven tannins: Chinese gallotannin, persimmon tannin (PST), mimosa tannin (MMT), myrobalan tannin, quebracho tannin, gambir tannin, and chestnut tannin; and gallic acid. The plasmid DNA strand breaks by uranyl ion (UO22+) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were strongly enhanced by EGC, EGCG, MMT, and PST (condenced tannins). The obtained results showed that the DNA strand breaks are caused by UO22+ through the direct interaction between the uranyl complex and the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone. The additional DNA strand breaks by the addition of polyphenols occurred through an indirect process by the reduction of UO22+ to UO2+ and hydroxyl radical formation through a Fenton-type reaction with H2O2. (author)

  5. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range

  6. Oxidation of depleted uranium penetrators and aerosol dispersal at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols dispersed from depleted uranium penetrators exposed to air and air-CO2 mixtures at temperatures ranging from 500 to 10000C for 2- or 4-h periods were characterized. These experiments indicated dispersal of low concentrations of aerosols in the respirable size range [typically -3% of penetrator mass at 223 cm/s (5 mph) windspeed]. Oxidation was maximum at 7000C in air and 8000C in 50% air-50% CO2, indicating some self-protection developed at higher temperatures. No evidence of self-sustained burning was observed, although complete oxidation can be expected in fires significantly exceeding 4 h, the longest exposure of this series. An outdoor burning experiment using 10 batches of pine wood and paper packing material as fuel caused the highest oxidation rate, probably accelerated by disruption of the oxide layer accompanying broad temperature fluctuation as each fuel batch was added

  7. Measurement and analysis of fission rate in alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to check the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in fusion-fission hybrid reactor, an integral experiment was carried out in alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells with 14 MeV neutron using activation technique. The 238U (n, f) and 235U (n, f) reaction rates at 90° direction to the incident D beam were determined by measuring the 293.3 keV γ ray emitted from 143Ce which is generated by 238U (n, f) and 235U (n, f) reactions. The experiment was simulated using MCNP5 code with ENDF/B-Ⅵ library, and the calculated 238U (n. f) and 235U (n, f) reaction rates are generally 5% higher than experimental results. (authors)

  8. Impurity migration and effects on vacancy formation enthalpy in polycrystalline depleted uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K. R.; Lynn, K. G.; Weber, M. H.; Macchi, C.; Somoza, A.; Juan, A.; Okuniewski, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    We have used Doppler-broadening of the positron-electron annihilation radiation technique and VASP calculations to verify the previously reported vacancy formation enthalpy Hvf in polycrystalline depleted uranium. Experimentally we have confirmed a Hvf of (1.6 ± 0.2) eV. VASP calculations using GGA and LDA approximations gave vacancy formation enthalpies values of 1.98 eV and 2.22 eV respectively. We found residual oxygen in the sample diminished these values by 50% or more. Our new experimental and theoretical data supports the notion that oxygen impurities in the sample are responsible for lower values of vacancy formation enthalpies. Measured and calculated vacancy formation enthalpies, as well as the obtained oxygen migration enthalpy of (0.6 ± 0.1) eV, are compared and discussed with values reported in the literature.

  9. High-Performance Layered DT Capsule Implosions in Depleted Uranium Hohlraums on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Benedetti, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Fittinghoff, D.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Izumi, N.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P.; Robey, H.; Remington, B.; Salmonson, J.; Springer, P.; Widmann, K.; Merrill, F.; Wilde, C.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the first layered DT capsule implosions in depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums driven with a high-foot pulse shape. High-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to hydrodynamic instabilities. [Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. DU hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to 25 TW extra laser power at the peak of the drive compared to Au hohlraums. Additionally, we observe an improved implosion shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. As a result, these first high-foot DU experiments achieved total neutron yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Assessment of corrosion-resistant coatings for a depleted uranium-0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of different coatings (aluminum, zinc, magnesium, Al-Zn, Al-Mg, nickel, titanium, TiN and aluminum on TiN) were applied by the arc plasma physical vapor deposition technique to a depleted uranium (DU) alloy for corrosion protection assessment. The as-deposited specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology and tested for adhesion. Electrochemical polarization tests and immersion tests were conducted in aerated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results of the electrochemical polarization scans and observations after long-term exposure tests indicated that the two alloys Al-Zn and Al-Mg appear to be the best sacrificial coating materials for improving the corrosion resistance of DU-0.75Ti. (orig.)

  11. Investigation experiment to trace in Ignalina NPP vicinity depleted uranium used in Kosovo in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Experiment to evaluate transportation of aerosols with depleted uranium used in Kosovo in 1999 into the ground level air in Lithuania was made. Calculations of trajectories of air masses showed two periods when air masses that were in Kosovo on 16 May 1999 and 6 June 1999 in reached Lithuania. Method of measuring radionuclide concentrations in air that are used in radioecological observations in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP was modified for increasing efficiency of registration of 233U progeny234mPa radiation. Measurements showed that 233U activity concentrations in air in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP at periods favorable for transportation of air masses from Kosovo did not exceed 0,01 miliBq/m3. (author)

  12. A review of the environmental corrosion, fate and bioavailability of munitions grade depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie, E-mail: s.handley-sidhu@bham.ac.uk [Water Sciences Research Group, School of Geography, Earth, Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, Miranda J. [Biogeochemistry and Environmental Analytical Chemistry Research Group, and School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Vaughan, David J. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, and School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of nuclear fuel enrichment and is used in antitank penetrators due to its high density, self-sharpening, and pyrophoric properties. Military activities have left a legacy of DU waste in terrestrial and marine environments, and there have been only limited attempts to clean up affected environments. Ten years ago, very little information was available on the dispersion of DU as penetrators hit their targets or the fate of DU penetrators left behind in environmental systems. However, the marked increase in research since then has improved our knowledge of the environmental impact of firing DU and the factors that control the corrosion of DU and its subsequent migration through the environment. In this paper, the literature is reviewed and consolidated to provide a detailed overview of the current understanding of the environmental behaviour of DU and to highlight areas that need further consideration.

  13. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range.

  14. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, David John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coughlin, Daniel Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  15. Cermet Transport, Storage, and Disposal Packages Using Depleted Uranium Dioxide and Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that the steel components of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage casks, transport casks, and repository waste packages (WPs) be replaced with a depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet consisting of DUO2 particulates embedded in a continuous-steel phase. Typical cermets use a sandwich-type construction with clean uncontaminated steel layers on both sides of the cermet. Cermets have several potential advantages over other materials of construction: (1) better gamma and neutron shielding than steel; (2) ability to withstand extreme conditions (fire, accident, sabotage); (3) potential to improve repository performance when used in WPs; and (4) use of excess DUO2 and recycled steel from nuclear facilities, thereby avoiding disposal costs for these materials. New methods of manufacture and other factors may provide economic incentives for cermet packages when large numbers of casks are manufactured

  16. Use of depleted uranium in military conflicts and possible impact on health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been concern regarding the possible environmental impacts of depleted uranium (DU) and its possible health effects on both military personnel and on civilians following the Gulf War 1991. These issues have been raised by several non-governmental organizations, some scientists and by a number of press reports. Since DU could also have been used in the Balkan conflict 1999, there has been a concern about the possible consequences of its use for the people and for the environment of this region. Because of this concern it was considered necessary to review existing information on DU and give appropriate recommendations in the aftermath of the Balkans conflict. This was made in October 1999. In November 2000 a Mission to Kosovo was undertaken on basis of new information from NATO

  17. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  18. Supramolecular Chemistry: A Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Adam R.; Pursell, Christopher J.; Spence, John D.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth-year capstone course offers students an opportunity to integrate topics covered in the core disciplinary courses, to learn an advanced interdisciplinary topic, and to approach unfamiliar problems and literature. This article describes a fourth-year capstone course designed to incorporate components of faculty lectures, student seminars,…

  19. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  20. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on

  1. Cytological characteristics of lung washings from children in depleted uranium stroked region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, S

    2013-01-01

    The study was based on theoretical interpretation of authentic findings of Lupus Erythematosus Cells (LEC) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of children who underwent flexible bronchoscopy for clinical symptoms and radiological changes consistent with persistent pulmonary infiltrates during the first year after the bombing of Serbia in 1999. Differential cell counts were compared and statistical significance of differences for estimated cell population percentages calculated in groups of LEC positive (LEC+) and LEC negative (LEC-) BAL specimens. Significant increase of percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils and decreased percentages of macrophages were found in the group of LEC+ in comparison with LEC- BAL specimens (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.001, p less than 0.001, respectively). Presence of decreased percentages of cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage with consequent expansion of white blood cells in BAL, argue for understanding the nature of LEC+ alveolitis as a possible nonspecific finding of radiation-induced biological response of pulmonary tissue. LEC phenomenon may be understood as an early radio adaptive tissue response. Depleted uranium (DU) radiotoxic effect with concomitant alpha particles radiation, has been associated with unpredictable and everlasting biological effects. The emission of radiation in the course of several decades due to corrosion of scattered remnants of DU armaments, which has been potentiated by the repeated bombing of the regions within range of the transfer of radioactive particles by air, strikes a broad territory and numerous populations, and unavoidably leads to in vivoPetkau effect. Except the war, peacetime nuclear disasters in various parts of the world, such as Fukushima, Chernobyl and others, contribute to this effect too. In this way, the Petkau effect is a challenge for science to declare the future health strategy with the main goal focused on minimizing the early, as well as delayed in vivo effects of

  2. Microanalytical X-ray imaging of depleted uranium speciation in environmentally aged munitions residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions has resulted in contamination of the near-surface environment with penetrator residues. Uncertainty in the long-term environmental fate of particles produced by impact of DU penetrators with hard targets is a specific concern. In this study DU particles produced in this way and exposed to the surface terrestrial environment for longer than 30 years at a U.K. firing range were characterized using synchrotron X-ray chemical imaging. Two sites were sampled: a surface soil and a disposal area for DU-contaminated wood, and the U speciation was different between the two areas. Surface soil particles showed little extent of alteration, with U speciated as oxides U3O7 and U3O8. Uranium oxidation state and crystalline phase mapping revealed these oxides occur as separate particles, reflecting heterogeneous formation conditions. Particles recovered from the disposal area were substantially weathered, and U(VI) phosphate phases such as meta-ankoleite (K(UO2)(PO4) · 3H2O) were dominant. Chemical imaging revealed domains of contrasting U oxidation state linked to the presence of both U3O7 and meta-ankoleite, indicating growth of a particle alteration layer. This study demonstrates that substantial alteration of DU residues can occur, which directly influences the health and environmental hazards posed by this contamination. PMID:24451034

  3. Decreases in soil microbial function and functional diversity in response to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soil microcosm experiment was used to analyze effects of depleted uranium (DU) on soil function, and the concomitant changes in bacterial functional diversity. Uranium treatment levels were 0, 50, 500, 5000, 10,000 and 25,000 mg DU kg-1 soil. Three measures of soil function were made. Overall soil biological activity was assessed via measurement of soil respiration. Decomposition was assessed by measurement of mass loss of four different plant litter types: wood sticks, cellulose paper, high-N grass, and low-N grass. Mineral N availability in the microcosms was estimated using ion-exchange resin bags. Functional diversity of the microcosms was analyzed through the use of the Biolog-system of sole-C-utilization patterns. Soil respiration was the most sensitive measure of functional changes, with significant decreases observed starting at the 500 mg kg-1 treatment. No differences in N availability were observed across the U treatments. Litter decomposition was significantly decreased at the 25,000 mg kg-1 level relative to the control for all litter types except the high-N grass. Wood decomposition was reduced by 84% at the 25,000 mg kg- treatment, cellulose paper by 68%, and low-N grass by 15%. Decreases in the functional diversity of the bacterial community were related to the observed decrease in soil respiration, and to the greater effect on decomposition of the lower-quality litter types

  4. Optimization of depleted uranium loading in fresh core of large sized Indian PHWR by evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) are based on Natural Uranium (NU) fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. At the beginning of reactor life of PHWR, if all NU bundles are loaded, the power peaking is high and full power cannot be drawn. In order to draw full power, it is possible to flatten the power in fresh core by loading some depleted uranium (DU) (or Thorium) bundles. The determination of the best possible locations of DU bundles which maximize economy and preserve safety is a constrained combinatorial optimization problem. This paper presents optimization of DU bundle distribution in the fresh core of the 700 MWe PHWR. An evolutionary technique based on Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) is used to determine the optimum DU loading pattern. The best suitable locations for DU bundles are determined using EDA. In order to meet some additional constraints, some additional DU bundles are placed at 11th and 12th bundle locations in few channels. These channels are selected manually. The overall aim of the optimization is to maximize K-effective and get 100% full power without violating safety parameters such as maximum permissible bundle power, channel power peaking factor and permitted reactivity worth in shut-down system. The optimum configuration is explicitly presented.

  5. The reproductive effects in rats after chronic oral exposure to low-dose depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This two-generation study evaluated the effects of depleted uranium (DU) on reproduction in rats. Across two generations, Wistar rats (30/sex/group) were maintained on feed containing DU at dose levels of 0 (control group), 4 (DU4 group), or 40 (DU40 group) mg kg-1 day-1 for 4 months prior to mating. After 4 months of exposure, the pregnancy rate, normal labour rate, and survival rate of offspring produced by F1 rats were all significantly decreased as compared to the control group, and especially in the DU40 group, these parameters fell by half to two-thirds, while no adverse effects were evident in F0 rats. The uranium content in the testes and ovaries of F1 rats in the DU4 and DU40 groups was significantly higher than that found in F0 rats. The levels of sex hormone in the serum were disorder in both generations. The enzymes related to spermiogenesis were also significantly different between generations, and the damage was more severe in F1 rats. In conclusion, the reproductive effects in F0 rats were slight after chronic oral exposure to DU, while the effects were obvious in F1 rats. (author)

  6. Depleted uranium induces sex- and tissue-specific methylation patterns in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeau, Kewin; Pereira, Sandrine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalie, Isabelle; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to different concentrations (2 and 20 μg L(-)(1)) of environmentally relevant waterborne depleted uranium (DU) on the DNA methylation patterns both at HpaII restriction sites (5'-CCGG-3') and across the whole genome in the zebrafish brain, gonads, and eyes. We first identified sex-dependent differences in the methylation level of HpaII sites after exposure. In males, these effects were present as early as 7 days after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU, and were even more pronounced in the brain, gonads, and eyes after 24 days. However, in females, hypomethylation was only observed in the gonads after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days. Sex-specific effects of DU were also apparent at the whole-genome level, because in males, exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days resulted in cytosine hypermethylation in the brain and eyes and hypomethylation in the gonads. In contrast, in females, hypermethylation was observed in the brain after exposure to both concentrations of DU for 7 days. Based on our current knowledge of uranium toxicity, several hypotheses are proposed to explain these findings, including the involvement of oxidative stress, alteration of demethylation enzymes and the calcium signaling pathway. This study reports, for the first time, the sex- and tissue-specific epigenetic changes that occur in a nonhuman organism after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium, which could induce transgenerational epigenetic effects. PMID:26829549

  7. A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Liang; Ding, Yongkun; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobin; Yang, Jiamin

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum ...

  8. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation

  9. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Cr/Cr2N multilayer film deposited on the surface of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Cr/Cr2N film was prepared to improve corrosion resistance of uranium. • The Cr/Cr2N film showed laminate structure, its modulation period was 40–50 nm. • The oxidized depth of Cr/Cr2N film was less than 40 nm at 573 K for 120 min. • The corrosion resistance of uranium was improved after deposited the Cr/Cr2N film. - Abstract: Depleted uranium is widely used in national defence and nuclear energy fields. However, the inferior corrosion resistance limits its application. A Cr/Cr2N film was prepared by magnetron sputtering on the uranium to improve its corrosion resistance. The Cr/Cr2N film exhibits modulation structure. The introduction of the Cr/Cr2N increases the corrosion potential; the corresponding current density decreases about three orders of magnitude. After polarization corrosion, the surface morphology of the Cr/Cr2N-coated on uranium keeps integrated. Only a thin layer of film (∼40 nm) is oxidized. The Cr/Cr2N film shows great potential in improving oxidation and corrosion resistance of depleted uranium

  10. XPS analysis and corrosion resistance of CrNx film prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering on surface of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical nature of depleted uranium is very active and prone to oxidation corrosion in nature environment. In this study, CrNx film was prepared on the surface of depleted uranium by unbalance magnetron sputtering ion plating to improve its corrosion resistance. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the chemical state and depth profiles of Cr, N and O elements. XRD was employed to examine the phase structure of CrNx film. The corrosion behavior of the samples was measured by using polarization curves (E/I). The results show that CrNx film prepared by unbalance magnetron sputtering has good density and corrosion resistance. The phase composition of CrNx films is composed with Cr, CrN and Cr2N when the N2 flow is lower. After a layer of CrNx is deposited on the surface of uranium, the corrosion potential increases about 465 mV, while the corrosion current density decreases significantly. It is indicated that the corrosion resistance of depleted uranium is effectively improved after depositing CrNx thin film by unbalance magnetron sputtering. (authors)

  11. Molecular, cellular, and tissue impact of depleted uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Yann; Rouas, Caroline; Monin, Audrey; Manens, Line; Stefani, Johanna; Delissen, Olivia; Grison, Stéphane; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2014-02-01

    Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics (XME) are well recognized in experimental models as representative indicators of organ detoxification functions and of exposure to toxicants. As several in vivo studies have shown, uranium can alter XME in the rat liver or kidneys after either acute or chronic exposure. To determine how length or level of exposure affects these changes in XME, we continued our investigation of chronic rat exposure to depleted uranium (DU, uranyl nitrate). The first study examined the effect of duration (1-18 months) of chronic exposure to DU, the second evaluated dose dependence, from a level close to that found in the environment near mining sites (0.2 mg/L) to a supra-environmental dose (120 mg/L, 10 times the highest level naturally found in the environment), and the third was an in vitro assessment of whether DU exposure directly affects XME and, in particular, CYP3A. The experimental in vivo models used here demonstrated that CYP3A is the enzyme modified to the greatest extent: high gene expression changed after 6 and 9 months. The most substantial effects were observed in the liver of rats after 9 months of exposure to 120 mg/L of DU: CYP3A gene and protein expression and enzyme activity all decreased by more than 40 %. Nonetheless, no direct effect of DU by itself was observed after in vitro exposure of rat microsomal preparations, HepG2 cells, or human primary hepatocytes. Overall, these results probably indicate the occurrence of regulatory or adaptive mechanisms that could explain the indirect effect observed in vivo after chronic exposure. PMID:24146111

  12. Depleted uranium disturbs immune parameters in zebrafish, Danio rerio: an ex vivo/in vivo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Béatrice; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the byproduct of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to defence system in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using flow cytometry. Several immune cellular parameters were followed on kidney leucocytes: cell proportion, cell mortality, phagocytosis activity and associated oxidative burst and lysosomal membrane integrity (LMI). Effects of DU were tested ex vivo after 17 h of contact between DU and freshly isolated leucocytes from 0 to 500 µg DU/L. Moreover, adult zebrafish were exposed in vivo during 3 days at 20 and 250 µg DU/L. Oxidative burst results showed that DU increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) basal level and therefore reduced ROS stimulation index in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. ROS PMA-stimulated level was also increased at 250 µg DU/L in vivo only. Furthermore, a decrease of LMI was detected after in vivo experiments. Cell mortality was also decreased at 20 µg DU/L in ex vivo experiment. However, phagocytosis activity was not modified in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. A reduction of immune-related parameters was demonstrated in zebrafish exposed to DU. DU could therefore decrease the ability of fish to stimulate its own immune system which could, in turn, enhance the susceptibility of fish to infection. These results encourage the development and the use of innate immune analysis by flow cytometry in order to understand the effects of DU and more generally radionuclides on fish immune system and response to infectious diseases. PMID:24723161

  13. Effects of depleted uranium after short-term exposure on vitamin D metabolism in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissandie, E.; Gueguen, Y.; Paquet, F.; Aigueperse, J.; Souidi, M. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP n 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, J.M.A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS, Compared Physiology and Molecular Endocrinology, 24 avenue des Landais, 6547, Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-08-15

    Uranium is a natural radioactive heavy metal. Its toxicity has been demonstrated for different organs, including bone, kidney, liver and brain. Effects of an acute contamination by depleted uranium (DU) were investigated in vivo on vitamin D{sub 3} biosynthetic pathway. Rats received an intragastric administration of DU (204 mg/kg) and various parameters were studied either on day 1 or day 3 after contamination. Cytochrome P450 (CYP27A1, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1) enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism and two vitamin D{sub 3}-target genes (ECaC1, CaBP-D9K) were assessed by real time RT-PCR in liver and kidneys. CYP27A1 activity was measured in liver and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level were measured in plasma. In acute treated-rats, vitamin D level was increased by 62% and decreased by 68% in plasma, respectively at day 1 and at day 3, which paralleled with a concomitant decrease of PTH level (90%) at day 3. In liver, cyp2r1 mRNA level was increased at day 3. Cyp27a1 activity decreased at day 1 and increased markedly at day 3. In kidney, cyp27b1 mRNA was increased at days 1 and 3 (11- and 4-fold respectively). Moreover, ecac1 and cabp-d9k mRNA levels were increased at day 1 and decreased at day 3. This work shows for the first time that DU acute contamination modulates both activity and expression of CYP enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism in liver and kidney, and consequently affects vitamin D target genes levels. (orig.)

  14. Effects of depleted uranium after short-term exposure on vitamin D metabolism in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a natural radioactive heavy metal. Its toxicity has been demonstrated for different organs, including bone, kidney, liver and brain. Effects of an acute contamination by depleted uranium (DU) were investigated in vivo on vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway. Rats received an intragastric administration of DU (204 mg/kg) and various parameters were studied either on day 1 or day 3 after contamination. Cytochrome P450 (CYP27A1, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1) enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism and two vitamin D3-target genes (ECaC1, CaBP-D9K) were assessed by real time RT-PCR in liver and kidneys. CYP27A1 activity was measured in liver and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level were measured in plasma. In acute treated-rats, vitamin D level was increased by 62% and decreased by 68% in plasma, respectively at day 1 and at day 3, which paralleled with a concomitant decrease of PTH level (90%) at day 3. In liver, cyp2r1 mRNA level was increased at day 3. Cyp27a1 activity decreased at day 1 and increased markedly at day 3. In kidney, cyp27b1 mRNA was increased at days 1 and 3 (11- and 4-fold respectively). Moreover, ecac1 and cabp-d9k mRNA levels were increased at day 1 and decreased at day 3. This work shows for the first time that DU acute contamination modulates both activity and expression of CYP enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism in liver and kidney, and consequently affects vitamin D target genes levels. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF6 conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report

  16. Depleted uranium in environmental samples from Kuwait areas affected by the 1991 Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top soils (0-5 cm), soil profiles (0-35 cm), water and vegetation samples collected in several locations of Kuwait considered relevant by the local authorities either because fighting took place in or around them or important from the public reassurance point of view (residential areas, presence of farms or drinking water wells) were investigated for the presence of depleted uranium (DU) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and alpha and beta gamma spectrometry. More than 200 samples were collected and analysed. The measurements were subjected to rigorous quality assurance and control procedures and the uncertainties carefully evaluated. The results indicated that: (a) in the urban areas only natural uranium was present in the soil, (b) in the farming areas soil, vegetable and brackish water from wells also contained uranium at concentrations of no radiological significance, (c) at the only place where drinking water is extracted from a water body at a depth of about 50 m (this is bottled and locally consumed) no DU was present, (d) along and around the main road to Iraq, were a long retreating convoy was destroyed in 1991, no DU residues are now present, (e) in the oil field south of Kuwait City, that were severely hit by DU ammunition, DU penetrators can still be found and there are spots (generally just below corroded penetrators) where DU concentration in soil can reach up to 50,000 or 100,000 Bq/kg, (f) in the places were the many vehicles hit by DU ammunition were temporarily stored after the war only one spot containing some DU in soil (41 Bq/kg) was identified, (g) at the site where accidentally a fire broke out in 1991 in a US military depot storing a large quantity of DU munitions, only a few top soil spots containing low quantities (∼ 90 Bq/kg) of DU were identified; the low DU concentration is the result of the cleaning conduced immediately after the explosion by the US forces and later on by the Kuwaiti authorities, and the complete

  17. Use of a radioactive substance, the depleted uranium, for the fabrication of enamels and usual things and jewels decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This open letter to the ministers and State Secretaries of the public health, the environment and the consumers protection, deals with a complaint against X, lodged by the CRII-RAD. This complaint concerns the use of depleted uranium for the fabrication of enamels and the decoration of usual things and jewels. This utilization constitutes a breach of the decree 66-450, which forbids since 1966 the addition of radioactive substances in food, cosmetic and domestic products. The letter takes into account the hazards for the workers and the consumers, the uranium powder origin and discusses the guaranties forecast under the legislation eye. (A.L.B.)

  18. Identification and dissolution behavior of the secondary uranium minerals in the corrosion products of Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition formed in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Qader, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie wurden verschiedene Techniken eingesetzt um drei Proben (4, 7, and 8) die aus denrnKorrosionsprodukten von aus dem Kosovo Krieg stammenden Munitionskugeln, bestehend aus abgereichertem Uranrn(Depleted Uranium - DU), zu untersuchen. Als erstes Verfahren wurde die Raman-Spektroskopie eingesetzt. Hierbeirnzeigte sichin den Proben, charakterisiert durch einen Doppelpeak, die Anwesenheit von Schoepitrn(UO2)8O2(OH)12(H2O)12. Der erste und zweite Peakzeigte sich im Spektra...

  19. Oxidative damage of BEAS-2B cells induced by depleted uranium and protection by DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the oxidative damage in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) induced by depleted uranium (DU) and protection of DMSO. Methods: The measurement of extracellular superoxide anions (O2-·) was based on the reduction of ferricytochrome C. Quantitative analysis of extracellular hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) was used by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red. The determination of extracellular hydroxyl radicals (· OH) was based on discoloration of safranine T. Ethidium bromide and 2, 7'-dichlorofluorescein, fluorescent products of the membrane-permeable dyes-hydroethineand 2,7'-dichloroflurescin diacetate were used to monitor the intracellular production of O2- · and H2O2 by fluorometric method. The enzyme activity of SOD and GSH were measured by chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric method, respectively. Results: The ROS production, including H2O2, O2- · and · OH, increased remarkably which induced by DU in BEAs-2B cells. The enzyme activity of SOD and GSH was descended remarkedly. These changes could be effectively inhibited by 0.5% of DMSO. Conclusions: DU causes oxidative damage to BEAS-2B cells. Through removing active oxygen, DMSO can inhibit oxidative damage of DU. (authors)

  20. A critical look at UNEP reports concerning depleted uranium at Yugoslav territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical look at UNEP Reports concerning depleted uranium at Yugoslav territory, are given in this paper. At first, introducing of the assumption that it should be possible to express the risk (consequence), caused by intake of DU by ingestion or inhalation and by external exposure to radiation from DU, as 'insignificant' or 'significant' for the comparisons purpose, is opposed to the LNT-hypothesis still valid in radiation protection field. Second, using the limit of 1 mSv per year, as a referent dose level between 'insignificant' and 'significant' risks (consequences) is not acceptable in the case of military DU contamination. This is because the reference dose of 1mSv can be used, in the optimization of radiation protection, as additional annual dose limit for member of the public, from all kinds of useful practices, solely. Military usage of DU can't be classified as useful for both opposite side - culprit and victim. The third remark is that all experts participated in UNEP teams for Kosovo (Desk Assessment Group, Scientific Reviewer Group and UNEP Scientific Mission ) are by origin from the NATO countries or NATO supporter countries. This fact is pretty difficult to understand hearing in mind that UNEP is United Nations Environment Programme (author)

  1. Environmental assessment of depleted uranium used in military armor-piercing rounds in terrestrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Brasfield, Sandra M; Bednar, Anthony J; Ang, Choo Y

    2014-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) from the military testing and use of armor-piercing kinetic energy penetrators has been shown to accumulate in soils; however, little is known about the toxicity of DU geochemical species created through corrosion or weathering. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effects and bioaccumulation potential of field-collected DU oxides to the model terrestrial invertebrates Eisenia fetida (earthworm) and Porcellio scaber (isopod). Earthworm studies were acute (72 h) dermal exposures or 28-d spiked soil exposures that used noncontaminated field-collected soils from the US Army's Yuma and Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Endpoints assessed in earthworm testing included bioaccumulation, growth, reproduction, behavior (soil avoidance), and cellular stress (neutral red uptake in coelomocytes). Isopod testing used spiked food, and endpoints assessed included bioaccumulation, survival, and feeding behavior. Concentration-dependent bioaccumulation of DU in earthworms was observed with a maximum bioaccumulation factor of 0.35; however, no significant reductions in survival or impacts to cellular stress were observed. Reproduction lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) of 158 mg/kg and 96 mg/kg were observed in Yuma Proving Ground and a Mississippi reference soil (Karnac Ferry), respectively. Earthworm avoidance of contaminated soils was not observed in 48-h soil avoidance studies; however, isopods were shown to avoid food spiked with 12.7% by weight DU oxides through digital tracking studies. PMID:24549573

  2. Depleted uranium in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Post-conflict environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition was used in 1994-95 during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This third DU field study from the Balkans, following UNEP's earlier DU studies in Kosovo (2001) and Serbia and Montenegro (2002), increases the scientific knowledge of the behaviour of DU in the environment. The mission investigated 14 sites. DU could be easily found at three of these sites more than seven years after the conflict and was confirmed by the physical presence of penetrators and jackets, as well as by soil, bio-indicator, water and air samples. For the first time in UNEP's DU studies in the Balkans, DU was found in drinking water samples, albeit at extremely low levels. DU was also measured in air samples, both outside as well as inside certain buildings currently in use. The report recommends precautionary steps in the form of decontamination and clean-up. Given the remaining scientific uncertainties on the long-term behaviour of DU in the natural environment, UNEP recommends further studies to be done in other regions where DU ammunition has been used. (author)

  3. A screening model for depleted uranium testing using environmental radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information from an ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium test areas at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) was used to update the required environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) plan. Data to be collected for the ERM can also be used to evaluate the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to terrestrial reptiles and mammals in the affected areas. We developed a spreadsheet-based screening model that incorporates the ERM data and associated uncertainties. The purpose of the model is to provide a conservative estimate of radiological exposure of terrestrial, biota to DU using the ERM data. The uncertainty in the estimate is also predicted so that the variation in the radiological exposure can be used in assessing potential adverse effects from DU testing. Toxicological effects are evaluated as well as radiological effects in the same program using the same data. Our presentation shows an example data set, model calculations, and the report of expected radiation dose rates and probable kidney burdens of select mammals and reptiles. The model can also be used in an inverse mode to calculate the soil concentration required to give either a radiological dose that would produce a potential adverse effect such as fatal cancer or a toxicological dose that would result in nephrotoxic effects in mammals

  4. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  5. Effects of depleted uranium on survival, growth, and metamorphosis in the african clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.E.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gonzales, G.; Gould, W.R.; Arimoto, R.

    2005-01-01

    Embryos (stage 8-47, Nieuwkoop and Faber) of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were subjected to water-borne depleted uranium (DU) concentrations that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/Lusing an acute 96-h frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In a chronic 64-d assay, X. laevis (from embryo through metamorphosis; stages 8-66) were subjected to concentrations of DU that ranged from 6.2 to 54.3 mg/L Our results indicate DU is a non teratogenic metal. No effects on mortality, malformations, or growth were observed in the 96-h FETAX with concentrations of DU that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/L From stage 8 to stage 47, X. laevis tadpoles do not actively feed and the gills are not well developed. Thus, uptake of DU was reduced despite exposure to elevated concentrations. The 64-d assay resulted in no concentration response for either mortality or malformations; however, a delay in metamorphosis was observed in tadpoles subjected to elevated DU concentrations (from 13.1 to 54.3 mg/L) compared to tadpoles in both the well-water control and reference. The delay in metamorphosis was likely due to increasing body burden of DU that ranged from 0.98 to 2.82 mg/kg. Copyright?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  6. Zinc protects human kidney cells from depleted uranium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhangyou; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2014-03-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a weak radioactive heavy metal, and zinc (Zn) is an effective antidote to heavy metal poisoning. However, the effect of Zn on DU-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Zn on DU-induced cell apoptosis in human kidney cells (HK-2) and explore its molecular mechanism. Pre-treatment with Zn significantly inhibited DU-induced apoptosis. It reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species in the cells, increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, suppressed the DU-induced soluble Fas receptor (sFasR) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) overexpression, suppressed the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inhibitor factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, inhibited the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induced metallothionein (MT) expression. Furthermore, exogenous MT effectively inhibited DU-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, mitochondrial and FasR-mediated apoptosis pathways contribute to DU-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Through independent mechanisms, such as indirect antioxidant effects, inhibition of the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induction of MT expression, Zn inhibits DU-induced apoptosis. PMID:24330236

  7. Depleted uranium: all the questions about DU and Gulf War syndrome are not yet answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertell, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    For 15 years, the debate about depleted uranium (DU) and its detrimental effects on the health of veterans of the Gulf War of 1991, on the Iraqi people and military (and subsequently on the people of Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq during the second war) has remained unresolved. Meanwhile, the number of Gulf War veterans who have developed the so-called Gulf War syndrome has risen to about one-third of the 800,000 U.S. forces deployed, and unknown proportions of those involved in the subsequent wars. Uncounted civilians and personnel of other nations that fought in Iraq and other wars since 1991 have also been afflicted. The veterans have suffered from multiple serious physiological disorders and have received little or no official recognition, medical relief, or compensation. We need to take another look at this issue, using a holistic and interactive model for the toxic matrix of exposures, identifying the major roadblocks to resolving the scientific questions, and finding appropriate medical and political responses. This commentary is such an attempt. PMID:16981628

  8. Radiological conditions at four selected sites in South Iraq with residues of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Iraq war of 2003 several air attacks and tank battles were conducted, which utilized depleted uranium (DU) munitions. Consequently, the possible health effects on the Iraqi population of DU residues in the battlefields raised concerns within the Iraqi population, its authorities responsible for the environment, as well as the media in various parts of the world. In 2006 and 2007 technical staff from the Iraqi Radiation Protection Centre collected environmental samples at four selected sites in Southern Iraq, namely As Samawah, Al Nassiryah, Al Basrah and Al Zubayr. A total of 520 samples of soil, water, vegetation and smear tests, were taken. The samples were shipped from Iraq to the Spiez Laboratory in Switzerland, which, on behalf of UNEP, analyzed them using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The radioanalytical results were then made available to the IAEA in order to make a prospective estimation of the radiation doses to the Iraqi population living in the above-mentioned four locations and the associated radiological risks. The annual radiation doses to the public that could arise from the various types of exposure scenarios were calculated. On the basis of the measurements carried out on the samples collected in this study the radiation doses from DU were found sufficiently low not pose a radiological hazard to the population living at the four studied locations. (author)

  9. Thermal performance of a depleted uranium shielded storage, transportation, and disposal package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management and disposal of large quantities of depleted uranium (DU) in the DOE complex. Viable economic options for the use and eventual disposal of the material are needed. One possible option is the use of DU as shielding material for vitrified Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) storage, transportation, and disposal packages. Use of DU as a shielding material provides the potential benefit of disposing of significant quantities of DU during the DHLW storage and disposal process. Two DU package concepts have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The first concept is the Storage/Disposal plus Transportation (S/D+T) package. The S/D+T package consists of two major components: a storage/disposal (S/D) container and a transportation overpack. The second concept is the S/D/T package which is an integral storage, transportation, and disposal package. The package concept considered in this analysis is the S/D+T package with seven DHLW waste canisters

  10. Isotopic dilution of 233U with depleted uranium for criticality safety in processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of excess 233U as waste is being considered. Because 233U is a fissile material, a key requirement for processing 233U to a final waste form and disposing of it is the avoidance of nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233U with nonfissile 238U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials to be used for processing and disposing of 233U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be approximately 0.53 wt % 233U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO2), water (H2O), 233U and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to learn the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt % 235U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO2 present. Thus for the U.S. inventory of 233U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  11. Characteristic pathological changes of main organs of rates after inhalation of depleted uranium aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the pathological and morphometric alteration of main organs of rat after inhalation of depleted uranium (DU) aerosole in order to provide information for medical protection against DU weapons. Methods: Routine pathological technique and morphometric measurements were used to observe histopathological and morphological changes in lung, kidney, spleen, liver, brain of rats 1-14 months after inhalation of DU aerosol. Results: After inhalation of DU aerosol, lymphocytic infiltration in the pulmonary parenchyma, serious bronchitis, pulmonary hemorrhage and abscess formation were seen in some of the rats; distinct dilatation of tubules in renal cortex and papillae, casts in some tubules of the cortex, medulla and papillae, and interstitial hemorrhage were found in some other rats; diminution of the area of splenic white pulp, reduction of megakaryocytic mitosis were also observed, the incidence and severity of above changes in the lung and kidney, but not in the liver and brain, showed dependance on the length of time after inhalation or the dose of DU inhaled. Conclusion There are evident injurious effects on rat lung, kidney and spleen by inhalation of DU aerosol. (authors)

  12. Corrosion rates and electrochemical studies of a depleted uranium alloy tungsten fiber metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion rates of a tungsten reinforced depleted uranium alloy metal matrix composite have been measured, by immersion tests, in three environments (laboratory air, distilled water, and 3.5% NaCl) and compared to the rates of the matrix alloy (DU-0.75 Ti) alone. The corrosion rates of both specimens are negligible in laboratory air, increase in distilled water, and are greatest in NaCl for a 30 day period. In all environments the matrix allo is preferentially attacked. In distilled water the corrosion rate of the matrix alloy is 3 times greater than the composite whereas in NaCl the corrosion rate of the composite is 1.3 times greater than the matrix. In electrochemical tests the composite was simulated by coupling separate samples of the fiber and matrix and the short-circuit (galvanic) currents were measured. A comparison of the corrosion rates calculated from the galvanic currents and from immersio tests shows the principal reaction of the composite in NaCl is galvanic coupling of the matrix and fiber

  13. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  14. Plant uptake of depleted uranium from manure-amended and citrate treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostianova, Elena; Lindemann, William C; Ulery, April L; Remmenga, Marta D

    2010-08-01

    Six plant species were tested for their ability to accumulate depleted uranium in their above-ground biomass from deployed munitions contaminated soil in New Mexico. In greenhouse experiments, Kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L) were grown with steer manure added at rates of 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 Mg ha(-1). Citric acid and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) applied at the end of the growing season increased DU concentrations from 2.5 to 17 times. Leaf and stem DU concentrations in kochia increased from 17.0 to 41.9 mg kg(-1) and from 3.5 to 18.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. In pigweed, leaf and stem DU concentrations increased from 1.0 to 17.3 and from 1.0 to 4.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. Manure generally decreased or had no effect on DU uptake. The effect of citric acid and ammonium citrate on DU uptake by kochia, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), and sweet corn (Zea mays L) was also studied. Ammonium citrate was just as effective in enhancing DU uptake as citric acid. This implies that the citrate ion is more important in DU uptake and translocation than the solubilization of DU through acidification. In both experiments, leaves had higher DU concentrations than stems. PMID:21166280

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day's presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E

  16. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF6, long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF6 is to use the entire inventory of material. This volume contains the appendices to volume I

  17. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF6, long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF6 is to use the entire inventory of material

  18. Advancing Performance Assessment for Disposal of Depleted Uranium at Clive Utah - 12493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Performance Assessment (PA) for disposal of depleted uranium (DU) waste has recently been completed for a potential disposal facility at Clive in northwestern Utah. For the purposes of this PA, 'DU waste' includes uranium oxides of all naturally-occurring isotopes, though depleted in U-235, varying quantities of other radionuclides introduced to the uranium enrichment process in the form of used nuclear reactor fuel (reactor returns), and decay products of all of these radionuclides. The PA will be used by the State of Utah to inform an approval decision for disposal of DU waste at the facility, and will be available to federal regulators as they revisit rulemaking for the disposal of DU. The specific performance objectives of the Clive DU PA relate to annual individual radiation dose within a 10,000-year performance period, groundwater concentrations of specific radionuclides within a 500-year compliance period, and site stability in the longer term. Fate and transport processes that underlie the PA model include radioactive decay and ingrowth, diffusion in gaseous and water phases, water advection in unsaturated and saturated zones, transport caused by plant and animal activity, cover naturalization, natural and anthropogenic erosion, and air dispersion. Fate and transport models were used to support the dose assessment and the evaluation of groundwater concentrations. Exposure assessment was based on site-specific scenarios, since the traditional human exposure scenarios suggested by DOE and NRC guidance are unrealistic for this site. Because the U-238 in DU waste reaches peak radioactivity (secular equilibrium) after 2 million years (My) following its separation, the PA must also evaluate the impact of climate change cycles, including the return of pluvial lakes such as Lake Bonneville. The first draft of the PA has been submitted to the State of Utah for review. The results of this preliminary analysis indicate that doses are very low for the site

  19. Measurement and analysis of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate in depleted uranium/polyethylene shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to check the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, a depleted uranium/polyethylene simulation device with alternate shells has been established. The measurement of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate was carried out using an activation technique, by measuring the 208 keV γ rays emitted from 237U. The self-absorption of depleted uranium foils with different thicknesses was experimentally corrected. The distribution of the 238U (n, 2n) reaction rate at 90° to the incident D+ beam was obtained, with uncertainty between 5.3% and 6.0%. The experiment was analyzed using MCNP5 code with the ENDF/BVI library, and the calculated results are all about 5% higher than the measured results. (authors)

  20. Measurement and analysis of the 238U(n, 2n) reaction rate in depleted uranium/polyethylene shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-Song; LIU Rong; LU Xin-Xin; JIANG Li; WEN Zhong-Wei; HAN Zi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    In order to check the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in a fnsion-fission hybrid reactor,a depleted uranium/polyethylene simulation device with alternate shells has been established.The measurement of the 238U(n,2n) reaction rate was carried out using an activation technique,by measuring the 208 keV γ rays emitted from 237 U.The self-absorption of depleted uranium foils with different thicknesses was experimentally corrected.The distribution of the 238U(n,2n) reaction rate at 90° to the incident D+ beam was obtained,with uncertainty between 5.3% and 6.0%.The experiment was analyzed using MCNP5 code with the ENDF/BVI library,and the calculated results are all about 5% higher than the measured results.

  1. The use of depleted uranium in II Gulf War and its impact on Iraq and the perspective of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the piece radioactive depleted uranium is a mineral density of 1.7 times heavier than lead a radiation active low level remains on the uranium used as fuel in nuclear reactors or after the manufacture of atomic bombs, and when it enters this dust into the body either by breathing or eating it causes harm caused by toxic chemotherapy and radiation in each of the bronchi and bronchial lung damage and also damage to the kidneys, liver, bone and the incidence of cancer and the potential for causing damage to the gene, Americans and British used between 300-800 tons of depleted uranium irradiated in ammunition were distributed in the deserts of Kuwait and southern Iraq in the 1991 II Gulf War when it began U.S. tanks, planes and Warthog A-10 using this ammunition against the Iraqi army Russian was measured by the level of radiation in the region by the Environmental Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Baghdad and found equal to that between several hundred to a thousand times the natural level of radiation to the soil of lraq, which is (70 bq/kg) of the soil and congenital malformations of newborns has increased 7 times the rate in 1990 as the use of depleted uranium in the war against Iraq caused thousands of cancer cases among civilians in the Iraq and the so-called symptoms of Gulf War illness or disease, the curse of Iraq suffered by many soldiers, members of the U.S. and Europe are due to exposure to radiation from depleted uranium, in addition to this has started to show thousands of cases of deformity among Iraqi children who were born after the war and the high proportion of children of war veterans were born and their distortions or suffering from acute illness. The Piece Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter of Human Rights and the Treaty of the Organization of Armed Conflict, Conventions and Protocols to the Four Geneva and UN Resolution 1540, for the year 2004, and the principles of international law are

  2. Simulation and analysis of experimental plutonium production rates in depleted uranium sphere bombarded by 14 MeV neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the measurement of plutonium production rates resulting from 14 MeV neutrons in depleted uranium sphere, the experimental results and influencing factors were simulated and analyzed with MCNP5 code. It shows that simulant plutonium production rates from uresa and endf66c agree very well with experimental results, simulant effects on plutonium production rates by cavity, construction materials and water lays and background neutrons etc., are slight. (authors)

  3. Global transcriptional analysis of short-term hepatic stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    You Song; Brit Salbu; Hans-Christian Teien; Lene Sørlie Heier; Bjørn Olav Rosseland; Tore Høgåsen; Knut Erik Tollefsen

    2014-01-01

    Potential environmental hazards of radionuclides are often studied at the individual level. Sufficient toxicogenomics data at the molecular/cellular level for understanding the effects and modes of toxic action (MoAs) of radionuclide is still lacking. The current article introduces transcriptomic data generated from a recent ecotoxicological study, with the aims to characterize the MoAs of a metallic radionuclide, deplete uranium (DU) in an ecologically and commercially important fish species...

  4. A study on oxidative stress and peripheral blood parameters of cows bred in the area exposed to depleted uranium ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Jelka Ž.; Kovačević-Filipović Milica; Vlaški Marija; Popović Dragana L.; Borozan Sunčica Z.; Jović Slavoljub Z.; Božić Tatjana P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of the study on depleted uranium (DU) health effects on cows bred in areas exposed to DU ammunition, during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. The samples of animal blood, soils and feed were collected randomly in the region of Bujanovac, in 2003. Complete blood cells count was performed according to standard laboratory procedures. Concentration of red blood cells malondialdehyde (RBC MDA) and erythrocyte superoxid dismutase (SOD) activity were determine...

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne depleted uranium on the digestive tract of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a naturally occurring element, but activities linked to the nuclear fuel cycle can increase background levels in the surrounding waters. For this reason it is important to understand how this affects organisms residing in the water column. The objective of this study was to assess histopathological effects of uranium on the gut wall of a widely used model organism: zebrafish, Danio rerio. To this end we exposed zebrafish to 84 and 420 nM depleted uranium for over a month and then examined the histology of intestines of exposed individuals compared to controls. The gut wall of individuals exposed to 84 and 420 nM of uranium had large regions of degraded mucosa. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX) we found that uranium induced a decrease in the amount of calcium containing mitochondrial matrix granules per mitochondria. This is suggestive of perturbations to cellular metabolism and more specifically to cellular calcium homeostasis. TEM-EDX of the gut wall tissue further showed that some uranium was internalized in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the 420 nM treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using specific probes to detect all eubacteria was performed on frozen sections of 6 individual fish in the 84 nM and 420 nM treatments. Bacterial colonization of the gut of individuals in the 420 nM seemed to differ from that of the controls and 84 nM individuals. We suggest that host–microbiota interactions are potentially disturbed in response to uranium induced stress. The damage induced by waterborne uranium to the gut wall did not seem to depend on the concentration of uranium in the media. We measure whole body residues of uranium at the end of the experiment and compute the mean dose rate absorbed for each condition. We discuss why effects might be uncoupled from external concentration and highlight that it is not so much the external concentration but the dynamics

  6. Embryo Toxic Effects of Depleted Uranium on the Morphology of the Mouse Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at dif...

  7. Depleted uranium: A study of its uses in the UK and disposal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Bob

    2002-03-01

    Full text: The Environment Agency recently published a contract R and D report, by John Jackson of Alan Martin Associates, on depleted uranium (DU). The report documents a scoping study on the uses of DU; the civil non-nuclear applications for DU were a particular focus of the scoping study. The study was commissioned following a series of DU related incidents, including the crash of the Korean Airlines' Boeing 747 at Stansted in late 1999. There had also been an assertion in the Guardian (21 August 2000) that as much as 50 tonnes of DU is lying in UK scrapyards. The report confirms that the quantities referred to in the Guardian are groundless. The report provides information and guidance to the Agency's staff who regulate radioactive substances in England and Wales. The report does not attempt to review the health effects of DU (separate health studies have been carried out by the Royal Society and others). A range of non-nuclear uses of DU are identified in the report: Transportable shielded containers for radioactive sources, Aircraft counterbalance weights, Piling equipment (civil engineering), Radiation shielding (hospitals, universities, etc), Armour piercing ammunition, Uranium catalysts, and Ceramic glazes. The report concludes that there is, in total, less than 50 tonnes of DU in use in the UK outside of military and nuclear applications. The report identifies the aircraft salvage and recycling industry as having a significant risk of DU being lost from regulatory control. (Awareness and vigilance need to be maintained; in February 2001 in Ohio, USA, 53 tonnes of aluminium ingots from an aircraft recycling operation were found to be contaminated with DU from counterweights that had not been segregated prior to smelting.) The report highlights the absence of a UK disposal route for substantial quantities of DU. The BNFL site at Drigg cannot accept DU because in its undiluted state it is categorised as intermediate level waste. Whilst redundant DU

  8. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques (μ-XRF, μ-XANES, μ-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO3.2.25H2O), dehydrated schoepite (UO3.0.75H2O) and metaschoepite (UO3.2.0H2O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 ± 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO2, UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO2,34 phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles, they indicate that the structure and extractability of

  9. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Janssens, K.; Jaroszewicz, J.; De Nolf, W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques ({mu}-XRF, {mu}-XANES, {mu}-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.25H{sub 2}O), dehydrated schoepite (UO{sub 3}.0.75H{sub 2}O) and metaschoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.0H{sub 2}O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 {+-} 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO{sub 2}, UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO{sub 2,34} phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles

  10. Exposure to depleted uranium does not alter the co-expression of HER-2/neu and p53 in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Toriahi Kaswer M; Jumaa Alaa S; Al-Janabi Asad A; Al-Mumen Mais M; Yasseen Akeel A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Amongst the extensive literature on immunohistochemical profile of breast cancer, very little is found on populations exposed to a potential risk factor such as depleted uranium. This study looked at the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) and p53 in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, where the population has been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. Findings The present investigation was per...

  11. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  12. Effect of acetaminophen administration to rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive use of depleted uranium (DU) in both civilian and military applications results in the increase of the number of human beings exposed to this compound. We previously found that DU chronic exposure induces the expression of CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (drugs). In order to evaluate the consequences of these changes on the metabolism of a drug, rats chronically exposed to DU (40 mg/l) were treated by acetaminophen (APAP, 400 mg/kg) at the end of the 9-month contamination. Acetaminophen is considered as a safe drug within the therapeutic range but in the case of overdose or in sensitive animals, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity could occur. In the present work, plasma concentration of APAP was higher in the DU group compared to the non-contaminated group. In addition, administration of APAP to the DU-exposed rats increased plasma ALT (p < 0.01) and AST (p < 0.05) more rapidly than in the control group. Nevertheless, no histological alteration of the liver was observed but renal injury characterized by incomplete proximal tubular cell necrosis was higher for the DU-exposed rats. Moreover, in the kidney, CYP2E1 gene expression, an important CYP responsible for APAP bioactivation and toxicity, is increased (p < 0.01) in the DU-exposed group compared to the control group. In the liver, CYP's activities were decreased between control and DU-exposed rats. These results could explain the worse elimination of APAP in the plasma and confirm our hypothesis of a modification of the drug metabolism following a DU chronic contamination

  13. Depleted uranium induces disruption of energy homeostasis and oxidative stress in isolated rat brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is emerging as an environmental pollutant primarily due to its military applications. Gulf War veterans with embedded DU showed cognitive disorders that suggest that the central nervous system is a target of DU. Recent evidence has suggested that DU could induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of DU toxicity in brain mitochondria are not yet well understood. Brain mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation and were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μM) of uranyl acetate (UA) as a soluble salt of U(238) for 1 h. In this research, mitochondrial ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were examined by flow cytometry following the addition of UA. Meanwhile, mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined using specific substrates and inhibitors. Complex II and IV activity and also the extent of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) oxidation were detected via spectroscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the concentration of ATP and ATP/ADP ratio using luciferase enzyme and cytochrome c release from mitochondria which was detected by ELISA kit. UA caused concentration-dependent elevation of succinate-linked mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation, GSH oxidation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex II. UA also induced mitochondrial permeability transition, ATP production decrease and increase in cytochrome c release. Pre-treatment with antioxidants significantly inhibited all the above mentioned toxic effects of UA. This study suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in brain mitochondria may play a key role in DU neurotoxicity as reported in Gulf War Syndrome. PMID:23629690

  14. The Evolution of Depleted Uranium as an Environmental Risk Factor: Lessons from Other Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Briner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is used in both civilian and military applications. Civilian uses are primarily limited to ballast and counterweights in ships and aircraft with limited risk of environmental release. The very nature of the military use of DU releases DU into the environment. DU released into the environment from military use takes the form of large fragments that are chemically unchanged and dust in the form of oxides. DU dust is nearly insoluble, respirable and shows little mobility in the soil. Exposure to DU occurs primarily from inhalation of dust and possible hand to mouth activity. Toxicity of DU is believed to be primarily chemical in nature with radiological activity being a lesser problem. DU has been shown to have a variety of behavioral and neurological effects in experimental animals. DU has been used the Balkans, Afghanistan, and both Iraq wars and there is a high probability of its use in future conflicts. Further, other nations are developing DU weaponry; some of these nations may use DU with a greater radiological risk than those currently in use. The toxicity of DU has been studied mostly as an issue of the health of military personnel. However, many tons of DU have been left in the former theater of war and indigenous populations continue to be exposed to DU, primarily in the form of dust. Little epidemiological data exists concerning the impact of DU on these groups. It may be possible to extrapolate what the effects of DU may be on indigenous groups by examining the data on similar metals. DU has many similarities to lead in its route of exposure, chemistry, metabolic fate, target organs, and effect of experimental animals. Studies should be conducted on indigenous groups using lead as a model when ascertaining if DU has an adverse effect.

  15. Immunological changes of chronic oral exposure to depleted uranium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhangyou; Liu, Cong; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2013-07-01

    Direct ingestion of contaminated soil by depleted uranium (DU) might lead to internal exposure to DU by local populations through hand contamination. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunological changes of long-term exposure to various doses of DU in mice. Three-week-old Kunming mice were divided into the following 4 groups based on the various feeding doses (containing DU): 0 (control group), 3 (DU3 group), 30 (DU30 group), and 300 mg/kg feed (DU300 group). After 4 months of exposure, in the DU300 group, the innate immune function decreased, manifesting as decreased secretion of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the peritoneal macrophages, as well as reduced cytotoxicity of the splenic natural killer cells. Moreover, the cellular and humoral immune functions were abnormal, as manifested by decreased proliferation of the splenic T cells, proportion of the cluster of differentiation (CD) 3(+) cells, ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells and delayed-type hypersensitivity, and increased proliferation of the splenic B cells, total serum immunoglobin (Ig) G and IgE, and proportion of splenic mIgM(+)mIgD(+) cells. Through stimulation, the secretion levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α in the splenic cells were reduced, and the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were increased. By comparison, in the DU30 and DU3 groups, the effects were either minor or indiscernible. In conclusions, chronic intake of higher doses of DU (300 mg/kg) had a significant impact on the immune function, most likely due to an imbalance in T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokines. PMID:23659960

  16. Combined effects of depleted uranium and ionising radiation on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C Y P; Pereira, S; Cheng, S H; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J; Yu, K N

    2015-11-01

    In the environment, living organisms are exposed to a mixture of stressors, and the combined effects are deemed as multiple stressor effects. In the present work, the authors studied the multiple stressor effect in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) from simultaneous exposure to alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) through quantification of apoptotic signals at 24 h post-fertilisation (hpf) revealed by vital dye acridine orange staining. In each set of experiments, dechorionated zebrafish embryos were divided into 4 groups, each having 10 embryos: Group (C) in which the embryos did not receive any further treatment; Group (IU) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and were then exposed to 100 µg l(-1) of DU from 5 to 6 hpf; Group (I) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and Group (U) in which the dechorionated embryos were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) of DU from 5 to 6 hpf. The authors confirmed that an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy and a DU exposure for 1 h separately led to hormetic and toxic effects assessed by counting apoptotic signals, respectively, in the zebrafish. Interestingly, the combined exposure led to an effect more toxic than that caused by the DU exposure alone, so effectively DU changed the beneficial effect (hormesis) brought about by alpha-particle irradiation into an apparently toxic effect. This could be explained in terms of the promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by the small alpha-particle dose (i.e. hormetic effect) and the postponement of cell death upon DU exposure. PMID:25948823

  17. The evolution of depleted uranium as an environmental risk factor: lessons from other metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne E

    2006-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is used in both civilian and military applications. Civilian uses are primarily limited to ballast and counterweights in ships and aircraft with limited risk of environmental release. The very nature of the military use of DU releases DU into the environment. DU released into the environment from military use takes the form of large fragments that are chemically unchanged and dust in the form of oxides. DU dust is nearly insoluble, respirable and shows little mobility in the soil. Exposure to DU occurs primarily from inhalation of dust and possible hand to mouth activity. Toxicity of DU is believed to be primarily chemical in nature with radiological activity being a lesser problem. DU has been shown to have a variety of behavioral and neurological effects in experimental animals. DU has been used the Balkans, Afghanistan, and both Iraq wars and there is a high probability of its use in future conflicts. Further, other nations are developing DU weaponry; some of these nations may use DU with a greater radiological risk than those currently in use. The toxicity of DU has been studied mostly as an issue of the health of military personnel. However, many tons of DU have been left in the former theater of war and indigenous populations continue to be exposed to DU, primarily in the form of dust. Little epidemiological data exists concerning the impact of DU on these groups. It may be possible to extrapolate what the effects of DU may be on indigenous groups by examining the data on similar metals. DU has many similarities to lead in its route of exposure, chemistry, metabolic fate, target organs, and effect of experimental animals. Studies should be conducted on indigenous groups using lead as a model when ascertaining if DU has an adverse effect. PMID:16823086

  18. Reproductive toxicity in rats after chronic oral exposure to low dose of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the reproductive toxicity in rats induced by low dose of depleted uranium (DU). Methods: Male and female rats(F0 generation) were exposed to DU in food at doses of 0, 0.4, 4 and 40 mg·kg-1·d-1 for 160 days, respectively. Then the activities of enzymes in testis and sexual hormone contents in serum were detected. Mature male rats were mated with female rats exposed to the same doses for 14 days. Pregnant rate and normal labor rate in F0 rats were detected, as well as the survival rate and weight of F1 rats within 21 d after birth. Results: No adverse effects of DU on fertility were evident at any dose in F0 rats. Compared with control group, the rate of pregnancy, normal labor, survival of offspring birth and offspring nurture in F1 generation of high-dose group reduced to 40.0%, 33.3%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sexual hormone contents in F0 generation exposed increased, but those in Fl rats decreased significantly. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) decreased in F1 rats exposed to high-dose of DU, and those of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), LDH and Na+-K+-ATPase decreased in F1 rats exposed to DU. Conclusions: Reproduction function, growth and development of F0 rats are not obviously affected after chronic oral exposure to DU, while the toxicity effects in F1 generation was observed at any dose. (authors)

  19. Combined effects of depleted uranium and ionising radiation on zebra fish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment, living organisms are exposed to a mixture of stressors, and the combined effects are deemed as multiple stressor effects. In the present work, the authors studied the multiple stressor effect in embryos of the zebra fish (Danio rerio) from simultaneous exposure to alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) through quantification of apoptotic signals at 24 h post-fertilisation (hpf) revealed by vital dye acridine orange staining. In each set of experiments, dechorionated zebra fish embryos were divided into 4 groups, each having 10 embryos: Group (C) in which the embryos did not receive any further treatment; Group (IU) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and were then exposed to 100 μg l-1 of DU from 5 to 6 hpf; Group (I) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and Group (U) in which the dechorionated embryos were exposed to 100 μg l-1 of DU from 5 to 6 hpf. The authors confirmed that an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy and a DU exposure for 1 h separately led to hormetic and toxic effects assessed by counting apoptotic signals, respectively, in the zebra fish. Interestingly, the combined exposure led to an effect more toxic than that caused by the DU exposure alone, so effectively DU changed the beneficial effect (hormesis) brought about by alpha-particle irradiation into an apparently toxic effect. This could be explained in terms of the promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by the small alpha-particle dose (i.e. hormetic effect) and the postponement of cell death upon DU exposure. (authors)

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation

  1. Achieving Proficiencies in Economics Capstone Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeborg, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…

  2. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF6, long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  3. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF6, long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible. This volume contains Appendices A--O

  4. Improved-trapped magnetic fields in top seeded melt grown YBCO superconductor doped with depleted and enriched uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single grain Pt-free and Pt doped Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) superconductors with starting compositions YBa2Cu3Oy+30 mol% Y2O3 and containing 0.1 wt% enriched U3O8 or 0.1 wt% depleted UO2 have been fabricated using a top seeded melt growth technique. The U235 content of the samples has been varied between 0.213% and 3.003% by adding enriched U3O8 to the precursor powder. Microstructural studies show that approximately spherical, uranium-containing phase particles of diameter 300-500 nm and Y2BaCuO5 phase particles are embedded in the YBa2Cu3Oy matrix in all samples. The microstructure of YBCO doped with enriched U3O8 is compared with samples doped with depleted UO2. The chemical composition of the uranium-phase particles in Pt-free YBCO samples containing depleted uranium oxide has been identified as Y2Ba4CuUOy. Single grain bulk superconductors of starting composition YBa2Cu3Oy+20 mol% Y2O3+10 mol% Y2Ba4CuUOy have subsequently been fabricated. Significantly, the size of the U-phase particles in this sample is the same as in that doped with UO2. The magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CuUOy powder have been measured. Finally, critical current density and trapped field measurements performed on various single grain samples indicate improved superconducting properties in single grain YBCO doped with both depleted UO2 and enriched U3O8 compared to U-free material. (orig.)

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne depleted uranium on the digestive tract of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Starrlight; Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring element, but activities linked to the nuclear fuel cycle can increase background levels in the surrounding waters. For this reason it is important to understand how this affects organisms residing in the water column. The objective of this study was to assess histopathological effects of uranium on the gut wall of a widely used model organism: zebrafish, Danio rerio. To this end we exposed zebrafish to 84 and 420 nM depleted uranium for over a month and then examined the histology of intestines of exposed individuals compared to controls. The gut wall of individuals exposed to 84 and 420 nM of uranium had large regions of degraded mucosa. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX) we found that uranium induced a decrease in the amount of calcium containing mitochondrial matrix granules per mitochondria. This is suggestive of perturbations to cellular metabolism and more specifically to cellular calcium homeostasis. TEM-EDX of the gut wall tissue further showed that some uranium was internalized in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the 420 nM treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using specific probes to detect all eubacteria was performed on frozen sections of 6 individual fish in the 84 nM and 420 nM treatments. Bacterial colonization of the gut of individuals in the 420 nM seemed to differ from that of the controls and 84 nM individuals. We suggest that host-microbiota interactions are potentially disturbed in response to uranium induced stress. The damage induced by waterborne uranium to the gut wall did not seem to depend on the concentration of uranium in the media. We measure whole body residues of uranium at the end of the experiment and compute the mean dose rate absorbed for each condition. We discuss why effects might be uncoupled from external concentration and highlight that it is not so much the external concentration but the dynamics of

  6. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the

  7. Clinical diagnostic indicators of renal and bone damage in rats intramuscularly injected with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effects and changes in biochemical markers related to kidney and bone in depleted uranium (DU)-injected rats were examined in order to clarify the relation between clinical biochemical markers and the degree of damage in these organs. Male Wistar rats received a single injection in the femoral muscles of 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 mg kg-1 of DU which was dissolved in nitric acid solution adjusted to pH 3.2, for comparison with the group injected with nitric acid solution, and the control group. Urine and faeces were collected periodically over a 24 h period. Thereafter, the rats were killed at 28 d after DU injection. The body weights of the DU-injected groups decreased dose-dependently for the first 3-7 d, and then began to increase. The DU concentrations in the urine and faeces decreased rapidly within 3-7 d after DU injection. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)/ creatinine peaked at the third day after DU injection, with a high correlation to the injected DU doses. There were high correlations among the injected DU doses, DU concentrations in the kidney and urinary NAG/ creatinine values that were obtained at 28 d, respectively. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum also showed a high correlation with the DU-injected doses. The results indicated that urinary NAG/creatinine, BUN and creatinine in serum were useful indicators to diagnose the renal damage by DU, as well as to estimate the DU intake and concentration in the kidney when the intake is >2 mg kg-1 DU. The total bone mineral density of the proximal metaphysis of the tibia decreased in the 2 mg kg-1 DU group. In addition, alterations of the trabecular bone structure by inhibiting bone formation and promoting bone resorption were observed by bone histo-morphometry. The bone biochemical markers osteo-calcin, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase, pyridinoline and rat-parathyroid hormone increased in all the DU injected groups, indicating that these markers were useful as sensitive

  8. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  9. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.oeh@gsf.de; Priest, N.D. [Middlesex University, School of Health and Social Sciences, Queensway, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom); Roth, P. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ragnarsdottir, K.V. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Li, W.B. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hoellriegl, V. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Thirlwall, M.F. [Royal Holloway University of London, Department of Geology, Egham, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Michalke, B. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, A. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Schramel, P. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Paretzke, H.G. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD = 2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios were within {+-} 0.3% of the natural value, and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U was less than 2 x 10{sup -7}, indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or

  10. Concentration, distribution and characteristics of depleted uranium (DU) in the Kosovo ecosystem. A comparison with the uranium behavior in the environment uncontaminated by DU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The smear samples of the penetrator were analyzed for the determination of the uranium composition. The obtained relative composition (m/m) of uranium isotopes in all the smear samples is in the range of 99.76-99.78% for 238U, 0.000659-0.000696% for 234U, 0.213-0.234% for 235U, and 0.00274-0.00328% for 236U, showing characteristics of depleted uranium (DU). The uranium concentrations in Kosovo soil and water samples as well as biological samples were investigated. It was found that the uranium concentrations in the Kosovo soil samples are in the range of 11.3-2.26 x 105 Bq x kg-1 for 238U, 10.3-3.01 x 104 Bq x kg-1 for 234U, 0.60-3251 Bq x kg-1 for 235U, and ≤0.019-1309 Bq x kg-1 for 236U. The obtained activity ratios are in the range of 0.112-1.086 for 234U/238U, 0.0123-0.1144 for 235U/238U, and 0-0.0078 for 236U/238U, indicating the presence of DU in about 77% of the surface soil samples. At a specific site, the DU inventory in the surface soil is about 140 mg x cm-2, which is 1.68 x 106 times higher as the estimated mean DU dispersion rate in the region. The uranium concentrations in Kosovo lichen, mushroom, bark, etc., are in the range of 1.97-4.06 x 104 Bq x kg-1 for 238U, 0.48-5158 Bq x kg-1 for 234U, 0.032-617 Bq x kg-1 for 235U, and ≤0.019-235 Bq x kg-1 for 236U with mean activity ratios of 0.325 ± 0.0223 for 234U/238U, of 0.0238 ±0.0122 for 235U/238U, and 0.0034 ±0.0028 for 236U/238U, indicating the presence of DU in the entire sample. On the contrary, the uranium concentrations in Kosovo water samples are low, compared with the water samples collected in central Italy, indicating the presence of negligible amount of DU. The uranium isotopes in Kosovo waters do not constitute a risk of health at the present time. (author)

  11. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD = 2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. 235U/238U ratios were within ± 0.3% of the natural value, and 236U/238U was less than 2 x 10-7, indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  12. Uranium isotopic analysis of depleted uranium in presence of other radioactive materials by using nondestructive gamma-ray measurements in coaxial and planar Ge detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The isotopic abundance of depleted uranium samples in the presence of other radioactive materials, especially actinide isotopes such as Th 232, Np 237-Pa 233 and Am 241 can be determined from two gamma-ray spectrometric methods. One is the absolute method which employs non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry for energies below 1001 keV using a coaxial Ge detector calibrated with a set of standards. The other is the multi-group analysis (MGA) method using the low energy region (< 300 keV) with a planar Ge detector intrinsically calibrated with gamma and X-rays of uranium without use of standards. At present absolute method, less intense but cleaner gamma peaks at 163.33 keV (5.08 percent) and 205 keV(5.01 percent) of U 235 are preferred over more intense peaks at 143.76 keV(10.76 percent), possible interference with 143.25 keV(0.44 percent) of Np 237 and 185.705 keV(57.2 percent), possible interference with 186.21 keV(3.51 percent) of Ra 226. In the high energy region the 1001.03 keV(0.837 percent) peak of Pa 234 m is used for the isotopic abundance analysis because the more intense 63.3 keV peak of Th 234 daughter of U 238 parent has a fully multiplet(62.86 keV+63.29 keV) and include the interferences of the 62.70 keV(1.5 percent) peak of Pa 234, the 63.81 keV(0.263 percent) peak of Th 232 and the 63.90 keV(0.011 percent) peak of Np 237. Although the MGA method is quicker and more practical, the more laborious absolute gamma spectrometric method can give more accurate results for the isotopic determination of depleted uranium samples. The relative uranium abundances obtained with the second method (i,e., MGA) are in general inconsistent with the declared values for the uranium samples in the presence of the above mentioned actinides. The reason for these erroneous results is proposed to be the interference of the gamma and X-rays of uranium in the 80-130 keV region used in MGA with those emissions from other radioactive materials present

  13. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys

  14. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  15. Report of the panel on the use of depleted uranium alloys for large caliber long rod kinetic energy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1977 the National Materials Advisory Board, an operating unit in the Commission on Sociotechnical Systems of the National Research Council, NAS/NAE, formed a study committee on High Density Materials for Kinetic Energy Penetrators. The Specific objectives of the Committee were defined as follows. Assess the potential of two materials for use in kinetic energy penetrators, including such factors as: (a) properties (as applied to this application: strength, toughness, and dynamic behavior); (b) uniformity, reliability and reproducibility; (c) deterioration in storage; (d) production capability; (e) ecological impact; (f) quality assurance; (g) availability, and (h) cost. The Committee was divided into two Panels; one panel devoted to the study of tungsten alloys and the other devoted to the study of depleted uranium alloys for use in Kinetic energy penetrators. This report represents the findings and recommendation of the Panel on Uranium

  16. A comparison of delayed radiological effects of depleted-uranium ammunitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium ammunitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable - although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections. From a strategic perspective, the breaking of the taboo against the intentional battle-field use of radioactive materials, which lasted from 1945 to 1991, can therefore be interpreted as a preparation for the progressive introduction of fourth-generation nuclear weapons whose battle-field use will cause a low (but non-negligible) radioactive environment. It can therefore be argued that besides its military function, the use of depleted-uranium in Iraq and Yugoslavia may have served a political purpose: to soften the opposition of the Western public opinion to the induction of radioactivity on the battle-field, and to get the World population accustomed to the combat use of depleted-uranium and fourth-generation nuclear weapons. (author)

  17. Investigation of Depleted Uranium Contamination in the south parts of Qatar using Gamma ray spectroscopy and (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before and during the second Gulf War training of the international forces in the Gulf region, depleted uranium (D U) emanations used in southern parts of Iraq and northern Kuwait and southern part of Saudi Arabia. These activities were led to the contamination of the region with D U. Because of the possibility of creeping D U particles to the south of Qatar.Twenty one sample of soil were collected from the south of Qatar near Saudi borders. The samples were analyzed by two method, inductively coupled plasma mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Gamma ray spectroscopy. Since the isotopic abundance of uranium in D U is different than that in nature, the only evidence of D U contamination is the disruption of the natural isotopic abundance i,e 235U/238U. The measurement shows that the region is not contaminated with depleted uranium since the235U/238U ratio is nearly 0.00709 which is the ratio for natural uranium .Gamma ray spectroscopy methods are well known analytical methods for the determination of most long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples. ICP.MS technique is very sensitive, accurate, rapid and low cost techniques for the determination low level of many long-lived radionuclides, with small sample amount needed for the analysis. Its detection limits comparable to the Gamma ray spectroscopy methods and rapid analytical capacity. However no single analytical technique can be better than other. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses. In general, ICP.MS techniques are good complementary to the Gamma ray spectroscopy techniques for the determination of most of long-lived radionuclides .The results of ICP-MS are nearly the same and more accurate than the method of gamma ray spectroscopy which is not effected by the sampling, calibration and statistical error.

  18. Radiological Conditions in Selected Areas of Southern Iraq with Residues of Depleted Uranium. Report by an International Group of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.

  19. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battlefield use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical pri...

  20. Method for measuring prompt gamma-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jianguo; Lai, Caifeng; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spect...

  1. EBSD characterisation of Y2Ba4CuUOx phase in melttextured YBCO with addition of depleted uranium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Koblischka-Veneva, A; Mücklich, F; Koblischka, MR; Hari Babu, N.; Cardwell, DA

    2006-01-01

    Melt-textured YBCO samples processed with added Y2O3 and depleted uranium oxide (DU) contain nano-particles, which have been identified previously as Y2Ba4CuUOx (U-411). This phase has a cubic unit cell, which is clearly distinct from the orthorhombic Y-123 and Y-211 phases within the YBCO system. In samples with a high amount of DU addition (0.8 wt-% DU), U-2411 particles have sizes between 200 nm and several νm, so identification of the Kikuchi patterns of this phase becomes possible. Toget...

  2. CHANGES OF INDICATORS OF THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND HAEMOPOIESIS AT INKORPORATION OF THE DEPLETED URANIUM IN THE EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Gerasimov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article is considered the experiment with incorporation of the solution of the mixed oxides of the depleted uranium to laboratory animals (the rats and following the cytological study of the peripheral blood and marrow after influence. The changes of indicators of the peripheral blood and haemopoiesis of experimental animals are indicative of the effort processes of indemnification, that shows depleted uranium’s radioactive and toxicological effects and insolvency of natural protective mechanisms of the organism. The results of the research have shown that changes of the haemopoiesis were ambiguous. There was shown the oppression myeloid haemopoiesis and leukopenia to the third month of the experiment. In same time existed the increase an erythroid parts of hemopoiesis. The parameters of the peripheral blood and haemopoiesis to completion of the experiment did not reach checking importances that points to practicability of the long observation for animal after one-shot influence with DU.

  3. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of implanted depleted uranium (DU) in CD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfsten, D P; Still, K R; Wilfong, E R; Johnson, E W; McInturf, S M; Eggers, J S; Schaeffer, D J; Bekkedal, M Y-V

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and armor plating have been used in several conflicts over the last 17 yr, including the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War. Because of its effectiveness and availability, DU will continue to be used in military applications into the foreseeable future. There is much controversy over the use of DU in weapons and equipment because of its potential radiological and toxic hazards, and there is concern over the chronic adverse health effects of embedded DU shrapnel in war veterans and bystanders. This study evaluated the effects of long-term implantation of DU on the reproductive success of F0 generation adults and development and survival of subsequent F1 and F2 generations in a two-generation reproductive toxicity study. F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 wk of age, were surgically implanted with 0, 4, 8, 12, or 20 DU pellets (1 x 2 mm). Inert implant control animals were implanted with 12 or 20 tantallum (Ta) pellets. The F0 generation was then mated at 120 d post DU implantation. In the F0 generation, when measured on postimplantation d 27 and 117, uranium was present in the urine of DU-implanted animals in a dose-dependent manner. F0 reproductive success was similar across treatment groups and the maternal retrieval test revealed no changes in maternal behavior. DU implantation exerted no effect on the survival, health, or well-being of the F0 generation. Necropsy results of F0 animals were negative with the exception of a marked inflammatory response surrounding the implanted DU pellets. For the F1 generation, measures of F1 development through postnatal day (PND) 20 were unremarkable and no gross abnormalities were observed in F1 offspring. No uranium was detected in whole-body homogenates of PND 4 or PND 20 pups. Necropsy findings of F1 PND 20 pups were negative and no instances of ribcage malformation were observed in F1 PND 20 pups. Body weight and body weight gain of F1 rats through PND 120 were similar across treatment

  4. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F: A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average 235U enrichment of 47 atom %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was 235U or 239Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F

  5. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3

  6. Packaging and transportation of depleted uranium for disposition from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produced a large inventory of depleted uranium trioxide (DUO) in a powder form packaged in approximately 36,000 55-gallon drums that required final disposition. Each drum weighs an average of 680 kg (1,500 pounds) with some as much as 820 kg (1,800 pounds). The weight, and the fact that the material is in a powder form, requires detailed planning concerning the packaging and transportation (P and T) that must be used. Four disposition campaigns have been completed with the first in Fiscal Year 2003 (FY03), the second in FY04/05, and the most recent two campaigns being completed in early FY09. The remaining inventory of approximately 16,000 drums will likely follow similar paths in the future. This paper will describe the DUO inventory and the thought process behind determining the appropriate P and T for each campaign, very briefly covering the first two campaigns and emphasizing the most recent campaigns. In FY03, SRS completed a pilot project that disposed of 3,270 55-gallon drums of DUO. The shipping method used 110-ton mill gondola rail-cars with a polypropylene coated fabric liner as the DOT 'strong, tight' package. These rail-cars were shipped to the EnergySolutions low level waste (LLW) disposal facility in Clive, UT (previously Envirocare of Utah now referred to in this paper as the Clive Facility) for final disposition of the DUO as LLW. In FY04/05, an additional 7,296 drums that were over-packed in 85-gallon drums were shipped in boxcars (not part of the packaging) since the overpacks were qualified as IP-2 containers due to the excessive weight of the drums (over 680 kg each) to the Clive Facility. The two most recent campaigns consisted of: 1) 5,408 55-gallon drums that were shipped to the Clive Facility in 52.5-foot gondola rail-cars with fiberglass lids; the rail-car itself was the package as well as the conveyance, and 2) 4014 55-gallon drums that were shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 20-foot modified cargo

  7. Expression of VEGF in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in an Iraqi population subjected to depleted uranium: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbasi, Dhafer S; Al-Janabi, As'ad A; Al-Toriahi, Kaswer M; Jabor, Thekra A; Yasseen, Akeel A

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression and the grade, size, and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the south of Iraq, which includes regions that have been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. The study also sought to evaluate whether there is any biomarker in the expression that could be correlated with the increased incidence of this type of cancer in the exposed areas. Samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 54 patients (41 males and 13 females) with TCC and from 32 patients with benign bladder lesions (cystitis) used as controls were included in this study. The avidin-biotin complex method was used for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. VEGF immunoexpression was positive in 77.77% of TCC but was not found in benign bladder lesions (cystitis) (P0.05). These findings support the role of VEGF in the carcinogenesis of TCC regarding evolution, behavior, and aggressiveness. Hence, VEGF could be considered as a poor prognostic parameter in bladder cancer. No positive correlation between immunohistochemical expression and the high incidence of TCC was detected (R=depleted uranium. PMID:19151604

  8. Haematological malignancies in childhood in Croatia: Investigating the theories of depleted uranium, chemical plant damage and 'population mixing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of potential causes proposed to explain the reported increase of haematological malignancies in childhood during or after the war period in several countries include depleted uranium, chemical pollution and population mixing theory. The aim of this study was to define the population of Croatian children aged 0-14 years who were potentially exposed to each of those risks during the war and to investigate any possible association between the exposure and the incidence of haematological malignancies. The authors analyzed the data reported by the Cancer Registry of Croatia during the pre-war period (1986-1990), war period (1991-1995) and post-war period (1996-1999). In the group of 10 counties potentially exposed to depleted uranium and two counties where chemical war damage occurred, no significant difference in incidence of the studied haematological malignancies was noted in comparison to pre-war period. The incidence of lymphatic leukaemia significantly increased in four counties where population mixing had occurred during the war period, supporting the 'mixing theory'. In those counties, the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma decreased during and after the war. In Croatia as a whole, decreases in incidence of myeloid leukaemias during war and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after the war were noted

  9. A study assessing the genotoxicity in rats after chronic oral exposure to a low dose of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential genotoxicity induced by chronic oral exposure to depleted uranium (DU). Weanling Wistar rats (F0), 50/sex/group, were exposed to DU in food at doses of 0, 4, or 40 mg kg-1 day-1 for four months. They were subsequently mated, resulting in the birth of F1 rats. Fifty F1 weanlings/sex/group were exposed for four months to the same dose levels as their parents. After four months, the uranium content in the tissues, the potential damage to the genetic material, and pathomorphological changes of the testicles were observed in both F0 and F1 rats. The genotoxicity of DU was evaluated by the following methods: sperm abnormality assessment, the bone-marrow micronucleus test, and the comet assay. Uranium content in F1 rats was significantly higher than that in F0 rats in both the kidney and ovary (p1 with F0 rats, significant differences were detected for most of the indicators, with F1 rats always exhibiting more damage (p1 rats. Genotoxicity may be induced in rats after chronic oral exposure to a low dose of DU. (author)

  10. Determination of percentage 235U in depleted uranium by combination of gamma spectrometry and potentiometry and comparison with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma ray spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of percentage 235U in the depleted uranium samples. The concentration of 235U was determined by gamma spectrometry while that of total uranium by potentiometry. The values compared well with those obtained by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. A value of 0.614± 0.006 and 0.617 ± 005 were obtained by gamma spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry respectively for a set of ten measurements. (author)

  11. Observation of radiation-specific damage in human cells exposed to depleted uranium: dicentric frequency and neoplastic transformation as endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a dense heavy metal used primarily in military applications. Published data from our laboratory have demonstrated that DU exposure in vitro to immortalised human osteoblast cells (HOS) is both neoplastically transforming and genotoxic. DU possesses both a radiological (alpha-particle) and chemical (metal) component. Since DU has a low specific activity in comparison to natural uranium, it is not considered to be a significant radiological hazard. The potential contribution of radiation to DU-induced biological effects is unknown and the involvement of radiation in DU-induced biological effects could have significant implication for current risk estimates for internalised DU exposure. Two approaches were used to address this question. The frequency of dicentrics was measured in HOS cells following DU exposure in vitro. Data demonstrated that DU exposure (50 μM, 24h) induced a significant elevation in dicentric frequency in vitro in contrast to incubation with the heavy metals, nickel and tungsten which did not increase dicentric frequency above background levels. Using the same concentration (50 μM) of three uranyl nitrate compounds that have different uranium isotopic concentrations and therefore, different specific activities, the effect on neoplastic transformation in vitro was examined. HOS cells were exposed to one of three-uranyl nitrate compounds (238U-uranyl nitrate, specific activity 0.33 μCi.g-1: DU-uranyl nitrate, specific activity 0.44 μCi.g-1: and 235U-uranyl nitrate, specific activity 2.2 μCi.g-1) delivered at a concentration of 50 μM for 24 h. Results showed, at equal uranium concentration, there was a specific activity dependent increase in neoplastic transformation frequency. Taken together these data suggest that radiation can play a role in DU-induced biological effects in vitro. (author)

  12. Development of dual-purpose transport packing set with biological protection made of depleted uranium for transportation and long-term storage of 36 RFRA of WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to the problem of development of a promising design of a dual-purpose transport packing set (TPS-117) with biological protection made of depleted uranium for transportation and long-term storage (not less than 50 years) of RNF of WWER-1000 reactors. Use of depleted uranium as effective gamma-protection and use of siloxane rubber as a solid neutron protection in TPS-117 design allow to reach the maximum loading of container with retired nuclear fuel at the given dimensions of TPS with compliance to all requirements of the IAEA on safety. (author)

  13. Embryo toxic effects of depleted uranium on the morphology of the mouse fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at different gestation periods. For investigating the effects of DU on pregnant animals, three groups (control, sham and test) of NMRI mice were chosen. In test group 4 mg/Kg of DU were administered intraperitonealy at 11 day of gestation, in sham group only normal saline injected to interior peritoneum as indicated in the test group and in Control group which was considered as the comparison base line of our research, no injection was made. Caesarean sections were performed at 15 day of the gestation; and their placentas were examined externally. Base on our results DU caused significant external anomalies, and caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the weight and diameter of placentas, the number of the embryos, their body weight and crown-rump length of fetuses. PMID:24734072

  14. Embryo Toxic Effects of Depleted Uranium on the Morphology of the Mouse Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirderikvand, Nina; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Baharak; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shaki, Fatemeh; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Although the biokinetics, metabolism, and chemical toxicity of uranium are well known, until recently little attention was paid to the potential toxic effects of uranium on reproduction and development in mammals. In recent years, it has been shown that uranium is a developmental toxicant when given orally or subcutaneously (SC) to mice. Decreased fertility, embryo/fetal toxicity including teratogenicity, and reduced growth of the offspring have been observed following uranium exposure at different gestation periods. For investigating the effects of DU on pregnant animals, three groups (control, sham and test) of NMRI mice were chosen. In test group 4 mg/Kg of DU were administered intraperitonealy at 11 day of gestation, in sham group only normal saline injected to interior peritoneum as indicated in the test group and in Control group which was considered as the comparison base line of our research, no injection was made. Caesarean sections were performed at 15 day of the gestation; and their placentas were examined externally. Base on our results DU caused significant external anomalies, and caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the weight and diameter of placentas, the number of the embryos, their body weight and crown-rump length of fetuses. PMID:24734072

  15. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed overview of an ongoing, multinational test program that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolized materials plus volatilized fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high energy density device, HEDD. The program participants in the U.S. plus Germany, France, and the U.K., part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC have strongly supported and coordinated this research program. Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, has the lead role for conducting this research program; test program support is provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. WGSTSC partners need this research to better understand potential radiological impacts from sabotage of nuclear material shipments and storage casks, and to support subsequent risk assessments, modeling, and preventative measures. We provide a summary of the overall, multi-phase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on ''surrogate'' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide, and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. The depleted uranium oxide test rodlets were prepared by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, in France. These surrogate test rodlets closely match the diameter of the test rodlets of actual spent fuel from the H.B. Robinson reactor (high burnup PWR fuel) and the Surry reactor (lower, medium burnup PWR fuel), generated from U.S. reactors. The characterization of the spent fuels and fabrication into short, pressurized rodlets has been performed by Argonne National Laboratory, for testing at SNL. The ratio of the aerosol and respirable particles released from HEDD-impacted spent fuel to the aerosol

  16. Protective effects of ion-imprinted chitooligosaccharides as uranium-specific chelating agents against the cytotoxicity of depleted uranium in human kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) compounds can induce radiological and chemical toxicity, and an effective and specific uranium-chelating agent for clinical use is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a series of synthesized water-soluble metal-ion-imprinted chitooligosaccharides can be used as uranium-specific chelating agents, because the chitooligosaccharides have excellent heavy metal ion chelation property and the ion-imprinting technology can improve the selective recognition of template ions. DU-poisoned human renal proximal tubule epithelium cells (human kidney 2 cells, HK-2) were used to assess the detoxification of these chitooligosaccharides. The DU-chelating capacity and selectivity of the chitooligosaccharides were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cell viability, cellular accumulation of DU, membrane damage, DNA damage, and morphological changes in the cellular ultrastructure were examined to assess the detoxification of these chitooligosaccharides. The results showed that the Cu2+-imprinted chitooligosaccharides, especially the Cu2+-imprinted glutaraldehyde-crosslinked carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide (Cu-Glu-CMC), chelated DU effectively and specifically, and significantly reduced the loss of cell viability induced by DU and reduced cellular accumulation of DU in a dose-dependent manner, owing to their chelation of DU outside cells and their prevention of DU internalization. The ultrastructure observation clearly showed that Cu-Glu-CMC-chelated-DU precipitates, mostly outside cells, were grouped in significantly larger clusters, and they barely entered the cells by endocytosis or in any other way. Treatment with Cu-Glu-CMC also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced membrane damage and DNA damage induced by DU oxidant injury. Cu-Glu-CMC was more effective than the positive control drug, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), in

  17. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  18. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980's at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments

  19. The Possible Effects of Depleted Uranium (DU) Ammunition on the Environment and in Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated by the official reports, during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999 approximately 500.000 missiles were used i.e. 3600 kg of uranium oxide, yielding activity of 18,3x1010 Bq entered the environment. Yugoslav Federal Ministry of Defense announced that 8 locations in the region of Vranje, Bujanovac and Lustica Peninsula, outside Kosovo/Metohia, were hit by DU ammunition and were isolated afterwards. The soil was contaminated with 200.000-250.000 Bq uranium/kg soil but this was mainly agricultural land, far from urban areas. The report stated that no DU ammunition was used above 44th parallel. The paper presents the preliminary results of the study on environmental and animal health effects due to the use of DU ammunition during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. The samples of animal blood (sheep, caws), soils and vegetation (corps, grass, leaves) were collected randomly in the region of Bujanovac (Novo Selo, Borovac) in the spring/fall of 2003. The hematological and some biochemical parameters of the peripheral blood were analyzed: concentration of hemoglobin, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, eozinophiles, neutrophiles, serumamiloidA (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and malondialdehide in erythrocytes and blood serum. The samples were analyzed by classical manual counting methods, spectrophotometry (by Drapkin) and ELISA immunological technique. Blood samples from the control group of animals on a farm in the vicinity of Belgrade were taken and analyzed for the same parameters, too. The samples of soils and vegetation were dried up and analyzed for the contents of uranium and other natural and man made radionuclides by standard gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). The results are to be correlated with the data on the concentration of DU that entered the environment during the bombing, as well as with the data of the long-term measurements of uranium concentrations in the environment and human

  20. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A; Vitale, B; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable -- although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections.

  1. Definition of a process for the recovery of ultra traces of Pu238 from a 300 Kg depleted uranium batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to measure the half life of the double beta decay of U238, a process for the recovery of trace amounts of Pu238 (about 30 000 atoms) from a 300 kg batch of depleted uranium has been studied and tested. The process includes a Pu (IV) valency adjustment step with nitrous oxide, followed by nine chromatographic cycles (plutonium decontamination factor up to 1011 have been achieved for Th, Pa and U). The procedure to realize the alpha spectrometry measurement has also been defined. Full scale apparatus have been set in the CRN facility near STRASBOURG. The first part of the experiment (U238 purification before one year aging and measurement of the extracted Pu238 traces) has been realized. The results of the Pu traces counting allows the validation of the chemical process but also show an important Pu238 contamination certainly a consequence of the TCHERNOBYL accident. (author). 76 refs., 63 tabs., 49 figs

  2. Mutagenicity monitoring following battlefield exposures: Molecular analysis of HPRT mutations in Gulf War I veterans exposed to depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Janice A; Albertini, Richard J; Vacek, Pamela M; Ardell, Stephanie K; Carter, Elizabeth W; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Engelhardt, Susan M; Gucer, Patricia W; Squibb, Katherine S

    2015-08-01

    Molecular studies that involved cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing as well as multiplex PCR of the HPRT gene were performed to determine the molecular mutational spectrum for 1,377 HPRT mutant isolates obtained from 61 Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, most of whom were exposed to depleted uranium (DU). Mutant colonies were isolated from one to four times from each Veteran (in 2003, 2005, 2007, and/or 2009). The relative frequencies of the various types of mutations (point mutations, deletions, insertions, etc.) were compared between high versus low DU exposed groups, (based on their urine U concentration levels), with HPRT mutant frequency (as determined in the companion paper) and with a database of historic controls. The mutational spectrum includes all classes of gene mutations with no significant differences observed in Veterans related to their DU exposures. PMID:25914382

  3. Experiment on neutron transmission through depleted uranium layers and analysis with DOT 3.5 and MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction rates in the multi-layers containing depleted uranium were measured by activation foils and micro-fission chambers. The analysis of the experiment was carried out by using the multi-group transport calculation code, DOT 3.5 and the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MCNP. The multi-group calculation overpredicted the low energy reaction rates in the DU layers, while the continuous energy calculation agreed well. The multi-group and continuous energy calculation was compared for the one-dimensional transmission of iron spheres. The results revealed overprediction of the multi-group calculation near the fast neutron source. The averaging of the resonance shapes in generating the multi-group cross sections made minima of the resonance valleys higher than that of the pointwise cross section. This increased the scattering of the neutrons inside and caused the overprediction of the multi-group calculation

  4. Molding and casting process of a depleted uranium shield for a multipurpose type B (U) transport package of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticipating future demand for transport of radioisotopes, a high performance transport package (BU-MAN) with a gamma barrier built in depleted uranium (DU) has been designed by the Radioisotope and Radiation Program (P4) of CNEA in 2003. The shield is a hollow cylinder of approximately 173 mm outside diameter, 223 mm in height, a cylindrical hollow interior 63 mm diameter and 166 mm in height, and a cylindrical plug 58 mm diameter and 57 mm height. Its total weight is 84 Kg. In the period 2004-2006 the Special Alloys Group (DM-GIDAT-GAEN-CNEA) has conducted several developments in order to obtain the mentioned shield, including a manufacturing test casting SAE 1010 in a sand mold. The confirmation of its properties, mechanical and gamma shield are being evaluated by licensing tests of the whole package. In this paper we show all metallurgical processes involved to get the shield in metallic DU. (author)

  5. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products (236U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by α-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. 242Pu and 243Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 106; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS (239Pu and 240Pu) and α-spectrometry (239+240Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10-12 g g-1 and 2 x 10-11 g g-1. The 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12±0.04) was significantly lower than the 240Pu/239Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35±0.10 and 0.27±0.07). 241Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 107. The concentration of 241Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10-14 g g-1 and -15 g g-1. In addition 237Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and α-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides (236U, 239Pu,240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible. (orig.)

  6. Broadcast Journalism Education and the Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Forde, Kathy Roberts; Besley, John C.; Weir, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the current state of the television news capstone experience in accredited journalism and mass communication programs in the United States. Specifically, the authors employed a mixed-methods approach, interviewing 20 television news capstone instructors and conducting an analysis of broadcast journalism curriculum information…

  7. Capstone Course Innovation: Bloomberg Professional Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the introduction of a curricular innovation in a required capstone course: namely the Business Policy and Strategy course in the School of Business at Adelphi University. The curriculum capstone courses have tended to primarily include business related case studies and business simulation exercises. Consequently, curriculum…

  8. Interface structure and corrosion resistance of Ti/Cr nanomultilayer film prepared by magnetron sputtering on depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengfa; Wu, Yanping; Liu, Tianwei; Tang, Kai; Wei, Qiang

    2013-07-24

    Uranium has broadened utility in military and civilization; however, it is extremely apt to oxidation corrosion. Ti/Cr nanomultilayer film was prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering on the surface of depleted uranium (DU) to improve its corrosion resistance. The SEM morphologies show that Ti/Cr multilayer film has fine grain and high density. The Auger electron spectroscopy is used to investigate the depth profiles of Ti, U, and O elements of interface between DU substrate and the Ti interlayer, and indicates that the mutual diffusion area of U and Ti is formed at the interface. The TEM cross-section microstructure shows that the multilayer film has alternative Ti and Cr layers and form a perfect modulation structure. The modulation period is measured to be 4.8 nm in TEM morphology, the thickness ratio of Ti to Cr could be estimated to be about 1:2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that, after depositing Ti/Cr nanomultilayer film, the corrosion potential increases while the corrosion current density decreases obviously. The surface of Ti/Cr nanomultilayer film exhibits a pseudo passivation behavior when the polarization potential increased from -50 to 400 mV. It was indicated that, after depositing Ti/Cr nanomultilayer film by unbalanced magnetron sputtering, the corrosion resistance of DU was effectively improved. PMID:23781976

  9. Depleted Uranium. Is it potentially involved in the recent upsurge of malignancies in populations exposed to war dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleh, Hamdi H

    2012-05-01

    Due to its extreme density, depleted Uranium (DU) has recently entered the warfare industry and became a major pollutant to the biosphere. Although DU is less radioactive than natural Uranium, it still retains all its chemical toxicity. Limited data exists regarding the long-term hazards of DU on humans, however, it is suspected to be a major toxic and mutagenic agent. Literature review reveals the scarcity of the World Health Organization's knowledge regarding related DU-malignancies. Battlefield reports documented a steady rise of malignancies and newborn malformations after war, that is, leukemia in the Balkans, and congenital anomalies and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in Iraq. Kaposi sarcoma in Iraq has a quite aggressive behavior compared with the classic KS before, suggesting a potential relation with DU, and possibly a different DU related KS-type. Children are more susceptible to radiation than adults. This enlarges the responsibility of the medical communities for an evidence-based attitude towards DU, and to ban its use until proven otherwise. We, as medical bodies have a human approach - stand with man not to be mistreated, and with green norms, which veto all suspected pollutants of the planet. Until further notice, DU should be thoroughly checked for safety, before it kills. PMID:22588807

  10. The application of laser two-way depletion model in AVLIS for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changjiang Yu [The Institution of Physics and Chemistry Engineering in Nuclear Industry, Tianjin (China); Min Yan; Dewu Wang; Chuntong Ying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1996-12-31

    We propose a two-way depletion model to be applied in AVLIS, and the problem of small isotope shifts is avoided. The higher selectivity and lower waste composition can be obtained disregarding the power broadening effect. This model makes the product and waste compositions ({sup C} p and {sup C} w) of AVLIS satisfy the requirements {sup c} p > 3.5%, {sup C} w < 0.25 easily. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mutagenicity monitoring following battlefield exposures: Longitudinal study of HPRT mutations in Gulf War I veterans exposed to depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Richard J; Vacek, Pamela M; Carter, Elizabeth W; Nicklas, Janice A; Squibb, Katherine S; Gucer, Patricia W; Engelhardt, Susan M; McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    A total of 70 military Veterans have been monitored for HPRT T-cell mutations in five separate studies at 2-year intervals over an 8-year period. Systemic depleted uranium (DU) levels were measured at the time of each study by determining urinary uranium (uU) excretion. Each HPRT study included 30-40 Veterans, several with retained DU-containing shrapnel. Forty-nine Veterans were evaluated in multiple studies, including 14 who were in all five studies. This permitted a characterization of the HPRT mutation assay over time to assess the effects of age, smoking and non-selected cloning efficiencies, as well as the inter- and intra-individual variability across time points. Molecular analyses identified the HPRT mutation and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in 1,377 mutant isolates. An unexpected finding was that in vivo clones of HPRT mutant T-cells were present in some Veterans, and could persist over several years of the study. The calculated HPRT mutant frequencies (MFs) were repeatedly elevated in replicate studies in three outlier Veterans with elevated urinary uranium excretion levels. However, these three outlier Veterans also harbored large and persistent in vivo HPRT mutant T-cell clones, each of which was represented by a single founder mutation. Correction for in vivo clonality allowed calculation of HPRT T-cell mutation frequencies (MutFs). Despite earlier reports of DU associated increases in HPRT MFs in some Veterans, the results presented here demonstrate that HPRT mutations are not increased by systemic DU exposure. Additional battlefield exposures were also evaluated for associations with HPRT mutations and none were found. PMID:25914368

  12. Characterisation and dissolution of depleted uranium aerosols produced during impacts of kinetic energy penetrators against a tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols produced during impacts of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against the glacis (sloping armour) and the turret of a tank were sampled. The concentration and size distribution were determined. Activity median aerodynamic diameters were 1 μm (geometric standard deviation, sg = 3.7) and 2 μm (sg = 2.5), respectively, for glacis and turret. The mean air concentration was 120 Bq m-3, i.e. 8.5 mg m-3 of DU. Filters analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction showed two types of particles (fine particles and large molten particles) composed mainly of a mixture of uranium and aluminium. The uranium oxides were mostly U3O8, UO2.25 and probably UO3.01 and a mixed compound of U and Al. The kinetics of dissolution in three media (HCO3-, HCl and Gamble's solution) were determined using in-vitro tests. The slow dissolution rates were respectively slow, and intermediate between slow and moderate, and the rapid dissolution fractions were mostly intermediate between moderate and fast. According to the in-vitro results for Gamble's solution, and based on a hypothetical single acute inhalation of 90 Bq, effective doses integrated up to 1 y after incorporation were 0.54 and 0.56 mSv respectively, for aerosols from glacis and turret. In comparison, the ICRP limits are 20 mSv y-1 for workers and 1 mSv y-1 for members of public. A kidney concentration of approximately 0.1 μg U g-1 was predicted and should not, in this case, lead to kidney damage. (author)

  13. UNEP and IAEA exploring the possibility of sending depleted uranium missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Vienna/Nairobi - Mohamed ElBaradei, the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), have agreed to consider ways and means to respond to requests for fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq where depleted uranium (DU) was used during military conflicts. The two organizations will co-ordinate their action with the World Health Organization, which has recently decided to send a team to study the health effects of depleted uranium in Iraq, as well as with other relevant UN system organizations. Pekka Haavisto, Chairman of UNEP's Depleted Uranium Assessment Team, is meeting today with UN officials in Sarajevo for consultations on a possible future mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Mr. Haavisto will visit Belgrade tomorrow to meet with officials of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The IAEA is considering holding a training course to improve the understanding and skills of specialist staff from concerned countries. The main focus will be on measurement methods and the assessment of risks from depleted uranium and other radioactivity. The possibility of sending fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq follows last year's mission to Kosovo by the UNEP-led DU Assessment Team. UNEP will wait for the scientific findings of the report of the Kosovo mission, expected to be released in early March, before it embarks on new DU field assessments. (author)

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF6 stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF6 from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF6 conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF6 conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (DandD) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF6, low-enriched UF6 [LEU-UF6], and empty) to Portsmouth

  15. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  16. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald's mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost

  17. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-30

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald`s mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost.

  18. Comments upon human exposure to depleted uranium during and after the Gulf and Balkans conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Society report contains a number of comments and suggestions which are questionable or are not acceptable. Because of the total failure to obtain minimal environmental and clinical data at the time of the conflicts, retrospective, abstract epidemiological studies are unlikely to be of any value, indeed the confounding issues are so numerous that any success cannot be expected. Some individuals during the Gulf conflict seem to have been exposed to a cocktail of drugs and possibly other biological agents for which information is sparse with respect to amounts, routes of exposure and acute versus chronic symptoms. Spratt does not examine the matter of 'hot particles' in sufficient depth; for purposes of the report it is irrelevant whether or not hot particles are of any particular concern, simply that they have been poorly studied and data are lacking upon which a judgement can be made. Hamilton presented a rare description for the in situ distribution of uranium in human bone for chronic nonoccupationally exposed individuals. The uranium exhibited a distribution which reflected uptake of uranium on endosteal surfaces, especially of trabecular bone. The general labelling of bone apatite was not observed, hence the chronic diffusion of uranium deposited on endosteal surfaces does not appear to penetrate the inorganic bone tissues. For labelled Haversian systems in long bone, the physical geometry of deposition as viewed by autoradiographic techniques has an appearance of hot particle configurations. Recent discoveries that stem cells are associated with such surfaces raise the question of their susceptibility to both inorganic uranium and any associated ionisation radiation which is related to point source depositions The actual cell or cell surfaces where the uranium is taken up are unknown. The same situation in principle applies to thoracic lymph nodes, albeit their susceptibility and biological purpose renders them of less concern. The comment that it is

  19. Effects of depleted uranium chronic exposure on detoxification systems in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal naturally presents in the environment. The aim of this work is to study effects of a U exposure on organs involved in the detoxification: the kidney and the liver (and notably the xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes (XME)). In order to mimic population chronic exposure, rats were contaminated during 9 months through the drinking water (40 mg/L). In vivo results show that U, in our experimental conditions, does not induce neither nephrotoxicity nor sensitivity to increase a renal toxicity induced by gentamicin. In the liver, U provokes impairments on the XME gene expression, particularly CYP3A. Nevertheless, paracetamole metabolism is modified only if it is administrated at a hepatotoxic dose. The in vitro results suggest an indirect effect of uranium on the XME, probably dependant of body adaptation mechanisms. Besides, in vitro studies were underline cytotoxic properties of U as well as the localisation of its soluble and/or participated forms in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. (author)

  20. The French approach for management of depleted uranium a constantly improved technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, D.; Le Motais, B.; Duperret, B. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    COGEMA provides uranium enrichment services to the nuclear industry worldwide. To meet general French safety requirements related to environmental protection issues, COGEMA has developed, as an extension of the enrichment operation, a facility to convert DUF{sub 6} into a stable, fluorine-free compound. After 5 years demonstration of the process on a pilot plant, COGEMA placed a facility in industrial operation in 1984 to convert DUF{sub 6} into stable oxide U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; a second facility was commissioned in 1993, doubling the capacity. Since the beginning of its industrial de-fluorination operations, COGEMA has ever been concerned to make its technology as reliable and as cost effective as possible. Accordingly, an improvement work has been constantly under way which already benefited to the construction of the second facility, completed in 1993. This paper will give an overview of the improvement work performed over the years, relating not only to the technology (optimizing the de-fluorination output, reducing the corrosion inside the kilns, improving the uranium oxide powder compaction factor,...), but also to the process itself (hydrodynamic modeling of the process reactions inside the kiln) and maintenance issues (systematic monitoring of filters plugging, recycling of cartridge filters,...). (authors)

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 3: Responses to public comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF6, long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible. This volume of the Final PEIS contains the comments and DOE's responses to comments received during the comment period. Chapter 2 contains photocopies of written submissions received by DOE on the Draft PEIS; DOE's responses to those comments are listed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides the oral comments received at the public hearings and DOE's responses. Chapter 5 provides indices to comments and responses arranged by commentor name and by comment number

  2. Precise Monitoring of Depleted Uranium in human and environment of South Iraq using Multi-collector ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-collector Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) becomes increasingly important in monitoring environmental contamination, because it allows detection of long-lived radionuclides at ultra trace levels. High sample throughout combined with high precision and accuracy, low detection limits for most elements and simultaneous detection of up to 9 isotopes makes it prior to most other techniques. For homogeneous samples concentration and isotope composition can be determined with a precision and uncertainty of usually better than 0.5 % using the isotope dilution method, e.g. isotope measurements relative to a well characterized 233U tracer. Exposure to low-level radioactive dust released into the environment accidentally or by the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions in the military theatre demands precise screening of humans and local environment. Sensitive methods are also needed for monitoring and understanding the pathway of radionuclides in the biosphere and the human body. Using a method recently developed at our department it is for instance possible to detect urinary excretion of DU in the low fg/ml range or at fractions below 0.2% of the total urinary uranium concentration. This allows monitoring the inhalation of up to a few micrograms of insoluble non-natural uranium particles in the lung several months or even years later. As example we will show and discuss results from our study of the uranium isotope composition and concentration of surface water, topsoil and dust from different sites of Baghdad, Basra, and the Suweirah farming area. We also analyzed urine from people living in these areas or stayed their for a relative short time. The samples, also including highly contaminated ones, such as wipes of tank top debris and penetrator channels, were collected from the Uranium Medical Research Centre field team after coalition operation Iraqi Freedom in early October 2003. Total soil samples, separated soil fine-fractions (233U tracer

  3. Sensor systems for precise location of depleted uranium in soil and for enhancing the recovery of both zero valence and uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been the primary material used for the past two decades by the US military in armor piercing rounds. Domestic firing ranges that have been used for DU training purposes are located around the country and vary with regard to soil type, depth of vadose zone, and extent of contamination with other types of projectiles. A project is underway to develop a set of sensor systems to locate expended DU rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material. Reactivity of zero valence DU material, even in dry sandy soils, results in rapid oxidation and diffusion of uranium minerals within the soil column. Detection techniques must be robust for both metallic and uranyl species. Radiological sensor techniques including both gamma spectroscopy and prompt gamma neutron analysis are being used in conjunction with electromagnetic imaging to locate the DU for excavation. Detection limits for both zero valence DU (ZVDU) and oxidized material will be discussed. Applicability of active and passive optical methods, such as spectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy, will be discussed as aids for achieving clean soil margins while excavating DU materials. Instrumentation selection for controlling processing equipment used to separate ZVDU and uranyl species from contaminated soil and debris will also be discussed. Preliminary findings for use of sodium iodide detectors and multichannel analyzer software are discussed for locating 25 and 105 mm DU penetrators. Optimum detector height of 15 cm (six inches) and detection depths up to 15 cm are discussed. A comparison of detector response of the Geonics EM61 MKII electromagnetic induction unit for DU and ferrous materials is reported. Difficulty of locating small DU penetrators using the one meter detection coil and differences in detector response for target orientation relative to the detection coil are reported. (authors)

  4. ZPR-3 Assembly 12: A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average 235U enrichment of 21 atom %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was 235U or 239Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core 235U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically

  5. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  6. Analysis of heat-labile sites generated by reactions of depleted uranium and ascorbate in plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R; Stearns, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single-strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, and chromic chloride were compared with those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate and ascorbate. Uranyl ion in the presence of ascorbate produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB on heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by methyl methanesulfonate to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion as U-DNA adducts by decreasing the level of SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cisplatin and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect the formation of uranium-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from the presence of free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. The results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding the mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposure in humans. PMID:24218036

  7. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  8. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrachot, Stéphanie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Brion, François [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité d’évaluation des risques écotoxicologiques, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Palluel, Olivier [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité d’évaluation des risques écotoxicologiques, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The effect of depleted uranium on zebrafish reproduction was studied. • An inhibition of egg production and an increase of F1 embryo mortality were observed. • Decreased circulating concentration of vitellogenin was observed in females. • Increased DNA damages were observed in parent gonads and in embryos. • U environmental concentration impairs reproduction and genetic integrity of fish. - Abstract: Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive

  9. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of depleted uranium on zebrafish reproduction was studied. • An inhibition of egg production and an increase of F1 embryo mortality were observed. • Decreased circulating concentration of vitellogenin was observed in females. • Increased DNA damages were observed in parent gonads and in embryos. • U environmental concentration impairs reproduction and genetic integrity of fish. - Abstract: Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive

  10. Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro. Post-conflict environmental assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on the environmental impacts of depleted uranium (DU) is a direct follow-up to last year's report, Depleted Uranium in Kosovo - A Post-Conflict Assessment (2001), and once more brings additional scientific information on DU. This second phase has now been carried out in Serbia and Montenegro, starting with a field mission in October 2001 to collect samples, followed by laboratory work during the winter and the early spring. Our new study provides additional information and reveals important new discoveries on the environmental behaviour of DU. We learn that still, more than two years after the end of the conflict, particles of DU dust can be detected from soil samples and from sensitive bioindicators like lichen. However, as the levels were extremely low, it was only through the use of state-of-the-art laboratory analyses that detection could be achieved. Based on our findings, UNEP can confirm that contamination at the targeted sites is widespread, though no significant level of radioactivity can be measured. Furthermore, during this assessment the UNEP team used modern air sampling techniques and detected airborne DU particles at two sites. While all levels detected are still below international safety limits, these results add valuable new information to the scientific body of knowledge concerning the behaviour of DU and have important implications for site decontamination and construction works. During the mission to Serbia and Montenegro, a serious health concern potentially related to DU was presented to UNEP. This information was forwarded to WHO, as the competent United Nations agency on health issues. The original claim and the formal WHO response are included in this report. Based on our findings, our recommendations remain the same as those we outlined in the previous Kosovo DU study. Future monitoring is clearly needed, as well as awareness-raising for the local population. Clean-up and

  11. The recycle of depleted uranium waste products by a hydrometallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Metals, Inc. has developed a process for recycling uranium scrap materials into high quality metal. The process involves the dissolution of scrap metal in an aqueous solution of 2.4 N HCI and 0.16 N HBF4, followed by precipitation of UF4 through the addition of HF. The precipitated green salt is Filtered, washed, dried, and heat treated after which it is suitable for reduction to metal. The product and the process are referred to as Hydromet, since it is a hydrometallurgical approach to producing green salt. Conventionally, green salt is produced by a pyrometallurgical technique. The steps of the process are described and results presented for derbies produced using Hydromet green salt. With proper process selection and appropriate heat treatment, green salt produced by Hydromet is fully equivalent to pyrometallurgical green salt. Hydromet green salt can be reduced to metal using the identical process used for pyromet green salt. Good quality, well-formed derbies can be readily produced. (author)

  12. How toxic is the depleted uranium to crayfish Procambarus clarkii compared with cadmium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaddissi, Simone; Simon, Olivier; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Gonzalez, Patrice; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Frelon, Sandrine; Legeay, Alexia

    2016-02-01

    Due to a lack of information on the assessment of uranium's (U) toxicity, our work aimed to compare the effects of U on the crayfish Procambarus clarkii with those of the well documented metal: cadmium (Cd). Accumulation and impacts at different levels of biological organization were assessed after acute (40 µM Cd or U; 4-10 days) and chronic (0.1 µM Cd or U; 30-60 days) exposures. The survival rates demonstrated the high tolerance of this species toward both metals and showed that Cd had a greater effect on the sustainability of crayfish. The concentration levels of Cd and U accumulated in gills and hepatopancreas were compared between both conditions. Distinctions in the adsorption capacities and the mobility of the contaminants were suspected. Differences in the detoxification mechanisms of both metals using transmission electron microscopy equiped with an energy dispersive X-ray were also pointed out. In contrast, comparison between the histological structures of contaminated hepatopancreas showed similar symptoms. Principal component analyses revealed different impacts of each metal on the oxidative balance and mitochondria using enzymatic activities and gene expression levels as endpoints. The observation that U seemed to generate more oxidative stress than Cd in our conditions of exposure is discussed. PMID:25213093

  13. A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of implanted depleted uranium on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, and sperm velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) projectiles have been used in battle in Iraq and the Balkans and will continue to be a significant armor-penetrating munition for the US military. As demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War, battle injury from DU projectiles and shrapnel is a possibility, and removal of embedded DU fragments from the body is not always practical because of their location in the body or their small size. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that implanted DU mobilizes and translocates to the gonads, and natural uranium may be toxic to spermatazoa and the male reproductive tract. In this study, the effects of implanted DU pellets on sperm concentration, motility, and male reproductive success were evaluated in adult (P1) Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with 0, 12, or 20, DU pellets of 1x2 mm or 12 or 20 tantalum (Ta) steel pellets of 1x2 mm. Twenty DU pellets of 1x2 mm (760 mg) implanted in a 500-g rat are equal to approximately 0.2 pound of DU in a 154-lb (70-kg) person. Urinary analysis found that male rats implanted with DU were excreting uranium at postimplantation days 27 and 117 with the amount dependent on dose. No deaths or evidence of toxicity occurred in P1 males over the 150-day postimplantation study period. When assessed at postimplantation day 150, the concentration, motion, and velocity of sperm isolated from DU-implanted animals were not significantly different from those of sham surgery controls. Velocity and motion of sperm isolated from rats treated with the positive control compound α-chlorohydrin were significantly reduced compared with sham surgery controls. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of DU implantation on mating success at 30-45 days and 120-145 days postimplantation. The results of this study suggest that implantation of up to 20 DU pellets of 1x2 mm in rats for approximately 21% of their adult lifespan does not have an adverse impact on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, or sperm velocity

  15. Evaluation of the effect of implanted depleted uranium on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, and sperm velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfsten, Darryl P; Schaeffer, David J; Johnson, Eric W; Robert Cunningham, J; Still, Kenneth R; Wilfong, Erin R

    2006-02-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) projectiles have been used in battle in Iraq and the Balkans and will continue to be a significant armor-penetrating munition for the US military. As demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War, battle injury from DU projectiles and shrapnel is a possibility, and removal of embedded DU fragments from the body is not always practical because of their location in the body or their small size. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that implanted DU mobilizes and translocates to the gonads, and natural uranium may be toxic to spermatazoa and the male reproductive tract. In this study, the effects of implanted DU pellets on sperm concentration, motility, and male reproductive success were evaluated in adult (P1) Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with 0, 12, or 20, DU pellets of 1x2 mm or 12 or 20 tantalum (Ta) steel pellets of 1x2 mm. Twenty DU pellets of 1x2 mm (760 mg) implanted in a 500-g rat are equal to approximately 0.2 pound of DU in a 154-lb (70-kg) person. Urinary analysis found that male rats implanted with DU were excreting uranium at postimplantation days 27 and 117 with the amount dependent on dose. No deaths or evidence of toxicity occurred in P1 males over the 150-day postimplantation study period. When assessed at postimplantation day 150, the concentration, motion, and velocity of sperm isolated from DU-implanted animals were not significantly different from those of sham surgery controls. Velocity and motion of sperm isolated from rats treated with the positive control compound alpha-chlorohydrin were significantly reduced compared with sham surgery controls. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of DU implantation on mating success at 30-45 days and 120-145 days postimplantation. The results of this study suggest that implantation of up to 20 DU pellets of 1x2 mm in rats for approximately 21% of their adult lifespan does not have an adverse impact on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, or sperm velocity. PMID

  16. Alternatives study for the treatment of solid radioactive waste arising from depleted Uranium pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical feasibility for the treatment of solid waste composed by pellets containing depleted U is studied. The objective is to count with an available alternative to assure the complying of the in force Nuclear Safety Law (Ley 18.302) for the management of this waste. After waste characterization, different lixiviation agents were probed at laboratory. In parallel, the direct immobilization using a cementitious matrix was developed. Lixiviation was experimented in three steps. First, dilute sulphuric acid is added to the solid waste, then a NaClO3 solution is added for the U oxidation. Finally, the waste is submitted to curing by lixiviation in concentrated sulphuric acid. A series of several cementitious mixture were employed to prepare samples for physical resistance test, which helped to determine the work zone in a ternary diagram for the high resistance samples fabrication using these mixtures. Oxidant lixiviation plus acid curing steps give a 40% extraction of U, with which the decreasing in U concentration is equivalent to a non radioactive material, according to national regulation, though an economic analysis (cost-benefit) is required for this last, as well. By the other side, the mixture composition of the waste for direct immobilization offers a good conditions workable matrix. Setting time is about 12 hours, without the use of process accelerants. The solid waste form obtained presents a compression resistance of 172 [Kgf/cm2] at 28 days aged. Composition is 61.10% waste, 20.37% cement and 18.53% waste. As conclusion from this experimental study, it is observed that the solid waste may be treated by lixiviation, or, immobilized in a cement matrix with a cost for this last of 0.066 [UF/Kg] equivalent to 1.75 [US$/ Kg] (AS)

  17. Impact of a chronic ingestion of radionuclides on cholesterol metabolism in the rat: example of depleted uranium and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) and cesium-137 (137Cs) are radionuclides spread in the environment due to industrial activities, incidents or accidents. This pollution sets a risk of human exposure to low levels of radiations through contaminated foodstuff. The impact of a chronic ingestion of DU or 137Cs on cholesterol metabolism in the liver and the brain has been studied. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial in physiology, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor to numerous molecules (bile acids...). Disruption of its metabolism is associated to many pathologies such as atherosclerosis or Alzheimer disease. Rats daily ingested a low level of DU or 137Cs over 9 months. For each radionuclide, a reference model (rats contaminated since adulthood) and a more sensitive model (hypercholesterolemic or contaminated since fetal life) were studied. The effects mainly consist of changes in gene expression or enzymatic activity of various actors of cholesterol metabolism. DU mainly affects one catabolism enzyme in both models, as well as membrane transporters and regulation factors. 137Cs mainly affects the storage enzyme in both models as well as catabolism enzymes, apolipoproteins, and regulation factors. No change in the plasma profile or in the tissue concentration of cholesterol (hepatic/cerebral) is recorded, whatever the model and the radionuclide. Thus, a chronic internal contamination with DU or 137Cs induces molecular modifications in cholesterol metabolism in the rat, without affecting its homeostasis or the general health status in all of our experimental models. (author)

  18. Method for measuring prompt gamma-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on a 2"*2" BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of {\\gamma}-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agree well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and ...

  19. The Gulf War depleted uranium cohort at 20 years: bioassay results and novel approaches to fragment surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Breyer, Richard; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Engelhardt, Susan M; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Kane, Robert; Cernich, Alison; Kaup, Bruce; Hoover, Dennis; Gaspari, Anthony A; Liu, Juan; Harberts, Erin; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Gray, Patrick J; Xu, Hanna; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-04-01

    During the 1991 GulfWar, U.S. service members were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) through friendly-fire incidents involving DU munitions and vehicles protected by DU armor. Routes of exposure to DU involved inhalation of soluble and insoluble DU oxide particles, wound contamination, and retained embedded DU metal fragments that continue to oxidize in situ and release DU to the systemic circulation. A biennial health surveillance program established for this group of Veterans by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has shown continuously elevated urine DU concentrations in the subset of veterans with embedded fragments for over 20 years. While the 2011 assessment was comprehensive, few clinically significant U-related health effects were observed. This report is focused on health outcomes associated with two primary target organs of concern for long term effects of this combat-related exposure to DU. Renal biomarkers showed minimal DU-related effects on proximal tubule function and cytotoxicity, but significant biomarker results were observed when urine concentrations of multiple metals also found in fragments were examined together. Pulmonary tests and questionnaire results indicate that pulmonary function after 20 y remains within the clinical normal range. Imaging of DU embedded fragment-associated tissue for signs of inflammatory or proliferative reactions possibly associated with foreign body transformation or with local alpha emissions from DU was also conducted using PET-CT and ultrasound. These imaging tools may be helpful in guiding decisions regarding removal of fragments. PMID:23439138

  20. Global transcriptional analysis of short-term hepatic stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar exposed to depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential environmental hazards of radionuclides are often studied at the individual level. Sufficient toxicogenomics data at the molecular/cellular level for understanding the effects and modes of toxic action (MoAs of radionuclide is still lacking. The current article introduces transcriptomic data generated from a recent ecotoxicological study, with the aims to characterize the MoAs of a metallic radionuclide, deplete uranium (DU in an ecologically and commercially important fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Salmon were exposed to three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L of DU for 48 h. Short-term global transcriptional responses were studied using Agilent custom-designed high density 60,000-feature (60 k salmonid oligonucleotide microarrays (oligoarray. The microarray datasets deposited at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE58824 were associated with a recently published study by Song et al. (2014 in BMC Genomics. The authors describe the experimental data herein to build a platform for better understanding the toxic mechanisms and ecological hazard of radionuclides such as DU in fish.

  1. Global transcriptional analysis of short-term hepatic stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Høgåsen, Tore; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    Potential environmental hazards of radionuclides are often studied at the individual level. Sufficient toxicogenomics data at the molecular/cellular level for understanding the effects and modes of toxic action (MoAs) of radionuclide is still lacking. The current article introduces transcriptomic data generated from a recent ecotoxicological study, with the aims to characterize the MoAs of a metallic radionuclide, deplete uranium (DU) in an ecologically and commercially important fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon were exposed to three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) of DU for 48 h. Short-term global transcriptional responses were studied using Agilent custom-designed high density 60,000-feature (60 k) salmonid oligonucleotide microarrays (oligoarray). The microarray datasets deposited at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE58824) were associated with a recently published study by Song et al. (2014) in BMC Genomics. The authors describe the experimental data herein to build a platform for better understanding the toxic mechanisms and ecological hazard of radionuclides such as DU in fish. PMID:26484125

  2. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options

  3. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed overview of an on-going, multinational test programme that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolised materials plus volatilised fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high-energy/density device. The programme participants in the United States plus Germany, France and the United Kingdom, part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) have strongly supported and coordinated this research programme. Sandia National Laboratories has the lead role for conducting this research programme; test programme support is provided by both the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We provide a summary of the overall, multiphase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on 'surrogate' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. We briefly summarise similar results from completed surrogate tests that used non-radioactive, sintered cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rods. (author)

  4. Method for measuring prompt γ-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Guo; Lai, Cai-Feng; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong Zhang, Xin-Wei; Ye, Bang-Jiao; Zhu, Tong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt γ flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background γ-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt γ-rays are obtained based on a 2″×2″ BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt γ-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of γ-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt γ-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agrees well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and the discrepancies for the integral quantities of γ-rays of energy 0.4-1 MeV and 1-3 MeV are 9.2% and 1.1%, respectively. Supported by National Special Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research, China (2015GB108001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91226104)

  5. Agribusiness Capstone Courses Design: Objectives and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Charles R.; Fairchild, Gary F.; Baker, Gregory A.; Taylor, Timothy G.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of using strategic management principles as the cornerstone for building the agribusiness capstone experience. The necessity for agribusiness firms to create and implement strategies that build a sustainable competitive advantage in turn necessitates the development of strategic management skills in the leaders/managers of the future. As such, the objectives of a capstone course lean heavily toward the integrative development of strategic decision-making comp...

  6. Response to 'Comments upon human exposure to depleted uranium during and after the Gulf and Balkans conflicts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dear Sir, Eric Hamilton takes the Royal Society and myself to task for investigating the health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. In his view the matter appears to be clear. Exposures to uranium have been studied extensively for decades in the nuclear industry and there is little evidence of adverse health consequences. Exposures to DU on the battlefield are therefore unlikely to have health consequences and setting up an independent working group to look at the scientific issues only suggests there are doubts about the science, and leads to mistrust and confusion in the minds of the public. This type of robust approach to addressing the risks of exposure to radioactive materials, and of attempting to assuage the concerns of veterans exposed to DU during the Gulf War, may have worked in the past but it doesn't work today. The Royal Society is accused of having failed to address the main issue, which Hamilton considers to be the failure to implement well established and validated monitoring procedures at the time DU weapons were deployed, so that intakes and risks could have been calculated. This is a curious perspective as, from the outset, the remit of the Royal Society working group was to provide an independent view of the science, rather than the deficiencies in procedures, in response to public concerns and to the very different pronouncements about the dangers to health and the environment arising from the deployment of over 300 tonnes of DU munitions in the Gulf War. Some of the comments in the Royal Society reports and the editorial are considered to be questionable or not acceptable. It is not clear which particular aspects cause offence. One aspect appears to be the claim that DU measurements are difficult, where Hamilton appears to misunderstand the nature of the problem of quantifying exposures to DU. Of course uranium concentrations and isotope ratios are routinely measured in the nuclear industry and in geochemical laboratories, but the problem

  7. Use of depleted uranium in military conflicts and possible post-conflict chemical and radiological risk to health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During and after the Balkans conflict in 1999 there were rumours that so-called depleted uranium (DU) had been used in military operations by NATO. Attention was drawn to this issue by a number of countries, and consequently, there is a concern amongst the people of Serbia and Kosovo regarding the possible post-conflict chemical and radiological risk to health and the environment. The UN also has to deal with such concerns from the point of view of security of UN staff in the field. UNEP/Habitat Balkans Task Force (BTF) has been set up to make an overall assessment of the environmental consequences of the conflict and impacts of the conflict on human settlements in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania and in Serbia. The work was done by organising Technical Missions to provide independent and reliable information which is relevant for the problem under consideration. As regards depleted uranium, a special international expert group, the 'Depleted Uranium Desk Assessment Group' was appointed to analyse and assess the situation. The group was chaired by Snihs. Since little or no information was available on the actual use of depleted uranium in the Kosovo conflict, the expert group was reduced to using available information from the 1990 Gulf conflict and published data on the risks of depleted uranium. It was possible to organise only one visit to Kosovo during the time available for this study, and that visit did not give any indications of contamination from depleted uranium. However, this does not exclude the possibility that there are DU-contaminated areas in Kosovo. By using basic facts relevant for risk assessment and making assumptions about the conditions for exposure to depleted uranium, that are as accurate as possible, it has been possible to assess likely consequences for health and environment. In case of uncertainties in the assumptions, conservative values have been used. On the basis of the conclusions of the assessments there are a number of

  8. A study on oxidative stress and complete blood count of sheep bred in the area exposed to depleted uranium (DU) ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Jović Slavoljub; Aleksić Jelena; Krstić Aleksandra; Stevanović Jelka; Kovačević-Filipović Milica; Borozan Sunčica; Božić Tatjana; Popović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of several health status parameters of sheep bred in the area exposed to depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. The blood samples of sheep were collected randomly in the region of Bujanovac, in 2004. Complete blood count was performed according to standard laboratory procedures. Concentration of red blood cells malondialdehyde (RBC MDA) and activity of erythrocyte superoxid dismutase (SOD) were determined spectroph...

  9. Accounting Capstone Course Design: Using the Internet to Modernize a Graduate Accounting Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Diane S.; Ehoff, Clemense, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This second paper describes how the Internet was used to modernize a graduate accounting capstone course to enhance student interest and learning, and is an extension of an earlier paper that examined a similar approach with an undergraduate accounting capstone course. Course content was developed from contemporary issues and cases obtained from…

  10. Benchmark analysis of fission-rate distributions in a series of spherical depleted-uranium assemblies for hybrid-reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We do simulations using MCNP code and ENDF/B-V.0 library. • The fission rate distribution on depleted uranium assemblies was analyzed. • The calculations overestimate the measured fission rates. • The observed differences are discussed. - Abstract: The nuclear performance of a fission blanket in a hybrid reactor has been validated by analyzing fission-rate experiments with a series of spherical depleted-uranium assemblies. Calculations were made with the Monte–Carlo transport code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-V.0 continuous-energy cross sections and compared to the measured results. The ratios of calculated to experimental values (C/E) for the fission rate and the fission-rate ratio of 238U to 235U are presented along with a discussion of the validation of the ENDF/B-V.0 library regarding its use in the design of the fission blanket. Overestimations are observed in the calculation of the 238U and 235U fission rates at all positions, except the ones near the outer surfaces of the assemblies, and the C/Es of the fission rate decreased as the thickness of the depleted-uranium (DU) layer increased, while most of the C/Es of the fission-rate ratio of 238U to 235U were close to unity, being within the range of 0.95–1.05

  11. Determination of the 238U capture to total fission ratio in alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells with D-T neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at checking the conceptual design of the subcritical blanket in the fusion–fission hybrid reactor, an integral experiment was carried out on an alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene-shell setup with D-T neutrons using activation technique. 18 depleted uranium foils were placed at 90° direction to the incident D beam, and the distribution of the 238U capture to total fission ratio was determined by measuring the 277.6 keV γ ray generated by neutron capture of 238U and the 293.3 keV γ ray generated by fission of 235U and 238U. The ratios were generally between 1 and 2 in the depleted uranium shells, with relative uncertainties between 3.0% and 5.5%. The ratios were calculated by the MCNP4B code employing ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library, the discrepancies between calculations and experiments were all within 6%, and the average calculation to experiment(C/E) ratio was 0.998.

  12. Analysis of depleted uranium in environmental samples collected around target sites of 1999 in Kosovsko pomoravlje and southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1999 an independent international multidisciplinary team has developed and carried out several detailed studies on the initiation of the Vinca Institute focused on the human exposure and health implications by the analysis of DU in environmental samples. The participating institutes have carried out several studies on DU in Serbia and Montenegro. In the framework of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) an expert team conducted sampling, in-situ and laboratory investigation in Kosovo and Metohija Province on the assessment of environmental risk and developed recommendations. These UNEP reports are the most informative and objective on the topic till now, but even they are not able to give a full picture on the long-term potential environmental effects of DU. Indeed, one of the main conclusion of the UNEP team was that there remained a number of unresolved questions regarding the long-term behaviour of DU in the environment. In addition as limited studies of human urine have confirmed the presence of very low level of DU, it is also important to perform a systematic follow-up study on the internal contamination of the population. The paper deals with the alpha and gamma-spectrometric analysis of samples collected around Vrbovac target site in Kosovo and Bratoselce target site in South Serbia. The analysed sample types were lichen, soil, corn, sugar beet and a bullet as reference material. To determine the presence of DU in the gamma spectra the method developed by the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf was used at the samples where the 234mPa (1001 keV), 235U (186 keV) and 214Bi (1764 keV) radionuclides could be measured. The alpha-emitting uranium isotopes (234U, 235U, 238U) as anion complexes, were separated from other elements by passing the dissolved samples through the ion-exchange column, following the addition of 232U tracer. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U activity ratios were used to distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. The 234U/238

  13. Radiological conditions in areas of Kuwait with residues of depleted uranium. Report by an international group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is one of the by-products of uranium enrichment and, like any other uranium compound, has both chemical and radiological toxicity; it is mildly radioactive, having about 60% of the activity of natural uranium. DU has had a wide range of peaceful applications, such as the provision of radiation shielding for medical sources or as counterweights in aeroplanes. DU is also used for heavy tank armour and, owing to its high density and high melting point and its property of becoming 'sharper' as it penetrates armour plating, in anti-tank munitions and missiles. The 1991 Gulf War was the first conflict in which DU munitions were used extensively. In view of the concerns raised about the possible link between human exposure to ionizing radiation from DU and harmful biological effects, the Government of Kuwait, in February 2001, requested the IAEA to conduct surveys at and assessments of a number of specified locations. The aim of this work was to inform the Government of Kuwait and the public of the possible radiological conditions arising owing to DU residues at these sites. The IAEA accepted the request for a radiological assessment under its unique statutory functions within the United Nations system, namely: (1) to establish standards of safety for protection against radiation exposure; and (2) to provide for the application of these standards. In 1996 the IAEA, in cosponsorship with other relevant organizations in the United Nations system, established the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. These standards are fully applicable to exposure to all forms of ionizing radiation, including exposure to any uranium radionuclides in general and, in particular, to DU. In the past, a number of evaluations of the environmental and health impact of DU munitions have been performed by national and international organizations. This report constitutes the first comprehensive

  14. Hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to gamma radiation and depleted uranium singly and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Evensen, Øystein; Lind, Ole Christian; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-15

    Radionuclides are a special group of substances posing both radiological and chemical hazards to organisms. As a preliminary approach to understand the combined effects of radionuclides, exposure studies were designed using gamma radiation (Gamma) and depleted uranium (DU) as stressors, representing a combination of radiological (radiation) and chemical (metal) exposure. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 70mGy external Gamma dose delivered over the first 5h of a 48h period (14mGy/h), 0.25mg/L DU were exposed continuously for 48h and the combination of the two stressors (Combi). Water and tissue concentrations of U were determined to assess the exposure quality and DU bioaccumulation. Hepatic gene expression changes were determined using microarrays in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effects at the higher physiological levels were determined as plasma glucose (general stress) and hepatic histological changes. The results show that bioaccumulation of DU was observed after both single DU and the combined exposure. Global transcriptional analysis showed that 3122, 2303 and 3460 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly regulated by exposure to gamma, DU and Combi, respectively. Among these, 349 genes were commonly regulated by all treatments, while the majority was found to be treatment-specific. Functional analysis of DEGs revealed that the stressors displayed similar mode of action (MoA) across treatments such as induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation, but also stressor-specific mechanisms such as cellular stress and injury, metabolic disorder, programmed cell death, immune response. No changes in plasma glucose level as an indicator of general stress and hepatic histological changes were observed. Although no direct linkage was successfully established between molecular responses and adverse effects at the organism level

  15. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrachot, Stéphanie; Brion, François; Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle; Palluel, Olivier; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-09-01

    Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive capability of fish and impair the genetic integrity of F1 embryos raising further concern regarding its effect at the population level. PMID:24846854

  16. Influence of environmental enrichment and depleted uranium on behaviour, cholesterol and acetylcholine in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestaevel, P; Airault, F; Racine, R; Bensoussan, H; Dhieux, B; Delissen, O; Manens, L; Aigueperse, J; Voisin, P; Souidi, M

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with genetic risk factors, of which the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the most prevalent, and is affected by environmental factors that include education early in life and exposure to metals. The industrial and military use of depleted uranium (DU) resulted in an increase of its deposition in some areas and led to a possible environmental factor. The present study aims to ascertain the effects on the behaviour and the metabolism of cholesterol and acetylcholine of ApoE-/- mice exposed to enriched environment (EE) and exposed to DU (20 mg/L) for 14 weeks. Here we show that ApoE-/- mice were unaffected by the EE and their learning and memory were similar to those of the non-enriched ApoE-/- mice. ApoE-/- mice showed a significant decrease in total (-16 %) and free (-16 %) cholesterol in the entorhinal cortex in comparison to control wild-type mice. Whatever the housing conditions, the exposure to DU of ApoE-/- mice impaired working memory, but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, in comparison to control ApoE-/- mice. The exposure of ApoE-/- mice to DU also induced a trend toward higher total cholesterol content in the cerebral cortex (+15 %) compared to control ApoE-/- mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that enriched environment does not ameliorate neurobehaviour in ApoE-/- mice and that ApoE mutation induced specific effects on the brain cholesterol. These findings also suggested that DU exposure could modify the pathology in this ApoE model, with no influence of housing conditions. PMID:23749703

  17. The interaction of natural background gamma radiation with depleted uranium micro-particles in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, John E

    2013-03-01

    In this study, some characteristics of the photo-electrons produced when natural background gamma radiation interacts with micron-sized depleted uranium (DU) particles in the human body have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, an estimate has been made of the likelihood of radiological health effects occurring due to such an exposure. Upon exposure to naturally occurring background gamma radiation, DU particles in the body will produce an enhancement of the dose to the tissue in the immediate vicinity of the particles due to the photo-electric absorption of the radiation in the particle. In this study, the photo-electrons produced by a 10 μm-size particle embedded in tissue at the centre of the human torso have been investigated. The mean energies of the photo-electrons in the DU particle and in the two consecutive immediately surrounding 2 μm-wide tissue shells around the particle were found to be 38, 49 and 50 keV, respectively, with corresponding ranges of 1.3, 38 and 39 μm, respectively. The total photo-electron fluence-rates in the two consecutive 2 μm-wide tissue layers were found to be 14% and 7% of the fluence-rate in the DU particle, respectively. The estimated dose enhancement due to one 10 μm-sized DU particle in 1 cm(3) of tissue was less than 2 in 10 million of the dose received by the tissue without a particle being present. The increase in risk of death from cancer due to this effect is consequently insignificant. PMID:23295360

  18. The interaction of natural background gamma radiation with depleted uranium micro-particles in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, some characteristics of the photo-electrons produced when natural background gamma radiation interacts with micron-sized depleted uranium (DU) particles in the human body have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, an estimate has been made of the likelihood of radiological health effects occurring due to such an exposure. Upon exposure to naturally occurring background gamma radiation, DU particles in the body will produce an enhancement of the dose to the tissue in the immediate vicinity of the particles due to the photo-electric absorption of the radiation in the particle. In this study, the photo-electrons produced by a 10 μm-size particle embedded in tissue at the centre of the human torso have been investigated. The mean energies of the photo-electrons in the DU particle and in the two consecutive immediately surrounding 2 μm-wide tissue shells around the particle were found to be 38, 49 and 50 keV, respectively, with corresponding ranges of 1.3, 38 and 39 μm, respectively. The total photo-electron fluence-rates in the two consecutive 2 μm-wide tissue layers were found to be 14% and 7% of the fluence-rate in the DU particle, respectively. The estimated dose enhancement due to one 10 μm-sized DU particle in 1 cm3 of tissue was less than 2 in 10 million of the dose received by the tissue without a particle being present. The increase in risk of death from cancer due to this effect is consequently insignificant. (paper)

  19. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  20. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the contribution made by various energy sources in the production of electricity. Estimates are made of the future nuclear contribution, the future demand for uranium and future sales of Australian uranium. Nuclear power growth in the United States, Japan and Western Europe is discussed. The present status of the six major Australian uranium deposits (Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Yeelerrie and Beverley) is given. Australian legislation relevant to the uranium mining industry is also outlined

  1. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development, prospecting, research, processing and marketing of South Africa's uranium industry and the national policies surrounding this industry form the headlines of this work. The geology of South Africa's uranium occurences and their positions, the processes used in the extraction of South Africa's uranium and the utilisation of uranium for power production as represented by the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town are included in this publication

  2. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is given of uranium as an energy source in The Australian economy. Figures and predictions are presented on the world supply-demand position and also figures are given on the added value that can be achieved by the processing of uranium. Conclusions are drawn about Australia's future policy with regard to uranium (R.L.)

  3. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological setting of uranium resources in the world can be divided in two basic categories of resources and are defined as reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources and speculative resources. Tables are given to illustrate these definitions. The increasing world production of uranium despite the cutback in the nuclear industry and the uranium requirements of the future concluded these lecture notes

  4. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  5. Depleted uranium in Kosovo. Post-conflict environmental assessment. UNEP scientific mission to Kosovo, 5-19 November 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the first-ever international assessment of the environmental impact of depleted uranium (DU) when used in a real conflict situation. It has been carried out as part of the post-conflict assessments conducted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the Balkans. The report builds on an earlier theoretical study by UNEP. In October 1999, as part of its assessment of the Kosovo conflict's impact on the environment and human settlements, UNEP carried out a Desk Assessment study of the potential effects of the possible use of DU during the conflict. The study was limited by the lack of information on the actual use of DU. In July 2000, however, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) provided UNEP with the information required, enabling a field mission to be planned and conducted. The information included a map indicating the location of 112 separate strikes by DU ammunition, and a table showing the number of DU rounds used and the coordinates of the targeted areas. During the field mission to Kosovo, from 5 - 19 November 2000, soil, water and other samples were collected from eleven sites where DU had reportedly been used during the conflict. Five separate laboratories then analysed the samples. When the laboratory phase was finalised in early March, the analyses of the samples collected showed only low levels of radioactivity. Furthermore, the results suggested that there is no immediate cause for concern regarding toxicity. However, major scientific uncertainties persist over the long-term environmental impacts of DU, especially regarding groundwater. Due to these scientific uncertainties, UNEP calls for precaution. There is a very clear need for action to be undertaken on the clean-up and decontamination of the polluted sites, for awareness-raising aimed at the local population, and for future monitoring. Just as the Desk Assessment conducted in October 1999 advised precaution, the recommendations of this

  6. Exposure to depleted uranium does not alter the co-expression of HER-2/neu and p53 in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Toriahi Kaswer M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the extensive literature on immunohistochemical profile of breast cancer, very little is found on populations exposed to a potential risk factor such as depleted uranium. This study looked at the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2 and p53 in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, where the population has been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. Findings The present investigation was performed over a period starting from September 2008 to April 2009. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 70 patients with breast cancer (62 ductal and 8 lobular carcinoma were included in this study. A group of 25 patients with fibroadenoma was included as a comparative group, and 20 samples of normal breast tissue sections were used as controls. Labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB+ complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of HER-2/neu and p53. The detection rate of HER-2/neu and p53 immunohistochemical expression were 47.14% and 35.71% respectively in malignant tumors; expression was negative in the comparative and control groups (p HER-2/neu immunostaining was significantly associated with histological type, tumor size, nodal involvement, and recurrence of breast carcinoma (p p Both biomarkers were positively correlated with each other. Furthermore, all the cases that co-expressed both HER-2/neu and p53 showed the most unfavorable biopathological profile. Conclusion P53 and HER-2/neu over-expression play an important role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma. The findings indicate that in regions exposed to high levels of depleted uranium, although p53 and HER-2/neu overexpression are both high, correlation of their expression with age, grade, tumor size, recurrence and lymph node involvement is similar to studies that have been conducted on populations not exposed to depleted uranium. HER-2/neu expression in breast cancer was higher

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jianguo; Lai, Caifeng; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the g...

  8. Process for the removal of 106Ru traces from NH4NO3 effluent generated during recycling of sintered depleted uranium fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several chemical treatment formulations were tested for the effective removal of very low levels of 106Ru activity from NH4NO3 effluent generated during wet processing of rejected sintered depleted uranium (DU) fuel pellets. Based on the results, a simple process involving precipitation of cobalt sulphide along with ferric hydroxide was selected and further optimization of process variables was carried out. The optimized process has been found to be highly efficient in reducing 106Ru activity down to extremely low levels. (author)

  9. Experimental study on full-scale ZrCo and depleted uranium beds applied for fast recovery and delivery of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thin double-layered annulus beds with ZrCo and depleted uranium were fabricated. • Depleted uranium bed delivered 16.41 mol H2 at rate of 20 Pa m3/s within 30 min. • The delivery property of depleted uranium bed was very stable during the 10 cycles. - Abstract: Metal hydride bed is an important component for the deuterium–tritium fusion energy under development in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which the hydrogen recovery and delivery properties are influenced by the bed configuration, operation conditions and the hydrogen storage materials contained in the bed. In this work, a thin double-layered annulus bed configuration was adopted and full-scale beds loaded with ZrCo and depleted uranium (DU) for fast recovery and delivery of hydrogen isotopes were fabricated. The properties of hydrogen recovery/delivery together with the inner structure variation in the fabricated beds were systematically studied. The effects of operation conditions on the performances of the bed were also investigated. It was found that both of the fabricated ZrCo and DU beds were able to achieve the hydrogen storage target of 17.5 mol with fast recovery rate. In addition, experimental results showed that operation of employing extra buffer vessel and scroll pump could not only promote the hydrogen delivery process but also reduce the possibility about disproportionation of ZrCo. Compared with ZrCo bed, DU bed exhibited superior hydrogen delivery performances in terms of fast delivery rate and high hydrogen delivery amount, which could deliver over 16.4 mol H2 (93.7% of recovery amount) within 30 min at the average delivery rate of 20 Pa m3/s. Good reversibility as high as 10 cycles without obvious degradation tendency in both of hydrogen delivery amount and delivery rate for DU bed was also achieved in our study. It was suggested that the fabricated thin double-layered annulus DU bed was a good candidate to rapidly deliver and recover

  10. Using Reengineering as an Integrating Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Victor; Grasser, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an example of integrating IT skills using an interesting real life problem. We describe how the reverse- and forward-engineering of the USA National Do Not Call registry was used in our capstone course to illustrate the fusion of different (but interdependent) issues and techniques learned in the IT program. The purpose of the…

  11. Capstone Senior Research Course in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ishuan; Simonson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the structure and assessment of a capstone course in economics. The outcomes are noteworthy for three reasons. First, among cited evidence to date, this is the only undergraduate economics program from a nonselective public university reporting similar achievements in undergraduate research paper publications.…

  12. Improving a Capstone Design Course through Mindmapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Marjan; Brennan, Robert; Freiheit, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Our full-year capstone design course, "Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Design Methodology and Application," focuses on both design methodology and design application. We redesigned the course to more effectively prepare students for the "application" aspect of design. The approach was essentially to implement a short…

  13. Processing and properties of high-purity, fine-grain-size depleted-uranium, deep-drawn shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unalloyed uranium is a candidate material for shaped charge liners used in conventional ordinance applications. For test purposes, it was decided that a high-grade uranium material with good toughness should be used. This report describes a process for producing a high-purity (less than 500 ppM total impurities) wrought material consisting of a recrystallized, equiaxed grain structure with a 10 micron (ASTM-8) average grain size. The fabrication process is discussed in detail. In all, six material conditions having a wide range of mechanical and structural properties were investigated. The tensile, hardness, and microstructural properties of these six material conditions are reported in detail

  14. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with depleted uranium on CYP3A and associated nuclear receptors PXR and CAR in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its natural presence at high concentrations in some areas, uranium has several civilian and military applications that could cause contamination of human populations, mainly through chronic ingestion. Reports describe the accumulation of this radionuclide in some organs (including the bone, kidney, and liver) after acute or chronic contamination and show that it produces chemical or radiological toxicity or both. The literature is essentially devoid of information about uranium-related cellular and molecular effects on metabolic functions such as xenobiotic detoxification. The present study thus evaluated rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium in their drinking water (1 mg/(rat day)) for 9 months. Our specific aim was to evaluate the hepatic and extrahepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1/A2, CYP2B1, and CYP1A1 as well as of the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, and RXR in these rats. CYP3A1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the brain (200%), liver (300%), and kidneys (900%) of exposed rats compared with control rats, while CYP3A2 mRNA levels were higher in the lungs (300%) and liver (200%), and CYP2B1 mRNA expression in the kidneys (300%). Expression of CYP1A1 mRNA did not change significantly during this study. PXR mRNA levels increased in the brain (200%), liver (150%), and kidneys (200%). Uranium caused CAR mRNA expression in the lungs to double. Expression of RXR mRNA did not change significantly in the course of this study, nor did the hepatic activity of CYP2C, CYP3A, CYP2A, or CYP2B. Uranium probably affects the expression of drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes through the PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. These results suggest that the stimulating effect of uranium on these enzymes might lead to hepatic or extrahepatic toxicity (or both) during drug treatment and then affect the entire organism

  15. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration and the Congress, through policy statements and passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), have signaled that they hope that proactive actions by agency Inspectors General will help ensure that Federal Recovery Act activities are transparent, effective and efficient. In that context, the purpose of this management alert is to share with you concerns that have been raised to the Office of Inspector General regarding the planned disposition of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) inventory of Depleted Uranium (DU) oxides. This inventory, generated as a by-product of the nuclear weapons production process and amounting to approximately 15,600 drums of DU oxides, has been stored at SRS for decades. A Department source we deem reliable and credible recently came to the Office of Inspector General expressing concern that imminent actions are planned that may not provide for the most cost effective disposition of these materials. During April 2009, the Department chose to use funds provided under the Recovery Act to accelerate final disposition of the SRS inventory of DU oxides. After coordination with State of Utah regulators, elected officials and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department initiated a campaign to ship the material to a facility operated by EnergySolutions in Clive, Utah. Although one shipment of a portion of the material has already been sent to the EnergySolutions facility, the majority of the product remains at SRS. As had been planned, both for the shipment already made and those planned in the near term, the EnergySolutions facility was to have been the final disposal location for the material. Recently, a member of Congress and various Utah State officials raised questions regarding the radioactive and other constituents present in the DU oxides to be disposed of at the Clive, Utah, facility. These concerns revolved around the characterization of the material and its acceptability under

  16. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada produced one-third of the Western World's uranium production in 1989, twice as much from Saskatchewan as from Ontario, where mine closures have led to the loss of over 2,000 jobs. Canadian production in 1990 was about 8.8 Gg U. In 1990, Canada's primary producers were Denison Mines, Rio Algom, Cluff Mining, and Cameco. In Saskatchewan, there are three operations: Key Lake, Rabbit Lake/Collins Bay, and Cluff Lake. Canada stands fourth in uranium resources, but because of favourable geology remains the focus of much exploration activity, which cost about C$60 in 1989. Large stockpiles overhang the market, so new sources of uranium will not be needed before the mid 1990's, but long-term prospects seem good

  17. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium production industry is well into its third recession during the nuclear era (since 1945). Exploration is drastically curtailed, and many staffs are being reduced. Historical market price production trends are discussed. A total of 3.07 million acres of land was acquired for exploration; drastic decrease. Surface drilling footage was reduced sharply; an estimated 250 drill rigs were used by the uranium industry during 1980. Land acquisition costs increased 8%. The domestic reserve changes are detailed by cause: exploration, re-evaluation, or production. Two significant discoveries of deposits were made in Mohave County, Arizona. Uranium production during 1980 was 21,850 short tons U3O8; an increase of 17% from 1979. Domestic and foreign exploration highlights were given. Major producing areas for the US are San Juan basin, Wyoming basins, Texas coastal plain, Paradox basin, northeastern Washington, Henry Mountains, Utah, central Colorado, and the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon. 3 figures, 8 tables

  18. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the gamma-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.

  20. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars. PMID:23729095