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Sample records for capsid binding avidity

  1. Single hemagglutinin mutations that alter both antigenicity and receptor binding avidity influence influenza virus antigenic clustering.

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    Li, Yang; Bostick, David L; Sullivan, Colleen B; Myers, Jaclyn L; Griesemer, Sara B; Stgeorge, Kirsten; Plotkin, Joshua B; Hensley, Scott E

    2013-09-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay is the primary measurement used for identifying antigenically novel influenza virus strains. HAI assays measure the amount of reference sera required to prevent virus binding to red blood cells. Receptor binding avidities of viral strains are not usually taken into account when interpreting these assays. Here, we created antigenic maps of human H3N2 viruses that computationally account for variation in viral receptor binding avidities. These new antigenic maps differ qualitatively from conventional antigenic maps based on HAI measurements alone. We experimentally focused on an antigenic cluster associated with a single N145K hemagglutinin (HA) substitution that occurred between 1992 and 1995. Reverse-genetics experiments demonstrated that the N145K HA mutation increases viral receptor binding avidity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that the N145K HA mutation does not prevent antibody binding; rather, viruses possessing this mutation escape antisera in HAI assays simply by attaching to cells more efficiently. Unexpectedly, we found an asymmetric antigenic effect of the N145K HA mutation. Once H3N2 viruses acquired K145, an epitope involving amino acid 145 became antigenically dominant. Antisera raised against an H3N2 strain possessing K145 had reduced reactivity to H3N2 strains possessing N145. Thus, individual mutations in HA can influence antigenic groupings of strains by altering receptor binding avidity and by changing the dominance of antibody responses. Our results indicate that it will be important to account for variation in viral receptor binding avidity when performing antigenic analyses in order to identify genuine antigenic differences among influenza virus variants.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Avidity Distribution and Estimating General Binding Properties of Transcription Factors from Genome-Wide Binding Profiles.

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    Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    The shape of the experimental frequency distributions (EFD) of diverse molecular interaction events quantifying genome-wide binding is often skewed to the rare but abundant quantities. Such distributions are systematically deviated from standard power-law functions proposed by scale-free network models suggesting that more explanatory and predictive probabilistic model(s) are needed. Identification of the mechanism-based data-driven statistical distributions that provide an estimation and prediction of binding properties of transcription factors from genome-wide binding profiles is the goal of this analytical survey. Here, we review and develop an analytical framework for modeling, analysis, and prediction of transcription factor (TF) DNA binding properties detected at the genome scale. We introduce a mixture probabilistic model of binding avidity function that includes nonspecific and specific binding events. A method for decomposition of specific and nonspecific TF-DNA binding events is proposed. We show that the Kolmogorov-Waring (KW) probability function (PF), modeling the steady state TF binding-dissociation stochastic process, fits well with the EFD for diverse TF-DNA binding datasets. Furthermore, this distribution predicts total number of TF-DNA binding sites (BSs), estimating specificity and sensitivity as well as other basic statistical features of DNA-TF binding when the experimental datasets are noise-rich and essentially incomplete. The KW distribution fits equally well to TF-DNA binding activity for different TFs including ERE, CREB, STAT1, Nanog, and Oct4. Our analysis reveals that the KW distribution and its generalized form provides the family of power-law-like distributions given in terms of hypergeometric series functions, including standard and generalized Pareto and Waring distributions, providing flexible and common skewed forms of the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) avidity distribution function. We suggest that the skewed binding

  3. Modeling virus capsids and their protein binding -- the search for weak regions within the HIV capsid

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    Sankey, Otto F.; Benson, Daryn E.; Gilbert, C. Michael

    2011-03-01

    Viruses remain a threat to the health of humans worldwide with 33 million infected with HIV. Viruses are ubiquitous, infecting animals, plants, and bacteria. Each virus infects in its own unique manner making the problem seem intractable. However, some general physical steps apply to many viruses and the application of basic physical modeling can potentially have great impact. The aim of this theoretical study is to investigate the stability of the HIV viral capsid (protein shell). The structural shell can be compromised by physical probes such as pulsed laser light [1,2]. But, what are the weakest regions of the capsid so that we can begin to understand vulnerabilities of these deadly materials? The atomic structure of HIV capsids is not precisely known and we begin by describing our work to model the capsid structure. We have constructed three representative viral capsids of different CA protein number -- HIV-900, HIV-1260 and HIV-1740. The complexity of the assembly requires a course grained model to investigate protein interactions within the capsid which we will describe.

  4. VHS domains of ESCRT-0 cooperate in high-avidity binding to polyubiquitinated cargo

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    Ren, Xuefeng; Hurley, James H. (NIH)

    2010-03-30

    VHS (Vps27, Hrs, and STAM) domains occur in ESCRT-0 subunits Hrs and STAM, GGA adapters, and other trafficking proteins. The structure of the STAM VHS domain-ubiquitin complex was solved at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution, revealing that determinants for ubiquitin recognition are conserved in nearly all VHS domains. VHS domains from all classes of VHS-domain containing proteins in yeast and humans, including both subunits of ESCRT-0, bound ubiquitin in vitro. ESCRTs have been implicated in the sorting of Lys63-linked polyubiquitinated cargo. Intact human ESCRT-0 binds Lys63-linked tetraubiquitin 50-fold more tightly than monoubiquitin, though only 2-fold more tightly than Lys48-linked tetraubiquitin. The gain in affinity is attributed to the cooperation of flexibly connected VHS and UIM motifs of ESCRT-0 in avid binding to the polyubiquitin chain. Mutational analysis of all the five ubiquitin-binding sites in yeast ESCRT-0 shows that cooperation between them is required for the sorting of the Lys63-linked polyubiquitinated cargo Cps1 to the vacuole.

  5. Contribution of MxB oligomerization to HIV-1 capsid binding and restriction.

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    Buffone, Cindy; Schulte, Bianca; Opp, Silvana; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The alpha interferon (IFN-α)-inducible restriction factor myxovirus B (MxB) blocks HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration. MxB binds to the HIV-1 core, which is composed of capsid protein, and this interaction leads to inhibition of the uncoating process of HIV-1. Previous studies suggested that HIV-1 restriction by MxB requires binding to capsid. This work tests the hypothesis that MxB oligomerization is important for the ability of MxB to bind to the HIV-1 core. For this purpose, we modeled the structure of MxB using the published tertiary structure of MxA. The modeled structure of MxB guided our mutagenic studies and led to the discovery of several MxB variants that lose the capacity to oligomerize. In agreement with our hypothesis, MxB variants that lost the oligomerization capacity also lost the ability to bind to the HIV-1 core. MxB variants deficient for oligomerization were not able to block HIV-1 infection. Overall, our work showed that oligomerization is required for the ability of MxB to bind to the HIV-1 core and block HIV-1 infection. MxB is a novel restriction factor that blocks infection of HIV-1. MxB is inducible by IFN-α, particularly in T cells. The current work studies the oligomerization determinants of MxB and carefully explores the contribution of oligomerization to capsid binding and restriction. This work takes advantage of the current structure of MxA and models the structure of MxB, which is used to guide structure-function studies. This work leads to the conclusion that MxB oligomerization is important for HIV-1 capsid binding and restriction. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in human cytomegalovirus.

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    Xinghong Dai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, to stabilize its genome-containing capsid. However, little is known about how pp150 interacts with the underlying capsid. Moreover, the smallest capsid protein (SCP, while dispensable in herpes simplex virus type 1, was shown to play essential, yet undefined, role in HCMV infection. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM, we determine three-dimensional structures of HCMV capsid (no pp150 and virion (with pp150 at sub-nanometer resolution. Comparison of these two structures reveals that each pp150 tegument density is composed of two helix bundles connected by a long central helix. Correlation between the resolved helices and sequence-based secondary structure prediction maps the tegument density to the N-terminal half of pp150. The structures also show that SCP mediates interactions between the capsid and pp150 at the upper helix bundle of pp150. Consistent with this structural observation, ribozyme inhibition of SCP expression in HCMV-infected cells impairs the formation of DNA-containing viral particles and reduces viral yield by 10,000 fold. By cryoEM reconstruction of the resulting "SCP-deficient" viral particles, we further demonstrate that SCP is required for pp150 functionally binding to the capsid. Together, our structural and biochemical results point to a mechanism whereby SCP recruits pp150 to stabilize genome-containing capsid for the production of infectious HCMV virion.

  7. The sweet quartet: Binding of fucose to the norovirus capsid.

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    Koromyslova, Anna D; Leuthold, Mila M; Bowler, Matthew W; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-09-01

    Human noroviruses bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and this interaction is thought to be important for an infection. We identified two additional fucose-binding pockets (termed fucose-3/4 sites) on a genogroup II human (GII.10) norovirus-protruding (P) dimer using X-ray crystallography. Fucose-3/4 sites were located between two previously determined HBGA binding pockets (termed fucose-1/2 sites). We found that four fucose molecules were capable of binding altogether at fucose-1/2/3/4 sites on the P dimer, though the fucose molecules bound in a dose-dependent and step-wise manner. We also showed that HBGA B-trisaccharide molecules bound in a similar way at the fucose-1/2 sites. Interestingly, we discovered that the monomers of the P dimer were asymmetrical in an unliganded state and when a single B-trisaccharide molecule bound, but were symmetrical when two B-trisaccharide molecules bound. We postulate that the symmetrical dimers might favor HBGA binding interactions at fucose-1/2 sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Loss of Cell Surface CD47 Clustering Formation and Binding Avidity to SIRPα Facilitate Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Macrophages.

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    Lv, Zhiyuan; Bian, Zhen; Shi, Lei; Niu, Shuo; Ha, Binh; Tremblay, Alexandra; Li, Liangwei; Zhang, Xiugen; Paluszynski, John; Liu, Ming; Zen, Ke; Liu, Yuan

    2015-07-15

    CD47, a self recognition marker expressed on tissue cells, interacts with immunoreceptor SIRPα expressed on the surface of macrophages to initiate inhibitory signaling that prevents macrophage phagocytosis of healthy host cells. Previous studies suggested that cells may lose surface CD47 during aging or apoptosis to enable phagocytic clearance. In the current study, we demonstrate that the level of cell surface CD47 is not decreased, but the distribution pattern of CD47 is altered, during apoptosis. On nonapoptotic cells, CD47 molecules are clustered in lipid rafts forming punctates on the surface, whereas on apoptotic cells, CD47 molecules are diffused on the cell surface following the disassembly of lipid rafts. We show that clustering of CD47 in lipid rafts provides a high binding avidity for cell surface CD47 to ligate macrophage SIRPα, which also presents as clusters, and elicits SIRPα-mediated inhibitory signaling that prevents phagocytosis. In contrast, dispersed CD47 on the apoptotic cell surface is associated with a significant reduction in the binding avidity to SIRPα and a failure to trigger SIRPα signal transduction. Disruption of plasma membrane lipid rafts with methyl-β-cyclodextrin diffuses CD47 clusters, leading to a decrease in the cell binding avidity to SIRPα and a concomitant increase in cells being engulfed by macrophages. Taken together, our study reveals that CD47 normally is clustered in lipid rafts on nonapoptotic cells but is diffused in the plasma membrane when apoptosis occurs; this transformation of CD47 greatly reduces the strength of CD47-SIRPα engagement, resulting in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions

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    Gurda, Brittney L.; DiMattia, Michael A.; Miller, Edward B.; Bennett, Antonette; McKenna, Robert; Weichert, Wendy S.; Nelson, Christian D.; Chen, Wei-jun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Olson, Norman H.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Chiorini, John A.; Zolotutkhin, Sergei; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Baker, Timothy S.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies. PMID:23760240

  10. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D.

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    Laura L Eggink

    Full Text Available We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac-galactose (Gal/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C

  11. Development of purification processes for fully human bispecific antibodies based upon modification of protein A binding avidity.

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    Tustian, Andrew D; Endicott, Christine; Adams, Benjamin; Mattila, John; Bak, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    There is strong interest in the design of bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsAbs) that can simultaneously bind 2 distinct targets or epitopes to achieve novel mechanisms of action and efficacy. Multiple bispecific formats have been proposed and are currently under development. Regeneron's bispecific technology is based upon a standard fully human IgG antibody in order to minimize immunogenicity and improve the pharmacokinetic profile. A single common light chain and 2 distinct heavy chains combine to form the bispecific molecule. One of the heavy chains contains a chimeric Fc sequence form (called Fc*) that ablates binding to Protein A via the constant region. As a result of co-expression of the 2 heavy chains and the common light chain, 3 products are created, 2 of which are homodimeric for the heavy chains and one that is the desired heterodimeric bispecific product. The Fc* sequence allows selective purification of the FcFc* bispecific product on commercially available affinity columns, due to intermediate binding affinity for Protein A compared to the high avidity FcFc heavy chain homodimer, or the weakly binding Fc*Fc* homodimer. This platform requires the use of Protein A chromatography in both a capture and polishing modality. Several challenges, including variable region Protein A binding, resin selection, selective elution optimization, and impacts upon subsequent non-affinity downstream unit operations, were addressed to create a robust and selective manufacturing process.

  12. Impact of wall shear stress and ligand avidity on binding of anti-CD146-coated nanoparticles to murine tumor endothelium under flow

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    Ryschich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial phenotype of tumor blood vessels differs from the liver and forms an important base for endothelium-specific targeting by antibody-coated nanoparticles. Although differences of shear stress and ligand avidity can modulate the nanoparticle binding to endothelium, these mechanisms are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the binding of antibody-coated nanoparticles to tumor and liver endothelium under controlled flow conditions and verified this binding in tumor models in vivo. Binding of anti-CD146-coated nanoparticles, but not of antibody was significantly reduced under increased wall shear stress and the degree of nanoparticle binding correlated with the avidity of the coating. The intravascular wall shear stress favors nanoparticle binding at the site of higher avidity of endothelial epitope which additionally promotes the selectivity to tumor endothelium. After intravenous application in vivo, pegylated self-coated nanoparticles showed specific binding to tumor endothelium, whereas the nanoparticle binding to the liver endothelium was very low. This study provides a rationale that selective binding of mAb-coated nanoparticles to tumor endothelium is achieved by two factors: higher expression of endothelial epitope and higher nanoparticle shearing from liver endothelium. The combination of endothelial marker targeting and the use of shear stress-controlled nanoparticle capture can be used for selective intratumoral drug delivery. PMID:26503468

  13. DC8 and DC13 var genes associated with severe malaria bind avidly to diverse endothelial cells.

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    Marion Avril

    Full Text Available During blood stage infection, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE bind to host blood vessels. This virulence determinant enables parasites to evade spleen-dependent killing mechanisms, but paradoxically in some cases may reduce parasite fitness by killing the host. Adhesion of infected erythrocytes is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1, a family of polymorphic adhesion proteins encoded by var genes. Whereas cerebral binding and severe malaria are associated with parasites expressing DC8 and DC13 var genes, relatively little is known about the non-brain endothelial selection on severe malaria adhesive types. In this study, we selected P. falciparum-IEs on diverse endothelial cell types and demonstrate that DC8 and DC13 var genes were consistently among the major var transcripts selected on non-brain endothelial cells (lung, heart, bone marrow. To investigate the molecular basis for this avid endothelial binding activity, recombinant proteins were expressed from the predominant upregulated DC8 transcript, IT4var19. In-depth binding comparisons revealed that multiple extracellular domains from this protein bound brain and non-brain endothelial cells, and individual domains largely did not discriminate between different endothelial cell types. Additionally, we found that recombinant DC8 and DC13 CIDR1 domains exhibited a widespread endothelial binding activity and could compete for DC8-IE binding to brain endothelial cells, suggesting they may bind the same host receptor. Our findings provide new insights into the interaction of severe malaria adhesive types and host blood vessels and support the hypothesis that parasites causing severe malaria express PfEMP1 variants with a superior ability to adhere to diverse endothelial cell types, and may therefore endow these parasites with a growth and transmission advantage.

  14. Identification of the galactose binding domain of the adeno-associated virus serotype 9 capsid.

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    Bell, Christie L; Gurda, Brittney L; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Wilson, James M

    2012-07-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors show promise for gene therapy of a variety of diseases due to their ability to transduce multiple tissues, including heart, skeletal muscle, and the alveolar epithelium of the lung. In addition, AAV9 is unique compared to other AAV serotypes in that it is capable of surpassing the blood-brain barrier and transducing neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has recently been shown that AAV9 uses galactose as a receptor to transduce many different cell types in vitro, as well as cells of the mouse airway in vivo. In this study, we sought to identify the specific amino acids of the AAV9 capsid necessary for binding to galactose. By site-directed mutagenesis and cell binding assays, plus computational ligand docking studies, we discovered five amino acids, including N470, D271, N272, Y446, and W503, which are required for galactose binding that form a pocket at the base of the protrusions around the icosahedral 3-fold axes of symmetry. The importance of these amino acids for tissue tropism was also confirmed by in vivo studies in the mouse lung. Identifying the interactions necessary for AAV9 binding to galactose may lead to advances in vector engineering.

  15. Loss of cell surface CD47 ‘clustering’ formation and binding avidity to SIRPα facilitate apoptotic cell clearance by macrophage

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    Lv, Zhiyuan; Bian, Zhen; Shi, Lei; Niu, Shuo; Ha, Bin; Tremblay, Alexandra; Li, Liangwei; Zhang, Xiugen; Paluszynski, John; Liu, Ming; Zen, Ke; Liu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    CD47, a ‘self’ recognition marker expressed on tissue cells, interacts with immunoreceptor SIRPα expressed on the surface of macrophages to initiate inhibitory signaling that prevents macrophage phagocytosis of healthy host cells. Previous studies have suggested that cells may lose the surface CD47 during aging or apoptosis to enable phagocytic clearance. In the present study, we demonstrate that the level of cell surface CD47 is not decreased but the distribution pattern of CD47 is altered during apoptosis. On non-apoptotic cells, CD47 molecules are clustered in lipid rafts forming ‘punctates’ on the surface, whereas on apoptotic cells, CD47 molecules are diffused on the cell surface following the disassembly of lipid rafts. We show that clustering of CD47 in lipid rafts provides a high binding avidity for cell surface CD47 to ligate macrophage SIRPα, which also presents as clusters, and elicit SIRPα-mediated inhibitory signaling that prevents phagocytosis. In contrast, dispersed CD47 on the apoptotic cell surface is associated a significant reduction of the binding avidity to SIRPα and failure to trigger SIRPα signal transduction. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) disrupted CD47 cluster formation on the cell surfaces, leading to decrease of the binding avidity to SIRPα and a concomitant increase of cells being engulfed by macrophages. Taken together, our study reveals that CD47 normally is clustered in lipid rafts on non-apoptotic cells but is diffused in the plasma membrane when apoptosis occurs, and this transformation of CD47 greatly reduces the strength of CD47-SIRPα engagement, resulting in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. PMID:26085683

  16. Characterization of post-translation products of herpes simplex virus gene 35 proteins binding to the surfaces of full capsids but not empty capsids

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    Braun, D.K.; Roizman, B.; Pereira, L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on the properties of a genetically and immunologically related family of structural (..gamma..) polypeptides of herpes simplex virus 1 designated as infected cell polypeptides (ICP) 35. The members of this family were identified and studied with the aid of a panel of monoclonal antibodies exemplified by H745. This monoclonal antibody reacted with six bands (ICP35a to 35f) formed by ICPs contained in either HEp-2 or Vero cell lysates electrophoretically separated in denaturing gels and transferred to nitrocell sheets. The six bands had apparent molecular weights in the range 39,000 to 50,000. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that ICP35a to 35d are cytoplasmic precursors to nuclear products. ICP35 was labeled by /sup 32/P/sub i/ added to the medium, but the extent of phosphorylation varied and may be a determinant of isoelectric properties. Iodination studies indicate that ICP35e and 35f are the predominant forms of ICP35 present on the surface of full, nuclear capsids containing DNA. None of the members of the ICP35 family were detected in empty capsids. Surface iodination labeled the major capsid protein (ICP5) of empty capsids, but not of full capsids, indicating the ICP35e of 35f coat the surface of the viral capsid and block access to sites for iodination of ICP5, the major capsid protein.

  17. The highly polymorphic cyclophilin A-binding loop in HIV-1 capsid modulates viral resistance to MxB.

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    Liu, Zhenlong; Pan, Qinghua; Liang, Zhibin; Qiao, Wentao; Cen, Shan; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-09

    The human myxovirus-resistance protein B (MxB, also called Mx2) was recently reported to inhibit HIV-1 infection by impeding the nuclear import and integration of viral DNA. However, it is currently unknown whether there exist MxB-resistant HIV-1 strains in the infected individuals. Answer to this question should address whether MxB exerts an inhibitory pressure on HIV-1 in vivo and whether HIV-1 has evolved to evade MxB inhibition. We have examined ten transmitted founder (T/F) HIV-1 strains for their sensitivity to MxB inhibition by infecting CD4+ T cell lines SupT1 and PM1 that were stably transduced to express MxB. Two T/F stains, CH040.c and RHPA.c, were found resistant and this resistance phenotype was mapped to the amino acid positions 87 and 208 in viral capsid. The H87Q mutation is located in the cyclophilin A (CypA) binding loop and has a prevalence of 21% in HIV-1 sequences registered in HIV database. This finding prompted us to test other frequent amino acid variants in the CypA-binding region and the results revealed MxB-resistant mutations at amino acid positions 86, 87, 88 and 92 in capsid. All these mutations diminished the interaction of HIV-1 capsid with CypA. Our results demonstrate the existence of MxB-resistant T/F HIV-1 strains. The high prevalence of MxB-resistant mutations in the CypA-binding loop indicates the significant selective pressure of MxB on HIV-1 replication in vivo especially given that this viral resistance mechanism operates at expense of losing CypA.

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of the peptide assembly inhibitor binding to HIV-1 capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Milan; Durčák, Jindřich; Konvalinka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, Suppl. 1 (2013), S37-S37 ISSN 1742-4690. [Frontiers of Retrovirology: Complex retorviruses, retroelements and their hosts. 16.09.2013-18.09.2013, Cambridge] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 capsid protein * CAI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.retrovirology.com/content/10/S1/P108

  19. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

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    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro, and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo, purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro. Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  20. Capsid-binding retrovirus restriction factors: discovery, restriction specificity and implications for the development of novel therapeutics.

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    Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Stoye, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    The development of drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection has been highly successful, and numerous combinational treatments are currently available. However, the risk of the emergence of resistance and the toxic effects associated with prolonged use of antiretroviral therapies have emphasized the need to consider alternative approaches. One possible area of investigation is provided by the properties of restriction factors, cellular proteins that protect organisms against retroviral infection. Many show potent viral inhibition. Here, we describe the discovery, properties and possible therapeutic uses of the group of restriction factors known to interact with the capsid core of incoming retroviruses. This group comprises Fv1, TRIM5α and TRIMCypA: proteins that all act shortly after virus entry into the target cell and block virus replication at different stages prior to integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome. They have different origins and specificities, but share general structural features required for restriction, with an N-terminal multimerization domain and a C-terminal capsid-binding domain. Their overall efficacy makes it reasonable to ask whether they might provide a framework for developing novel antiretroviral strategies.

  1. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

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    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  2. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machara, A.; Lux, V.; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, O.; Kotora, M.; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, B.; Sehr, P.; Lewis, J.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2016), s. 545-558 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 201095 - HIV ACE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 assembly * capsid * high-throughput screening * AlphaScreen assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  3. Single-Particle Tracking Shows that a Point Mutation in the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Switches Binding between Host-Specific Transferrin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donald W.; Allison, Andrew B.; Bacon, Kaitlyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining how viruses infect new hosts via receptor-binding mechanisms is important for understanding virus emergence. We studied the binding kinetics of canine parvovirus (CPV) variants isolated from raccoons—a newly recognized CPV host—to different carnivore transferrin receptors (TfRs) using single-particle tracking. Our data suggest that CPV may utilize adhesion-strengthening mechanisms during TfR binding and that a single mutation in the viral capsid at VP2 position 300 can profoundly alter receptor binding and infectivity. PMID:26889026

  4. Epitope diversity of hepatitis B virus capsids: quasi-equivalent variations in spike epitopes and binding of different antibodies to the same epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A; Belnap, D M; Watts, N R; Conway, J F; Cheng, N; Stahl, S J; Vethanayagam, J G; Wingfield, P T; Steven, A C

    2006-01-20

    To investigate the range of antigenic variation of HBV capsids, we have characterized the epitopes for two anti-capsid antibodies by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of Fab-labeled capsids to approximately 10A resolution followed by molecular modeling. Both antibodies engage residues on the protruding spikes but their epitopes and binding orientations differ. Steric interference effects limit maximum binding to approximately 50% average occupancy in each case. However, the occupancies of the two copies of a given epitope that are present on a single spike differ, reflecting subtle distinctions in structure and hence, binding affinity, arising from quasi-equivalence. The epitope for mAb88 is conformational but continuous, consisting of a loop-helix motif (residues 77-87) on one of the two polypeptide chains in the spike. In contrast, the epitope for mAb842, like most conformational epitopes, is discontinuous, consisting of a loop on one polypeptide chain (residues 74-78) combined with a loop-helix element (residues 78-83) on the other. The epitope of mAb842 is essentially identical with that previously mapped for mAb F11A4, although the binding orientations of the two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) differ, as do their affinities measured by surface plasmon resonance. From the number of monoclonals (six) whose binding had to be characterized to give the first duplicate epitope, we estimate the total number of core antigen (cAg) epitopes to be of the order of 20. Given that different antibodies may share the same epitope, the potential number of distinct anti-cAg clones should be considerably higher. The observation that the large majority of cAg epitopes are conformational reflects the relative dimensions of a Fab (large) and the small size and close packing of the motifs that are exposed and accessible on the capsid surface.

  5. Development of a novel affinity chromatography resin for platform purification of bispecific antibodies with modified protein a binding avidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustian, Andrew D; Laurin, Linus; Ihre, Henrik; Tran, Travis; Stairs, Robert; Bak, Hanne

    2018-02-21

    There is strong interest in the production of bispecific monoclonal antibodies that can simultaneously bind two distinct targets or epitopes to achieve novel mechanisms of action and efficacy. Regeneron's bispecific technology, based upon a standard IgG, consists of a heterodimer of two different heavy chains, and a common light chain. Co-expression of two heavy chains leads to the formation of two parental IgG impurities, the removal of which is facilitated by a dipeptide substitution in the Fc portion of one of the heavy chains that ablates Fc Protein A binding. Therefore the affinity capture (Protein A) step of the purification process must perform both bulk capture and high resolution of these mAb impurities, a task current commercially available resins are not designed for. Resolution can be further impaired by the ability of Protein A to bind some antibodies in the variable region of the heavy chain (V H ). This paper details development of a novel Protein A resin. This resin combines an alkali stable ligand with a base matrix exhibiting excellent mass transfer properties to allow high capacity single step capture and resolution of bispecific antibodies with high yields. The developed resin, named MabSelect SuRe™ pcc, is implemented in GMP production processes for several bispecific antibodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallori Burse

    Full Text Available The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA binds to the capsid protein (CA of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α. Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  7. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Mallori; Shi, Jiong; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to the capsid protein (CA) of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α). Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  8. Delineation of pulmonary airway fluid protein fractions with HRPO binding-avidity by far-Western ligand blot and mass spectrometry analyses: a model methodology for detecting mannose-binding protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Jones, Toni; Mochal, Cathleen; Linford, Robert L; Brashier, Michael; Eddy, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Limited research to date has characterized the potential for HRPO to function as a primary molecular probe. Pulmonary airway fluid was developed by non-reducing far-Western (ligand) blot analyses utilizing conjugated HRPO-strepavidin or non-conjugated HRPO without the presence of primary immunoglobulin. Endogenous esterase-like biochemical activity of fractions within pulmonary airway fluid was inactivated to determine if they were capable of biochemically converting HRPO chemiluminescent substrate. Complementary analyses modified pulmonary fluid and HRPO with beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase respectively, in addition to determining the influence of mannose and maltose competitive binding on HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analyses. Identification of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analyses was determined by mass spectrometry. Modification of pulmonary fluid with beta-galactosidase, and HRPO with alpha-mannosidase in concert with maltose and mannose competitive binding analyses altered the intensity and spectrum of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analysis. Identity of pulmonary airway fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analysis were transferrin, dynein, albumin precursor, and two 156 kDa equine peptide fragments. HRPO can function as a partially-selective primary molecular probe when applied in either a conjugated or non-conjugated form. Some protein fractions can form complexes with HRPO through molecular mechanisms that involve physical interactions at the terminal alpha-mannose-rich regions of HRPO glycan side-chains. Based on its known molecular composition and structure, HRPO provides an opportunity for the development of diagnostics methodologies relevant to disease biomarkers that possess mannose-binding avidity.

  9. Structure of the HIV-1 Full-Length Capsid Protein in a Conformationally Trapped Unassembled State Induced by Small-Molecule Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shoucheng; Betts, Laurie; Yang, Ruifeng; Shi, Haibin; Concel, Jason; Ahn, Jinwoo; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun; Yeh, Joanne I. (Pitt); (Vanderbilt); (UNC)

    2012-11-26

    The capsid (CA) protein plays crucial roles in HIV infection and replication, essential to viral maturation. The absence of high-resolution structural data on unassembled CA hinders the development of antivirals effective in inhibiting assembly. Unlike enzymes that have targetable, functional substrate-binding sites, the CA does not have a known site that affects catalytic or other innate activity, which can be more readily targeted in drug development efforts. We report the crystal structure of the HIV-1 CA, revealing the domain organization in the context of the wild-type full-length (FL) unassembled CA. The FL CA adopts an antiparallel dimer configuration, exhibiting a domain organization sterically incompatible with capsid assembly. A small compound, generated in situ during crystallization, is bound tightly at a hinge site ('H site'), indicating that binding at this interdomain region stabilizes the ADP conformation. Electron microscopy studies on nascent crystals reveal both dimeric and hexameric lattices coexisting within a single condition, in agreement with the interconvertibility of oligomeric forms and supporting the feasibility of promoting assembly-incompetent dimeric states. Solution characterization in the presence of the H-site ligand shows predominantly unassembled dimeric CA, even under conditions that promote assembly. Our structure elucidation of the HIV-1 FL CA and characterization of a potential allosteric binding site provides three-dimensional views of an assembly-defective conformation, a state targeted in, and thus directly relevant to, inhibitor development. Based on our findings, we propose an unprecedented means of preventing CA assembly, by 'conformationally trapping' CA in assembly-incompetent conformational states induced by H-site binding.

  10. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  11. Computational studies on the interaction of ABO-active saccharides with the norovirus VA387 capsid protein can explain experimental binding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nasir, Waqas; Strino, Francesco; Rydell, Gustaf E.; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2010-05-01

    Norovirus strains are known to cause recurring epidemics of winter vomiting disease. The crystal structure of the capsid protein of VA387, a representative of the clinically important GII.4 genocluster, was recently solved in complex with histo-blood group A- and B-trisaccharides. However, the VA387 strain is known to bind also to other natural carbohydrates for which detailed structural information of the complexes is not available. In this study we have computationally explored the fit of the VA387 with a set of naturally occurring carbohydrate ligands containing a terminal α1,2-linked fucose. MD simulations both with explicit and implicit solvent models indicate that type 1 and 3 extensions of the ABO-determinant including ALeb and BLeb pentasaccharides can be well accommodated in the site. Scoring with Glide XP indicates that the downstream extensions of the ABO-determinants give an increase in binding strength, although the α1,2-linked fucose is the single strongest interacting residue. An error was discovered in the geometry of the GalNAc-Gal moiety of the published crystal structure of the A-trisaccharide/VA387 complex. The present modeling of the complexes with histo-blood group A-active structures shows some contacts which provide insight into mutational data, explaining the involvement of I389 and Q331. Our results can be applicable in structure-based design of adhesion inhibitors of noroviruses.

  12. Amino acids substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins of a Vero cell-adapted mammalian orthoreovirus are required for optimal virus binding and disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy

    2015-01-22

    In a recent study, the serotype 3 Dearing strain of mammalian orthoreovirus was adapted to Vero cells; cells that exhibit a limited ability to support the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response upon infection. The Vero cell-adapted virus (VeroAV) exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins but no changes in the σ3 protein. Accordingly, the virus was shown not to behave as a classical uncoating mutant. In the present study, an increased ability of the virus to bind at the Vero cell surface was observed and is likely associated with an increased ability to bind onto cell-surface sialic acid residues. In addition, the kinetics of μ1 disassembly from the virions appears to be altered. The plasmid-based reverse genetics approach confirmed the importance of σ1 amino acids substitutions in VeroAV's ability to efficiently infect Vero cells, although μ1 co-adaptation appears necessary to optimize viral infection. This approach of combining in vitro selection of reoviruses with reverse genetics to identify pertinent amino acids substitutions appears promising in the context of eventual reovirus modification to increase its potential as an oncolytic virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the parameters of binding of R 61837 to human rhinovirus 9 and immunobiochemical evidence of capsid-stabilizing activity of the compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeremans, M; De Raeymaeker, M; Daneels, G; De Brabander, M; Aerts, F; Janssen, C; Andries, K

    1992-02-01

    The binding of the antiviral compound R 61837 to human rhinovirus 9 (HRV 9) was studied quantitatively and compared with binding of R 61837 to HRV 9H, a semiresistant variant. For both strains, radiolabelled R 61387 bound to native particles only. The Kd values obtained by Scatchard analysis of saturation binding data were 37 nM for HRV 9 and 172 nM for HRV 9H, whereas the concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction of cytopathic effect were 42 nM and 840 nM, respectively. Reversibility experiments showed that 65% of the compound could be extracted with chloroform from HRV 9H but less than 5% could be extracted from HRV 9. Dissociation studies demonstrated that in the presence of excess unlabelled compound, the half-lives of the virus compound complex HRV 9 and HRV 9H were 385 and 15 min, respectively. The effect of this antirhinoviral compound on the formation of subviral particles induced by low pH or heat was also investigated. Rate zonal centrifugation experiments using [35S]methionine-labelled HRV 9 showed that binding of R 61837 protected the virus against heat (56 degrees C) and acid (pH 5.0) and that at the same concentration of R 61837 the semiresistant strain was stabilized to a lesser extent. This observation was confirmed immunochemically with nonneutralizing and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Both 80S and 130S subviral particles have C antigenic determinants, whereas native particles (150S) have been designated D. R 61837 prevented the switch from D to C antigenicity which can be induced by exposure of rhinoviruses to mild denaturing conditions. These findings indicate that the compound is able to prevent a conformational change of the capsid which may be a prerequisite for infection.

  14. Inherited sodium avid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Jean-Michel; Hadchouel, Juliette; Faure, Sébastien; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Several familial forms of hypertension have been identified, in which the mendelian pattern of inheritance indicated that hypertension results from the alteration of a single gene. This short review focuses on those rare monogenic disorders characterized by a low-renin profile. This common feature reflects that the causative mutations responsible for these disorders all result in an excessive sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-dependent nephron. Low-renin familial hypertensions with hypokalemia encompass familial hyperaldosteronisms, in which aldosterone levels are elevated, and familial pseudohyperaldosteronisms, mimicking aldosteronism despite appropriately suppressed aldosterone levels. In these disorders, the avidity of the kidney for sodium is because of dysregulated sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and results in potassium wasting and metabolic alcalosis. Familial hypertension with hyperkalemia is a specific syndrome resulting from mutations in at least 3 different genes, among which 2 have been recently identified. These genes encode members of a new family of kinase, the WNK kinases, involved in the regulation of sodium and potassium excretion by the kidney.

  15. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer readily scalable solutions for purification of clinical grade AAV vectors.

  16. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification

    OpenAIRE

    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer re...

  17. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  18. Characterization of binding mode of action of a blocking anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, reveals conformational flexibility and avidity needed for PDGF-BB to bind PDGF receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Jun; Mosyak, Lidia; Brooks, Jon; Cain, Michael; Carven, Gregory J; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishino, Tetsuya; Tam, May; Lavallie, Edward R; Yang, Zhiyong; Ponsel, Dirk; Rauchenberger, Robert; Arch, Robert; Pullen, Nick

    2015-03-17

    Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is an important mitogen and cell survival factor during development. PDGF-BB binds PDGF receptor-β (PDGFRβ) to trigger receptor dimerization and tyrosine kinase activation. We present the pharmacological and biophysical characterization of a blocking PDGF-BB monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, and contrast this to PDGFRβ. MOR8457 binds to PDGF-BB with high affinity and selectivity, and prevents PDGF-BB induced cell proliferation competitively and with high potency. The structural characterization of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB complex indicates that MOR8457 binds with a 2:1 stoichiometry, but that binding of a single MOR8457 moiety is sufficient to prevent binding to PDGFRβ. Comparison of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB structure with that of the PDGFRβ-PDGF-BB complex suggested the potential reason for this was a substantial bending and twisting of PDGF-BB in the MOR8457 structure, relative to the structures of PDGF-BB alone, bound to a PDGF-BB aptamer or PDGFRβ, which makes it nonpermissive for PDGFRβ binding. These biochemical and structural data offer insights into the permissive structure of PDGF-BB needed for agonism as well as strategies for developing specific PDGF ligand antagonists.

  19. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-02-09

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes.

  20. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Nucleoporin 153 arrests the nuclear import of hepatitis B virus capsids in the nuclear basket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Schmitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all DNA viruses including hepatitis B viruses (HBV replicate their genome inside the nucleus. In non-dividing cells, the genome has to pass through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs by the aid of nuclear transport receptors as e.g. importin beta (karyopherin. Most viruses release their genome in the cytoplasm or at the cytosolic face of the NPC, as the diameter of their capsids exceeds the size of the NPC. The DNA genome of HBV is derived from reverse transcription of an RNA pregenome. Genome maturation occurs in cytosolic capsids and progeny capsids can deliver the genome into the nucleus causing nuclear genome amplification. The karyophilic capsids are small enough to pass the NPC, but nuclear entry of capsids with an immature genome is halted in the nuclear basket on the nuclear side of the NPC, and the genome remains encapsidated. In contrast, capsids with a mature genome enter the basket and consequently liberate the genome. Investigating the difference between immature and mature capsids, we found that mature capsids had to disintegrate in order to leave the nuclear basket. The arrest of a karyophilic cargo at the nuclear pore is a rare phenomenon, which has been described for only very few cellular proteins participating in nuclear entry. We analyzed the interactions causing HBV capsid retention. By pull-down assays and partial siRNA depletion, we showed that HBV capsids directly interact with nucleoporin 153 (Nup153, an essential protein of the nuclear basket which participates in nuclear transport via importin beta. The binding sites of importin beta and capsids were shown to overlap but capsid binding was 150-fold stronger. In cellulo experiments using digitonin-permeabilized cells confirmed the interference between capsid binding and nuclear import by importin beta. Collectively, our findings describe a unique nuclear import strategy not only for viruses but for all karyophilic cargos.

  2. Alix regulates egress of hepatitis B virus naked capsid particles in an ESCRT-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardens, Andreas; Döring, Tatjana; Stieler, Jens; Prange, Reinhild

    2011-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus that exploits the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway for budding. In addition to infectious particles, HBV-replicating cells release non-enveloped (nucleo)capsids, but their functional implication and pathways of release are unclear. Here, we focused on the molecular mechanisms and found that the sole expression of the HBV core protein is sufficient for capsid release. Unexpectedly, released capsids are devoid of a detectable membrane bilayer, implicating a non-vesicular exocytosis process. Unlike virions, naked capsid budding does not require the ESCRT machinery. Rather, we identified Alix, a multifunctional protein with key roles in membrane biology, as a regulator of capsid budding. Ectopic overexpression of Alix enhanced capsid egress, while its depletion inhibited capsid release. Notably, the loss of Alix did not impair HBV production, furthermore indicating that virions and capsids use diverse export routes. By mapping of Alix domains responsible for its capsid release-mediating activity, its Bro1 domain was found to be required and sufficient. Alix binds to core via its Bro1 domain and retained its activity even if its ESCRT-III binding site is disrupted. Together, the boomerang-shaped Bro1 domain of Alix appears to escort capsids without ESCRT. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Kinetics versus Thermodynamics in Virus Capsid Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Pepijn; van der Schoot, Paul; Kegel, Willem

    2016-07-07

    Virus coat proteins spontaneously self-assemble into empty shells in aqueous solution under the appropriate physicochemical conditions, driven by an interaction free energy per bond on the order of 2-5 times the thermal energy kBT. For this seemingly modest interaction strength, each protein building block nonetheless gains a very large binding free energy, between 10 and 20 kBT. Because of this, there is debate about whether the assembly process is reversible or irreversible. Here we discuss capsid polymorphism observed in in vitro experiments from the perspective of nucleation theory and of the thermodynamics of mass action. We specifically consider the potential contribution of a curvature free energy term to the effective interaction potential between the proteins. From these models, we propose experiments that may conclusively reveal whether virus capsid assembly into a mixture of polymorphs is a reversible or an irreversible process.

  4. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and modeling of multicomponent nanosystems templated by self-assembled virus capsids. The design principles, synthesis, analysis, and future directions for these capsid-based materials are presented. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the literature on the application of virus capsids in constructing nanomaterials. The uses of capsids in three main areas are considered: (1) as templates for inorganic materials or nanoparticles; (2) as vehicles for biological applications like medical imaging and treatment; and (3) as scaffolds for catalytic materials. In light of this introduction, an overview of the material in this dissertation is described. Chapters 2-4 all describe integrated nanosystems templated by bacteriophage MS2, a spherical icosahedral virus capsid. MS2 possesses an interior and exterior surface that can be modified orthogonally using bioconjugation chemistry to create multivalent, multicomponent constructs with precise localization of components attached to the capsid proteins. Chapter 2 describes the use of MS2 to synthesize a photocatalytic construct by modifying the internal surface with sensitizing chromophores and the external surface with a photocatalytic porphyrin. The chromophores absorbed energy that the porphyrin could not, and transferred it to the porphyrin via FRET through the protein shell. The porphyrin was then able to utilize the energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. In Chapter 3, porphyrins were installed on the interior surface of MS2 and DNA aptamers specific for Jurkat leukemia T cells on the exterior surface. The dual-modified capsids were able to bind to Jurkat cells, and upon illumination the porphyrins generated singlet oxygen to kill them selectively over non-targeted cells. Chapter 4 explores integrating MS2 with DNA origami in order to arrange the capsids at larger length scales. Capsids modified with fluorescent dyes inside and single-stranded DNA outside were able to

  5. Necrosis Avidity: A Newly Discovered Feature of Hypericin and its Preclinical Applications in Necrosis Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Binghu; Wang, Jichen; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [123I]iodohypericin, [124I]iodohypericin, and [131I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin. PMID:24052807

  6. Hidden IgG Antibodies to the Tumor-Associated Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen in Gastric Cancer Patients: Lectin Reactivity, Avidity, and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenkov, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Natural antibodies to the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF) are related to tumor immunosurveillance and cancer patients' survival. Hidden IgG antibodies (HAbs) to TF, their lectin reactivity, avidity, and clinical relevance were studied. HAbs were present in cancer patients and controls. A decreased level of IgG HAbs was detected in cancer. The HAbs level positively correlated with the sialospecific SNA lectin binding in purified total IgG (tIgG) in donors and cancer patients, indicating that HAbs are higher sialylated. The avidity of anti-TF IgG in tIgG samples was lower in cancer patients (P = 0.025) while no difference in the avidity of free anti-TF IgG was established. A negative correlation between the avidity of anti-TF IgG in tIgG and SNA binding in both groups was observed (P IgG avidity in tIgG only in donors (P = 0.003). Changes in the level of HAbs and Abs avidity showed a rather good stage- and gender-dependent diagnostic accuracy. Cancer patients with a lower anti-TF IgG avidity in tIgG showed a benefit in survival. Thus the TF-specific HAbs represent a particular subset of anti-TF IgG that differ from free serum anti-TF IgG in SNA reactivity, avidity, diagnostic potential, and relation to survival. PMID:28316982

  7. Becoming a Reader: Significant Social Influences on Avid Book Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how social influences can foster avid book reader identification is a key research goal that warrants further investigation beyond a limited early-years lens. The author's 2015 International Study of Avid Book Readers (ISABR) explored, as one of its key research questions, the influence positive social agents can have on avid book…

  8. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  9. T cell avidity and tumor recognition: implications and therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Jeffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last two decades, great advances have been made studying the immune response to human tumors. The identification of protein antigens from cancer cells and better techniques for eliciting antigen specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo have led to improved understanding of tumor recognition by T cells. Yet, much remains to be learned about the intricate details of T cell – tumor cell interactions. Though the strength of interaction between T cell and target is thought to be a key factor influencing the T cell response, investigations of T cell avidity, T cell receptor (TCR affinity for peptide-MHC complex, and the recognition of peptide on antigen presenting targets or tumor cells reveal complex relationships. Coincident with these investigations, therapeutic strategies have been developed to enhance tumor recognition using antigens with altered peptide structures and T cells modified by the introduction of new antigen binding receptor molecules. The profound effects of these strategies on T cell – tumor interactions and the clinical implications of these effects are of interest to both scientists and clinicians. In recent years, the focus of much of our work has been the avidity and effector characteristics of tumor reactive T cells. Here we review concepts and current results in the field, and the implications of therapeutic strategies using altered antigens and altered effector T cells.

  10. Nanobodies targeting norovirus capsid reveal functional epitopes and potential mechanisms of neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Hansman, Grant S

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry. Antibodies that bind at the HBGA pocket and block attachment to HBGAs are believed to neutralize the virus. However, additional neutralization epitopes elsewhere on the capsid likely exist and impeding the intrinsic structural dynamics of the capsid could be equally important. In the current study, we investigated a panel of Nanobodies in order to probe functional epitopes that could trigger capsid rearrangement and/ or interfere with HBGA binding interactions. The precise binding sites of six Nanobodies (Nano-4, Nano-14, Nano-26, Nano-27, Nano-32, and Nano-42) were identified using X-ray crystallography. We showed that these Nanobodies bound on the top, side, and bottom of the norovirus protruding domain. The impact of Nanobody binding on norovirus capsid morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We discovered that distinct Nanobody epitopes were associated with varied changes in particle structural integrity and assembly. Interestingly, certain Nanobody-induced capsid morphological changes lead to the capsid protein degradation and viral RNA exposure. Moreover, Nanobodies employed multiple inhibition mechanisms to prevent norovirus attachment to HBGAs, which included steric obstruction (Nano-14), allosteric interference (Nano-32), and violation of normal capsid morphology (Nano-26 and Nano-85). Finally, we showed that two Nanobodies (Nano-26 and Nano-85) not only compromised capsid integrity and inhibited VLPs attachment to HBGAs, but also recognized a broad panel of norovirus genotypes with high affinities. Consequently, Nano-26 and Nano-85 have a great potential to

  11. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  12. Controlling AAV Tropism in the Nervous System with Natural and Engineered Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Michael J; Turunen, Heikki T; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wolfe, John H

    2016-01-01

    More than one hundred naturally occurring variants of adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been identified, and this library has been further expanded by an array of techniques for modification of the viral capsid. AAV capsid variants possess unique antigenic profiles and demonstrate distinct cellular tropisms driven by differences in receptor binding. AAV capsids can be chemically modified to alter tropism, can be produced as hybrid vectors that combine the properties of multiple serotypes, and can carry peptide insertions that introduce novel receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, directed evolution of shuffled genome libraries can identify engineered variants with unique properties, and rational modification of the viral capsid can alter tropism, reduce blockage by neutralizing antibodies, or enhance transduction efficiency. This large number of AAV variants and engineered capsids provides a varied toolkit for gene delivery to the CNS and retina, with specialized vectors available for many applications, but selecting a capsid variant from the array of available vectors can be difficult. This chapter describes the unique properties of a range of AAV variants and engineered capsids, and provides a guide for selecting the appropriate vector for specific applications in the CNS and retina.

  13. Rationally Engineered AAV Capsids Improve Transduction and Volumetric Spread in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Sellnow, Rhyomi C; Boye, Sanford L; Coberly, Ben; Bennett, Antonette; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Sortwell, Caryl E; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2017-09-15

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most common vector for clinical gene therapy of the CNS. This popularity originates from a high safety record and the longevity of transgene expression in neurons. Nevertheless, clinical efficacy for CNS indications is lacking, and one reason for this is the relatively limited spread and transduction efficacy in large regions of the human brain. Using rationally designed modifications of the capsid, novel AAV capsids have been generated that improve intracellular processing and result in increased transgene expression. Here, we sought to improve AAV-mediated neuronal transduction to minimize the existing limitations of CNS gene therapy. We investigated the efficacy of CNS transduction using a variety of tyrosine and threonine capsid mutants based on AAV2, AAV5, and AAV8 capsids, as well as AAV2 mutants incapable of binding heparan sulfate (HS). We found that mutating several tyrosine residues on the AAV2 capsid significantly enhanced neuronal transduction in the striatum and hippocampus, and the ablation of HS binding also increased the volumetric spread of the vector. Interestingly, the analogous tyrosine substitutions on AAV5 and AAV8 capsids did not improve the efficacy of these serotypes. Our results demonstrate that the efficacy of CNS gene transfer can be significantly improved with minor changes to the AAV capsid and that the effect is serotype specific. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Tuning Viral Capsid Nanoparticle Stability with Symmetrical Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Schwarz, Benjamin; Koliyatt, Ranjit; de Pablo, Pedro J; Douglas, Trevor

    2016-09-27

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) provide engineering platforms for the design and implementation of protein-based nanostructures. These capsids are comprised of protein subunits whose precise arrangement and mutual interactions determine their stability, responsiveness to destabilizing environments, and ability to undergo morphological transitions. The precise interplay between subunit contacts and the overall stability of the bulk capsid population remains poorly resolved. Approaching this relationship requires a combination of techniques capable of accessing nanoscale properties, such as the mechanics of individual capsids, and bulk biochemical procedures capable of interrogating the stability of the VLP ensemble. To establish such connection, a VLP system is required where the subunit interactions can be manipulated in a controlled fashion. The P22 VLP is a promising platform for the design of nanomaterials and understanding how nanomanipulation of the particle affects bulk behavior. By contrasting single-particle atomic force microscopy and bulk chemical perturbations, we have related symmetry-specific anisotropic mechanical properties to the bulk ensemble behavior of the VLPs. Our results show that the expulsion of pentons at the vertices of the VLP induces a concomitant chemical and mechanical destabilization of the capsid and implicates the capsid edges as the points of mechanical fracture. Subsequent binding of a decoration protein at these critical edge regions restores both chemical and mechanical stability. The agreement between our single molecule and bulk techniques suggests that the same structural determinants govern both destabilizing and restorative mechanisms, unveiling a phenomenological coupling between the chemical and mechanical behavior of self-assembled cages and laying a framework for the analysis and manipulation of other VLPs and symmetric self-assembled structures.

  16. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  17. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  18. Increased Avidity of the Sambucus nigra Lectin-Reactive Antibodies to the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen as a Potential Biomarker for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kurtenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether the naturally occurring Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF antigen-specific antibodies differ in avidity between cancer patients and controls to find a novel biomarker for stomach cancer. Methods. Serum samples were taken from patients with cancer and controls. The level of TF-specific antibodies and their sialylation were determined using ELISA with synthetic TF-polyacrylamide conjugate as antigen and sialic acid-specific Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA. The avidity was determined using ammonium thiocyanate as a chaotrope. Results. A significantly higher SNA lectin binding to anti-TF antibodies was found in cancer patients irrespective of disease stage. The avidity of only IgM TF-specific antibodies was significantly higher in cancer patients compared to controls. The SNA-positive anti-TF antibodies of cancer patients showed a significantly higher avidity, P<0.001. The sensitivity and specificity of this increase for gastric cancer were 73.53% and 73.08%, respectively, with a 73.2% diagnostic accuracy. The higher avidity of SNA-reactive anti-TF antibodies was associated with a benefit in survival of stage 3 cancer patients. Conclusion. The SNA-reactive TF-specific antibodies display a significantly higher avidity in gastric cancer patients compared to controls, which can be used as a potential serologic biomarker for gastric cancer. It appears that IgM is the main target responsible for the above changes.

  19. Species-specific and cross-reactive IgG1 antibody binding to viral capsid protein 1 (VP1 antigens of human rhinovirus species A, B and C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jua Iwasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV are associated with upper and lower respiratory illnesses, including severe infections causing hospitalization in both children and adults. Although the clinical significance of HRV infections is now well established, no detailed investigation of the immune response against HRV has been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the IgG1 antibody response to the three known HRV species, HRV-A, -B and -C in healthy subjects. METHODS: Recombinant polypeptides of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1 from two genotypes of HRV-A, -B and -C were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST fusion proteins and purified by affinity and then size exclusion chromatography. The presence of secondary structures similar to the natural antigens was verified by circular dichroism analysis. Total and species-specific IgG1 measurements were quantitated by immunoassays and immunoabsorption using sera from 63 healthy adults. RESULTS: Most adult sera reacted with the HRV VP1 antigens, at high titres. As expected, strong cross-reactivity between HRV genotypes of the same species was found. A high degree of cross-reactivity between different HRV species was also evident, particularly between HRV-A and HRV-C. Immunoabsorption studies revealed HRV-C specific titres were markedly and significantly lower than the HRV-A and HRV-B specific titres (P<0.0001. A truncated construct of HRV-C VP1 showed greater specificity in detecting anti-HRV-C antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: High titres of IgG1 antibody were bound by the VP1 capsid proteins of HRV-A, -B and -C, but for the majority of people, a large proportion of the antibody to HRV-C was cross-reactive, especially to HRV-A. The improved specificity found for the truncated HRV-C VP1 indicates species-specific and cross-reactive regions could be defined.

  20. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.; (Pitt); (Scripps); (UCSD)

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic

  1. An Unexpected Twist in Viral Capsid Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Lambda-like dsDNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm. of pressure during genome packaging1. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids is unlikely to form in a single assembly step, therefore requiring formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Though various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage that undergoes large scale conformational changes. We present a procapsid x-ray structure at 3.65Å resolution, termed Prohead II, of the lambda like bacteriophage HK97, whose mature capsid structure was previously solved to 3.44 Å2. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrates that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and β-sheet regions. We have also discovered conserved subunit interactions at each 3-fold of the virus capsid, from which capsid subunits maintain their integrity during refolding, facilitating the rotational and translational motions of maturation. Calormetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90KJ/mol of energy3. We propose the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic maturation process likely present in many ds

  2. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ~8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

  3. AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, Rebeca M.; Bell, Christie L.; Wilson, James M., E-mail: wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-04-15

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8's robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 – a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII and IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype. - Highlights: • We construct chimeric vectors to identify determinants of AAV8 liver transduction. • An AAV2-based vector with 17 AAV8 residues exhibited high liver transduction in mice. • This vector also surpassed AAV2 in cell entry, nuclear entry and onset of expression. • Most chimeric vector particles were uncoated at 6 weeks, like AAV8 and unlike AAV2. • Chimera retained heparin binding and was antigenically distinct from AAV2 and AAV8.

  4. Screening for the Location of RNA using the Chloride Ion Distribution in Simulations of Virus Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel S D; van der Spoel, David

    2012-07-10

    The complete structure of the genomic material inside a virus capsid remains elusive, although a limited amount of symmetric nucleic acid can be resolved in the crystal structure of 17 icosahedral viruses. The negatively charged sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA and DNA as well as the large positive charge of the interior surface of the virus capsids suggest that electrostatic complementarity is an important factor in the packaging of the genomes in these viruses. To test how much packing information is encoded by the electrostatic and steric envelope of the capsid interior, we performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of virus capsids with explicit water molecules and solvent ions. The model systems were two small plant viruses in which significant amounts of RNA has been observed by X-ray crystallography: satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV, 62% RNA visible) and satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV, 34% RNA visible). Simulations of half-capsids of these viruses with no RNA present revealed that the binding sites of RNA correlated well with regions populated by chloride ions, suggesting that it is possible to screen for the binding sites of nucleic acids by determining the equilibrium distribution of negative ions. By including the crystallographically resolved RNA in addition to ions, we predicted the localization of the unresolved RNA in the viruses. Both viruses showed a hot-spot for RNA binding at the 5-fold symmetry axis. The MD simulations were compared to predictions of the chloride density based on nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) calculations with mobile ions. Although the predictions are superficially similar, the PBE calculations overestimate the ion concentration close to the capsid surface and underestimate it far away, mainly because protein dynamics is not taken into account. Density maps from chloride screening can be used to aid in building atomic models of packaged virus genomes. Knowledge of the principles of

  5. Gastrin Receptor-Avid Peptide Conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Li, Ning (Baltimore, MD); Sieckman, Gary (Ashland, MO); Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann (Columbia, MO)

    2005-07-26

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  6. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Sieckman, Gary; Smith, Charles J.; Gali, Hariprasad

    2006-06-13

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a-moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  7. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann

    2006-12-12

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  8. Dynamics of polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Moisio, J. E.; Suhonen, P. M.; Kaski, K.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer ejection from a capsid through a nanoscale pore is an important biological process with relevance to modern biotechnology. Here, we study generic capsid ejection using Langevin dynamics. We show that even when the ejection takes place within the drift-dominated region there is a very high probability for the ejection process not to be completed. Introducing a small aligning force at the pore entrance enhances ejection dramatically. Such a pore asymmetry is a candidate for a mechanism by which viral ejection is completed. By detailed high-resolution simulations we show that such capsid ejection is an out-of-equilibrium process that shares many common features with the much studied driven polymer translocation through a pore in a wall or a membrane. We find that the ejection times scale with polymer length, τ ˜Nα. We show that for the pore without the asymmetry the previous predictions corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations do not hold. For the pore with the asymmetry the scaling exponent varies with the initial monomer density (monomers per capsid volume) ρ inside the capsid. For very low densities ρ ≤0.002 the polymer is only weakly confined by the capsid, and we measure α =1.33, which is close to α =1.4 obtained for polymer translocation. At intermediate densities the scaling exponents α =1.25 and 1.21 for ρ =0.01 and 0.02, respectively. These scalings are in accord with a crude derivation for the lower limit α =1.2. For the asymmetrical pore precise scaling breaks down, when the density exceeds the value for complete confinement by the capsid, ρ ⪆0.25. The high-resolution data show that the capsid ejection for both pores, analogously to polymer translocation, can be characterized as a multiplicative stochastic process that is dominated by small-scale transitions.

  9. Development of Fully Automated Determination of Marker-Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Avidity Based on the Avidity Competition Assay Format: Application for Abbott Architect Cytomegalovirus and Toxo IgG Avidity Assays▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, Ingo; Praast, Gerald; Sickinger, Eva; Schultess, Jan; Herold, Iris; Braun, Hans Bertram; Bernhardt, Stephanie; Maine, Gregory T.; Smith, Darwin D.; Hsu, Stephen; Christ, Heike M.; Pucci, Dominick; Hausmann, Michael; Herzogenrath, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) directed against a specific marker has become an established diagnostic tool for identifying or excluding acute infections with pathogens. A novel assay format termed AVIcomp (avidity competition based on mass action) circumventing the conventional chaotropic format has been developed for determination of the avidity of marker-specific IgG in patient specimens. Its applications for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii are presented. Specific high-avidity IgG from the patient specimen is selectively blocked using a soluble antigen in a sample pretreatment reagent, and the amount of remaining specific low-avidity IgG is determined relative to that in an untreated control. The comparison of the conventional chaotropic format, represented by the Radim CMV IgG Avidity assay, and the newly developed AVIcomp method, as exemplified by the Architect CMV IgG Avidity assay, on blood drawn within 4 months after seroconversion revealed a sensitivity of 100% (97.3% by an alternative calculation) for the AVIcomp format versus 87.5% (75.7% by an alternative calculation) for the chaotropic avidity assay. The specificity on 312 CMV IgG reactive and CMV IgM nonreactive specimens from pregnant women was 100% for the AVIcomp assay and 99.7% for the conventional avidity assay. The Architect Toxo IgG Avidity assay showed an agreement of 97.2% with the bioMérieux Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity Assay employing chaotropic reagents. These performance data suggest that the AVIcomp format shows superior sensitivity and equivalent specificity for the determination of IgG avidity to assays based on the chaotropic method and that the AVIcomp format may also be applicable to other disease states. PMID:19129411

  10. High-Avidity and Potently Neutralizing Cross-Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies Derived from Secondary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lai, Chih-Yun; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Hong-En; Edwards, Carolyn; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Kliks, Srisakul; Halstead, Scott; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R.

    2013-01-01

    The envelope (E) protein of dengue virus (DENV) is the major target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and vaccine development. Previous studies of human dengue-immune sera reported that a significant proportion of anti-E Abs, known as group-reactive (GR) Abs, were cross-reactive to all four DENV serotypes and to one or more other flaviviruses. Based on studies of mouse anti-E monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), GR MAbs were nonneutralizing or weakly neutralizing compared with type-specific MAbs; a GR response was thus not regarded as important for vaccine strategy. We investigated the epitopes, binding avidities, and neutralization potencies of 32 human GR anti-E MAbs. In addition to fusion loop (FL) residues in E protein domain II, human GR MAbs recognized an epitope involving both FL and bc loop residues in domain II. The neutralization potencies and binding avidities of GR MAbs derived from secondary DENV infection were stronger than those derived from primary infection. GR MAbs derived from primary DENV infection primarily blocked attachment, whereas those derived from secondary infection blocked DENV postattachment. Analysis of the repertoire of anti-E MAbs derived from patients with primary DENV infection revealed that the majority were GR, low-avidity, and weakly neutralizing MAbs, whereas those from secondary infection were primarily GR, high-avidity, and potently neutralizing MAbs. Our findings suggest that the weakly neutralizing GR anti-E Abs generated from primary DENV infection become potently neutralizing MAbs against the four serotypes after secondary infection. The observation that the dengue immune status of the host affects the quality of the cross-reactive Abs generated has implications for new strategies for DENV vaccination. PMID:24027331

  11. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  12. Effects of Potassium Iodide on Low Avid Immunological Reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: i) KI like BA or CS showed hemagglutination. ii) C‑mediated hemolysis was inhibited in presence of KI. iii) C‑mediated lysis of S. typhi was partially enhanced by KI showing reduced number of colonies; iv) while lysis of candida was reduced. Conclusions: KI increases avidity of some immune reactions including ...

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 Maturation via Small-Molecule Targeting of the Amino-Terminal Domain in the Viral Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Halambage, Upul D; Jurado, Kellie A; Jamin, Augusta V; Wang, Yujie; Engelman, Alan N; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein is an attractive therapeutic target, owing to its multifunctionality in virus replication and the high fitness cost of amino acid substitutions in capsids to HIV-1 infectivity. To date, small-molecule inhibitors have been identified that inhibit HIV-1 capsid assembly and/or impair its function in target cells. Here, we describe the mechanism of action of the previously reported capsid-targeting HIV-1 inhibitor, Boehringer-Ingelheim compound 1 (C1). We show that C1 acts during HIV-1 maturation to prevent assembly of a mature viral capsid. However, unlike the maturation inhibitor bevirimat, C1 did not significantly affect the kinetics or fidelity of Gag processing. HIV-1 particles produced in the presence of C1 contained unstable capsids that lacked associated electron density and exhibited impairments in early postentry stages of infection, most notably reverse transcription. C1 inhibited assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA in vitro and induced aberrant cross-links in mutant HIV-1 particles capable of spontaneous intersubunit disulfide bonds at the interhexamer interface in the capsid lattice. Resistance to C1 was conferred by a single amino acid substitution within the compound-binding site in the N-terminal domain of the CA protein. Our results demonstrate that the binding site for C1 represents a new pharmacological vulnerability in the capsid assembly stage of the HIV-1 life cycle.IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 capsid protein is an attractive but unexploited target for clinical drug development. Prior studies have identified HIV-1 capsid-targeting compounds that display different mechanisms of action, which in part reflects the requirement for capsid function at both the efferent and afferent phases of viral replication. Here, we show that one such compound, compound 1, interferes with assembly of the conical viral capsid during virion maturation and results in perturbations at a specific protein

  14. Avidity Studies in Anisakis simplex-Associated Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cuéllar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroallergic anisakiasis (GAA and Anisakis-sensitization-associated chronic urticaria (CU+ differ with respect to specific IgE levels. We hypothesised different immunoglobulin avidities in both entities as well as their dependence on TI and fish consumption. 16 patients with GAA and 17 patients with CU+ were included, and immunoglobulin levels were analysed by CAP (Phadia. IgE and IgG avidity indexes (AvIgE and AvIgG, resp. were also determined. IgG avidity was higher in GAA than in CU+ (P=0.035, whereas there was a tendency to lower IgE avidity in GAA (P=0.095. When analysing all patients, AvIgG was positively correlated with specific IgE, IgG, and IgG4 as well as total IgE (Rho between 0.66 and 0.71; P<0.002, but AvIgE was negatively correlated with specific IgE (Rho −0.57; P<0.001, specific IgG4 (Rho −0.38; P<0.05, and total IgE (Rho 0.66; P<0.001. In GAA, weekly fish consumption was positively associated with AvIgE (Rho 0.51; P=0.05. A multivariate regression showed that time interval was the main explaining factor for AvIgE in GAA. We could show a differential behaviour of immunoglobulin isotype avidities in both entities and their dependence on fish-eating habits as well as on the time elapsed to the last parasitic episode.

  15. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T.P.

    2003-12-31

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic

  16. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  17. AVID: An integrative framework for discovering functional relationships among proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keating Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the functions of uncharacterized proteins is one of the most pressing problems in the post-genomic era. Large scale protein-protein interaction assays, global mRNA expression analyses and systematic protein localization studies provide experimental information that can be used for this purpose. The data from such experiments contain many false positives and false negatives, but can be processed using computational methods to provide reliable information about protein-protein relationships and protein function. An outstanding and important goal is to predict detailed functional annotation for all uncharacterized proteins that is reliable enough to effectively guide experiments. Results We present AVID, a computational method that uses a multi-stage learning framework to integrate experimental results with sequence information, generating networks reflecting functional similarities among proteins. We illustrate use of the networks by making predictions of detailed Gene Ontology (GO annotations in three categories: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. Applied to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AVID provides 37,451 pair-wise functional linkages between 4,191 proteins. These relationships are ~65–78% accurate, as assessed by cross-validation testing. Assignments of highly detailed functional descriptors to proteins, based on the networks, are estimated to be ~67% accurate for GO categories describing molecular function and cellular component and ~52% accurate for terms describing biological process. The predictions cover 1,490 proteins with no previous annotation in GO and also assign more detailed functions to many proteins annotated only with less descriptive terms. Predictions made by AVID are largely distinct from those made by other methods. Out of 37,451 predicted pair-wise relationships, the greatest number shared in common with another method is 3,413. Conclusion AVID provides

  18. Processing of the VP1/2A Junction Is Not Necessary for Production of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsids and Infectious Viruses: Characterization of “Self-Tagged” Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette

    2013-01-01

    the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction......, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect...... on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3Cpro at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of “self-tagged” empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like...

  19. Mechanisms behind functional avidity maturation in T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak, Martin; Geisler, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    During an immune response antigen-primed B-cells increase their antigen responsiveness by affinity maturation mediated by somatic hypermutation of the genes encoding the antigen-specific B-cell receptor (BCR) and by selection of higher-affinity B cell clones. Unlike the BCR, the T-cell receptor...... (TCR) cannot undergo affinity maturation. Nevertheless, antigen-primed T cells significantly increase their antigen responsiveness compared to antigen-inexperienced (naïve) T cells in a process called functional avidity maturation. This paper covers studies that describe differences in T-cell antigen...... responsiveness during T-cell differentiation along with examples of the mechanisms behind functional avidity maturation in T cells....

  20. Viral capsids: Mechanical characteristics, genome packaging and delivery mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Ivanovska, I.L.; Evilevitch, A.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main functions of viral capsids are to protect, transport and deliver their genome. The mechanical properties of capsids are supposed to be adapted to these tasks. Bacteriophage capsids also need to withstand the high pressures the DNA is exerting onto it as a result of the DNA packaging and its

  1. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  2. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  3. Unprocessed foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor displays discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, J C; Cairó, J; Medina, M; Zuidema, D; Abrams, C; Belsham, G J; Domingo, E; Vlak, J M

    1994-07-01

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cDNA cassette containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor P1, peptide 2A and a truncated 2B (abbreviated P1-2A) of type C FMDV, has been modified to generate the authentic amino terminus and the myristoylation signal. This construct has been used to produce a recombinant baculovirus (AcMM53) which, upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells, expressed a recombinant P1-2A precursor with a high yield. This polyprotein reacted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bind to continuous epitopes of the major antigenic site A (also termed site 1) of capsid protein VP1. Unexpectedly, it also reacted with neutralizing MAbs which define complex, discontinuous epitopes previously identified on FMDV particles. The reactivity of MAbs with P1-2A was quantitatively similar to their reactivity with intact virus and, in both cases, the reactivity with MAbs that recognized discontinuous epitopes was lost upon heat denaturation of the antigen. The finding that a capsid precursor may fold in such a way as to maintain discontinuous epitopes involved in virus neutralization present on the virion surface opens the possibility of using unprocessed capsid precursors as novel antiviral immunogens.

  4. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Eunüs S.; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and...

  5. Nuclear entry of hepatitis B virus capsids involves disintegration to protein dimers followed by nuclear reassociation to capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Rabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Assembly and disassembly of viral capsids are essential steps in the viral life cycle. Studies on their kinetics are mostly performed in vitro, allowing application of biochemical, biophysical and visualizing techniques. In vivo kinetics are poorly understood and the transferability of the in vitro models to the cellular environment remains speculative. We analyzed capsid disassembly of the hepatitis B virus in digitonin-permeabilized cells which support nuclear capsid entry and subsequent genome release. Using gradient centrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and immune fluorescence microscopy of digitonin-permeabilized cells, we showed that capsids open and close reversibly. In the absence of RNA, capsid re-assembly slows down; the capsids remain disintegrated and enter the nucleus as protein dimers or irregular polymers. Upon the presence of cellular RNA, capsids re-assemble in the nucleus. We conclude that reversible genome release from hepatitis B virus capsids is a unique strategy different from that of other viruses, which employs irreversible capsid destruction for genome release. The results allowed us to propose a model of HBV genome release in which the unique environment of the nuclear pore favors HBV capsid disassembly reaction, while both cytoplasm and nucleus favor capsid assembly.

  6. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  7. Poliovirus RNA Is Released from the Capsid near a Twofold Symmetry Axis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostina, Mihnea; Levy, Hazel; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2011-01-01

    After recognizing and binding to its host cell, poliovirus (like other nonenveloped viruses) faces the challenge of translocating its genome across a cellular membrane and into the cytoplasm. To avoid entanglement with the capsid, the RNA must exit via a single site on the virion surface. However, the mechanism by which a single site is selected (from among 60 equivalents) is unknown; and until now, even its location on the virion surface has been controversial. To help to elucidate the mechanism of infection, we have used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and tomography to reconstruct conformationally altered intermediates that are formed by the poliovirion at various stages of the poliovirus infection process. Recently, we reported icosahedrally symmetric structures for two forms of the end-state 80S empty capsid particle. Surprisingly, RNA was frequently visible near the capsid; and in a subset of the virions, RNA was seen on both the inside and outside of the capsid, caught in the act of exiting. To visualize RNA exiting, we have now determined asymmetric reconstructions from that subset, using both single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomographic methods, producing independent reconstructions at ∼50-Å resolution. Contrary to predictions in the literature, the footprint of RNA on the capsid surface is located close to a viral 2-fold axis, covering a slot-shaped area of reduced density that is present in both of the symmetrized 80S reconstructions and which extends by about 20 Å away from the 2-fold axis toward each neighboring 5-fold axis. PMID:20980499

  8. Critical Salt Bridges Guide Capsid Assembly, Stability, and Maturation Behavior in Bacteriophage HK97*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Fu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Rick; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    HK97 is a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage that undergoes dramatic conformational changes during viral capsid maturation and for which x-ray structures, at near atomic resolution, of multiple intermediate and mature capsid states are available. Both amide H/2H exchange and crystallographic comparisons between the pre-expanded Prohead II particles and the expanded Head II of bacteriophage HK97 revealed quaternary interactions that remain fixed throughout maturation and appear to maintain intercapsomer integrity at all quasi- and icosahedral 3-fold axes. These 3-fold staples are formed from Arg and Glu residues and a metal binding site. Mutations of either Arg-347 or Arg-194 or a double mutation of E344Q and E363A resulted in purification of the phage in capsomer form (hexamers and pentamers). Mutants that did assemble had both decreased thermal stability and decreased in vitro expansion rates. Amide H/2H exchange mass spectrometry showed that in the wild type capsid some subunits had a bent “spine” helix (highly exchanging), whereas others were straight (less exchanging). Similar analysis of the never assembled mutant capsomers showed uniform amide exchange in all of these that was higher than that of the straight spine helices (characterized in more mature intermediates), suggesting that the spine helix is somewhat bent prior to capsid assembly. The result further supports a previously proposed mechanism for capsid expansion in which the delta domains of each subunit induce a high energy intermediate conformation, which now appears to include a bent helix during capsomer assembly. PMID:20332083

  9. Functional Carboxy-Terminal Fluorescent Protein Fusion to Pseudorabies Virus Small Capsid Protein VP26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Jean, Jolie; Esteves, Andrew D; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Scherer, Julian; Enquist, Lynn W

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent protein fusions to herpesvirus capsids have proven to be a valuable method to study virus particle transport in living cells. Fluorescent protein fusions to the amino terminus of small capsid protein VP26 are the most widely used method to visualize pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles in living cells. However, these fusion proteins do not incorporate to full occupancy and have modest effects on virus replication and pathogenesis. Recent cryoelectron microscopy studies have revealed that herpesvirus small capsid proteins bind to capsids via their amino terminus, whereas the carboxy terminus is unstructured and therefore may better tolerate fluorescent protein fusions. Here, we describe a new recombinant PRV expressing a carboxy-terminal VP26-mCherry fusion. Compared to previously characterized viruses expressing amino-terminal fusions, this virus expresses more VP26 fusion protein in infected cells and incorporates more VP26 fusion protein into virus particles, and individual virus particles exhibit brighter red fluorescence. We performed single-particle tracking of fluorescent virus particles in primary neurons to measure anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, demonstrating the usefulness of this novel VP26-mCherry fusion for the study of viral intracellular transport.IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are among the very few viruses that are adapted to invade the mammalian nervous system. Intracellular transport of virus particles in neurons is important, as this process underlies both mild peripheral nervous system infection and severe spread to the central nervous system. VP26, the small capsid protein of HSV and PRV, was one of the first herpesvirus proteins to be fused to a fluorescent protein. Since then, these capsid-tagged virus mutants have become a powerful tool to visualize and track individual virus particles. Improved capsid tags will facilitate fluorescence microscopy studies of virus particle intracellular

  10. Classification and Evolutionary Trends of Icosahedral Viral Capsids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kerner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification of icosahedral viral capsids is proposed. We show how the self-organization of capsids during their formation implies a definite composition of their elementary building blocks. The exact number of hexamers with three different admissible symmetries is related to capsids' sizes, labelled by their T-numbers. Simple rules determining these numbers for each value of T are deduced and certain consequences concerning the probabilities of mutations and evolution of viruses are discussed.

  11. Reverse Transcription Mechanically Initiates HIV-1 Capsid Disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankovic, Sanela; Varadarajan, Janani; Ramalho, Ruben; Aiken, Christopher; Rousso, Itay

    2017-06-15

    The HIV-1 core consists of the viral genomic RNA and several viral proteins encased within a conical capsid. After cell entry, the core disassembles in a process termed uncoating. Although HIV-1 uncoating has been linked to reverse transcription of the viral genome in target cells, the mechanism by which uncoating is initiated is unknown. Using time-lapse atomic force microscopy, we analyzed the morphology and physical properties of isolated HIV-1 cores during the course of reverse transcription in vitro We found that, during an early stage of reverse transcription the pressure inside the capsid increases, reaching a maximum after 7 h. High-resolution mechanical mapping reveals the formation of a stiff coiled filamentous structure underneath the capsid surface. Subsequently, this coiled structure disappears, the stiffness of the capsid drops precipitously to a value below that of a pre-reverse transcription core, and the capsid undergoes partial or complete rupture near the narrow end of the conical structure. We propose that the transcription of the relatively flexible single-stranded RNA into a more rigid filamentous structure elevates the pressure within the core, which triggers the initiation of capsid disassembly.IMPORTANCE For successful infection, the HIV-1 genome, which is in the form of a single-stranded RNA enclosed inside a capsid shell, must be reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA and released from the capsid (in a process known as uncoating) before it can be integrated into the target cell genome. The mechanism that triggers uncoating is a pivotal question of long standing. By using atomic force microscopy, we found that during reverse transcription the pressure inside the capsid increases until the internal stress exceeds the strength of the capsid structure and the capsid breaks open. The application of AFM technologies to study purified HIV-1 cores represents a new experimental platform for elucidating additional aspects of capsid

  12. Avidity Of Anti-Naja Haje Antivenin In Relation To In Vivo And In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avidity, which is a measure of the bonding strength between antigens and antibodies, becomes an important medical parameter in many aspects of therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In the present investigation, we studied the relationship between the avidity and the in vivo and in vitro activity of 18 samples of anti-Naja ...

  13. Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate .... DNA extracted from the tachyzoites of T. gondii-RH strain. (Institut Pasteur ..... Table 3: Rates of Toxoplasma acute infection among the study pregnant women. Diagnosis.

  14. Avidity of anti-P aeruginosa antibodies during chronic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Petersen, T D; Jensen, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to study the impact on the lung function of patients with cystic fibrosis of the avidity of antipseudomonal antibodies, the avidity of antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) and against the 60-65 kDa heat shock protein of P aer...

  15. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Zhao, Zhongchao; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2017-11-22

    Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time. The initial assembly reaction occurs rapidly, on the time scale expected from low resolution measurements. However, CDMS shows that many of the particles generated in this process are defective and overgrown, containing more than the 120 capsid protein dimers needed to form a perfect T = 4 icosahedron. The defective and overgrown capsids self-correct over time to the mass expected for a perfect T = 4 capsid. Thus, completion is a distinct phase in the assembly reaction. Capsid completion does not necessarily occur by inserting the last building block into an incomplete, but otherwise perfect icosahedron. The initial assembly reaction can be predominently imperfect, and completion involves the slow correction of the accumulated errors.

  16. An analysis of features of respiratory therapy departments that are avid for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K; Kester, Lucy; Roberts, Vincent T; Orens, Douglas K; Babic, Mark D; Lemin, Martha E; Hoisington, Edward R; Dolgan, Colleen M; Cohen, Harlow B; Chatburn, Robert L

    2008-07-01

    Models of organizational change-readiness have been developed, but little attention has been given to features of change-avid health-care institutions, and, to our knowledge, no attention has been given to features of change-avid respiratory therapy (RT) departments. We conducted an exploratory study to compare RT departments we deemed change-avid or non-change-avid, to identify differentiating characteristics. Our assessments regarding change-readiness and avidity were based on structured, in-person interviews of the technical directors and/or medical directors of 8 RT departments. Based on a priori criteria, 4 of the 8 RT departments were deemed change-avid, based on the presence of > or = 2 of the following 3 criteria: (1) uses a management information system, (2) uses a comprehensive RT protocol program, (3) uses noninvasive ventilation in > 20% of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our ratings of the departments were based on 2 scales: one from Integrated Organizational Development Inc, and the 8-stage change model of Kotter. The ratings of the 4 change-avid departments differed significantly from those of the 4 non-change-avid departments, on both the Integrated Organizational Development Inc scale and the Kotter scale. We identified 11 highly desired features of a change-avid RT department: a close working relationship between the medical director and the RT staff; a strong and supportive hospital "champion" for change; using data to define problems and measure the effectiveness of solutions; using redundant types of communication; recognizing resistance and minimizing obstacles to change; being willing to tackle tough issues; maintaining a culture of ongoing education; consistently rewarding change-avid behavior; fostering ownership for change and involving stakeholders; attending to RT leadership succession planning; and having and communicating a vision for the department. In this first exploratory study we found that

  17. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jamie B; Daniel, Gina R; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis; Smith, Greg A; Conway, James F; Homa, Fred L

    2017-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the nucleus

  18. Mechanism of Action and Capsid-Stabilizing Properties of VHHs with an In Vitro Antipolioviral Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Lise; Strauss, Mike; Thys, Bert; Halewyck, Hadewych; Filman, David J.; Bostina, Mihnea; Rombaut, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we reported on the in vitro antiviral activity of single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) directed against poliovirus type 1. Five VHHs were found to neutralize poliovirus type 1 in an in vitro setting and showed 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) in the nanomolar range. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of action of these VHHs. All five VHHs interfere at multiple levels of the viral replication cycle, as they interfere both with attachment of the virus to cells and with viral uncoating. The latter effect is consistent with their ability to stabilize the poliovirus capsid, as observed in a ThermoFluor thermal shift assay, in which the virus is gradually heated and the temperature causing 50% of the RNA to be released from the capsid is determined, either in the presence or in the absence of the VHHs. The VHH-capsid interactions were also seen to induce aggregation of the virus-VHH complexes. However, this observation cannot yet be linked to their mechanism of action. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of two VHHs in complex with poliovirus type 1 show no conformational changes of the capsid to explain this aggregation. On the other hand, these reconstructions do show that the binding sites of VHHs PVSP6A and PVSP29F overlap the binding site for the poliovirus receptor (CD155/PVR) and span interfaces that are altered during receptor-induced conformational changes associated with cell entry. This may explain the interference at the level of cell attachment of the virus as well as their effect on uncoating. IMPORTANCE The study describes the mechanism of neutralization and the capsid-stabilizing activity of five single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that have an in vitro neutralizing activity against poliovirus type 1. The results show that the VHHs interfere at multiple levels of the viral replication cycle (cell attachment and viral uncoating). These mechanisms are possibly shared by some

  19. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  20. Hepatitis Virus Capsid Polymorph Stability Depends on Encapsulated Cargo Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, L.; Porterfield, Z.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Zlotnick, A.; Dragnea, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein cages providing a controlled environment to encapsulated cargo are a ubiquitous presence in any biological system. Well-known examples are capsids, the regular protein shells of viruses, which protect and deliver the viral genome. Since some virus capsids can be loaded with nongenomic

  1. Biocompatible inorganic nanoparticles for [18F]-fluoride binding with applications in PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Williamson, Peter A; Glaria, Arnaud; Sunassee, Kavitha; Charoenphun, Putthiporn; Green, Mark A; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Blower, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    A wide selection of insoluble nanoparticulate metal salts was screened for avid binding of [18F]-fluoride. Hydroxyapatite and aluminium hydroxide nanoparticles showed particularly avid and stable binding of [18F]-fluoride in various biological media. The in vivo behaviour of the [18F]-labelled hydroxyapatite and aluminium hydroxide particles was determined by PET-CT imaging in mice. [18F]-labelled hydroxyapatite was stable in circulation and when trapped in various tissues (lung embolisation,...

  2. Self-assembly of model proteins into virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    We consider self-assembly of proteins into a virus capsid by the methods of molecular dynamics. The capsid corresponds either to SPMV or CCMV and is studied with and without the RNA molecule inside. The proteins are flexible and described by the structure-based coarse-grained model augmented by electrostatic interactions. Previous studies of the capsid self-assembly involved solid objects of a supramolecular scale, e.g. corresponding to capsomeres, with engineered couplings and stochastic movements. In our approach, a single capsid is dissociated by an application of a high temperature for a variable period and then the system is cooled down to allow for self-assembly. The restoration of the capsid proceeds to various extent, depending on the nature of the dissociated state, but is rarely complete because some proteins depart too far unless the process takes place in a confined space.

  3. Discovery and Mechanistic Study of Benzamide Derivatives That Modulate Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuo; Zhao, Qiong; Zhang, Pinghu; Kulp, John; Hu, Lydia; Hwang, Nicky; Zhang, Jiming; Block, Timothy M; Xu, Xiaodong; Du, Yanming; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2017-08-15

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. Although the currently approved medications can reliably reduce the viral load and prevent the progression of liver diseases, they fail to cure the viral infection. In an effort toward discovery of novel antiviral agents against HBV, a group of benzamide (BA) derivatives that significantly reduced the amount of cytoplasmic HBV DNA were discovered. The initial lead optimization efforts identified two BA derivatives with improved antiviral activity for further mechanistic studies. Interestingly, similar to our previously reported sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), the BAs promote the formation of empty capsids through specific interaction with HBV core protein but not other viral and host cellular components. Genetic evidence suggested that both SBAs and BAs inhibited HBV nucleocapsid assembly by binding to the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) pocket between core protein dimer-dimer interfaces. However, unlike SBAs, BA compounds uniquely induced the formation of empty capsids that migrated more slowly in native agarose gel electrophoresis from A36V mutant than from the wild-type core protein. Moreover, we showed that the assembly of chimeric capsids from wild-type and drug-resistant core proteins was susceptible to multiple capsid assembly modulators. Hence, HBV core protein is a dominant antiviral target that may suppress the selection of drug-resistant viruses during core protein-targeting antiviral therapy. Our studies thus indicate that BAs are a chemically and mechanistically unique type of HBV capsid assembly modulators and warranted for further development as antiviral agents against HBV.IMPORTANCE HBV core protein plays essential roles in many steps of the viral replication cycle. In addition to packaging viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and DNA polymerase complex into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place, the core protein dimers, existing in several

  4. Backbone structure of the infectious epsilon15 virus capsid revealed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Baker, Matthew L; Jakana, Joanita; Weigele, Peter R; King, Jonathan; Chiu, Wah

    2008-02-28

    A half-century after the determination of the first three-dimensional crystal structure of a protein, more than 40,000 structures ranging from single polypeptides to large assemblies have been reported. The challenge for crystallographers, however, remains the growing of a diffracting crystal. Here we report the 4.5-A resolution structure of a 22-MDa macromolecular assembly, the capsid of the infectious epsilon15 (epsilon15) particle, by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. From this density map we constructed a complete backbone trace of its major capsid protein, gene product 7 (gp7). The structure reveals a similar protein architecture to that of other tailed double-stranded DNA viruses, even in the absence of detectable sequence similarity. However, the connectivity of the secondary structure elements (topology) in gp7 is unique. Protruding densities are observed around the two-fold axes that cannot be accounted for by gp7. A subsequent proteomic analysis of the whole virus identifies these densities as gp10, a 12-kDa protein. Its structure, location and high binding affinity to the capsid indicate that the gp10 dimer functions as a molecular staple between neighbouring capsomeres to ensure the particle's stability. Beyond epsilon15, this method potentially offers a new approach for modelling the backbone conformations of the protein subunits in other macromolecular assemblies at near-native solution states.

  5. Modeling of the human rhinovirus C capsid suggests possible causes for antiviral drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Holly A; Ashraf, Shamaila; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Bochkov, Yury A; Gern, James E; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2014-01-05

    Human rhinoviruses of the RV-C species are recently discovered pathogens with greater clinical significance than isolates in the RV-A+B species. The RV-C cannot be propagated in typical culture systems; so much of the virology is necessarily derivative, relying on comparative genomics, relative to the better studied RV-A+B. We developed a bioinformatics-based structural model for a C15 isolate. The model showed the VP1-3 capsid proteins retain their fundamental cores relative to the RV-A+B, but conserved, internal RV-C residues affect the shape and charge of the VP1 hydrophobic pocket that confers antiviral drug susceptibility. When predictions of the model were tested in organ cultures or ALI systems with recombinant C15 virus, there was a resistance to capsid-binding drugs, including pleconaril, BTA-188, WIN56291, WIN52035 and WIN52084. Unique to all RV-C, the model predicts conserved amino acids within the pocket and capsid surface pore leading to the pocket may correlate with this activity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bangwen; Stammes, Marieke A; van Driel, Pieter B A A; Cruz, Luis J; Knol-Blankevoort, Vicky T; Löwik, Martijn A M; Mezzanotte, Laura; Que, Ivo; Chan, Alan; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Siebes, Maria; Gottschalk, Sven; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Keereweer, Stijn; Horobin, Richard W; Hoehn, Mathias; Kaijzel, Eric L; van Beek, Ermond R; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Löwik, Clemens W G M

    2015-11-17

    Quantification of tumor necrosis in cancer patients is of diagnostic value as the amount of necrosis is correlated with disease prognosis and it could also be used to predict early efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. In the present study, we identified two near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) carboxylated cyanines, HQ5 and IRDye 800CW (800CW), which possess strong necrosis avidity. In vitro studies showed that both dyes selectively bind to cytoplasmic proteins of dead cells that have lost membrane integrity. Affinity for cytoplasmic proteins was confirmed using quantitative structure activity relations modeling. In vivo results, using NIRF and optoacoustic imaging, confirmed the necrosis avid properties of HQ5 and 800CW in a mouse 4T1 breast cancer tumor model of spontaneous necrosis. Finally, in a mouse EL4 lymphoma tumor model, already 24 h post chemotherapy, a significant increase in 800CW fluorescence intensity was observed in treated compared to untreated tumors. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that the NIRF carboxylated cyanines HQ5 and 800CW possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro and in vivo. When translated to the clinic, these dyes may be used for diagnostic or prognostic purposes and for monitoring in vivo tumor response early after the start of treatment.

  7. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  8. Host cofactors and pharmacologic ligands share an essential interface in HIV-1 capsid that is lost upon disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 capsid is involved in all infectious steps from reverse transcription to integration site selection, and is the target of multiple host cell and pharmacologic ligands. However, structural studies have been limited to capsid monomers (CA, and the mechanistic basis for how these ligands influence infection is not well understood. Here we show that a multi-subunit interface formed exclusively within CA hexamers mediates binding to linear epitopes within cellular cofactors NUP153 and CPSF6, and is competed for by the antiretroviral compounds PF74 and BI-2. Each ligand is anchored via a shared phenylalanine-glycine (FG motif to a pocket within the N-terminal domain of one monomer, and all but BI-2 also make essential interactions across the N-terminal domain: C-terminal domain (NTD:CTD interface to a second monomer. Dissociation of hexamer into CA monomers prevents high affinity interaction with CPSF6 and PF74, and abolishes binding to NUP153. The second interface is conformationally dynamic, but binding of NUP153 or CPSF6 peptides is accommodated by only one conformation. NUP153 and CPSF6 have overlapping binding sites, but each makes unique CA interactions that, when mutated selectively, perturb cofactor dependency. These results reveal that multiple ligands share an overlapping interface in HIV-1 capsid that is lost upon viral disassembly.

  9. Pentamerization of single-domain antibodies from phage libraries: a novel strategy for the rapid generation of high-avidity antibody reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbing; Tanha, Jamshid; Hirama, Tomoko; Khieu, Nam Huan; To, Rebecca; Tong-Sevinc, Hong; Stone, Emily; Brisson, Jean Robert; MacKenzie, C Roger

    2004-01-02

    We describe a novel type of molecule in which single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) isolated from a nai;ve llama single domain antibody library are linked to an oligomerization domain to generate high-avidity, antigen-binding reagents. An sdAb is fused to the B-subunit of Escherichia coli verotoxin, or shiga-like toxin, which self-assembles to form a homopentamer and results in simultaneous sdAb pentamerization and introduction of avidity. Molecular modeling indicated that this fusion protein (PDB: 1OJF), termed pentabody, has structural flexibility for binding to surface-presented antigen. In the instance of an sdAb specific for a peptide antigen, pentamerization resulted in a dramatic increase in functional affinity for immobilized antigen. The pentabody was expressed in high yield in E.coli in a non-aggregated state, and exhibited excellent thermostability and protease resistance. This technology provides a relatively rapid means of generating novel antigen-binding molecules that bind strongly to immobilized antigen. It is expected that pentavalent sdAbs will have general applicability in proteomics, immunochemical staining, cancer diagnosis and other applications in which antigens are presented multivalently.

  10. Native hepatitis B virions and capsids visualized by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Kelly A; Wieland, Stefan F; Whitten-Bauer, Christina; Gerin, John L; Chisari, Francis V; Yeager, Mark

    2006-06-23

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 350 million people, of which one million will die every year. The infectious virion is an enveloped capsid containing the viral polymerase and double-stranded DNA genome. The structure of the capsid assembled in vitro from expressed core protein has been studied intensively. However, little is known about the structure and assembly of native capsids present in infected cells, and even less is known about the structure of mature virions. We used electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) and image analysis to examine HBV virions (Dane particles) isolated from patient serum and capsids positive and negative for HBV DNA isolated from the livers of transgenic mice. Both types of capsids assembled as icosahedral particles indistinguishable from previous image reconstructions of capsids. Likewise, the virions contained capsids with either T = 3 or T = 4 icosahedral symmetry. Projections extending from the lipid envelope were attributed to surface glycoproteins. Their packing was unexpectedly nonicosahedral but conformed to an ordered lattice. These structural features distinguish HBV from other enveloped viruses.

  11. The Papillomavirus Major Capsid Protein L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B.; Day, Patricia M.; Trus, Benes L.

    2013-01-01

    The elegant icosahedral surface of the papillomavirus virion is formed by a single protein called L1. Recombinant L1 proteins can spontaneously self-assemble into a highly immunogenic structure that closely mimics the natural surface of native papillomavirus virions. This has served as the basis for two highly successful vaccines against cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPVs). During the viral life cycle, the capsid must undergo a variety of conformational changes, allowing key functions including the encapsidation of the ~8 kb viral genomic DNA, maturation into a more stable state to survive transit between hosts, mediating attachment to new host cells, and finally releasing the viral DNA into the newly infected host cell. This brief review focuses on conserved sequence and structural features that underlie the functions of this remarkable protein. PMID:23800545

  12. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Agirre, Jon [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S. [U.N.S., San Juan 670 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Costabel, Marcelo D. [U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Marti, Gerardo A. [Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CCT, La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Calle 2 No. 584 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Guérin, Diego M. A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rey, Felix A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  13. AVIDITY EVALUATION OF LOCAL IgA ANTIBODIES IN PERSONS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. At present, immunogenicity evaluation of influenza vaccines is performed by quantitative assessment of increased serum antibodies. It was, however, shown that the degree of human defense against influenza is mostly related to their qualitative characteristics, i.e., avidity (functional activity. Leading role of local immunity is demonstrated in protection against influenza. Such immunity is mediated by IgA antibodies from mucosal airways. Meanwhile, the avidity issues for local antibodies still remain open.In present study, an attempt was undertaken to evaluate post-vaccination local immunological memory for influenza A virus, according to IgA antibodies from upper respiratory secretions. Two techniques were used to evaluate antibody avidity, that were previously applied for studying this phenomenon with serum imunoglobulins, i.e., a dynamic test (measurement of antigen-antibody reaction rates, and a test with urea, a chaotropic agent (avidity is determined as a strength of antigen-antibody complex. A total of 202 persons (18 to 20 years old were enrolled into the study.With both tests, a broad range of individual avidity values was observed for the antibodies. A significant cohort (up to 30 per cent of persons immunized with live influenza vaccine, showed sharply increased avidity of secretory IgA antibodies by both methods, along with accumulation of these immunoglobulins after vaccination. A reverse relationship is revealed between avidity levels of these antibodies before vaccination, and increase of this parameter post-immunization. The data present convincing arguments for specific renewal of local humoral immunological memory, as induced by live influenza vaccine. The study substantiates a necessity for application of the both tests in parallel, when determining avidity of secretory IgA antibodies. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 423-430.

  14. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curiel David T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout.

  15. IgG Avidity Test in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Diagnoses in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmirene Cardoso Fonseca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP, from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in 66.66% (n = 32 of NBs with AIP, 94.1% presenting low avidity (LA and 51.61% presenting high avidity (HA test results. The IgG and IgM levels of NBs with LA and their puerperae were higher in comparison with HA NBs and puerperae (p = 0.0001. The avidity tests showed 100% specificity and 50% sensitivity (p = 0.0001. NBs with LA had a 15-fold increased risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in comparison with HA NBs. The IgG avidity test could be used to assist in early congenital toxoplasmosis diagnoses in NBs and LA, identifying a greater probability of vertical transmission.

  16. IgG Avidity Test in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Diagnoses in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Zulmirene Cardoso; Rodrigues, Isolina Maria Xavier; Melo, Natália Cruz E; Avelar, Juliana Boaventura; Castro, Ana Maria; Avelino, Mariza Martins

    2017-06-18

    The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in 66.66% (n = 32) of NBs with AIP, 94.1% presenting low avidity (LA) and 51.61% presenting high avidity (HA) test results. The IgG and IgM levels of NBs with LA and their puerperae were higher in comparison with HA NBs and puerperae (p = 0.0001). The avidity tests showed 100% specificity and 50% sensitivity (p = 0.0001). NBs with LA had a 15-fold increased risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in comparison with HA NBs. The IgG avidity test could be used to assist in early congenital toxoplasmosis diagnoses in NBs and LA, identifying a greater probability of vertical transmission.

  17. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection. IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300, demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status, and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection.

  18. Identifying human milk glycans that inhibit norovirus binding using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Piskarev, Vladimir E; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Jiang, Xi; Likhosherstov, Leonid M; Novikova, Olga S; Newburg, David S; Ratner, Daniel M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk glycans inhibit binding between norovirus and its host glycan receptor; such competitive inhibition by human milk glycans is associated with a reduced risk of infection. The relationship between the presence of specific structural motifs in the human milk glycan and its ability to inhibit binding by specific norovirus strains requires facile, accurate and miniaturized-binding assays. Toward this end, a high-throughput biosensor platform was developed based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) of glycan microarrays. The SPRi was validated, and its utility was tested, by measuring binding specificities between defined human milk glycan epitopes and the capsids of two common norovirus strains, VA387 and Norwalk. Human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS)-based neoglycoconjugates, including chemically derived neoglycoproteins and oligosaccharide-glycine derivatives, were used to represent polyvalent glycoconjugates and monovalent oligosaccharides, respectively, in human milk. SPRi binding results established that the glycan motifs that bind norovirus capsids depend upon strain; VA387 capsid interacts with two neoglycoproteins, whereas Norwalk capsid binds to a different set of HMOS motifs in the form of both polyvalent neoglycoproteins and monovalent oligosaccharides. SPRi competitive binding assays further demonstrated that specific norovirus-binding glycans are able to inhibit norovirus capsid binding to their host receptors. A polyvalent neoglycoconjugate with clustered carbohydrate moieties is required for the inhibition of VA387 capsid binding to host receptor glycans, whereas both monovalent oligosaccharides and polyvalent neoglycoconjugates are able to inhibit Norwalk capsid binding to its host receptor. Binding of HMOS and HMOS-based neoglycoconjugates to norovirus capsids depends upon the specific strain characteristics, implying that HMOS and their polyvalent derivatives are potential anti-adhesive agents for norovirus prophylaxis.

  19. The rolling circle . capsid complex as an intermediate in phi X DNA replication and viral assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koths, K; Dressler, D

    1980-05-10

    two other icosahedral, single-stranded DNA phages: G4 and St-1. The rolling circle . capsid complex seen in the case of the single-stranded DNA phages represents the first example of a structure in which DNA synthesis and viral assembly occur in a coupled manner. This tight coordination explains why double-stranded DNA circles are the net product of synthesis early in the viral life cycle while only single-stranded DNA circles are produced later. The single-stranded tails of the rolling circle intermediates are available for conversion to the duplex state at early times, whereas the concentration of preformed capsids later is high enough to bind to all of the replicating molecules and package the emerging positive strand DNA.

  20. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eunüs S; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors. This review explores norovirus therapeutic options based on the strategy of blocking norovirus-HBGA binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Sun, Ya-Ni [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Shanxi, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Taishan Medical College, Shandong, Taian 271000 (China); Zhu, Yan-Li [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Jiang, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjjiang@sdau.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China)

    2013-02-05

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  2. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Miao, Ji, E-mail: jmiao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Qinjian, E-mail: qinjian_zhao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  3. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Feng; Men, Dong; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs) can induce simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1) can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M), which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. PMID:23776332

  4. [Seroprevalence and detection of primary infection by cytomegalovirus with IgG avidity test during the first quarter of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Conne L; Reyes-Méndez, Miguel A; Ortega-Pierres, Luz E; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Adriana P; Sandoval-Guido, Verónica; Sereno-Coló, José A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence and detection of primary infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) with immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity test during the first quarter of pregnancy in the General Hospital in Morelia, Michoacan. A total of 177 patients were studied employing a modified Elisa test using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of CMV antibodies (IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]), and IgG avidity. 90.4% were positive for IgG, and of these, 2.3% were also reactive for IgM, and in this group the IgG avidity test reported low avidity for 1.1% and higher avidity in the same percentage. 9.6% were seronegative. Similarity was found with published studies in Mexico. Health professionals should know the clinical algorithms for diagnosis and proper management of CMV infection using the IgG avidity test.

  5. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid genes isolated from rat and mouse liver genomic DNA define two new AAV species distantly related to AAV-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochrie, Michael A; Tatsuno, Gwen P; Arbetman, Alejandra E; Jones, Kris; Pater, Cheryl; Smith, Peter H; McDonnell, Jennifer W; Zhou, Shang-Zhen; Kachi, Shu; Kachi, Michiko; Campochiaro, Peter A; Pierce, Glenn F; Colosi, Peter

    2006-09-15

    Using polymerase chain reactions and genome walking strategies, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-like capsid genes were isolated from rat and mouse liver genomic DNA, where they are present at AAVs since their amino acid sequences are AAV capsid. They are most similar to the AAV-5 and goat AAV capsids. A recombinant vector with the mouse AAV capsid and a lacZ transgene (rAAV-mo.1 lacZ) was able to transduce rodent cell lines in vitro. However, it was not able to transduce eight human cell lines or primary human fibroblasts in vitro. It did not bind heparin and its ability to transduce cells in vitro was not inhibited by heparin, mucin, or sialic acid suggesting it uses a novel entry receptor. rAAV-mo.1 lacZ was 29 times more resistant to in vitro neutralization by pooled, purified human IgG than AAV-2. In vivo, rAAV-mo.1 lacZ efficiently transduced murine ocular cells after a subretinal injection. Intramuscular injection of a rAAV-mo.1 human factor IX (hFIX) vector into mice resulted in no detectable hFIX in plasma, but intravenous injection resulted in high plasma levels of hFIX, equivalent to that obtained from a rAAV-8 hFIX vector. Biodistribution analysis showed that rAAV-mo.1 primarily transduced liver after an intravenous injection. These AAV capsids may be useful for gene transfer in rodents.

  6. Description of a novel multiplex avidity assay for evaluating HPV antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Allison M; Unger, Elizabeth R; Panicker, Gitika

    2017-08-01

    Limited data exists regarding antibody avidity for human papillomavirus (HPV). We describe development of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent avidity ELISA for four HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) by adding a dissociating step to our established multiplex HPV VLP ELISA. Initial experiments exploring ammonium thiocyanate, sodium thiocyanate and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) as dissociating agents identified GuHCl as most promising. Dissociation conditions with GuHCl were varied (concentration, incubation time, temperature) to select conditions with minimal impact on VLP integrity as measured with monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes. Avidity index (AI) was calculated based on a standard curve as ratio of bound IgG in GuHCl treated versus untreated sample. To evaluate our assay we determined AI in sera with known HPV titers. We selected 32 residual anonymized sera from individuals with a wide range of titers for HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. AIs were similar across multiple dilutions of serum within the assay's dynamic range and were reproducible with two plate lots. This assay will aid in understanding HPV antibody avidity and maturation in response to natural infection and varying vaccine schedules. This is the first report of a VLP-based multiplexed avidity ELISA that evaluates assay parameters for all nine HPV vaccine types. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Mutants at the 2-Fold Interface of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Structural Proteins Suggest a Role in Viral Transcription for AAV Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Fikret; Salganik, Maxim; Resztak, Justyna; Singh, Jasbir; Bennett, Antonette; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2016-08-15

    We previously reported that an amino acid substitution, Y704A, near the 2-fold interface of adeno-associated virus (AAV) was defective for transcription of the packaged genome (M. Salganik, F. Aydemir, H. J. Nam, R. McKenna, M. Agbandje-McKenna, and N. Muzyczka, J Virol 88:1071-1079, 2013, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02093-13). In this report, we have characterized the defect in 6 additional capsid mutants located in a region ∼30 Å in diameter on the surface of the AAV type 2 (AAV2) capsid near the 2-fold interface. These mutants, which are highly conserved among primate serotypes, displayed a severe defect (3 to 6 logs) in infectivity. All of the mutants accumulated significant levels of uncoated DNA in the nucleus, but none of the mutants were able to accumulate significant amounts of genomic mRNA postinfection. In addition, wild-type (wt) capsids that were bound to the conformational antibody A20, which is known to bind the capsid surface in the region of the mutants, were also defective for transcription. In all cases, the mutant virus particles, as well as the antibody-bound wild-type capsids, were able to enter the cell, travel to the nucleus, uncoat, and synthesize a second strand but were unable to transcribe their genomes. Taken together, the phenotype of these mutants provides compelling evidence that the AAV capsid plays a role in the transcription of its genome, and the mutants map this functional region on the surface of the capsid near the 2-fold interface. This appears to be the first example of a viral structural protein that is also involved in the transcription of the viral genome that it delivers to the nucleus. Many viruses package enzymes within their capsids that assist in expressing their genomes postinfection, e.g., retroviruses. A number of nonenveloped viruses, including AAV, carry proteases that are needed for capsid maturation or for capsid modification during infection. We describe here what appears to be the first example of

  8. Generation of West Nile virus infectious clones containing amino acid insertions between capsid and capsid anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Hoover, Lisa I; Zheng, Kang; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2014-04-09

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense RNA arbovirus responsible for recent outbreaks of severe neurological disease within the US and Europe. Large-scale analyses of antiviral compounds that inhibit virus replication have been limited due to the lack of an adequate WN reporter virus. Previous attempts to insert a reporter into the 3' untranslated region of WNV generated unstable viruses, suggesting that this region does not accommodate additional nucleotides. Here, we engineered two WNV infectious clones containing insertions at the Capsid (C)/Capsid Anchor (CA) junction of the viral polyprotein. Recombinant viruses containing a TAT(1-67) or Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) gene at this location were successfully recovered. However, rapid loss of most, if not all, of the reporter sequence occurred for both viruses, indicating that the reporter viruses were not stable. While the GLuc viruses predominantly reverted back to wild-type WNV length, the TAT viruses retained up to 75 additional nucleotides of the reporter sequence. These additional nucleotides were stable over at least five passages and did not significantly alter WNV fitness. Thus, the C/CA junction of WNV can tolerate additional nucleotides, though insertions are subject to certain constraints.

  9. Design and development of receptor-avid peptide conjugates for in-vivo targeting of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Wynn A.; Hoffman, Timothy J.

    1999-07-01

    Radiometallated peptides that exhibit high specificity for cognate receptors over expressed on cancer cells offer important potential as site-directed diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. The formation of effective radioactive drugs for specific in vivo targeting of cancerous tumors is being facilitated by the integration of novel chelation strategies and receptor-avid derivatives. Significant efforts are being made to design Technetium-99m labeled for diagnostic imaging of cancerous tumors for use in conjunction with Single Photon Emission Tomography instrumentation in nuclear medicine. Receptor avid radiopharmaceutical are also being developed that utilize other radionuclides for imaging and therapeutic applications. Despite the technological challenges that must be overcome, radiolabeled receptor avid peptide conjugates are providing promising site-directed targeting agents for the assessment and treatment of cancerous tumors in humans.

  10. Rigidity-induced scale invariance in polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Suhonen, P. M.; Piili, J.

    2017-11-01

    While the dynamics of a fully flexible polymer ejecting a capsid through a nanopore has been extensively studied, the ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers has not been properly characterized. Here we report results from simulations of ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers ejecting from spherical capsids. Ejections start from strongly confined polymer conformations of constant initial monomer density. We find that, unlike for fully flexible polymers, for semiflexible polymers the force measured at the pore does not show a direct relation to the instantaneous ejection velocity. The cumulative waiting time t (s ) , that is, the time at which a monomer s exits the capsid the last time, shows a clear change when increasing the polymer rigidity κ . The major part of an ejecting polymer is driven out of the capsid by internal pressure. At the final stage the polymer escapes the capsid by diffusion. For the driven part there is a crossover from essentially exponential growth of t with s of the fully flexible polymers to a scale-invariant form. In addition, a clear dependence of t on polymer length N0 was found. These findings combined give the dependence t (s ) ∝N00.55s1.33 for the strongly rigid polymers. This crossover in dynamics where κ acts as a control parameter is reminiscent of a phase transition. This analogy is further enhanced by our finding a perfect data collapse of t for polymers of different N0 and any constant κ .

  11. IgG avidity test for the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Abolghasem, Shabnam; Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Babaloo, Zohre; Porhasan, Abolfazl; Nagili, Behroz; Gardashkhani, Omid Ali; Salehi, Parviz; Hashemi, Mohammad; Varshoghi, Mojtaba; Gaffari, Gafar Olade

    2011-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is well known as an important infection in pregnant women. Although many serologic methods are available, diagnosis of early Toxoplasmosis may be extremely difficult. To detect the Toxoplasma IgG antibodies developed at the early stage of infection in pregnant women. 225 pregnant women, who were in the 2nd to 4th month of their pregnancy, enrolled in this study. Anti-toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgG avidity were evaluated by ELISA method. The patients were categorized into three groups as follows: Group A, 124 cases; IgG+, IgM+, 55.1%; group B, 99 cases; IgG+, IgM-, 44%; and group C, 2 cases; IgG -, IgM +, 0.9%. Fifty five percent of the pregnant women had positive IgG and IgM among which 7.1% had low avidity which revealed an active infection in the pregnant women. In the current study, 44% of pregnant women had positive IgG and negative IgM, all of which had high avidity, which is an indication that in our population the level of toxoplasmosis infection is high and most women have had contacts with this parasite before pregnancy. In this study, the low avidity test was 7.1% showing that the occurrence of toxoplasmosis infection is still a serious issue. Observation of 45.8% high avidity among group A suggests that either IgM has a high half-life or there is a false positive IgM as a result of rheumatologic disorders. Therefore, avidity test is important in predicting maternal toxoplasmosis which is of value in disease treatment.

  12. Molecular Dissection of the Forces Responsible for Viral Capsid Assembly and Stabilization by Decoration Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Shannon; Yang, Qin; De Angeles, Rolando; Chang, Jenny R; Ortega, Marcos; Davis, Christal; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2017-02-07

    Complex double-stranded DNA viruses utilize a terminase enzyme to package their genomes into a preassembled procapsid shell. DNA packaging triggers a major conformational change in the proteins assembled into the shell and most often subsequent addition of a decoration protein that is required to stabilize the structure. In bacteriophage λ, DNA packaging drives a procapsid expansion transition to afford a larger but fragile shell. The gpD decoration protein adds to the expanded shell as trimeric spikes at each of the 140 three-fold axes. The spikes provide mechanical strength to the shell such that it can withstand the tremendous internal forces generated by the packaged DNA in addition to environmental insults. Hydrophobic, electrostatic, and aromatic-proline noncovalent interactions have been proposed to mediate gpD trimer spike assembly at the expanded shell surface. Here, we directly examine each of these interactions and demonstrate that hydrophobic interactions play the dominant role. In the course of this study, we unexpectedly found that Trp308 in the λ major capsid protein (gpE) plays a critical role in shell assembly. The gpE-W308A mutation affords a soluble, natively folded protein that does not further assemble into a procapsid shell, despite the fact that it retains binding interactions with the scaffolding protein, the shell assembly chaparone protein. The data support a model in which the λ procapsid shell assembles via cooperative interaction of monomeric capsid proteins, as observed in the herpesviruses and phages such as P22. The significance of the results with respect to capsid assembly, maturation, and stability is discussed.

  13. Association between {sup 18}F-FDG avidity and the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suk Hyun; Han, Sang Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Chae, Sun Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The BRAF mutation, a potential prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), is associated with a high expression of the glucose transporter gene. We investigated which clinicopathologic factors, including BRAF mutation status, influence {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) avidity. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients who underwent BRAF analysis from biopsy-confirmed PTC and {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography within 6 months before undergoing thyroid surgery from September 2008 to August 2014. Tumors were considered to be {sup 18}F-FDG avid if the uptake was greater than that of the liver. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of PTCs was also analyzed semiquantitatively using SUV{sub max}. The association between {sup 18}F-FDG avidity and clinicopathologic variables (age, tumor size, perithyroidal extension, cervical lymph node status, and BRAF mutation status) was investigated. Twenty-nine (52.7 %) of 55 patients had {sup 18}F-FDG-avid PTCs. PTCs with the BRAF mutation showed higher {sup 18}F-FDG avidity (24/38, 63.2 %) than those without (5/17, 29.4 %). The BRAF mutation (p = 0.025) and tumor size (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in univariate analysis, and the BRAF mutation status remained significant after adjusting for tumor size in multivariate analysis (p = 0.015). In the subgroup of tumor size ≥ 1 cm, the BRAF mutation was the only factor significantly associated with {sup 18}F-FDG avidity (p = 0.021). The mean SUV{sub max} of PTCs with the BRAF mutation was significantly higher than that of those without (4.89 ± 6.12 vs. 1.96 ± 1.10, p = 0.039). The BRAF mutation must be one of the most important factors influencing {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in PTCs, especially in those with a tumor size ≥ 1 cm.

  14. IgG Avidity Test in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Diagnoses in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Zulmirene Cardoso Fonseca; Isolina Maria Xavier Rodrigues; Natália Cruz e Melo; Juliana Boaventura Avelar; Ana Maria de Castro; Mariza Martins Avelino

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated u...

  15. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruifeng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disassembly of the viral capsid following penetration into the cytoplasm, or uncoating, is a poorly understood stage of retrovirus infection. Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of optimal intrinsic stability is crucial for HIV-1 infection. Results To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 mutants exhibiting unstable (P38A or hyperstable (E45A capsids. We identified the respective suppressor mutations, T216I and R132T, which restored virus replication in a human T cell line and markedly enhanced the fitness of the original mutants as revealed in single-cycle infection assays. Analysis of the corresponding purified N-terminal domain CA proteins by NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the E45A and R132T mutations induced structural changes that are localized to the regions of the mutations, while the P38A mutation resulted in changes extending to neighboring regions in space. Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective original mutation. Nonetheless, the R132T mutation rescued the selective infectivity impairment exhibited by the E45A mutant in aphidicolin-arrested cells, and the double mutant regained sensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor PF74. The T216I mutation rescued the impaired ability of the P38A mutant virus to abrogate restriction by TRIMCyp and TRIM5α. Conclusions The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. The suppressors also restored wild type virus function in several cell-based assays. We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the

  16. The relationship between human T-lymphocyte subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies and by avidity differences to sheep erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Heron, I

    1982-01-01

    differences to sheep erythrocytes. Through a correlation was demonstrated between the T4+ (inducer) cells and the high avidity ("active") T cells and between the T8+ (suppressor) cells and low avidity T cells, these subsets were far from identical, and it is concluded that the application of monoclonal...

  17. Lack of Utility of Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibody Avidity for Serodiagnosis of Reactivated Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mechain, Bénédicte; Garin, Yves Jean-François; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Derouin, Francis

    2000-01-01

    The avidities of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G serum antibodies were measured in immunocompromised patients presenting with cerebral or extracerebral toxoplasmosis and/or serological reactivation. Since avidity remained high and stable in 39 of 40 patients with toxoplasmosis and 27 of 28 patients with serological reactivation, we conclude that this test cannot help diagnose toxoplasmosis in these patients.

  18. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  19. Modelling the self-assembly of virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Iain G.; Louis, Ard A.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2010-03-01

    We use computer simulations to study a model, first proposed by Wales (2005 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363 357), for the reversible and monodisperse self-assembly of simple icosahedral virus capsid structures. The success and efficiency of assembly as a function of thermodynamic and geometric factors can be qualitatively related to the potential energy landscape structure of the assembling system. Even though the model is strongly coarse-grained, it exhibits a number of features also observed in experiments, such as sigmoidal assembly dynamics, hysteresis in capsid formation and numerous kinetic traps. We also investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on the assembly dynamics. Crowding agents generally reduce capsid yields at optimal conditions for non-crowded assembly, but may increase yields for parameter regimes away from the optimum. Finally, we generalize the model to a larger triangulation number T = 3, and observe assembly dynamics more complex than that seen for the original T = 1 model.

  20. A study of variability of capsid protein genes of Radish mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    The part of RNA2 genome segment of several isolates of Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) including capsid protein genes was sequenced. Variability of capsid protein genes among the isolates of Radish mosaic virus was studied.

  1. The Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulates Parvovirus Nuclear Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life

  2. Phosphorylation of the Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Regulates the Timing of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Haley S; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Middleton, Stefani; Ni, Peng; Zlotnick, Adam; Vaughan, Robert C; Kao, C Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The four brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs (RNA1 to RNA4) are encapsidated in three distinct virions that have different disassembly rates in infection. The mechanism for the differential release of BMV RNAs from virions is unknown, since 180 copies of the same coat protein (CP) encapsidate each of the BMV genomic RNAs. Using mass spectrometry, we found that the BMV CP contains a complex pattern of posttranslational modifications. Treatment with phosphatase was found to not significantly affect the stability of the virions containing RNA1 but significantly impacted the stability of the virions that encapsidated BMV RNA2 and RNA3/4. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed dramatic structural changes in the capsid and the encapsidated RNA. A phosphomimetic mutation in the flexible N-terminal arm of the CP increased BMV RNA replication and virion production. The degree of phosphorylation modulated the interaction of CP with the encapsidated RNA and the release of three of the BMV RNAs. UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing experiments showed that phosphorylation of the BMV CP can impact binding to RNAs in the virions, including sequences that contain regulatory motifs for BMV RNA gene expression and replication. Phosphatase-treated virions affected the timing of CP expression and viral RNA replication in plants. The degree of phosphorylation decreased when the plant hosts were grown at an elevated temperature. These results show that phosphorylation of the capsid modulates BMV infection. How icosahedral viruses regulate the release of viral RNA into the host is not well understood. The selective release of viral RNA can regulate the timing of replication and gene expression. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is an RNA virus, and its three genomic RNAs are encapsidated in separate virions. Through proteomic, structural, and biochemical analyses, this work shows that posttranslational modifications, specifically

  3. Peptide ligands incorporated into the threefold spike capsid domain to re-direct gene transduction of AAV8 and AAV9 in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Michelfelder

    Full Text Available Efficiency and specificity of viral vectors are vital issues in gene therapy. Insertion of peptide ligands into the adeno-associated viral (AAV capsid at receptor binding sites can re-target AAV2-derived vectors to alternative cell types. Also, the use of serotypes AAV8 and -9 is more efficient than AAV2 for gene transfer to certain tissues in vivo. Consequently, re-targeting of these serotypes by ligand insertion could be a promising approach but has not been explored so far. Here, we generated AAV8 and -9 vectors displaying peptides in the threefold spike capsid domain. These peptides had been selected from peptide libraries displayed on capsids of AAV serotype 2 to optimize systemic gene delivery to murine lung tissue and to breast cancer tissue in PymT transgenic mice (PymT. Such peptide insertions at position 590 of the AAV8 capsid and position 589 of the AAV9 capsid changed the transduction properties of both serotypes. However, both peptides inserted in AAV8 did not result in the same changes of tissue tropism as they did in AAV2. While the AAV2 peptides selected on murine lung tissue did not alter tropism of serotypes 8 and -9, insertion of the AAV2-derived peptide selected on breast cancer tissue augmented tumor gene delivery in both serotypes. Further, this peptide mediated a strong but unspecific in vivo gene transfer for AAV8 and abrogated transduction of various control tissues for AAV9. Our findings indicate that peptide insertion into defined sites of AAV8 and -9 capsids can change and improve their efficiency and specificity compared to their wild type variants and to AAV2, making these insertion sites attractive for the generation of novel targeted vectors in these serotypes.

  4. Role and mechanism of the maturation cleavage of VP0 in poliovirus assembly: structure of the empty capsid assembly intermediate at 2.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavappa, R.; Syed, R.; Flore, O.; Icenogle, J. P.; Filman, D. J.; Hogle, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of the P1/Mahoney poliovirus empty capsid has been determined at 2.9 A resolution. The empty capsids differ from mature virions in that they lack the viral RNA and have yet to undergo a stabilizing maturation cleavage of VP0 to yield the mature capsid proteins VP4 and VP2. The outer surface and the bulk of the protein shell are very similar to those of the mature virion. The major differences between the 2 structures are focused in a network formed by the N-terminal extensions of the capsid proteins on the inner surface of the shell. In the empty capsids, the entire N-terminal extension of VP1, as well as portions corresponding to VP4 and the N-terminal extension of VP2, are disordered, and many stabilizing interactions that are present in the mature virion are missing. In the empty capsid, the VP0 scissile bond is located some 20 A away from the positions in the mature virion of the termini generated by VP0 cleavage. The scissile bond is located on the rim of a trefoil-shaped depression in the inner surface of the shell that is highly reminiscent of an RNA binding site in bean pod mottle virus. The structure suggests plausible (and ultimately testable) models for the initiation of encapsidation, for the RNA-dependent autocatalytic cleavage of VP0, and for the role of the cleavage in establishing the ordered N-terminal network and in generating stable virions. PMID:7849583

  5. Adaptive mutations in the JC virus protein capsid are associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil R Sunyaev

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PML is a progressive and mostly fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus infection and destruction of infected oligodendrocytes in multiple brain foci of susceptible individuals. While JC virus is highly prevalent in the human population, PML is a rare disease that exclusively afflicts only a small percentage of immunocompromised individuals including those affected by HIV (AIDS or immunosuppressive drugs. Viral- and/or host-specific factors, and not simply immune status, must be at play to account for the very large discrepancy between viral prevalence and low disease incidence. Here, we show that several amino acids on the surface of the JC virus capsid protein VP1 display accelerated evolution in viral sequences isolated from PML patients but not in sequences isolated from healthy subjects. We provide strong evidence that at least some of these mutations are involved in binding of sialic acid, a known receptor for the JC virus. Using statistical methods of molecular evolution, we performed a comprehensive analysis of JC virus VP1 sequences isolated from 55 PML patients and 253 sequences isolated from the urine of healthy individuals and found that a subset of amino acids found exclusively among PML VP1 sequences is acquired via adaptive evolution. By modeling of the 3-D structure of the JC virus capsid, we showed that these residues are located within the sialic acid binding site, a JC virus receptor for cell infection. Finally, we go on to demonstrate the involvement of some of these sites in receptor binding by demonstrating a profound reduction in hemagglutination properties of viral-like particles made of the VP1 protein carrying these mutations. Collectively, these results suggest that a more virulent PML causing phenotype of JC virus is acquired via adaptive evolution that changes viral specificity for its cellular receptor(s.

  6. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: okazaki@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nakagawa, A. [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomoto, A. [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  7. Biophysical and Structural Studies on the Capsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: A New Drug Target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Neira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS affects 30 million people worldwide and is one of the deadliest epidemics in human history. It is caused by a retrovirus, HIV, whose mature capsid (enclosing the RNA with other proteins is formed by the assembly of several hundred copies of a protein, CA*. The C-terminal domain of such protein, CAC, is a driving force in virus assembly and the connections in the mature capsid lattice indicate that CAC joins through homodimerization of the CA hexamers. In the first part of this work, I shall review the biophysical studies carried out with the dimeric wild-type CAC protein and a mutant monomeric variant. The results open new venues for the development of drugs able to interact either with the dimeric species, hampering its assembly, or with the monomeric species, obstructing its folding. In the second part of this review, I shall describe the structures of complexes of CAC with small molecules able to weaken its dimerization. Furthermore, interactions with other proteins and lipids are also described. The whole set of results suggests that much of the surface of CAC does not accommodate binding per se, but rather binding sites in the protein are predefined, i.e., there are “hot” spots for binding in CAC (whatever be the molecule to bind. These “hot” residues involve most of the dimerization interface (an α-helix of the CAC wild-type protein, but also polypeptide patches at the other helices.

  8. Characterization of neutralizing epitopes within the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapp Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs, type-specific vaccines have already been developed. In order to generate vaccines that target a broader spectrum of HPV types, extended knowledge of neutralizing epitopes is required. Despite the association of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33 with cervical carcinomas, fine mapping of neutralizing conformational epitopes on HPV33 has not been reported yet. By loop swapping between HPV33 and HPV16 capsid proteins, we have identified amino acid sequences critical for the binding of conformation-dependent type-specific neutralizing antibodies to surface-exposed hyper variable loops of HPV33 capsid protein L1. Results Reactivities of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs H33.B6, H33.E12, H33.J3 and H16.56E with HPV16:33 and HPV33:16 hybrid L1 VLPs revealed the complex structures of their conformational epitopes as well as the major residues contributing to their binding sites. Whereas the epitope of mAb H33.J3 was determined by amino acids (aa 51–58 in the BC loop of HPV33 L1, sequences of at least two hyper variable loops, DE (aa 132–140 and FGb (aa 282–291, were found to be essential for binding of H33.B6. The epitope of H33.E12 was even more complex, requiring sequences of the FGa loop (aa 260–270, in addition to loops DE and FGb. Conclusion These data demonstrate that neutralizing epitopes in HPV33 L1 are mainly located on the tip of the capsomere and that several hyper variable loops contribute to form these conformational epitopes. Knowledge of the antigenic structure of HPV is crucial for designing hybrid particles as a basis for intertypic HPV vaccines.

  9. Determination of IgG avidity in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenardie, Elizandra Roselaine; Scaini, Carlos James; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Borsuk, Sibele; Felicetti, Cristine Dias Pires; Pepe, Michele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease in that IgM titers can remain high for long periods making difficult to determine the stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of indirect ELISA, associated with urea, to discriminate between the acute and chronic toxocariasis. IgG avidity was evaluated in 25 BALB/c mice experimentally infected with 1000 Toxocara canis eggs. Blood samples were collected, and sera treated with 6 M urea and assayed by ELISA every two weeks. The percent IgG avidity was determined using the mean absorbance of sera treated with urea, divided by the mean absorbance of untreated sera. In the first 15 days post-inoculation, was observed a low percentage, between 7.25 and 27.5%, IgG avidity, characteristic of an acute infection. After 60 days of infection, all the mice showed between 31.4 and 58% IgG avidity, indicating a chronic infection.

  10. Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays. Objectives: The ...

  11. Searching for avidity by chemical ligation of combinatorially self-assembled DNA-encoded ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Stefan; Hellmuth, Klaus; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Shivalingam, Arun; Ariyurek, Yavuz; de Jong, Marco; Hollestelle, Martine J; Out, Ruud; Brown, Tom

    2017-12-19

    DNA encoded ligands are self-assembled into bivalent complexes and chemically ligated to link their identities. To demonstrate their potential as a combinatorial screening platform for avidity interactions, the optimal bivalent aptamer design (examplar ligands) for human alpha-thrombin is determined in a single round of selection and the DNA scaffold replaced with minimal impact on the final design.

  12. Ta(l)king sides: ethical and methodological challenges in comparative fieldwork on avid football rivalries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Geilenkirchen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on football (soccer) fan cultures has documented the lived experiences of devoted football supporters. Few studies, however, have used participant observation and intensive interviewing to examine the deep-rooted inter-group oppositions that characterize avid football rivalries.

  13. Benign Bone Conditions That May Be FDG-avid and Mimic Malignancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwee, Thomas C.; de Klerk, John M. H.; Nix, Maarten; Heggelman, Ben G. F.; Dubois, Stefan V.; Adams, Hugo J. A.

    Positron emission tomography with the radiotracer F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) plays an important role in the evaluation of bone pathology. However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and knowledge of the differential diagnosis of benign FDG-avid bone alterations that may resemble malignancy

  14. Multiple capsid-stabilizing interactions revealed in a high-resolution structure of an emerging picornavirus causing neonatal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Shabih; Westerhuis, Brenda M.; Domanska, Ausra; Koning, Roman I.; Matadeen, Rishi; Koster, Abraham J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Wolthers, Katja C.; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2016-07-01

    The poorly studied picornavirus, human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) causes neonatal sepsis with no therapies available. Our 4.3-Å resolution structure of HPeV3 on its own and at 15 Å resolution in complex with human monoclonal antibody Fabs demonstrates the expected picornavirus capsid structure with three distinct features. First, 25% of the HPeV3 RNA genome in 60 sites is highly ordered as confirmed by asymmetric reconstruction, and interacts with conserved regions of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Second, the VP0 N terminus stabilizes the capsid inner surface, in contrast to other picornaviruses where on expulsion as VP4, it forms an RNA translocation channel. Last, VP1's hydrophobic pocket, the binding site for the antipicornaviral drug, pleconaril, is blocked and thus inappropriate for antiviral development. Together, these results suggest a direction for development of neutralizing antibodies, antiviral drugs based on targeting the RNA-protein interactions and dissection of virus assembly on the basis of RNA nucleation.

  15. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by IgG Avidity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roozbehani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that has ability to infect most warm blooded vertebrates. primary infection during pregnancy can lead to transmission of the infection to the fetus, with associated symptoms. the aim of this study was to compare methods for serological measurement of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM in pregnant women and also tested seroconversion mothers by IgG avidity, and finally comparing the results of these experiments with each others. Methods: In this comparative analytical study, from 2120 pregnant women referred to karaj medical laboratories (in 1392 years serum specimens were obtained and tested with Chemiluminescence (CLIA & (Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay ELFA methods. Then for detection of chronic and acute infection, serum IgM+ specimens tested by IgG Avidity assay. Results: In this study, out of 1362 cases of 2120 pregnant women were IgG+ with ELFA & CLIA methods. In IgM ELFA method, 38 samples were positive and 2 samples were borderline. In IgM CLIA method, 37 samples were positive and1samples were borderline. In IgG Avidity, from 40 serum samples, 15 samples were low aviditiy, 20 samples were high avidity and 5 samples were borderlines. In IgG Avidity positive predictive value were 57%. Conclusion: Every pregnant women needs to do anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM tests. after considering all valid serological and molecular methods for deciding to treatment or termination of gestation must be used the other sensitive and reliable parasitology methods such as inoculation of susceptible lab animal and PCR on amniotic fluid.

  16. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X from Pakistan. Arshad Jamal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Munim Farooq, Zahida Qamar, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, M. Arshad Javed, Tayyab Husnain ...

  17. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Eliminate Only Vector-Transduced Cells Coexpressing the AAV2 Capsid In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2007-01-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kil...

  19. IgG avidity antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in high risk females of reproductive age group in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Naushaba; Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India.

  20. Evaluation of the Toxoplasma gondii IgG Avidity request and results in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Güngör

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii with various clinical outcomes. Serological tests determining IgG and IgM produced against T. gondii are widely used for laboratory diagnosis of the infection. IgG avidity test identifying the infection initiation in diagnosis is required when specific IgM antibodies are not able to be detected in early period of infection, IgM antibodies in patients with reactivation are not increased or especially in pregnant with IgM positivity. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate avidity test results and to determine the algorithmic place of this test in T. gondii infection. Methods: In this study, avidity test results requested from all of the clinics and services from serology laboratory in 1 January 2013-31 December 2013 were included. Totally, 84 anti-T. gondii IgG avidity was requested. The avidity value was researched by ELISA method using anti-T. gondii IgG avidity kit in patients included in this study. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibody tests were performed by ELISA method using commercial kit. Results: 61, 13 and 2 requests were evaluated as high avidity 72.6%, low avidity 15.5% and intermediate value 2.4%, respectively, while 8 requests were unnecessary. Conclusion: It was concluded that primarily anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM tests should be performed in suspicious cases in terms of toxoplasmosis and the IgG avidity tests should be requested from only suitable cases after the evaluation of the test results according to clinic table of the patients and/or the week of pregnancy. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 246-249

  1. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan V Mannige

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies.This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc. that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus.Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  2. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  3. Physical properties of the HIV-1 capsid from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla, Juan R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of ~1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Although the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical-physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, including its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid. The simulations reveal critical details about the capsid with implications to biological function.

  4. Stochastic dynamics of virus capsid formation: direct versus hierarchical self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to replicate within their cellular host, many viruses have developed self-assembly strategies for their capsids which are sufficiently robust as to be reconstituted in vitro. Mathematical models for virus self-assembly usually assume that the bonds leading to cluster formation have constant reactivity over the time course of assembly (direct assembly). In some cases, however, binding sites between the capsomers have been reported to be activated during the self-assembly process (hierarchical assembly). Results In order to study possible advantages of such hierarchical schemes for icosahedral virus capsid assembly, we use Brownian dynamics simulations of a patchy particle model that allows us to switch binding sites on and off during assembly. For T1 viruses, we implement a hierarchical assembly scheme where inter-capsomer bonds become active only if a complete pentamer has been assembled. We find direct assembly to be favorable for reversible bonds allowing for repeated structural reorganizations, while hierarchical assembly is favorable for strong bonds with small dissociation rate, as this situation is less prone to kinetic trapping. However, at the same time it is more vulnerable to monomer starvation during the final phase. Increasing the number of initial monomers does have only a weak effect on these general features. The differences between the two assembly schemes become more pronounced for more complex virus geometries, as shown here for T3 viruses, which assemble through homogeneous pentamers and heterogeneous hexamers in the hierarchical scheme. In order to complement the simulations for this more complicated case, we introduce a master equation approach that agrees well with the simulation results. Conclusions Our analysis shows for which molecular parameters hierarchical assembly schemes can outperform direct ones and suggests that viruses with high bond stability might prefer hierarchical assembly schemes. These insights increase

  5. Impact of capsid modifications by selected peptide ligands on recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated gene transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumer, Matthias; Popa-Wagner, Ruth; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2012-10-01

    Vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) belong to today's most promising and most frequently used viral vectors in human gene therapy. Like in many other vector systems, the broad but non-specific tropism limits their use for certain cell types or tissues. One approach to screen for transduction-improved vectors is the selection of random peptide libraries displayed directly on the AAV2 capsid. Although the AAV2 library system has been widely applied for the successful selection of improved gene therapy vectors, it remains unknown which steps of the transduction process are most affected and therefore critical for the selection of targeting peptides. Attachment to the cell surface is the first essential step of AAV-mediated gene transduction; however, our experiments challenge the conventional belief that enhanced gene transfer is equivalent to more efficient cell binding of recombinant AAV2 vectors. A comparison of the various steps of gene transfer by vectors carrying a wild-type AAV2 capsid or displaying two exemplary peptide ligands selected from AAV2 random libraries on different human tumour cell lines demonstrated strong alterations in cell binding, cellular uptake, as well as intracellular processing of these vectors. Combined, our results suggest that entry and post-entry events are decisive for the selection of the peptides NDVRSAN and GPQGKNS rather than their cell binding efficiency.

  6. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  7. Radiometallated receptor-avid peptide conjugates for specific in vivo targeting of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Quinn, T.P.; Volkert, W.A. E-mail: VolkertW@health.missouri.edu

    2001-07-01

    New receptor-avid radiotracers are being developed for site-specific in vivo targeting of a myriad of receptors expressed on cancer cells. This review exemplifies strategies being used to design radiometallated peptide conjugates that maximize uptake in tumors and optimize their in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. Efforts to produce synthetic peptide analogues that target the following three receptor systems are highlighted: Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH), and guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors.

  8. Lipid-binding proteins modulate ligand-dependent trans-activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and localize to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helledie, T; Antonius, M; Sorensen, R V

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are activated by a variety of fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Many of these compounds bind avidly to members of a family of small lipid-binding proteins, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Fatty a...

  9. Human Papillomavirus E2 Regulates SRSF3 (SRp20) To Promote Capsid Protein Expression in Infected Differentiated Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, T; Hernandez-Lopez, H; MacDonald, A I; Bodily, J M; Graham, S V

    2016-05-15

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to differentiation of the infected epithelial cell, suggesting a sophisticated interplay between host cell metabolism and virus replication. Previously, we demonstrated in differentiated keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo that HPV type 16 (HPV16) infection caused increased levels of the cellular SR splicing factors (SRSFs) SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF2 (SC35), and SRSF3 (SRp20). Moreover, the viral E2 transcription and replication factor that is expressed at high levels in differentiating keratinocytes could bind and control activity of the SRSF1 gene promoter. Here, we show that the E2 proteins of HPV16 and HPV31 control the expression of SRSFs 1, 2, and 3 in a differentiation-dependent manner. E2 has the greatest transactivation effect on expression of SRSF3. Small interfering RNA depletion experiments in two different models of the HPV16 life cycle (W12E and NIKS16) and one model of the HPV31 life cycle (CIN612-9E) revealed that only SRSF3 contributed significantly to regulation of late events in the virus life cycle. Increased levels of SRSF3 are required for L1 mRNA and capsid protein expression. Capsid protein expression was regulated specifically by SRSF3 and appeared independent of other SRSFs. Taken together, these data suggest a significant role of the HPV E2 protein in regulating late events in the HPV life cycle through transcriptional regulation of SRSF3 expression. Human papillomavirus replication is accomplished in concert with differentiation of the infected epithelium. Virus capsid protein expression is confined to the upper epithelial layers so as to avoid immune detection. In this study, we demonstrate that the viral E2 transcription factor activates the promoter of the cellular SRSF3 RNA processing factor. SRSF3 is required for expression of the E4(^)L1 mRNA and so controls expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein. Thus, we reveal a new dimension of virus-host interaction crucial for production

  10. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findal, Gry; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Holter, Ellen K; Berge, Tone; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993-2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18-42). In 37 (21%) women only the avidity increased from low to high in toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned.

  11. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  12. Regulatory and Exhausted T Cell Responses to AAV Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernoux, Gwladys; Wilson, James M; Mueller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are quickly becoming the preferred viral vector for viral gene delivery for the treatment of a wide variety of genetic disorders. However, since their use in a clinical trial targeting hemophilia B patients 10 years ago, immune responses to the AAV capsid appear to have hampered some of the early clinical gene transfer efficacy. Indeed, AAV-based gene transfer has been shown to reactivate capsid-specific memory T cells, which have correlated with a decline in AAV-transduced tissue in some patients. Importantly, clinical trials have also shown that this reactivation can be quelled by administering time-course taper of glucocorticoid steroids before or after dosing. More recently, two clinical studies have shown that AAV gene transfer is not only able to induce a deleterious immune response, but also can result in the initiation of a tolerance to the AAV capsid mediated by regulatory T cells and exhausted T cells. This article reviews clinical trials describing immune responses to AAV, as well as the mechanisms responsible for immune tolerance in chronic infections and how it could apply to AAV-based gene transfer. A better understanding of both cytotoxic and tolerogenic immune responses to recombinant AAV will lead to safer gene transfer protocols in patients.

  13. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Andrea; Santos-Hoevener, Claudia; Meixenberger, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ruth; Somogyi, Sybille; Fiedler, Stefan; Hofmann, Alexandra; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Jansen, Klaus; Hamouda, Osamah; Bannert, Norbert; Kuecherer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI). Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA), Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity) and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity). The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes) and 136 from long-term (>12 months) infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP)]. For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR) of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B) and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B'), while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B) and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B') (all p>0.05). Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5) and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5) but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5). Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B), 60% (15/25) were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25) by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25) compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005) with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  14. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI. Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA, Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity. METHODS: The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes and 136 from long-term (>12 months infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP]. RESULTS: For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B', while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B' (all p>0.05. Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5 and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5 but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5. Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B, 60% (15/25 were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25 by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25 compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005 with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. CONCLUSIONS: This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  15. Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Polly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. Earlier studies have detected mature virus particles associated with intermediate filaments in virus infected cells but the viral determinant for this association and the effect of disrupting intermediate filaments on virus assembly and release are unknown. Results In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. Further, the determinants of vimentin localisation are mapped to the N-terminus of the protein and deletions of aminio acids between residues 65 and 114 are shown to disrupt VP2-vimentin association. Site directed mutation also reveals that amino acid residues Gly 70 and Val 72 are important in the VP2-vimentin association. Mutation of these amino acids resulted in a soluble VP2 capable of forming trimeric structures similar to unmodified protein that no longer associated with vimentin. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of intermediate filaments, either directly or indirectly through the disruption of the microtubule network, inhibited virus release from BTV infected cells. Conclusion The principal findings of the research are that the association of mature BTV particles with intermediate filaments are driven by the interaction of VP2 with vimentin and that this interaction contributes to virus egress. Furthermore, i the N-terminal 118 amino acids of VP2 are sufficient to confer vimentin interaction. ii Deletion of amino acids 65–114 or mutation of amino acids 70–72 to DVD abrogates vimentin association. iii Finally

  16. A novelSulfolobusvirus with an exceptional capsid architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haina; Guo, Zhenqian; Feng, Hongli; Chen, Yufei; Chen, Xiuqiang; Li, Zhimeng; Hernández-Ascencio, Walter; Dai, Xin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Xiaowei; Mora-López, Marielos; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Li

    2017-12-06

    A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced striations and an 11-nm-thick envelope. The capsid exhibits an unusual architecture in which the viral DNA, probably in the form of a nucleoprotein filament, wraps around the longitudinal axis of the virion in a plane to form a multilayered disk-like structure with a central hole, and 16 of these structures are stacked to generate a spool-like capsid. SEV1 harbors a linear double-stranded DNA genome of ∼23 kb, which encodes 38 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Among the few ORFs with a putative function is a gene encoding a protein-primed DNA polymerase. Six-fold symmetrical virus-associated pyramids (VAPs) appear on the surface of the SEV1-infected cells, which are ruptured to allow the formation of a hexagonal opening and subsequent release of the progeny virus particles. Notably, the SEV1 virions acquire the lipid membrane in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The lipid composition of the viral envelope correlates with that of the cell membrane. These results suggest the use of a unique mechanism by SEV1 in membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Investigation of archaeal viruses has greatly expanded our knowledge of the virosphere and its role in the evolution of life. Here we show that Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), an archaeal virus isolated from a hot spring in Costa Rica, exhibits a novel viral shape and an unusual capsid architecture. The SEV1 DNA wraps multiple times in a plane around the longitudinal axis of the virion to form a disk-like structure, and 16 of these structures are stacked to generate a spool-like capsid. The virus acquires its envelope intracellularly and exits the host cell by creating a hexagonal hole on the host cell surface. These results shed significant light on the diversity of viral morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017

  17. Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis: The effect of measurement of IgG avidity in pregnant women in Rabat in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboudi, Majda; Sadak, Abderrahim

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women during the early first trimester of pregnancy is very important for preventing congenital infection of the fetus; it will not only prevent the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus but it will also enable to give these women a preventive treatment. In this study, the avidity test was performed on pregnant women during their first prenatal visit at the National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, Morocco. One hundred and twenty-eight sera samples were collected from 128 pregnant women between August 2015 and June 2016; these women were chosen retrospectively and were in their first four months of pregnancy. The samples were screened using the specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies and were subjected to an IgG avidity test. After the serological screening, only 54 women (42.4%) were tested positive for IgG antibodies and five women (3.9%) were tested positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Four IgM-negative women had low-avidity antibodies. However, none of the IgG-avidity test had detected low-avidity antibodies in the five IgM-positive women; three women (60%) had high-avidity antibodies, indicating that the infection was acquired in the distant past. The avidity test is a helpful tool to exclude a recently acquired toxoplasmosis infection within IgM-positive serum samples in pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy. Thus, allowing to perform an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV Capsid is a Tractable Target for Small Molecule Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Stephen L.; Brown, David G.; Anderson, Marie; Bazin, Richard; Cao, Joan; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Isaacson, Jason; Jackson, Lynn; Hunt, Rachael; Kjerrstrom, Anne; Nieman, James A.; Patick, Amy K.; Perros, Manos; Scott, Andrew D.; Whitby, Kevin; Wu, Hua; Butler, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy. PMID:21170360

  19. Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from the North-Eastern region of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berredjem, Hajira; Aouras, Hayette; Benlaifa, Meriem; Becheker, Imène; Djebar, Mohamed Reda

    2017-09-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays. The aim of this study was to compare conventional ELISA and IgG avidity, with PCR using B1 and P30 primers for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Sera were collected from 143 pregnant women and measured by ELISA for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity. DNA was extracted from 57 peripheral blood and 14 amniotic fluid samples for PCR amplification. A total of 57 out 143 women were seropositive: 30 (52.6%) were IgG+/IgM- and 27 (43.8%) were IgG+/IgM+; IgA antibodies were positive in 7 (12.2%) cases. IgG avidity was low in 9 women suggesting an acute infection; 3 women presented an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate avidity cases. PCR combined to avidity IgG performed better than ELISA IgG, IgM and/or IgA assays alone. PCR was useful in the case of intermediate avidity.

  20. Clinical significance of pretreatment FDG PET/CT IN MOBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seo Young; Kim, Yong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rahim, Muhammad Kashif [Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Multan (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is well known to have clinical significance in the initial staging and response evaluation of the many kinds of neoplasms. However, its role in the pediatric neuroblastoma is not clearly defined. In the present study, the clinical significance of FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) in 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid pediatric neuroblastoma was investigated. Twenty patients with neuroblastoma who undertook pretreatment FDG PET/CT at our institute between 2008 and 2015 and showed MIBG avidity were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. Clinical information—including histopathology, and serum markers—and several PET parameters—including SUVmax of the primary lesion (Psuv), target-to-background ratio (TBR), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and coefficient of variation (CV)—were analyzed. The prognostic effect of PET parameters was evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). Total 20 patients (4.5 ± 3.5 years) were divided as two groups by disease progression. Six patients (30.0 %) experienced disease progression and one patient (5.0 %) died during follow-up period. There were not statistically significant in age, stage, MYCN status, primary tumor size, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and ferritin level between two groups with progression or no progression. However, Psuv (p = 0.017), TBR (p = 0.09), MTV (p = 0.02), and CV (p = 0.036) showed significant differences between two groups. In univariate analysis, PFS was significantly associated with Psuv (p = 0.021) and TBR (p = 0.023). FDG-PET parameters were significantly related with progression of neuroblastoma. FDG-PET/CT may have the potential as a valuable modality for evaluating prognosis in the patients with MIBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma.

  1. Excretion and toxicity evaluation of (131)I-Sennoside A as a necrosis-avid agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqi; Sun, Lidan; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Liao, Hong; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    1. Sennoside A (SA) is a newly identified necrosis-avid agent that shows capability for imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy. As a water-soluble compound, (131)I-Sennoside A ((131)I-SA) might be excreted predominately through the kidneys with the possibility of nephrotoxicity. 2. To further verify excretion pathway and examine nephrotoxicity of (131)I-SA, excretion and nephrotoxicity were appraised. The pharmacokinetics, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity of (131)I-SA were also evaluated to accelerate its possible clinical translation. All these studies were conducted in mice with ethanol-induced muscular necrosis following a single intravenous administration of 131I-SA at 18.5 MBq/kg or 370 MBq/kg. 3. Excretion data revealed that (131)I-SA was predominately (73.5% of the injected dose (% ID)) excreted via the kidneys with 69.5% ID detected in urine within 72 h post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that (131)I-SA exhibited initial high distribution in the kidneys but subsequently a fast renal clearance, which was further confirmed by the results of autoradiography and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging. The maximum necrotic to normal muscle ratio reached to 7.9-fold at 48 h post injection, which further verified the necrosis avidity of (131)I-SA. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed that (131)I-SA had fast blood clearance with an elimination half-life of 6.7 h. Various functional indexes were no significant difference (p > 0.05) between before administration and 1 d, 8 d, 16 d after administration. Histopathology showed no signs of tissue damage. 4. These data suggest (131)I-SA is a safe and promising necrosis-avid agent applicable in imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy.

  2. Blueprints for viral capsids in the family of polyomaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, T; Twarock, R; Elsawy, K M

    2008-08-21

    In a seminal paper, Caspar and Klug [1962. Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 1-24] derived a family of surface lattices as blueprints for the structural organisation of the protein shells, called viral capsids, which encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome. These lattices schematically encode, and hence predict, the locations of the proteins in the viral capsids. Despite the huge success and numerous applications of this theory in virology, experimental results have provided evidence for the fact that it is too restrictive to describe all known viruses [Casjens, S., 1985. Virus Structure and Assembly. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA]. Especially, the family of Polyomaviridae, which contains cancer-causing viruses, falls out of the scope of this theory. In [Twarock, R., 2004. A tiling approach to virus capsid assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477], we have shown that a member of the family of Polyomaviridae can be described via an icosahedrally symmetric tiling. We show here that all viruses in this family can be described by tilings with vertices corresponding to subsets of a quasi-lattice that is constructed based on an affine extended Coxeter group, and we use this methodology to derive their coordinates explicitly. Since the particles appear as different subsets of the same quasi-lattice, their relative sizes are predicted by this approach, and there hence exists only one scaling factor that relates the sizes of all particles collectively to their biological counterparts. It is the first mathematical result that provides a common organisational principle for different types of viral particles in the family of Polyomaviridae, and paves the way for modelling Polyomaviridae polymorphism.

  3. Production, purification, and capsid stability of rhinovirus C types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Theodor F; Bochkov, Yury A; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Palmenberg, Ann C; Gern, James E

    2015-06-01

    The rhinovirus C (RV-C) were discovered in 2006 and these agents are an important cause of respiratory morbidity. Little is known about their biology. RV-C15 (C15) can be produced by transfection of recombinant viral RNA into cells and subsequent purification over a 30% sucrose cushion, even though yields and infectivity of other RV-C genotypes with this protocol are low. The goal of this study was to determine whether poor RV-C yields were due to capsid instability, and moreover, to develop a robust protocol suitable for the purification of many RV-C types. Capsid stability assays indicated that virions of RV-C41 (refractory to purification) have similar tolerance for osmotic and temperature stress as RV-A16 (purified readily), although C41 is more sensitive to low pH. Modification to the purification protocol by removing detergent increased the yield of RV-C. Addition of nonfat dry milk to the sucrose cushion increased the virus yield but sacrificed purity of the viral suspension. Analysis of virus distribution following centrifugation indicated that the majority of detectable viral RNA (vRNA) was found in pellets refractory to resuspension. Reduction of the centrifugal force with commiserate increase in spin-time improved the recovery of RV-C for both C41 and C2. Transfection of primary lung fibroblasts (WisL cells) followed by the modified purification protocol further improved yields of infectious C41 and C2. Described herein is a higher yield purification protocol suitable for RV-C types refractory to the standard purification procedure. The findings suggest that aggregation-adhesion problems rather than capsid instability influence RV-C yield during purification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Partial blood meal, carbohydrate availability, and bloodfeeding-postponement effects on human host avidity and deet repellency in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Barnard, Donald R

    2009-12-01

    Host avidity and deet repellency were measured in partially bloodfed Aedes albopictus provided 10% sucrose, water, or nothing when access to a human host was postponed for 1 to 72 h after a partial blood meal. Carbohydrate availability and postfeeding time influenced host avidity, but partial blood meal effects were not significant. Mean host avidity declined significantly between hours 1 and 6 (range 50-18%) but increased significantly between hours 24 (54%) and 72 (68%) after a partial blood meal. Females provided sucrose solution and females denied sucrose or water showed the least (29%) and most (39%) host avidity, regardless of other treatment effects. The longest and shortest deet protection times were 8.5 h against females provided sucrose and 7.3 h against females denied sucrose or water, respectively. Denial of carbohydrate sustenance significantly increased host avidity and deet repellency in partially bloodfed female Ae. albopictus, whereas sucrose availability led to reduced host responding activity and decreased repellency of deet.

  5. Interaction between Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid Protein VP1 and Cell Surface Ganglioside GM1 Triggers Vacuole Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Motamedi, Nasim; Magaldi, Thomas G; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; DiMaio, Daniel

    2016-03-22

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus that has served as an important model to understand many aspects of biology, induces dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization late during productive infection of monkey host cells. Although this activity led to the discovery of the virus in 1960, the mechanism of vacuolization is still not known. Pentamers of the major SV40 capsid protein VP1 bind to the ganglioside GM1, which serves as the cellular receptor for the virus. In this report, we show that binding of VP1 to cell surface GM1 plays a key role in SV40 infection-induced vacuolization. We previously showed that SV40 VP1 mutants defective for GM1 binding fail to induce vacuolization, even though they replicate efficiently. Here, we show that interfering with GM1-VP1 binding by knockdown of GM1 after infection is established abrogates vacuolization by wild-type SV40. Vacuole formation during permissive infection requires efficient virus release, and conditioned medium harvested late during SV40 infection rapidly induces vacuoles in a VP1- and GM1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, vacuolization can also be induced by a nonreplicating SV40 pseudovirus in a GM1-dependent manner, and a mutation in BK pseudovirus VP1 that generates GM1 binding confers vacuole-inducing activity. Vacuolization can also be triggered by purified pentamers of wild-type SV40 VP1, but not by GM1 binding-defective pentamers or by intracellular expression of VP1. These results demonstrate that SV40 infection-induced vacuolization is caused by the binding of released progeny viruses to GM1, thereby identifying the molecular trigger for the activity that led to the discovery of SV40. The DNA tumor virus SV40 was discovered more than a half century ago as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccine stocks, because it caused dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization of permissive host cells. Although SV40 played a historically important role in the development of molecular and cellular biology, restriction mapping, molecular

  6. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo–capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  7. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R. J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G. A.; Agirre, J.; Guerin, D. M. A.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Heck, A. J. R.; Roos, W. H.

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  8. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  9. Dissecting human cytomegalovirus gene function and capsid maturation by ribozyme targeting and electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuekui; Trang, Phong; Shah, Sanket; Atanasov, Ivo; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bai, Yong; Zhou, Z Hong; Liu, Fenyong

    2005-05-17

    Human CMV (HCMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects and causes one of the most common opportunistic infections among transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Cleavage of internal scaffolding proteins by the viral protease (Pr) occurs during HCMV capsid assembly. To gain insight into the mechanism of HCMV capsid maturation and the roles of the Pr in viral replication, an RNase P ribozyme was engineered to target the Pr mRNA and down-regulate its expression by >99%, generating premature Pr-minus capsids. Furthermore, scaffolding protein processing and DNA encapsidation were inhibited by 99%, and viral growth was reduced by 10,000-fold. 3D structural comparison of the Pr-minus and wild-type B capsids by electron cryomicroscopy, at an unprecedented 12.5-angstroms resolution, unexpectedly revealed that the structures are identical in their overall shape and organization. However, the Pr-minus capsid contains tenuous connections between the scaffold and the capsid shell, whereas the wild-type B capsid has extra densities in its core that may represent the viral Pr. Our findings indicate that cleavage of the scaffolding protein is not associated with the morphological changes that occur during capsid maturation. Instead, the protease appears to be required for DNA encapsidation and the subsequent maturation steps leading to infectious progeny. These results therefore provide key insights into an essential step of HCMV infection using an RNase P ribozyme-based inhibition strategy.

  10. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  11. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Marielle [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Neurosciences, Laboratory of Cellular and Tissular Biology, Liege (Belgium); Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Di Valentin, Emmanuel [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Viral Vectors Platform, Liege (Belgium); Bontems, Sébastien [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine, E-mail: csadzot@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.

  12. Nucleolin interacts with the dengue virus capsid protein and plays a role in formation of infectious virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, Corey A; Schmeisser, Hana; Ganesan, Sundar; Singh, Kavita; Pierson, Theodore C; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2013-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease in humans and is considered a reemerging pathogen of significant importance to public health. The DENV capsid (C) protein functions as a structural component of the infectious virion; however, it may have additional functions in the virus replicative cycle. Here, we show that the DENV C protein interacts and colocalizes with the multifunctional host protein nucleolin (NCL). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction can be disrupted by the addition of an NCL binding aptamer (AS1411). Knockdown of NCL with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or treatment of cells with AS1411 results in a significant reduction of viral titers after DENV infection. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed no differences in viral RNA or protein levels at early time points postinfection, suggesting a role for NCL in viral morphogenesis. We support this hypothesis by showing that treatment with AS1411 alters the migration characteristics of the viral capsid, as visualized by native electrophoresis. Here, we identify a critical interaction between DENV C protein and NCL that represents a potential new target for the development of antiviral therapeutics.

  13. A Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategy in Cattle to Prevent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using a "Single-Cycle" Alphavirus Vector and Empty Capsid Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gullberg

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV. When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV. In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high

  14. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  15. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeyendecker, Oliver; Church, Jessica D; Oliver, Amy E; Mwatha, Anthony; Owen, S Michele; Donnell, Deborah; Brookmeyer, Ron; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura; Nakabiito, Clemesia; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H

    2010-10-11

    Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing. We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED) and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later). Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent. During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n) obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (%) when women were pregnant (n = 20 results) compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum). In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test). These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  16. Clinical criteria for predicting benefit of ICD/PM in post myocardial infarction patients: an AVID and CAST analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrom, Alfred P; Wyse, D George; McAnulty, John

    2008-12-01

    Three clinical factors from the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) trial-heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction and certain historical features defined a subgroup in which an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD/PM) has a mortality advantage over amiodarone. These three factors were jointly evaluated in the AVID cohort with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and the results applied in placebo-treated post-infarction patients in the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial (CAST). Similar predictive power was noted in AVID patients with IHD. In CAST the factors defined three groups; one group (5.8%), corresponding to AVID patients that had high risk and benefited from an ICD/PM and another group (17.2%) corresponding to patients in AVID where the risk was moderate and ICD/PM and amiodarone had equal efficacy, demonstrated a two-fold higher risk of sudden arrhythmic than non-arrhythmic death and hence would be expected to benefit from antiarrhythmia therapy. The third group, corresponding to AVID patients with low risk of arrhythmia, demonstrated similar and low risks of sudden arrhythmic and non-arrhythmic death. Thus this group (77%) is unlikely to benefit from indiscriminate antiarrhythmia therapy. Onset of risk of death in CAST patients was offset from randomization by 3 to 6 months. Readily available clinical criteria identify a small group likely to benefit from an ICD/PM after recent myocardial infarction (MI) and the remainder unlikely to benefit from nonselective ICD/PM therapy. Additional risk stratification should focus on the latter patients and be timed to allow ICD/PM implantation between 2 and 6 months after MI.

  17. Evaluation of the new architect cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrou, K; Bodeus, M; Van Ranst, M; Goubau, P

    2009-06-01

    A panel of new cytomegalovirus (CMV) assays for use on the Architect instrument has been developed, including a CMV avidity assay based on a new technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the fully automated CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity tests on the Architect instrument with those of other available assays. A total of 503 consecutive fresh patient serum specimens (routine serum specimens) and 96 serum specimens from 33 pregnant women with a recent CMV primary infection (seroconversion serum specimens) were tested for CMV IgM and IgG by the Architect (Abbott), Vidas (BioMérieux), and Enzygnost (Siemens) assays. The seroconversion sera and 100 preselected serum specimens IgM negative and IgG positive by the AxSYM assay were also tested by the IgG avidity tests on the Architect and Vidas instruments. The relative agreements for CMV IgM determination with routine sera between the Architect assay and the Vidas, Enzygnost, and AxSYM assays were 97%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, for the CMV IgM tests and 99%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for the CMV IgG tests. The specificities of the CMV IgG avidity test were 98% for the Architect assay and 76% for the Vidas assay. No high CMV IgG avidity test results were found within the first 3 months after seroconversion by either of those assays. The correlation between the results of the newly developed CMV IgM and IgG tests on the Architect instrument with the Vidas and Enzygnost assays was excellent (> or = 94%). The CMV IgG avidity test reliably excluded patients with recent infections and showed an excellent specificity (98%).

  18. Evaluation of the New Architect Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG Avidity Assays▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrou, K.; Bodeus, M.; Van Ranst, M.; Goubau, P.

    2009-01-01

    A panel of new cytomegalovirus (CMV) assays for use on the Architect instrument has been developed, including a CMV avidity assay based on a new technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the fully automated CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity tests on the Architect instrument with those of other available assays. A total of 503 consecutive fresh patient serum specimens (routine serum specimens) and 96 serum specimens from 33 pregnant women with a recent CMV primary infection (seroconversion serum specimens) were tested for CMV IgM and IgG by the Architect (Abbott), Vidas (BioMérieux), and Enzygnost (Siemens) assays. The seroconversion sera and 100 preselected serum specimens IgM negative and IgG positive by the AxSYM assay were also tested by the IgG avidity tests on the Architect and Vidas instruments. The relative agreements for CMV IgM determination with routine sera between the Architect assay and the Vidas, Enzygnost, and AxSYM assays were 97%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, for the CMV IgM tests and 99%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for the CMV IgG tests. The specificities of the CMV IgG avidity test were 98% for the Architect assay and 76% for the Vidas assay. No high CMV IgG avidity test results were found within the first 3 months after seroconversion by either of those assays. The correlation between the results of the newly developed CMV IgM and IgG tests on the Architect instrument with the Vidas and Enzygnost assays was excellent (≥94%). The CMV IgG avidity test reliably excluded patients with recent infections and showed an excellent specificity (98%). PMID:19339470

  19. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  20. Revised Mimivirus major capsid protein sequence reveals intron-containing gene structure and extra domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan-Monti Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus (APM is the largest known dsDNA virus. The viral particle has a nearly icosahedral structure with an internal capsid shell surrounded with a dense layer of fibrils. A Capsid protein sequence, D13L, was deduced from the APM L425 coding gene and was shown to be the most abundant protein found within the viral particle. However this protein remained poorly characterised until now. A revised protein sequence deposited in a database suggested an additional N-terminal stretch of 142 amino acids missing from the original deduced sequence. This result led us to investigate the L425 gene structure and the biochemical properties of the complete APM major Capsid protein. Results This study describes the full length 3430 bp Capsid coding gene and characterises the 593 amino acids long corresponding Capsid protein 1. The recombinant full length protein allowed the production of a specific monoclonal antibody able to detect the Capsid protein 1 within the viral particle. This protein appeared to be post-translationnally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation. We proposed a secondary structure prediction of APM Capsid protein 1 compared to the Capsid protein structure of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, another member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA virus family. Conclusion The characterisation of the full length L425 Capsid coding gene of Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus provides new insights into the structure of the main Capsid protein. The production of a full length recombinant protein will be useful for further structural studies.

  1. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Sik, E-mail: yumshak@naver.com; Seo, Hyun Wook, E-mail: suruk@naver.com; Jung, Guhung, E-mail: drjung@snu.ac.kr

    2015-02-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90.

  2. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J.; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that Cervarix® elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix®-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. Methods A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. Results In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. Conclusions The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in

  3. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2012-12-17

    We previously demonstrated that Cervarix(®) elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix(®)-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in protection against infection. Copyright

  4. DNA vaccination with T-cell epitopes encoded within Ab molecules induces high-avidity anti-tumor CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, Victoria A; Metheringham, Rachael L; Gunn, Barbara; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of high-avidity CTL responses is essential for effective anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccines. In this study we have demonstrated that a DNA vaccine incorporating CTL epitopes within an Ab molecule results in high-avidity T-cell responses to both foreign and self epitopes. The avidity and frequency was superior to peptide, peptide-pulsed DC vaccines or a DNA vaccine incorporating the epitope within the native Ag. The DNA Ab vaccine was superior to an identical protein vaccine that can only cross-present, indicating a role for direct presentation by the DNA vaccine. However, the avidity of CTL responses was significantly reduced in Fc receptor gamma knockout mice or if the Fc region was removed suggesting that cross presentation of Ag via Fc receptor was also important in the induction of high-avidity CTL. These results suggest that generation of high-avidity CTL responses by the DNA vaccine is related to its ability to both directly present and cross-present the epitope. High-avidity responses were capable of efficient anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates a vaccine strategy to generate high-avidity CTL responses that can be used in anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccine settings.

  5. Partial blood meal, carbohydrate availability, and blood-feeding postponement effects on human host avidity and DEET repellency in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host avidity and DEET repellency were measured in partially blood fed Aedes albopictus (Skuse) provided 10% sucrose in water, water, or neither when access to a human host was postponed for 1 to 72 h after a partial blood meal. Carbohydrate availability and post-feeding time influenced host avidity...

  6. Serotype-specific Binding Properties and Nanoparticle Characteristics Contribute to the Immunogenicity of rAAV1 Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrand, Maxime; Da Rocha, Sylvie; Corre, Guillaume; Galy, Anne; Boisgerault, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenic properties of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene transfer vectors remain incompletely characterized in spite of their usage as gene therapy vectors or as vaccines. Molecular interactions between rAAV and various types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as well as the impact of these interactions on transgene or capsid-specific immunization remain unclear. We herein show that binding motifs recognized by the capsid and which determine the vector tissue tropism are ...

  7. Structural and functional analysis of coxsackievirus A9 integrin αvβ6 binding and uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Shabih; Seitsonen, Jani J T; Kajander, Tommi; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Hyypiä, Timo; Susi, Petri; Butcher, Sarah J

    2013-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9) is an important pathogen of the Picornaviridae family. It utilizes cellular receptors from the integrin αv family for binding to its host cells prior to entry and genome release. Among the integrins tested, it has the highest affinity for αvβ6, which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) loop present on the C terminus of viral capsid protein, VP1. As the atomic model of CVA9 lacks the RGD loop, we used surface plasmon resonance, electron cryo-microscopy, and image reconstruction to characterize the capsid-integrin interactions and the conformational changes on genome release. We show that the integrin binds to the capsid with nanomolar affinity and that the binding of integrin to the virion does not induce uncoating, thereby implying that further steps are required for release of the genome. Electron cryo-tomography and single-particle image reconstruction revealed variation in the number and conformation of the integrins bound to the capsid, with the integrin footprint mapping close to the predicted site for the exposed RGD loop on VP1. Comparison of empty and RNA-filled capsid reconstructions showed that the capsid undergoes conformational changes when the genome is released, so that the RNA-capsid interactions in the N termini of VP1 and VP4 are lost, VP4 is removed, and the capsid becomes more porous, as has been reported for poliovirus 1, human rhinovirus 2, enterovirus 71, and coxsackievirus A7. These results are important for understanding the structural basis of integrin binding to CVA9 and the molecular events leading to CVA9 cell entry and uncoating.

  8. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  9. Immobilization and One-Dimensional Arrangement of Virus Capsids with Nanoscale Precision Using DNA Origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Minghui [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Tong, Gary J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Zhe [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Yan, Hao [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Francis, Matthew B [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-24

    DNA origami was used as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. To do this, we first modified the interior surface of bacteriophage MS2 capsids with fluorescent dyes as a model cargo. An unnatural amino acid on the external surface was then coupled to DNA strands that were complementary to those extending from origami tiles. Two different geometries of DNA tiles (rectangular and triangular) were used. The capsids associated with tiles of both geometries with virtually 100% efficiency under mild annealing conditions, and the location of capsid immobilization on the tile could be controlled by the position of the probe strands. The rectangular tiles and capsids could then be arranged into one-dimensional arrays by adding DNA strands linking the corners of the tiles. The resulting structures consisted of multiple capsids with even spacing (~100 nm). We also used a second set of tiles that had probe strands at both ends, resulting in a one-dimensional array of alternating capsids and tiles. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multicomponent systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures.

  10. Role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    We examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids. The charges on the protein subunits that make the viral capsid mutually interact and are expected to yield electrostatic repulsion acting against the assembly of capsids. Thus, attractive protein-protein interactions of nonelectrostatic origin must act to enable the capsid formation. We investigate whether the interplay of repulsive electrostatic and attractive interactions between the protein subunits can result in the formation of spherical viral capsids of a preferred radius. For this to be the case, we find that the attractive interactions must depend on the angle between the neighboring protein subunits (i.e., on the mean curvature of the viral capsid) so that a particular angle(s) is (are) preferred energywise. Our results for the electrostatic contributions to energetics of viral capsids nicely correlate with recent experimental determinations of the energetics of protein-protein contacts in the hepatitis B virus [P. Ceres A. Zlotnick, Biochemistry 41, 11525 (2002)].

  11. On the geometry of regular icosahedral capsids containing disymmetrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Kai-Siang

    2016-01-01

    Icosahedral virus capsids are composed of symmetrons, organized arrangements of capsomers. There are three types of symmetrons: disymmetrons, trisymmetrons, and pentasymmetrons, which have different shapes and are centered on the icosahedral 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold axes of symmetry, respectively. In 2010 [Sinkovits & Baker] gave a classification of all possible ways of building an icosahedral structure solely from trisymmetrons and pentasymmetrons, which requires the triangulation number T to be odd. In the present paper we incorporate disymmetrons to obtain a geometric classification of icosahedral viruses formed by regular penta-, tri-, and disymmetrons. For every class of solutions, we further provide formulas for symmetron sizes and parity restrictions on h, k, and T numbers. We also present several methods in which invariants may be used to classify a given configuration.

  12. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp-2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or /sup 35/S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition.

  13. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laeyendecker, Oliver; Church, Jessica D; Oliver, Amy E; Mwatha, Anthony; Owen, S Michele; Donnell, Deborah; Brookmeyer, Ron; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura; Nakabiito, Clemesia; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H

    2010-01-01

    .... We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED) and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial...

  14. 18F-NaF Positive Bone Metastases of Non 18F-FDG Avid Mucinous Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Çiğdem Soydal; Elgin Özkan; Özlem Nuriye Küçük

    2015-01-01

    Detection of gastric cancer bone metastasis is crucial since its presence is an independent prognostic factor. In this case report, we would like to present 18F-NaF positive bone metastases of non 18F-FDG avid gastric mucinous cancer.

  15. Evaluation of Norepinephrine Transporter Expression and Metaiodobenzylguanidine Avidity in Neuroblastoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. DuBois

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG is used for the diagnostic evaluation of neuroblastoma. We evaluated the relationship between norepinephrine transporter (NET expression and clinical MIBG uptake. Methods. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (N=82 and immunohistochemistry (IHC; N=61 were performed for neuroblastoma NET mRNA and protein expression and correlated with MIBG avidity on diagnostic scans. The correlation of NET expression with clinical features was also performed. Results. Median NET mRNA expression level for the 19 MIBG avid patients was 12.9% (range 1.6–73.7% versus 5.9% (range 0.6–110.0% for the 8 nonavid patients (P=0.31. Median percent NET protein expression was 50% (range 0–100% in MIBG avid patients compared to 10% (range 0–80% in nonavid patients (P=0.027. MYCN amplified tumors had lower NET protein expression compared to nonamplified tumors (10% versus 50%; P=0.0002. Conclusions. NET protein expression in neuroblastoma correlates with MIBG avidity. MYCN amplified tumors have lower NET protein expression.

  16. Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs during Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, C S; Moore, M D; Jaykus, L A

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) represents a significant public health burden worldwide and can be environmentally transmitted. Copper surfaces have been shown to inactivate the cultivable surrogate murine norovirus, but no such data exist for HuNoV. The purpose of this study was to characterize the destruction of GII.4 HuNoV and virus-like particles (VLPs) during exposure to copper alloy surfaces. Fecal suspensions positive for a GII.4 HuNoV outbreak strain or GII.4 VLPs were exposed to copper alloys or stainless steel for 0 to 240 min and recovered by elution. HuNoV genome integrity was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) (without RNase treatment), and capsid integrity was assessed by RT-qPCR (with RNase treatment), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding assay. Exposure of fecal suspensions to pure copper for 60 min reduced the GII.4 HuNoV RNA copy number by ∼3 log10 units when analyzed by RT-qPCR without RNase treatment and by 4 log10 units when a prior RNase treatment was used. The rate of reduction of the HuNoV RNA copy number was approximately proportional to the percentage of copper in each alloy. Exposure of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs to pure-copper surfaces resulted in noticeable aggregation and destruction within 240 min, an 80% reduction in the VP1 major capsid protein band intensity in 15 min, and a near-complete loss of HBGA receptor binding within 8 min. In all experiments, HuNoV remained stable on stainless steel. These results suggest that copper surfaces destroy HuNoV and may be useful in preventing environmental transmission of the virus in at-risk settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. HIV avidity index performance using a modified fourth-generation immunoassay to detect recent HIV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Rodella, Anna; Terlenghi, Luigina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Zanchetta, Nadia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Galli, Claudio

    2017-10-26

    Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine. Both aliquots were assayed by the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo 4th generation assay (Abbott). We compared AI found in recent (RI=HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0.80 within 24 months after seroconversion. The AI is an accurate serological marker for discriminating recent from established HIV infections and meets WHO requirements for HIV incidence assays.

  18. Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses detected from Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Phan, Tung Gia; Hoang, Le Phuc; Maneekarn, Niwat; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses was performed on 12 strains detected in Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam during 2002-2005. The phylogenetic tree constructed from 17 nucleotide sequences of the capsid gene of the strains studied and reference strains demonstrated that Aichi virus strains clustered into two branches. A classification of Aichi viruses based on the capsid gene was proposed, in which lineage I consists of the Aichi virus strains detected from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Germany, and lineage II includes Bangladeshi strains and a Brazilian strain.

  19. The assembly domain of the small capsid protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Dale; Capuano, Christopher M; Henson, Brandon W; Pryce, Erin N; Anacker, Daniel; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant J

    2012-11-01

    Self-assembly of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsids occurs when six proteins are coexpressed in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses; however, if the small capsid protein (SCP) is omitted from the coinfection, assembly does not occur. Herein we delineate and identify precisely the assembly domain and the residues of SCP required for assembly. Hence, six residues, R14, D18, V25, R46, G66, and R70 in the assembly domain, when changed to alanine, completely abolish or reduce capsid assembly.

  20. Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-10-15

    Dietary recommendations for seafood are confusing due to the desire to balance both benefits from nutrients and risks from contaminants. The overall health value of different fish and shellfish items depends on concentrations of multiple nutrients (e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) and contaminants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). However, few studies have examined the connections between human exposure to multiple nutrients and contaminants and the consumption of specific types of seafood. Our goals were to compare 1) Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations (Hg-nutrient signatures) among common fish and shellfish items and 2) Hg-nutrient signatures in the blood of avid seafood consumers, based on seafood consumption habits. We compiled nutrient and Hg concentration data for common fish and shellfish items from the literature. We also measured blood concentrations of Hg and seafood nutrients collected from adult, avid seafood consumers on Long Island, NY. Canonical discriminant analyses revealed distinct Hg-nutrient signatures among seafood items, and these signatures were reflected in the blood of consumers based on different consumption habits. For example, consumers with a salmon-dominated seafood diet had relatively high percentage of omega-3 fatty acids in blood, and consumers who tend to eat top predator seafood have higher Hg, but similar blood nutrient concentrations compared to consumers who tend to eat low trophic level seafood. These results provide direct evidence of links between the ecological characteristics of the type of seafood consumed and Hg-nutrient exposure. This approach helps assess the overall human health value of specific seafood types, leads to specific diet recommendations, and can be used to characterize risk:benefit status among seafood consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Characterization of the Dual Glycan Binding Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Robert; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Parent, Kristin N.; Baker, Timothy S.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 6 (AAV6) was determined using cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction and using X-ray crystallography to 9.7- and 3.0-Å resolution, respectively. The AAV6 capsid contains a highly conserved, eight-stranded (βB to βI) β-barrel core and large loop regions between the strands which form the capsid surface, as observed in other AAV structures. The loops show conformational variation compared to other AAVs, consistent with previous reports that amino acids in these loop regions are involved in differentiating AAV receptor binding, transduction efficiency, and antigenicity properties. Toward structure-function annotation of AAV6 with respect to its unique dual glycan receptor (heparan sulfate and sialic acid) utilization for cellular recognition, and its enhanced lung epithelial transduction compared to other AAVs, the capsid structure was compared to that of AAV1, which binds sialic acid and differs from AAV6 in only 6 out of 736 amino acids. Five of these residues are located at or close to the icosahedral 3-fold axis of the capsid, thereby identifying this region as imparting important functions, such as receptor attachment and transduction phenotype. Two of the five observed amino acids are located in the capsid interior, suggesting that differential AAV infection properties are also controlled by postentry intracellular events. Density ordered inside the capsid, under the 3-fold axis in a previously reported, conserved AAV DNA binding pocket, was modeled as a nucleotide and a base, further implicating this capsid region in AAV genome recognition and/or stabilization. PMID:20861247

  2. Structural characterization of the dual glycan binding adeno-associated virus serotype 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Robert; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Gurda, Brittney L; McKenna, Robert; Kozyreva, Olga G; Samulski, R Jude; Parent, Kristin N; Baker, Timothy S; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional structure of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 6 (AAV6) was determined using cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction and using X-ray crystallography to 9.7- and 3.0-Å resolution, respectively. The AAV6 capsid contains a highly conserved, eight-stranded (βB to βI) β-barrel core and large loop regions between the strands which form the capsid surface, as observed in other AAV structures. The loops show conformational variation compared to other AAVs, consistent with previous reports that amino acids in these loop regions are involved in differentiating AAV receptor binding, transduction efficiency, and antigenicity properties. Toward structure-function annotation of AAV6 with respect to its unique dual glycan receptor (heparan sulfate and sialic acid) utilization for cellular recognition, and its enhanced lung epithelial transduction compared to other AAVs, the capsid structure was compared to that of AAV1, which binds sialic acid and differs from AAV6 in only 6 out of 736 amino acids. Five of these residues are located at or close to the icosahedral 3-fold axis of the capsid, thereby identifying this region as imparting important functions, such as receptor attachment and transduction phenotype. Two of the five observed amino acids are located in the capsid interior, suggesting that differential AAV infection properties are also controlled by postentry intracellular events. Density ordered inside the capsid, under the 3-fold axis in a previously reported, conserved AAV DNA binding pocket, was modeled as a nucleotide and a base, further implicating this capsid region in AAV genome recognition and/or stabilization.

  3. Targeting Photoreceptors via Intravitreal Delivery Using Novel, Capsid-Mutated AAV Vectors: e62097

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine N Kay; Renee C Ryals; George V Aslanidi; Seok Hong Min; Qing Ruan; Jingfen Sun; Frank M Dyka; Daniel Kasuga; Andrea E Ayala; Kim Van Vliet; Mavis Agbandje-McKenna; William W Hauswirth; Sanford L Boye; Shannon E Boye

    2013-01-01

    .... Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line...

  4. Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B; Hogue, Ian B; Feric, Marina; Thiberge, Stephan Y; Sodeik, Beate; Brangwynne, Clifford P; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-10-20

    The nuclear chromatin structure confines the movement of large macromolecular complexes to interchromatin corrals. Herpesvirus capsids of approximately 125 nm assemble in the nucleoplasm and must reach the nuclear membranes for egress. Previous studies concluded that nuclear herpesvirus capsid motility is active, directed, and based on nuclear filamentous actin, suggesting that large nuclear complexes need metabolic energy to escape nuclear entrapment. However, this hypothesis has recently been challenged. Commonly used microscopy techniques do not allow the imaging of rapid nuclear particle motility with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we use a rotating, oblique light sheet, which we dubbed a ring-sheet, to image and track viral capsids with high temporal and spatial resolution. We do not find any evidence for directed transport. Instead, infection with different herpesviruses induced an enlargement of interchromatin domains and allowed particles to diffuse unrestricted over longer distances, thereby facilitating nuclear egress for a larger fraction of capsids.

  5. Influence of Internal Capsid Pressure on Viral Infection by Phage λ

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Evilevitch, Alex; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Weitz, David A

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of the genome from the virus, phage λ, is the initial step in the infection of its host bacterium. In vitro, the ejection depends sensitively on internal pressure within the virus capsid; however, the in vivo effect of internal pressure on infection of bacteria is unknown. Here, we use microfluidics to monitor individual cells and determine the temporal distribution of lysis due to infection as the capsid pressure is varied. The lysis probability decreases markedly with decreased cap...

  6. Evidence for pH-Dependent Protease Activity in the Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Maxim; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bennett, Antonette; Lins, Bridget; Yarbrough, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Incubation of highly purified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids in vitro at pH 5.5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5. Examination of other AAV serotypes showed at least two different pH-induced cleavage patterns, suggesting that different serotypes have evolved alternative protease cleavage sites. In contrast, incubation of AAV serotypes with an external protease substrate showed that purified AAV capsid preparations have robust protease activity at neutral pH but not at pH 5.5, opposite to what is seen with capsid protein autocleavage. Several lines of evidence suggested that protease activity is inherent in AAV capsids and is not due to contaminating proteins. Control virus preparations showed no protease activity on external substrates, and filtrates of AAV virus preparations also showed no protease activity contaminating the capsids. Further, N-terminal Edman sequencing identified unique autocleavage sites in AAV1 and AAV9, and mutagenesis of amino acids adjacent to these sites eliminated cleavage. Finally, mutation of an amino acid in AAV2 (E563A) that is in a conserved pH-sensitive structural region eliminated protease activity on an external substrate but did not seem to affect autocleavage. Taken together, our data suggested that AAV capsids have one or more protease active sites that are sensitive to pH induction. Further, it appears that acidic pHs comparable to those seen in late endosomes induce a structural change in the capsid that induces autolytic protease activity. The pH-dependent protease activity may have a role in viral infection. PMID:22915820

  7. Evidence for pH-dependent protease activity in the adeno-associated virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Maxim; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bennett, Antonette; Lins, Bridget; Yarbrough, Joseph; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Incubation of highly purified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids in vitro at pH 5.5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5. Examination of other AAV serotypes showed at least two different pH-induced cleavage patterns, suggesting that different serotypes have evolved alternative protease cleavage sites. In contrast, incubation of AAV serotypes with an external protease substrate showed that purified AAV capsid preparations have robust protease activity at neutral pH but not at pH 5.5, opposite to what is seen with capsid protein autocleavage. Several lines of evidence suggested that protease activity is inherent in AAV capsids and is not due to contaminating proteins. Control virus preparations showed no protease activity on external substrates, and filtrates of AAV virus preparations also showed no protease activity contaminating the capsids. Further, N-terminal Edman sequencing identified unique autocleavage sites in AAV1 and AAV9, and mutagenesis of amino acids adjacent to these sites eliminated cleavage. Finally, mutation of an amino acid in AAV2 (E563A) that is in a conserved pH-sensitive structural region eliminated protease activity on an external substrate but did not seem to affect autocleavage. Taken together, our data suggested that AAV capsids have one or more protease active sites that are sensitive to pH induction. Further, it appears that acidic pHs comparable to those seen in late endosomes induce a structural change in the capsid that induces autolytic protease activity. The pH-dependent protease activity may have a role in viral infection.

  8. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  9. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  10. High Relaxivity Gadolinium Hydroxypyridonate-Viral Capsid Conjugates: Nano-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meux, Susan C.; Datta, Ankona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Botta, Mauro; Francis, Matthew B.; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-29

    High relaxivity macromolecular contrast agents based on the conjugation of gadolinium chelates to the interior and exterior surfaces of MS2 viral capsids are assessed. The proton nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of the conjugates show up to a five-fold increase in relaxivity, leading to a peak relaxivity (per Gd{sup 3+} ion) of 41.6 mM{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 30 MHz for the internally modified capsids. Modification of the exterior was achieved through conjugation to flexible lysines, while internal modification was accomplished by conjugation to relatively rigid tyrosines. Higher relaxivities were obtained for the internally modified capsids, showing that (1) there is facile diffusion of water to the interior of capsids and (2) the rigidity of the linker attaching the complex to the macromolecule is important for obtaining high relaxivity enhancements. The viral capsid conjugated gadolinium hydroxypyridonate complexes appear to possess two inner-sphere water molecules (q = 2) and the NMRD fittings highlight the differences in the local motion for the internal ({tau}{sub RI} = 440 ps) and external ({tau}{sub RI} = 310 ps) conjugates. These results indicate that there are significant advantages of using the internal surface of the capsids for contrast agent attachment, leaving the exterior surface available for the installation of tissue targeting groups.

  11. Recent H3N2 Viruses Have Evolved Specificity for Extended, Branched Human-type Receptors, Conferring Potential for Increased Avidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjie; de Vries, Robert P; Grant, Oliver C; Thompson, Andrew J; McBride, Ryan; Tsogtbaatar, Buyankhishig; Lee, Peter S; Razi, Nahid; Wilson, Ian A; Woods, Robert J; Paulson, James C

    2017-01-11

    Human and avian influenza viruses recognize different sialic acid-containing receptors, referred to as human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) and avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal), respectively. This presents a species barrier for aerosol droplet transmission of avian viruses in humans and ferrets. Recent reports have suggested that current human H3N2 viruses no longer have strict specificity toward human-type receptors. Using an influenza receptor glycan microarray with extended airway glycans, we find that H3N2 viruses have in fact maintained human-type specificity, but they have evolved preference for a subset of receptors comprising branched glycans with extended poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (poly-LacNAc) chains, a specificity shared with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (Cal/04) hemagglutinin. Lipid-linked versions of extended sialoside receptors can restore susceptibility of sialidase-treated MDCK cells to infection by both recent (A/Victoria/361/11) and historical (A/Hong Kong/8/1968) H3N2 viruses. Remarkably, these human-type receptors with elongated branches have the potential to increase avidity by simultaneously binding to two subunits of a single hemagglutinin trimer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel HIV IL-4R antagonist vaccine strategy can induce both high avidity CD8 T and B cell immunity with greater protective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ronald J; Worley, Matthew; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2014-09-29

    We have established that the efficacy of a heterologous poxvirus vectored HIV vaccine, fowlpox virus (FPV)-HIV gag/pol prime followed by attenuated vaccinia virus (VV)-HIV gag/pol booster immunisation, is strongly influenced by the cytokine milieu at the priming vaccination site, with endogenous IL-13 detrimental to the quality of the HIV specific CD8+ T cell response induced. We have now developed a novel HIV vaccine that co-expresses a C-terminal deletion mutant of the mouse IL-4, deleted for the essential tyrosine (Y119) required for signalling. In our vaccine system, the mutant IL-4C118 can bind to IL-4 type I and II receptors with high affinity, and transiently prevent the signalling of both IL-4 and IL-13 at the vaccination site. When this IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccine was used in an intranasal rFPV/intramuscular rVV prime-boost immunisation strategy, greatly enhanced mucosal/systemic HIV specific CD8+ T cells with higher functional avidity, expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and greater protective efficacy were detected. Surprisingly, the IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccines also induced robust long-lived HIV gag-specific serum antibody responses, specifically IgG1 and IgG2a. The p55-gag IgG2a responses induced were of a higher magnitude relative to the IL-13Rα2 adjuvant vaccine. More interestingly, our recently tested IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine which only inhibited IL-13 activity, even though induced excellent high avidity HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, had a detrimental impact on the induction of gag-specific IgG2a antibody immunity. Our observations suggest that (i) IL-4 cell-signalling in the absence of IL-13 retarded gag-specific antibody isotype class switching, or (ii) IL-13Rα2 signalling was involved in inducing good gag-specific B cell immunity. Thus, we believe our novel IL-4R antagonist adjuvant strategy offers great promise not only for HIV-1 vaccines, but also against a range of chronic infections where sustained high quality mucosal and systemic T and B

  13. Adenoviruses using the cancer marker EphA2 as a receptor in vitro and in vivo by genetic ligand insertion into different capsid scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Behr

    Full Text Available Adenoviral gene therapy and oncolysis would critically benefit from targeted cell entry by genetically modified capsids. This requires both the ablation of native adenovirus tropism and the identification of ligands that remain functional in virus context. Here, we establish cell type-specific entry of HAdV-5-based vectors by genetic ligand insertion into a chimeric fiber with shaft and knob domains of the short HAdV-41 fiber (Ad5T/41sSK. This fiber format was reported to ablate transduction in vitro and biodistribution to the liver in vivo. We show that the YSA peptide, binding to the pan-cancer marker EphA2, can be inserted into three positions of the chimeric fiber, resulting in strong transduction of EphA2-positive but not EphA2-negative cells of human melanoma biopsies and of tumor xenografts after intratumoral injection. Transduction was blocked by soluble YSA peptide and restored for EphA2-negative cells after recombinant EphA2 expression. The YSA peptide could also be inserted into three positions of a CAR binding-ablated HAdV-5 fiber enabling specific transduction; however, the Ad5T/41sSK format was superior in vivo. In conclusion, we establish an adenovirus capsid facilitating functional insertion of targeting peptides and a novel adenovirus using the tumor marker EphA2 as receptor with high potential for cancer gene therapy and viral oncolysis.

  14. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Iyer, Revathy B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levenback, Charles F. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  15. Exploring the Balance between DNA Pressure and Capsid Stability in Herpesviruses and Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D W; Li, D; Huffman, J; Homa, F L; Wilson, K; Leavitt, J C; Casjens, S R; Baines, J; Evilevitch, A

    2015-09-01

    We have recently shown in both herpesviruses and phages that packaged viral DNA creates a pressure of tens of atmospheres pushing against the interior capsid wall. For the first time, using differential scanning microcalorimetry, we directly measured the energy powering the release of pressurized DNA from the capsid. Furthermore, using a new calorimetric assay to accurately determine the temperature inducing DNA release, we found a direct influence of internal DNA pressure on the stability of the viral particle. We show that the balance of forces between the DNA pressure and capsid strength, required for DNA retention between rounds of infection, is conserved between evolutionarily diverse bacterial viruses (phages λ and P22), as well as a eukaryotic virus, human herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1). Our data also suggest that the portal vertex in these viruses is the weakest point in the overall capsid structure and presents the Achilles heel of the virus's stability. Comparison between these viral systems shows that viruses with higher DNA packing density (resulting in higher capsid pressure) have inherently stronger capsid structures, preventing spontaneous genome release prior to infection. This force balance is of key importance for viral survival and replication. Investigating the ways to disrupt this balance can lead to development of new mutation-resistant antivirals. A virus can generally be described as a nucleic acid genome contained within a protective protein shell, called the capsid. For many double-stranded DNA viruses, confinement of the large DNA molecule within the small protein capsid results in an energetically stressed DNA state exerting tens of atmospheres of pressures on the inner capsid wall. We show that stability of viral particles (which directly relates to infectivity) is strongly influenced by the state of the packaged genome. Using scanning calorimetry on a bacterial virus (phage λ) as an experimental model system, we investigated the

  16. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  17. Performance characteristics of the new ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo IgG Avidity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickinger, Eva; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Jonas, Gesa; Schultess, Jan; Stieler, Myriam; Smith, Darwin; Hausmann, Michael; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto; Dhein, Jens; Braun, Hans-Bertram

    2008-11-01

    The ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and IgG Avidity assays have been developed as a fully automated panel for immune status determination and acute infection exclusion. Resolved relative specificity and sensitivity of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgG assay were 99.6% (1359/1365) and 99.7% (1096/1099) as determined on pregnant females, blood donor, and diagnostic specimens. Seroconversion sensitivity of the ARCHITECT assay was comparable with the AxSYM Toxo IgG assay. The ARCHITECT Toxo IgG Avidity assay detected 100.0% (124/124) of acute phase specimens (ARCHITECT Toxo IgG assay, using recombinant antigens, showed excellent specificity and sensitivity for acute phase as well as past infection specimens. The ARCHITECT Toxoplasmosis panel can be reliably used to rule out acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women.

  18. Trafficking of high avidity HER-2/neu-specific T cells into HER-2/neu-expressing tumors after depletion of effector/memory-like regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian L Weiss

    Full Text Available Cancer vaccines are designed to activate and enhance cancer-antigen-targeted T cells that are suppressed through multiple mechanisms of immune tolerance in cancer-bearing hosts. T regulatory cell (Treg suppression of tumor-specific T cells is one barrier to effective immunization. A second mechanism is the deletion of high avidity tumor-specific T cells, which leaves a less effective low avidity tumor specific T cell repertoire available for activation by vaccines. Treg depleting agents including low dose cyclophosphamide (Cy and antibodies that deplete CD25-expressing Tregs have been used with limited success to enhance the potency of tumor-specific vaccines. In addition, few studies have evaluated mechanisms that activate low avidity cancer antigen-specific T cells. Therefore, we developed high and low avidity HER-2/neu-specific TCR transgenic mouse colonies specific for the same HER-2/neu epitope to define the tolerance mechanisms that specifically affect high versus low avidity tumor-specific T cells.High and low avidity CD8(+ T cell receptor (TCR transgenic mice specific for the breast cancer antigen HER-2/neu (neu were developed to provide a purified source of naïve, tumor-specific T cells that can be used to study tolerance mechanisms. Adoptive transfer studies into tolerant FVB/N-derived HER-2/neu transgenic (neu-N mice demonstrated that high avidity, but not low avidity, neu-specific T cells are inhibited by Tregs as the dominant tolerizing mechanism. High avidity T cells persisted, produced IFNγ, trafficked into tumors, and lysed tumors after adoptive transfer into mice treated with a neu-specific vaccine and low dose Cy to deplete Tregs. Analysis of Treg subsets revealed a Cy-sensitive CD4(+Foxp3(+CD25(low tumor-seeking migratory phenotype, characteristic of effector/memory Tregs, and capable of high avidity T cell suppression.Depletion of CD25(low Tregs allows activation of tumor-clearing high avidity T cells. Thus, the development

  19. Antiviral activity of α-helical stapled peptides designed from the HIV-1 capsid dimerization domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowburn David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C-terminal domain (CTD of HIV-1 capsid (CA, like full-length CA, forms dimers in solution and CTD dimerization is a major driving force in Gag assembly and maturation. Mutations of the residues at the CTD dimer interface impair virus assembly and render the virus non-infectious. Therefore, the CTD represents a potential target for designing anti-HIV-1 drugs. Results Due to the pivotal role of the dimer interface, we reasoned that peptides from the α-helical region of the dimer interface might be effective as decoys to prevent CTD dimer formation. However, these small peptides do not have any structure in solution and they do not penetrate cells. Therefore, we used the hydrocarbon stapling technique to stabilize the α-helical structure and confirmed by confocal microscopy that this modification also made these peptides cell-penetrating. We also confirmed by using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, sedimentation equilibrium and NMR that these peptides indeed disrupt dimer formation. In in vitro assembly assays, the peptides inhibited mature-like virus particle formation and specifically inhibited HIV-1 production in cell-based assays. These peptides also showed potent antiviral activity against a large panel of laboratory-adapted and primary isolates, including viral strains resistant to inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease. Conclusions These preliminary data serve as the foundation for designing small, stable, α-helical peptides and small-molecule inhibitors targeted against the CTD dimer interface. The observation that relatively weak CA binders, such as NYAD-201 and NYAD-202, showed specificity and are able to disrupt the CTD dimer is encouraging for further exploration of a much broader class of antiviral compounds targeting CA. We cannot exclude the possibility that the CA-based peptides described here could elicit additional effects on virus replication not directly linked to their ability to bind

  20. IgG avidity assay: a tool for excluding acute toxoplasmosis in prolonged IgM titer sera from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelia, O; Rahana, A R; Mohamad Firdaus, A; Cheng, H S; Nursyairah, M S; Fatinah, A S; Azmawati, M N; Siti, N A M; Aisah, M Y

    2014-12-01

    An accurate diagnosis for toxoplasmosis is crucial for pregnant women as this infection may lead to severe sequelae in the fetus. The value of IgG avidity assay as a tool to determine acute and chronic toxoplasmosis during pregnancy was evaluated in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). In this study, 281 serum samples from 281 pregnant women in various trimesters were collected. These samples were assayed using specific anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies, followed by IgG avidity test. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was 35.2% (33.5% for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and 1.8% for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies). Of 5 (1.8%) serum samples positive for IgM ELISA, 4 had high-avidity antibodies, suggesting past infection and one sample with borderline avidity index. Two samples with low avidity were from IgM negative serum samples. The IgG avidity assay exhibited an excellent specificity of 97.6% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95.6%. The study also demonstrated no significant correlation between avidity indexes of the sera with IgG (r=0.12, p=0.24) and IgM (r=-0.00, p=0.98), suggesting the complementary needs of the two tests for a better diagnosis outcome. These findings highlight the usefulness of IgG avidity assay in excluding a recently acquired toxoplasmosis infection in IgM-positive serum sample.

  1. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  2. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection. PMID:22044420

  3. High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Diard, Médéric; Sellin, Mikael E; Felmy, Boas; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Toska, Albulena; Bakkeren, Erik; Arnoldini, Markus; Bansept, Florence; Co, Alma Dal; Völler, Tom; Minola, Andrea; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Agatic, Gloria; Barbieri, Sonia; Piccoli, Luca; Casiraghi, Costanza; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Regoes, Roland R; Loverdo, Claude; Stocker, Roman; Brumley, Douglas R; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Slack, Emma

    2017-04-27

    Vaccine-induced high-avidity IgA can protect against bacterial enteropathogens by directly neutralizing virulence factors or by poorly defined mechanisms that physically impede bacterial interactions with the gut tissues ('immune exclusion'). IgA-mediated cross-linking clumps bacteria in the gut lumen and is critical for protection against infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). However, classical agglutination, which was thought to drive this process, is efficient only at high pathogen densities (≥108 non-motile bacteria per gram). In typical infections, much lower densities (100-107 colony-forming units per gram) of rapidly dividing bacteria are present in the gut lumen. Here we show that a different physical process drives formation of clumps in vivo: IgA-mediated cross-linking enchains daughter cells, preventing their separation after division, and clumping is therefore dependent on growth. Enchained growth is effective at all realistic pathogen densities, and accelerates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Furthermore, IgA enchains plasmid-donor and -recipient clones into separate clumps, impeding conjugative plasmid transfer in vivo. Enchained growth is therefore a mechanism by which IgA can disarm and clear potentially invasive species from the intestinal lumen without requiring high pathogen densities, inflammation or bacterial killing. Furthermore, our results reveal an untapped potential for oral vaccines in combating the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Interference of daratumumab with pretransfusion testing, mimicking a high-titer, low avidity like antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hwa Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Daratumumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin against CD38 and has been approved for treating patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The presence of daratumumab in the sera can interfere with pretransfusion testing due to the weakly expression of CD38 on red cells. The reactivity could be mistaken as autoantibody (if autocontrol is positive or alloantibody (if autocontrol is negative. We present a case that demonstrates daratumumab could mimic a high titer low avidity (HTLA alloantibody. A 34-year-old male patient of refractory myeloma was recruited in phase three clinical trial involving daratumumab. Samples were sent to the blood bank for pretransfusion testing. Without knowledge of patient having used daratumumab, we mistook the reactivity in the patient's sera as an HTLA antibody due to the results of negative autocontrol and high titers of antibody activity. Antibody screen showed a panreactive pattern and the reactivity against screening cells was up to a titer of 1: 1240. The reactivity was weaker against cord cells than adult cells, became weaker against ZZAP-treated cells and became negative against DDT-treated cells. A discussion with attending physician finally revealed the reactivity was due to the interference caused by daratumumab. The case demonstrates good communication is essential in performing pretransfusion testing for patients receiving daratumumab and other new biological regimens that can interfere with compatibility test.

  5. Interference of daratumumab with pretransfusion testing, mimicking a high-titer, low avidity like antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hwa; Liu, Fei-Yun; Wang, Hsiu-Mien; Cho, Hsin-Ching; Lo, Shyh-Chyi

    2017-01-01

    Daratumumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin against CD38 and has been approved for treating patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The presence of daratumumab in the sera can interfere with pretransfusion testing due to the weakly expression of CD38 on red cells. The reactivity could be mistaken as autoantibody (if autocontrol is positive) or alloantibody (if autocontrol is negative). We present a case that demonstrates daratumumab could mimic a high titer low avidity (HTLA) alloantibody. A 34-year-old male patient of refractory myeloma was recruited in phase three clinical trial involving daratumumab. Samples were sent to the blood bank for pretransfusion testing. Without knowledge of patient having used daratumumab, we mistook the reactivity in the patient's sera as an HTLA antibody due to the results of negative autocontrol and high titers of antibody activity. Antibody screen showed a panreactive pattern and the reactivity against screening cells was up to a titer of 1: 1240. The reactivity was weaker against cord cells than adult cells, became weaker against ZZAP-treated cells and became negative against DDT-treated cells. A discussion with attending physician finally revealed the reactivity was due to the interference caused by daratumumab. The case demonstrates good communication is essential in performing pretransfusion testing for patients receiving daratumumab and other new biological regimens that can interfere with compatibility test.

  6. Sequence analysis and structural implications of rotavirus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbhoo, N; Dewar, J B; Gildenhuys, S

    Rotavirus is the major cause of severe virus-associated gastroenteritis worldwide in children aged 5 and younger. Many children lose their lives annually due to this infection and the impact is particularly pronounced in developing countries. The mature rotavirus is a non-enveloped triple-layered nucleocapsid containing 11 double stranded RNA segments. Here a global view on the sequence and structure of the three main capsid proteins, VP2, VP6 and VP7 is shown by generating a consensus sequence for each of these rotavirus proteins, for each species obtained from published data of representative rotavirus genotypes from across the world and across species. Degree of conservation between species was represented on homology models for each of the proteins. VP7 shows the highest level of variation with 14-45 amino acids showing conservation of less than 60%. These changes are localised to the outer surface alluding to a possible mechanism in evading the immune system. The middle layer, VP6 shows lower variability with only 14-32 sites having lower than 70% conservation. The inner structural layer made up of VP2 showed the lowest variability with only 1-16 sites having less than 70% conservation across species. The results correlate with each protein's multiple structural roles in the infection cycle. Thus, although the nucleotide sequences vary due to the error-prone nature of replication and lack of proof reading, the corresponding amino acid sequence of VP2, 6 and 7 remain relatively conserved. Benefits of this knowledge about the conservation include the ability to target proteins at sites that cannot undergo mutational changes without influencing viral fitness; as well as possibility to study systems that are highly evolved for structure and function in order to determine how to generate and manipulate such systems for use in various biotechnological applications.

  7. Dual-color Herpesvirus Capsids Discriminate Inoculum from Progeny and Reveal Axonal Transport Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Julian; Yaffe, Zachary A; Vershinin, Michael; Enquist, Lynn W

    2016-08-31

    Alpha herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), are neuroinvasive dsDNA viruses that establish life-long latency in peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons of their native hosts. Following reactivation, the infection can spread back to the initial mucosal site of infection or, in rare cases, to the central nervous system with usually serious outcomes. During entry and egress, viral capsids depend on microtubule-based molecular motors for efficient and fast transport. In axons of PNS neurons, cytoplasmic dynein provides force for retrograde movements towards the soma, and kinesins move cargo in the opposite, anterograde direction. The dynamic properties of virus particles in cells can be imaged by fluorescent protein fusions to the small capsid protein VP26, which are incorporated into capsids. However, single-color fluorescent protein tags fail to distinguish virus inoculum from progeny. Therefore, we established a dual-color system by growing a recombinant PRV expressing a red fluorescent VP26 fusion (PRV180) on a stable cell line expressing a green VP26 fusion (PK15-mNG-VP26). The resulting dual-color virus preparation (PRV180G) contains capsids tagged with both red and green fluorescent proteins, and 97% of particles contain detectable levels of mNG-VP26. After replication in neuronal cells, all PRV180G progeny exclusively contain mRFP-VP26 tagged capsids. We used PRV180G for an analysis of axonal capsid transport dynamics in PNS neurons. Fast dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, single particle tracking and motility analyses reveal robust, bidirectional capsid motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin during entry, whereas egressing progeny particles are exclusively transported by kinesins. Alpha herpesviruses are neuroinvasive viruses that infect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of infected hosts as an integral part of their life cycle. Establishment of a quiescent or latent infection

  8. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  9. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  10. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly and receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guu, Tom S.Y.; Liu, Zheng; Ye, Qiaozhen; Mata, Douglas A.; Li, Kunpeng; Yin, Changcheng; Zhang, Jingqiang; Tao, Yizhi Jane; (Sun Yat-Sen); (Rice); (Peking)

    2009-08-25

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-{angstrom} structure of a HEV-like particle (VLP) shows that each capsid protein contains 3 linear domains that form distinct structural elements: S, the continuous capsid; P1, 3-fold protrusions; and P2, 2-fold spikes. The S domain adopts a jelly-roll fold commonly observed in small RNA viruses. The P1 and P2 domains both adopt {beta}-barrel folds. Each domain possesses a potential polysaccharide-binding site that may function in cell-receptor binding. Sugar binding to P1 at the capsid protein interface may lead to capsid disassembly and cell entry. Structural modeling indicates that native T = 3 capsid contains flat dimers, with less curvature than those of T = 1 VLP. Our findings significantly advance the understanding of HEV molecular biology and have application to the development of vaccines and antiviral medications.

  11. A plate-based histo-blood group antigen binding assay for evaluation of human norovirus receptor binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-09-15

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although two in vitro cultivation methods have been reported, they cannot provide mechanistic insights into viral inactivation. Receptor-binding assays supplement these assays and give insight into capsid integrity. We present a streamlined version of a receptor-binding assay with minimal time-to-result while maintaining accuracy and high throughput. We validate assay performance for physical and chemical inactivation treatments of a norovirus GII.4 capsid. The assay produces a high positive/negative ratio (25.3 ± 4.9) in norovirus inactivation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of BACE2 as an avid ß-amyloid-degrading protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hay Samer O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases that degrade the amyloid ß-protein (Aß have emerged as key players in the etiology and potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but it is unlikely that all such proteases have been identified. To discover new Aß-degrading proteases (AßDPs, we conducted an unbiased, genome-scale, functional cDNA screen designed to identify proteases capable of lowering net Aß levels produced by cells, which were subsequently characterized for Aß-degrading activity using an array of downstream assays. Results The top hit emerging from the screen was ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2, a rather unexpected finding given the well-established role of its close homolog, BACE1, in the production of Aß. BACE2 is known to be capable of lowering Aß levels via non-amyloidogenic processing of APP. However, in vitro, BACE2 was also found to be a particularly avid AßDP, with a catalytic efficiency exceeding all known AßDPs except insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE. BACE1 was also found to degrade Aß, albeit ~150-fold less efficiently than BACE2. Aß is cleaved by BACE2 at three peptide bonds—Phe19-Phe20, Phe20-Ala21, and Leu34-Met35—with the latter cleavage site being the initial and principal one. BACE2 overexpression in cultured cells was found to lower net Aß levels to a greater extent than multiple, well-established AßDPs, including neprilysin (NEP and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE1, while showing comparable effectiveness to IDE. Conclusions This study identifies a new functional role for BACE2 as a potent AßDP. Based on its high catalytic efficiency, its ability to degrade Aß intracellularly, and other characteristics, BACE2 represents a particulary strong therapeutic candidate for the treatment or prevention of AD.

  13. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awilda M Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1–9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68 could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter–driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  14. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Awilda M; Cruz, Pedro E; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Strickland, Michael R; Siemienski, Zoe; Pardo, Meghan; Schob, Keri-Lyn; Li, Andrew; Aslanidi, George V; Srivastava, Arun; Golde, Todd E; Chakrabarty, Paramita

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1-9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68) could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter-driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  15. Intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bond formation is nonessential in adeno-associated viral capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Pulicherla

    Full Text Available The capsid proteins of adeno-associated viruses (AAV have five conserved cysteine residues. Structural analysis of AAV serotype 2 reveals that Cys289 and Cys361 are located adjacent to each other within each monomer, while Cys230 and Cys394 are located on opposite edges of each subunit and juxtaposed at the pentamer interface. The Cys482 residue is located at the base of a surface loop within the trimer region. Although plausible based on molecular dynamics simulations, intra- or inter-subunit disulfides have not been observed in structural studies. In the current study, we generated a panel of Cys-to-Ser mutants to interrogate the potential for disulfide bond formation in AAV capsids. The C289S, C361S and C482S mutants were similar to wild type AAV with regard to titer and transduction efficiency. However, AAV capsid protein subunits with C230S or C394S mutations were prone to proteasomal degradation within the host cells. Proteasomal inhibition partially blocked degradation of mutant capsid proteins, but failed to rescue infectious virions. While these results suggest that the Cys230/394 pair is critical, a C394V mutant was found viable, but not the corresponding C230V mutant. Although the exact nature of the structural contribution(s of Cys230 and Cys394 residues to AAV capsid formation remains to be determined, these results support the notion that disulfide bond formation within the Cys289/361 or Cys230/394 pair appears to be nonessential. These studies represent an important step towards understanding the role of inter-subunit interactions that drive AAV capsid assembly.

  16. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononova, O.; Snijder, S.; Brasch, M.; Cornelissen, J.; Dima, R.I.; Marx, K.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Roos, W.H.; Barsegov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of

  17. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Muszynski, Bartosz; Organtini, Lindsey J.

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) into the capsid proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3 (and 2A). In some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3Cpro can be toxic...

  19. Structural transitions and energy landscape for cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid mechanics from nanoindentation in vitro and in silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononova, O.; Snijder, J.; Brasch, M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Dima, R.I.; Marx, K.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Roos, W.H.; Barsegova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  1. The mechanism of DNA ejection in the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofeng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Walter, Michael H. [Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States); Paredes, Angel [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morais, Marc C., E-mail: mcmorais@utmb.edu [Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Liu, Jun, E-mail: Jun.Liu.1@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The structure of the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a was determined by cryo-electron tomography. The phage capsid forms a T = 16 icosahedron attached to a contractile tail via a head-tail connector protein. The tail consists of a six-start helical sheath surrounding a central tail tube, and a structurally novel baseplate at the distal end of the tail that recognizes and attaches to host cells. The parameters of the icosahedral capsid lattice and the helical tail sheath suggest protein folds for the capsid and tail-sheath proteins, respectively, and indicate evolutionary relationships to other dsDNA viruses. Analysis of 2518 intact phage particles show four distinct conformations that likely correspond to four sequential states of the DNA ejection process during infection. Comparison of the four observed conformations suggests a mechanism for DNA ejection, including the molecular basis underlying coordination of tail sheath contraction and genome release from the capsid.

  2. Biocompatible inorganic nanoparticles for [18F]-fluoride binding with applications in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Williamson, Peter A; Glaria, Arnaud; Sunassee, Kavitha; Charoenphun, Putthiporn; Green, Mark A; Mullen, Gregory E D; Blower, Philip J

    2011-06-21

    A wide selection of insoluble nanoparticulate metal salts was screened for avid binding of [(18)F]-fluoride. Hydroxyapatite and aluminium hydroxide nanoparticles showed particularly avid and stable binding of [(18)F]-fluoride in various biological media. The in vivo behaviour of the [(18)F]-labelled hydroxyapatite and aluminium hydroxide particles was determined by PET-CT imaging in mice. [(18)F]-labelled hydroxyapatite was stable in circulation and when trapped in various tissues (lung embolisation, Subcutaneous and intramuscular), but accumulation in liver via reticuloendothelial clearance was followed by gradual degradation and release of [(18)F]-fluoride (over a period of 4 h) which accumulated in bone. [(18)F]-labelled aluminium hydroxide was also cleared to liver and spleen but degraded slightly even without liver uptake (Subcutaneous and intramuscular). Both materials have properties that are an attractive basis for the design of molecular targeted PET imaging agents labelled with (18)F.

  3. Synergic Investigation Of The Self-Assembly Structure And Mechanism Of Retroviral Capsid Proteins By Solid State NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy And Multiscale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0074 Synergic investigation of the self-assembly structure and mechanism of retroviral capsid proteins by solid state NMR...assembly structure and mechanism of retroviral capsid proteins by solid state NMR, transmission electron microscopy and multiscale simulation 5a.  CONTRACT...capsid protein (CA). In vitro, tubular assembly can be obtained with the CA with similar underlying structural properties as the authentic RSV capsid

  4. Amino acid substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins are selected during mammalian reovirus adaptation to Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabre, Roland; Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Establishment of viral persistence in cell culture has previously led to the selection of mammalian reovirus mutants, although very few of those have been characterized in details. In the present study, reovirus was adapted to Vero cells that, in contrast to classically-used L929 cells, are inefficient in supporting the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are also unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response once infection occurs. The Vero cell-adapted reovirus exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 proteins. This contrasts with uncoating mutants from persistently infected L929 cells, and various other cell types, that generally harbor amino acids substitutions in the σ3 outer capsid protein. The Vero cell-adapted virus remained sensitive to an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases; furthermore, in the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance, the virus has partially lost its ability to resist interferon. The positions of the amino acids substitutions on the known protein structures suggest an effect on binding of the viral σ1 protein to the cell surface and on μ1 disassembly from the outer capsid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The conserved N-terminus of human rhinovirus capsid protein VP4 contains membrane pore-forming activity and is a target for neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Anusha; Asfor, Amin S; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2016-12-01

    Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold and belongs to the non-enveloped picornavirus family. A trigger such as receptor binding or low pH initiates conformational changes in the capsid that allow the virus to attach to membranes and form a pore for the translocation of viral RNA into the cytoplasm. We previously showed that recombinant capsid protein VP4 was able to form membrane pores. In this study, we show the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4 formed pores with properties similar to full-length VP4 and consistent with the size required for transfer of RNA. Sera against the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4 were shown to neutralize virus infectivity. Together, this suggests that the N-terminus of VP4 is responsible for membrane activity. This study contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms for involvement of VP4 in entry and its potential as an antiviral target.

  6. Single Mutations in the VP2 300 Loop Region of the Three-Fold Spike of the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Can Determine Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J.; Zhang, Sheng; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range. IMPORTANCE Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300

  7. Recalibration of the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA to Determine Mean Duration of Recent Infection in Divergent HIV-1 Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Yen T.; Kassanjee, Reshma; Welte, Alex; Morgan, Meade; De, Anindya; Dobbs, Trudy; Rottinghaus, Erin; Nkengasong, John; Curlin, Marcel E.; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Raengsakulrach, Boonyos; Martin, Michael; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Jiang, Yan; Qiu, Maofeng; Yu, Haiying; Hao, Yan; Shah, Neha; Le, Linh-Vi; Kim, Andrea A.; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Ampofo, William; Parekh, Bharat S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and misclassification of long-term HIV-1 infections, as proportion false recent (PFR), are critical parameters for laboratory-based assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence. Recent review of the data by us and others indicated that MDRI of LAg-Avidity EIA estimated previously required recalibration. We present here results of recalibration efforts using >250 seroconversion panels and multiple statistical methods to ensure accuracy and consensus. Methods A total of 2737 longitudinal specimens collected from 259 seroconverting individuals infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes were tested with the LAg-Avidity EIA as previously described. Data were analyzed for determination of MDRI at ODn cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0 using 7 statistical approaches and sub-analyzed by HIV-1 subtypes. In addition, 3740 specimens from individuals with infection >1 year, including 488 from patients with AIDS, were tested for PFR at varying cutoffs. Results Using different statistical methods, MDRI values ranged from 88–94 days at cutoff ODn = 1.0 to 177–183 days at ODn = 2.0. The MDRI values were similar by different methods suggesting coherence of different approaches. Testing for misclassification among long-term infections indicated that overall PFRs were 0.6% to 2.5% at increasing cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Balancing the need for a longer MDRI and smaller PFR (HIV-1 incidence should facilitate application of the LAg-Avidity EIA for worldwide use. PMID:25710171

  8. Radiation Therapy to the Primary and Postinduction Chemotherapy MIBG-Avid Sites in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Louis, Chrystal U.; Nuchtern, Jed; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Heidi; Allen-Rhoades, Wendy; Krance, Robert; Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@mdanderson.org

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were treated at 1 radiation therapy (RT) department after receiving 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and resection. All patients had at least a partial response after induction therapy, based upon international neuroblastoma response criteria. The primary sites were treated with 24 to 30 Gy whereas the MIBG-avid metastatic sites were treated with 24 Gy. RT was followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and 6 months of cis-retinoic acid. Results: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 48% and 59%, respectively. The 5-year locoregional control at the primary site was 84%. There were no differences in locoregional control according to degree of primary surgical resection. The 5-year local control rate for metastatic sites was 74%. The 5-year PFS rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and >3 postinduction MIBG sites were 66%, 57%, 20%, and 0% (P<.0001), respectively, whereas 5-year OS rates were 80%, 57%, 50%, and 0%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: RT to the primary site and postinduction MIBG-positive metastatic sites was associated with 84% and 74% local control, respectively. The number of MIBG-avid sites present after induction chemotherapy and surgery was predictive of progression-free and overall survival.

  9. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity Architect and Vidas assays with the estimated date of infection in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Aurélie; Fauchier, Thomas; Michel, Grégory; Marty, Pierre; Pomares, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    A maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is a risk for congenital infection through maternal-fetal transplacental transmission. Estimation of the date of infection is of the utmost importance for management and treatment recommendations. In this setting, IgG avidity has been shown to be useful as high avidity rules out an infection dating less than 4 months. The estimated date of infection can also be obtained by the ratio of T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Vidas (bioMérieux) assay versus T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Architect (Abbott Laboratories) test, together with T. gondii IgM and IgA antibody responses. In this study, using 117 serum samples from pregnant women, we compared the IgG avidity values obtained by Architect and Vidas with the presumed date of T. gondii infection established by the T. gondii IgG ratio of IgG Vidas and IgG Architect plus the IgM and IgA results. To date, IgG avidity Vidas seems to exhibit better performance than Architect. For both assays, gray zone results were most likely obtained from patients infected more than 4 months before sampling. These data should be taken into account for a possible reconsideration of the interpretation of avidity results in the gray zone. © A. Smets et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  10. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity Architect and Vidas assays with the estimated date of infection in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smets Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is a risk for congenital infection through maternal-fetal transplacental transmission. Estimation of the date of infection is of the utmost importance for management and treatment recommendations. In this setting, IgG avidity has been shown to be useful as high avidity rules out an infection dating less than 4 months. The estimated date of infection can also be obtained by the ratio of T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Vidas (bioMérieux assay versus T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Architect (Abbott Laboratories test, together with T. gondii IgM and IgA antibody responses. In this study, using 117 serum samples from pregnant women, we compared the IgG avidity values obtained by Architect and Vidas with the presumed date of T. gondii infection established by the T. gondii IgG ratio of IgG Vidas and IgG Architect plus the IgM and IgA results. To date, IgG avidity Vidas seems to exhibit better performance than Architect. For both assays, gray zone results were most likely obtained from patients infected more than 4 months before sampling. These data should be taken into account for a possible reconsideration of the interpretation of avidity results in the gray zone.

  11. FDG-avid portal vein tumor thrombosis from hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT, complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT, which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET scan. PET and CT DICOM images of patients were imported into the PET/CT imaging system for the re-analysis of contrast enhancement and FDG uptake in thrombus, the diameter of the involved portal vein, and characteristics of liver tumors and metastasis. Results: Two patients with previously untreated HCC and 7 cases with previously treated HCC had FDG-avid PVTT in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. During the arterial phase of CT scan, portal vein thrombus showed contrast enhancement in 8 out of 9 patients (88.9%. PET scan showed an increased linear FDG uptake along the thrombosed portal vein in all patients. The mean greatest diameter of thrombosed portal veins was 1.8 ± 0.2 cm, which was significantly greater than that observed in normal portal veins (P<0.001. FDG uptake level in portal vein thrombus was significantly higher than that of blood pool in the reference normal portal vein (P=0.001. PVTT was caused by the direct extension of liver tumors. All patients had visible FDG-avid liver tumors in contrast-enhanced images. Five out of 9 patients (55.6% had no extrahepatic metastasis, 3 cases (33.3% had metastasis of regional lymph nodes, and 1 case (11.1% presented with distant metastasis. The median estimated survival time of patients was 5 months. Conclusion: The intraluminal filling defect consistent with thrombous within the portal vein, expansion of the involved portal vein, contrast enhancement, and linear increased FDG uptake of the thrombus extended from liver tumor are

  12. Detection of late intermediates in virus capsid assembly by charge detection mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E; Keifer, David Z; Selzer, Lisa; Lee, Lye Siang; Contino, Nathan C; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-03-05

    The assembly of hundreds of identical proteins into an icosahedral virus capsid is a remarkable feat of molecular engineering. How this occurs is poorly understood. Key intermediates have been anticipated at the end of the assembly reaction, but it has not been possible to detect them. In this work we have used charge detection mass spectrometry to identify trapped intermediates from late in the assembly of the hepatitis B virus T = 4 capsid, a complex of 120 protein dimers. Prominent intermediates are found with 104/105, 110/111, and 117/118 dimers. Cryo-EM observations indicate the intermediates are incomplete capsids and, hence, on the assembly pathway. On the basis of their stability and kinetic accessibility we have proposed plausible structures. The prominent trapped intermediate with 104 dimers is attributed to an icosahedron missing two neighboring facets, the 111-dimer species is assigned to an icosahedron missing a single facet, and the intermediate with 117 dimers is assigned to a capsid missing a ring of three dimers in the center of a facet.

  13. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...

  14. Nanofluidic Devices with Two Pores in Series for Resistive-Pulse Sensing of Single Virus Capsids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Zachary D.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André

    2011-01-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of nanochannel devices with two nanopores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids. The nanochannel and two pores are patterned by electron beam lithography between two microchannels and etched by reactive ion etching...

  15. The Major Capsid Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Affects its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate rose to 85 % compared with virus control. Knocking down VP5 expression abrogated the changes to F-actin that were induced by HSV-1 infection. Conclusion: Interfering with UL19 gene expression inhibits HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. The results indicate that the major capsid protein VP5 encoding gene UL19 ...

  16. Facilitating the use of alternative capsid control methods towards sustainable production of organic cocoa in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayenor, G.K.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Padi, B.; Röling, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, production is constrained by a high incidence of pests and diseases. Based on farmers' needs, this study focused on the control of capsids, mainly Sahlbergella singularis Haglund and Distantiella theobroma

  17. Effects of salts on internal DNA pressure and mechanical properties of phage capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evilevitch, Alex; Roos, Wouter H.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Jönsson, Bengt; Wuite, Gijs J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements of phage λ, we previously proposed a minimal model describing the effect of water hydrating DNA that strengthens viral capsids against external deformation at wild-type DNA packing density. Here, we report proof of this model by testing

  18. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  19. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  20. Novel inhibitors targeting Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein identified using In Silico Structure-Based-Drug-Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Sharon; Thomas, David R; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Lin, Shih-Chao; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Debono, Aaron; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Jans, David A

    2017-12-18

    Therapeutics are currently unavailable for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which elicits flu-like symptoms and encephalitis in humans, with an estimated 14% of cases resulting in neurological disease. Here we identify anti-VEEV agents using in silico structure-based-drug-design (SBDD) for the first time, characterising inhibitors that block recognition of VEEV capsid protein (C) by the host importin (IMP) α/β1 nuclear transport proteins. From an initial screen of 1.5 million compounds, followed by in silico refinement and screening for biological activity in vitro, we identified 21 hit compounds which inhibited IMPα/β1:C binding with IC50s as low as 5 µM. Four compounds were found to inhibit nuclear import of C in transfected cells, with one able to reduce VEEV replication at µM concentration, concomitant with reduced C nuclear accumulation in infected cells. Further, this compound was inactive against a mutant VEEV that lacks high affinity IMPα/β1:C interaction, supporting the mode of its antiviral action to be through inhibiting C nuclear localization. This successful application of SBDD paves the way for lead optimization for VEEV antivirals, and is an exciting prospect to identify inhibitors for the many other viral pathogens of significance that require IMPα/β1 in their infectious cycle.

  1. The porcine circovirus type 1 capsid gene promoter improves antigen expression and immunogenicity in a HIV-1 plasmid vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Marieta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the promising avenues for development of vaccines against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other human pathogens is the use of plasmid-based DNA vaccines. However, relatively large doses of plasmid must be injected for a relatively weak response. We investigated whether genome elements from Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1, an apathogenic small ssDNA-containing virus, had useful expression-enhancing properties that could allow dose-sparing in a plasmid vaccine. Results The linearised PCV-1 genome inserted 5' of the CMV promoter in the well-characterised HIV-1 plasmid vaccine pTHgrttnC increased expression of the polyantigen up to 2-fold, and elicited 3-fold higher CTL responses in mice at 10-fold lower doses than unmodified pTHgrttnC. The PCV-1 capsid gene promoter (Pcap alone was equally effective. Enhancing activity was traced to a putative composite host transcription factor binding site and a "Conserved Late Element" transcription-enhancing sequence previously unidentified in circoviruses. Conclusions We identified a novel PCV-1 genome-derived enhancer sequence that significantly increased antigen expression from plasmids in in vitro assays, and improved immunogenicity in mice of the HIV-1 subtype C vaccine plasmid, pTHgrttnC. This should allow significant dose sparing of, or increased responses to, this and other plasmid-based vaccines. We also report investigations of the potential of other circovirus-derived sequences to be similarly used.

  2. Diversity of environmental single-stranded DNA phages revealed by PCR amplification of the partial major capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Max; Kailasan, Shweta; Cohen, Allison; Roux, Simon; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Shevenell, Amelia; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Breitbart, Mya

    2014-10-01

    The small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bacteriophages of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were traditionally perceived as narrowly targeted, niche-specific viruses infecting obligate parasitic bacteria, such as Chlamydia. The advent of metagenomics revealed gokushoviruses to be widespread in global environmental samples. This study expands knowledge of gokushovirus diversity in the environment by developing a degenerate PCR assay to amplify a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of gokushoviruses. Over 500 amplicons were sequenced from 10 environmental samples (sediments, sewage, seawater and freshwater), revealing the ubiquity and high diversity of this understudied phage group. Residue-level conservation data generated from multiple alignments was combined with a predicted 3D structure, revealing a tendency for structurally internal residues to be more highly conserved than surface-presenting protein-protein or viral-host interaction domains. Aggregating this data set into a phylogenetic framework, many gokushovirus MCP clades contained samples from multiple environments, although distinct clades dominated the different samples. Antarctic sediment samples contained the most diverse gokushovirus communities, whereas freshwater springs from Florida were the least diverse. Whether the observed diversity is being driven by environmental factors or host-binding interactions remains an open question. The high environmental diversity of this previously overlooked ssDNA viral group necessitates further research elucidating their natural hosts and exploring their ecological roles.

  3. Short Communication: False Recent Ratio of the Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay and Viral Load Testing Algorithm Among Cameroonians with Long-Term HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Briana A; Patel, Eshan U; Courtney, Colleen R; Nanfack, Aubin J; Bimela, Jude; Wang, Xiaohong; Eid, Issa; Quinn, Thomas C; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Nyambi, Phillipe N; Duerr, Ralf; Redd, Andrew D

    2017-11-01

    Current serological assays that are used for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation have been shown to misclassify individuals with chronic infection. Limited information exists on the performance of cross-sectional incidence assays in Central Africa. HIV-positive individuals from Cameroon who were infected for at least 1 or 2 years were evaluated to determine the false recent ratio (FRR) of a two-assay algorithm, which includes the Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay (normalized optical density units, ODn HIV viral load (>1000 copies/ml). The subject-level FRR was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-10.5) for individuals infected for ≥1 year and 3.9% (95% CI, 0.8-11.0) for individuals infected for ≥2 years. These data suggest that the LAg-Avidity plus viral load incidence algorithm may overestimate HIV incidence rates in Central Africa.

  4. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fan Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV, we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1-147 containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1-147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex.

  5. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Lin; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Shu; Shih, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV), we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1–147) containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD) failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1–147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex. PMID

  6. Structural organization of pregenomic RNA and the carboxy-terminal domain of the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C-Y Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV double-stranded DNA genome is reverse transcribed from its RNA pregenome (pgRNA within the virus core (or capsid. Phosphorylation of the arginine-rich carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of the HBV capsid protein (Cp183 is essential for pgRNA encapsidation and reverse transcription. However, the structure of the CTD remains poorly defined. Here we report sub-nanometer resolution cryo-EM structures of in vitro assembled empty and pgRNA-filled Cp183 capsids in unphosphorylated and phosphorylation-mimic states. In empty capsids, we found unexpected evidence of surface accessible CTD density partially occluding pores in the capsid surface. We also observed that CTD organization changed substantively as a function of phosphorylation. In RNA-filled capsids, unphosphorylated CTDs favored thick ropes of RNA, while the phosphorylation-mimic favored a mesh of thin, high-density strands suggestive of single stranded RNA. These results demonstrate that the CTD can regulate nucleic acid structure, supporting the hypothesis that the HBV capsid has a functional role as a nucleic acid chaperone.

  7. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vitorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU and its fractional excretion (FENa. This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being only transitorily mitigated by diuretic use. In the present case, we report a situation of two consecutive shocks: the first shock is hemorrhagic in origin and then the second shock is a septic one in the same patient. The SIRS and AKI triggered by the first shock were not completely solved when the second shock occurred. This could be viewed as a persistent avid sodium-retaining state, which may be appreciated even during renal replacement therapy (in the absence of complete anuria and that usually solves only after complete AKI and SIRS resolution. We suggest that decreases in NaU and FENa are major characteristics of SIRS-induced AKI, irrespective of the primary cause, and may serve as additional monitoring tools in its development and resolution.

  8. First preclinical evaluation of mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin as a necrosis-avid tracer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng; Marchal, Guy [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Huyghe, Dieter; Verbeke, Kristin; Verbruggen, Alfons M.; Bormans, Guy M. [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Witte, Peter A. de [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-05-15

    We have labelled hypericin, a polyphenolic polycyclic quinone found in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), with{sup 123}I and evaluated mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin (MIH) as a potential necrosis-avid diagnostic tracer agent. MIH was prepared by an electrophilic radioiodination method. The new tracer agent was evaluated in animal models of liver infarction in the rat and heart infarction in the rabbit using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, serial sectional autoradiography and microscopy, and radioactivity counting techniques. Using in vivo SPECT imaging, hepatic and cardiac infarctions were persistently visualised as well-defined hot spots over 48 h. Preferential uptake of the tracer agent in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from post-mortem TTC staining, autoradiography (ARX) and histology. Radioactivity concentration in infarcted tissues was over 10 times (liver; 3.51% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.38% ID/g in normal tissue at 60 h p.i.) and over 6 times (myocardium; 0.36% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.054% ID/g in normal tissue; ratios up to 18 for selected parts on ARX images) higher than in normal tissues. The results suggest that hypericin derivatives may serve as powerful necrosis-avid diagnostic agents for assessment of tissue viability. (orig.)

  9. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (IgG assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune. The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93 compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1 in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI < 0.3 and a strong avidity as an AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects.

  10. A hydrophobic domain within the small capsid protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is required for assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Christopher M; Grzesik, Peter; Kreitler, Dale; Pryce, Erin N; Desai, Keshal V; Coombs, Gavin; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant J

    2014-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids can be produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses for protein expression. All six capsid proteins are required for this process to occur and, unlike for alphaherpesviruses, the small capsid protein (SCP) ORF65 is essential for this process. This protein decorates the capsid shell by virtue of its interaction with the capsomeres. In this study, we have explored the SCP interaction with the major capsid protein (MCP) using GFP fusions. The assembly site within the nucleus of infected cells was visualized by light microscopy using fluorescence produced by the SCP-GFP polypeptide, and the relocalization of the SCP to these sites was evident only when the MCP and the scaffold protein were also present - indicative of an interaction between these proteins that ensures delivery of the SCP to assembly sites. Biochemical assays demonstrated a physical interaction between the SCP and MCP, and also between this complex and the scaffold protein. Self-assembly of capsids with the SCP-GFP polypeptide was evident. Potentially, this result can be used to engineer fluorescent KSHV particles. A similar SCP-His6 polypeptide was used to purify capsids from infected cell lysates using immobilized affinity chromatography and to directly label this protein in capsids using chemically derivatized gold particles. Additional studies with SCP-GFP polypeptide truncation mutants identified a domain residing between aa 50 and 60 of ORF65 that was required for the relocalization of SCP-GFP to nuclear assembly sites. Substitution of residues in this region and specifically at residue 54 with a polar amino acid (lysine) disrupted or abolished this localization as well as capsid assembly, whereas substitution with non-polar residues did not affect the interaction. Thus, this study identified a small conserved hydrophobic domain that is important for the SCP-MCP interaction. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. A hydrophobic domain within the small capsid protein of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is required for assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Christopher M.; Grzesik, Peter; Kreitler, Dale; Pryce, Erin N.; Desai, Keshal V.; Coombs, Gavin; McCaffery, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids can be produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses for protein expression. All six capsid proteins are required for this process to occur and, unlike for alphaherpesviruses, the small capsid protein (SCP) ORF65 is essential for this process. This protein decorates the capsid shell by virtue of its interaction with the capsomeres. In this study, we have explored the SCP interaction with the major capsid protein (MCP) using GFP fusions. The assembly site within the nucleus of infected cells was visualized by light microscopy using fluorescence produced by the SCP–GFP polypeptide, and the relocalization of the SCP to these sites was evident only when the MCP and the scaffold protein were also present – indicative of an interaction between these proteins that ensures delivery of the SCP to assembly sites. Biochemical assays demonstrated a physical interaction between the SCP and MCP, and also between this complex and the scaffold protein. Self-assembly of capsids with the SCP–GFP polypeptide was evident. Potentially, this result can be used to engineer fluorescent KSHV particles. A similar SCP–His6 polypeptide was used to purify capsids from infected cell lysates using immobilized affinity chromatography and to directly label this protein in capsids using chemically derivatized gold particles. Additional studies with SCP–GFP polypeptide truncation mutants identified a domain residing between aa 50 and 60 of ORF65 that was required for the relocalization of SCP–GFP to nuclear assembly sites. Substitution of residues in this region and specifically at residue 54 with a polar amino acid (lysine) disrupted or abolished this localization as well as capsid assembly, whereas substitution with non-polar residues did not affect the interaction. Thus, this study identified a small conserved hydrophobic domain that is important for the SCP–MCP interaction. PMID:24824860

  12. A Bacterial Surface Display System Expressing Cleavable Capsid Proteins of Human Norovirus: A Novel System to Discover Candidate Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the dominant cause of food-borne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. However, fundamental researches on HuNoVs, such as identification of viral receptors have been limited by the currently immature system to culture HuNoVs and the lack of efficient small animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that the recombinant protruding domain (P domain of HuNoVs capsid proteins were successfully anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with a plasmid expressing HuNoVs P protein fused with bacterial transmembrane anchor protein. The cell-surface-displayed P proteins could specifically recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, receptors of HuNoVs. In this study, an upgraded bacterial surface displayed system was developed as a new platform to discover candidate receptors of HuNoVs. A thrombin-susceptible “linker” sequence was added between the sequences of bacterial transmembrane anchor protein and P domain of HuNoV (GII.4 capsid protein in a plasmid that displays the functional P proteins on the surface of bacteria. In this new system, the surface-displayed HuNoV P proteins could be released by thrombin treatment. The released P proteins self-assembled into small particles, which were visualized by electron microscopy. The bacteria with the surface-displayed P proteins were incubated with pig stomach mucin which contained HBGAs. The bacteria-HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex could be collected by low speed centrifugation. The HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex was then separated from the recombinant bacterial surface by thrombin treatment. The released viral receptor was confirmed by using the monoclonal antibody against type A HBGA. It demonstrated that the new system was able to capture and easily isolate receptors of HuNoVs. This new strategy provides an alternative, easier approach for isolating unknown receptors/ligands of HuNoVs from different samples

  13. Characterization of the Adeno-Associated Virus 1 and 6 Sialic Acid Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin-Ya; Patel, Ami; Ng, Robert; Miller, Edward Blake; Halder, Sujata; McKenna, Robert; Asokan, Aravind; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-06-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), which are being developed as gene delivery vectors, display differential cell surface glycan binding and subsequent tissue tropisms. For AAV serotype 1 (AAV1), the first viral vector approved as a gene therapy treatment, and its closely related AAV6, sialic acid (SIA) serves as their primary cellular surface receptor. Toward characterizing the SIA binding site(s), the structure of the AAV1-SIA complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 3.0 Å. Density consistent with SIA was observed in a pocket located at the base of capsid protrusions surrounding icosahedral 3-fold axes. Site-directed mutagenesis substitution of the amino acids forming this pocket with structurally equivalent residues from AAV2, a heparan sulfate binding serotype, followed by cell binding and transduction assays, further mapped the critical residues conferring SIA binding to AAV1 and AAV6. For both viruses five of the six binding pocket residues mutated (N447S, V473D, N500E, T502S, and W503A) abolished SIA binding, whereas S472R increased binding. All six mutations abolished or decreased transduction by at least 50% in AAV1. Surprisingly, the T502S substitution did not affect transduction efficiency of wild-type AAV6. Furthermore, three of the AAV1 SIA binding site mutants-S472R, V473D, and N500E-escaped recognition by the anti-AAV1 capsid antibody ADK1a. These observations demonstrate that common key capsid surface residues dictate both virus binding and entry processes, as well as antigenic reactivity. This study identifies an important functional capsid surface "hot spot" dictating receptor attachment, transduction efficiency, and antigenicity which could prove useful for vector engineering. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery system has shown promise in several clinical trials and an AAV1-based vector has been approved as the first gene therapy treatment. However, limitations still exist with respect to transduction efficiency and

  14. Baculovirus expression of erythrovirus V9 capsids and screening by ELISA: serologic cross-reactivity with erythrovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Erik D; Qvortrup, Klaus; Christensen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    to categorize V9 as an acute B19-like infection. Sequencing, combined with PCR studies, have since demonstrated the need for specific and differentiated techniques when examining samples for possible B19 or V9 viremia. The antigenic properties of the V9 capsid proteins have not been characterized previously....... To address this question, V9 VP1 and VP2 open reading frames were cloned and expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. Large quantities of purified recombinant V9 capsid protein were produced and electron micrographs revealed self-assembly of V9 VP1/VP2 and VP2 capsids into empty icosahedral...

  15. High-Resolution X-Ray Structure and Functional Analysis of the Murine Norovirus 1 Capsid Protein Protruding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube, Stefan; Rubin, John R.; Katpally, Umesh; Smith, Thomas J.; Kendall, Ann; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wobus, Christiane E. (Michigan); (Danforth)

    2010-07-23

    Murine noroviruses (MNV) are closely related to the human noroviruses (HuNoV), which cause the majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Unlike HuNoV, MNV grow in culture and in a small-animal model that represents a tractable model to study norovirus biology. To begin a detailed investigation of molecular events that occur during norovirus binding to cells, the crystallographic structure of the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) capsid protein protruding (P) domain has been determined. Crystallization of the bacterially expressed protein yielded two different crystal forms (Protein Data Bank identifiers [PDB ID], 3LQ6 and 3LQE). Comparison of the structures indicated a large degree of structural mobility in loops on the surface of the P2 subdomain. Specifically, the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops were found in open and closed conformations. These regions of high mobility include the known escape mutation site for the neutralizing antibody A6.2 and an attenuation mutation site, which arose after serial passaging in culture and led to a loss in lethality in STAT1{sup -/-} mice, respectively. Modeling of a Fab fragment and crystal structures of the P dimer into the cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction of the A6.2/MNV-1 complex indicated that the closed conformation is most likely bound to the Fab fragment and that the antibody contact is localized to the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops. Therefore, we hypothesize that these loop regions and the flexibility of the P domains play important roles during MNV-1 binding to the cell surface.

  16. IgG recognizing 21-24 kDa and 30-33 kDa tachyzoite antigens show maximum avidity maturation during natural and accidental human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILLAVEDRA Margarita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the avidity maturation of IgGs in human toxoplasmosis using sequential serum samples from accidental and natural infections. In accidental cases, avidity increased continuously throughout infection while naturally infected patients showed a different profile. Twenty-five percent of sera from chronic patients having specific IgM positive results could be appropriately classified using exclusively the avidity test data. To take advantage of the potentiality of this technique, antigens recognized by IgG showing steeper avidity maturation were identified using immunoblot with KSCN elution. Two clusters of antigens, in the ranges of 21-24 kDa and 30-33 kDa, were identified as the ones that fulfill the aforementioned avidity characteristics.

  17. Two novel adeno-associated viruses from cynomolgus monkey: pseudotyping characterization of capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Seiichiro; Wang, Lina; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Kanda, Tadahito

    2004-12-20

    We demonstrated the presence of two adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), designated AAV10 and AAV11, in cynomolgus monkeys by isolating and sequencing the entire viral coding regions from the monkey DNA. AAV10 and AAV11 capsid proteins shared 84% and 65%, respectively, of amino acids with AAV2. A phylogenetic analysis of AAV capsid proteins showed that AAV10 and AAV11 resembled most AAV8 and AAV4, respectively. To characterize the capsid protein, we pseudotyped an AAV2 vector with the monkey AAV capsid proteins and examined the resulting pseudotypes AAV2/10 and AAV2/11, in comparison with the AAV2 vector, for their host ranges in cell lines and tissue tropism in mice. AAV2/10 and AAV2/11 transduced primate cells less efficiently than AAV2. Whereas AAV2 transduced undifferentiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts more efficiently than differentiated ones, AAV2/10 and AAV2/11 transduced the undifferentiated myoblasts less efficiently than differentiated ones. Three weeks after injection to the muscle of the hind legs, AAV2/10 and AAV2 induced transgene expression similarly, but AAV2/11 did not transduce the skeletal muscle. Six weeks after systemic administration, transduced vector DNA was detected by PCR in the liver and spleen of mice inoculated with AAV2, in the liver, heart, muscle, lung, kidney, and uterus of mice with AAV2/10, and the muscle, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and stomach of mice with AAV2/11. Mouse antisera against capsid protein VP2 of the three AAVs neutralized the respective vector particles in a type-specific manner. The results indicate that AAV10 and AAV11 capsid proteins, which are antigenically distinct from each other and AAV2, are likely to determine their host ranges and tissue tropism that are different from AAV2s, suggesting that cynomolgus AAVs could provide a broader choice of pseudotype AAV vectors for gene therapy.

  18. DNA-modified artificial viral capsids self-assembled from DNA-conjugated β-annulus peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Yamada, Saki; Nishikawa, Shoko; Matsuura, Kazunori

    2017-07-01

    β-Annulus peptides from tomato bushy stunt virus conjugated with DNAs (dA20 and dT20 ) at the C-terminal were synthesized. The DNA-modified β-annulus peptides self-assembled into artificial viral capsids with sizes of 45-160 nm. ζ-Potential measurements revealed that the DNAs were coated on the surface of artificial viral capsids. Fluorescence assays indicated that the DNAs on the artificial viral capsids were partially hybridized with the complementary DNAs. Moreover, the DNA-modified artificial viral capsids formed aggregates by adding complementary polynucleotides. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In vivo functions of CPSF6 for HIV-1 as revealed by HIV-1 capsid evolution in HLA-B27-positive subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Henning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The host protein CPSF6 possesses a domain that can interact with the HIV-1 capsid (CA protein. CPSF6 has been implicated in regulating HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, its functional significance for HIV-1 replication has yet to be firmly established. Here we provide evidence for two divergent functions of CPSF6 for HIV-1 replication in vivo. We demonstrate that endogenous CPSF6 exerts an inhibitory effect on naturally occurring HIV-1 variants in individuals carrying the HLA-B27 allele. Conversely, we find a strong selective pressure in these individuals to preserve CPSF6 binding, while escaping from the restrictive activity by CPSF6. This active maintenance of CPSF6 binding during HIV-1 CA evolution in vivo contrasts with the in vitro viral evolution, which can reduce CPSF6 binding to evade from CPSF6-mediated restriction. Thus, these observations argue for a beneficial role of CPSF6 for HIV-1 in vivo. CPSF6-mediated restriction renders HIV-1 less dependent or independent from TNPO3, RanBP2 and Nup153, host factors implicated in HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, viral evolution that maintains CPSF6 binding in HLA-B27+ subjects invariably restores the ability to utilize these host factors, which may be the major selective pressure for CPSF6 binding in vivo. Our study uncovers two opposing CA-dependent functions of CPSF6 in HIV-1 replication in vivo; however, the benefit for binding CPSF6 appears to outweigh the cost, providing support for a vital function of CPSF6 during HIV-1 replication in vivo.

  20. Mechanisms regulating expression of the HPV 31 L1 and L2 capsid proteins and pseudovirion entry

    OpenAIRE

    Hindmarsh, Patrick L; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect stratified epithelia and restrict expression of late capsid genes to highly differentiated cells. In order to begin to understand the processes regulating HPV 31 infection we examined the synthesis of the HPV 31 capsid proteins, L1 and L2, using heterologous expression systems. Similar to studies in HPV 16, expression of wild type HPV 31 L1 and L2 from heterologous promoters resulted in very low levels of synthesis. In contrast, modification of the...

  1. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  2. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test...

  3. Dual Testing Algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index Assays Performs Best in Identifying Recent HIV Infection in a Sample of Rwandan Sex Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Nash, D.; Kim, A.A.; Ford, K.; Mwambarangwe, L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED) and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI) assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda. Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to

  4. The necrosis-avid small molecule HQ4-DTPA as a multimodal imaging agent for monitoring radiation therapy-induced tumor cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Stammes (Marieke A.); Maeda, A. (Azusa); Bu, J. (Jiachuan); Scolard, D.A. (Deborah A.); Kulbatski, I. (Iris); Medeiros, P.J. (Philip J.); Sinisi, R. (Riccardo); Dubikovskaya, E.A. (Elena A.); T.J.A. Snoeks (thomas); E.R. van Beek (Ermond); A. Chan (Albert); C.W.G.M. Löwik (Clemens); DaCosta, R.S. (Ralph S.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Most effective antitumor therapies induce tumor cell death. Non-invasive, rapid and accurate quantitative imaging of cell death is essential for monitoring early response to antitumor therapies. To facilitate this, we previously developed a biocompatible necrosis-avid

  5. Computational design of trimeric influenza-neutralizing proteins targeting the hemagglutinin receptor binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bernard, Steffen M.; La, David; Bohn, Alan J.; Lee, Peter S.; Anderson, Caitlin E.; Nieusma, Travis; Holstein, Carly A.; Garcia, Natalie K.; Hooper, Kathryn A.; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Nelson, Jorgen W.; Sheffler, William; Bloom, Jesse D.; Lee, Kelly K.; Ward, Andrew B.; Yager, Paul; Fuller, Deborah H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker , David (UWASH); (Scripps); (FHCRC)

    2017-06-12

    Many viral surface glycoproteins and cell surface receptors are homo-oligomers1, 2, 3, 4, and thus can potentially be targeted by geometrically matched homo-oligomers that engage all subunits simultaneously to attain high avidity and/or lock subunits together. The adaptive immune system cannot generally employ this strategy since the individual antibody binding sites are not arranged with appropriate geometry to simultaneously engage multiple sites in a single target homo-oligomer. We describe a general strategy for the computational design of homo-oligomeric protein assemblies with binding functionality precisely matched to homo-oligomeric target sites5, 6, 7, 8. In the first step, a small protein is designed that binds a single site on the target. In the second step, the designed protein is assembled into a homo-oligomer such that the designed binding sites are aligned with the target sites. We use this approach to design high-avidity trimeric proteins that bind influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) at its conserved receptor binding site. The designed trimers can both capture and detect HA in a paper-based diagnostic format, neutralizes influenza in cell culture, and completely protects mice when given as a single dose 24 h before or after challenge with influenza.

  6. Chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV DNA-containing capsids: Modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kalyan; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of chronic HBV infection taking into account both uninfected and infected hepatocytes along with the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids and the virions. While previous HBV models have included either the uninfected hepatocytes or the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids, our model accounts for both these two populations. We prove the conditions for local and global stability of both the uninfected and infected steady states in terms of the basic reproduction number. Further, we incorporate a time lag in the model to encompass the intracellular delay in the production of the infected hepatocytes and find that this delay does not affect the overall dynamics of the system. The results for the model and the delay model are finally numerically illustrated.

  7. Identification of a Broadly Cross-Reactive Epitope in the Inner Shell of the Norovirus Capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Parra

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. They are diverse viruses, with at least six genogroups (GI-GVI and multiple genotypes defined by differences in the major capsid protein, VP1. This diversity has challenged the development of broadly cross-reactive vaccines as well as efficient detection methods. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb raised against the capsid protein of a GII.3 norovirus strain. The MAb reacted with VLPs and denatured VP1 protein from GI, GII, GIV and GV noroviruses, and mapped to a linear epitope located in the inner shell domain. An alignment of all available VP1 sequences showed that the putative epitope (residues 52-56 is highly conserved across the genus Norovirus. This broadly cross-reactive MAb thus constitutes a valuable reagent for the diagnosis and study of these diverse viruses.

  8. Examining Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Minor Capsid Proteins | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a recently discovered member of the viral family Polyomaviridae. It is a skin-dwelling polyomavirus species that appears to cause a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Despite MCC being uncommon, chronic MCV infection of human skin is widespread, and most infected people have no known symptoms. The surface of polyomavirus virions is made up of pentameric knobs of the major capsid protein VP1. VP1 enables attachment of the virus to the cell surface, permitting infectious entry and delivery of the viral genome to host cells. The VP1 protein of previously studied polyomaviruses, such as simian virus 40 and murine polyomavirus, associates with two minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, which are considered to play important roles during the infectious entry process.

  9. [The end of food: dietary supplementation and diet among avid members of workout and fitness centers in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, César; Luz, Madel T; Carvalho, Maria Cláudia

    2010-06-01

    The article addresses the particular diet of a group of avid members of workout and fitness centers in Rio de Janeiro. It shows how diet is related to keeping in shape and to the prevailing type of sociability. Using direct and participatory ethnographic observation and open interviews, research was conducted at 12 fitness clubs on the North and South sides of Rio for three years. For the group under study, eating is about relying on a system of knowledge related to the science of nutrition for the benefit of managing one's physical shape and athletic performance. This movement produces the notion of food as a powerful chemical artifice that enhances the aesthetics of the body.

  10. Engineered AAV vector minimizes in vivo targeting of transduced hepatocytes by capsid-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Ashley T; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Markusic, David M; Finn, Jonathan D; Hinderer, Christian; Zhou, Shangzhen; Ostrov, David A; Srivastava, Arun; Ertl, Hildegund C J; Terhorst, Cox; High, Katherine A; Mingozzi, Federico; Herzog, Roland W

    2013-03-21

    Recent clinical trials have shown that evasion of CD8(+) T-cell responses against viral capsid is critical for successful liver-directed gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for hemophilia. Preclinical models to test whether use of alternate serotypes or capsid variants could avoid this deleterious response have been lacking. Here, the ability of CD8(+) T cells ("cap-CD8," specific for a capsid epitope presented by human B*0702 or murine H2-L(d) molecules) to target AAV-infected hepatocytes was investigated. In a murine model based on adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded cap-CD8, AAV2-transduced livers showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, transaminitis, significant reduction in factor IX transgene expression, and loss of transduced hepatocytes. AAV8 gene transfer resulted in prolonged susceptibility to cap-CD8, consistent with recent clinical findings. In contrast, using an AAV2(Y-F) mutant capsid, which is known to be less degraded by proteasomes, preserved transgene expression and largely avoided hepatotoxicity. In vitro assays confirmed reduced major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of this capsid and killing of human or murine hepatocytes compared with AAV2. In conclusion, AAV capsids can be engineered to substantially reduce the risk of destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas use of alternative serotypes per se does not circumvent this obstacle.

  11. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  12. Simultaneous Visualization of Parental and Progeny Viruses by a Capsid-Specific HaloTag Labeling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-An; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Sun, En-Ze; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-01-26

    Real-time, long-term, single-particle tracking (SPT) provides us an opportunity to explore the fate of individual viruses toward understanding the mechanisms underlying virus infection, which in turn could lead to the development of therapeutics against viral diseases. However, the research focusing on the virus assembly and egress by SPT remains a challenge because established labeling strategies could neither specifically label progeny viruses nor make them distinguishable from the parental viruses. Herein, we have established a temporally controllable capsid-specific HaloTag labeling strategy based on reverse genetic technology. VP26, the smallest pseudorabies virus (PrV) capsid protein, was fused with HaloTag protein and labeled with the HaloTag ligand during virus replication. The labeled replication-competent recombinant PrV harvested from medium can be applied directly in SPT experiments without further modification. Thus, virus infectivity, which is critical for the visualization and analysis of viral motion, is retained to the largest extent. Moreover, progeny viruses can be distinguished from parental viruses using diverse HaloTag ligands. Consequently, the entire course of virus infection and replication can be visualized continuously, including virus attachment and capsid entry, transportation of capsids to the nucleus along microtubules, docking of capsids on the nucleus, endonuclear assembly of progeny capsids, and the egress of progeny viruses. In combination with SPT, the established strategy represents a versatile means to reveal the mechanisms and dynamic global picture of the life cycle of a virus.

  13. Protease cleavage leads to formation of mature trimer interface in HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Meng

    Full Text Available During retrovirus particle maturation, the assembled Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the viral protease into matrix (MA, capsid (CA, and nucleocapsid (NC proteins. To form the mature viral capsid, CA rearranges, resulting in a lattice composed of hexameric and pentameric CA units. Recent structural studies of assembled HIV-1 CA revealed several inter-subunit interfaces in the capsid lattice, including a three-fold interhexamer interface that is critical for proper capsid stability. Although a general architecture of immature particles has been provided by cryo-electron tomographic studies, the structural details of the immature particle and the maturation pathway remain unknown. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM to determine the structure of tubular assemblies of the HIV-1 CA-SP1-NC protein. Relative to the mature assembled CA structure, we observed a marked conformational difference in the position of the CA-CTD relative to the NTD in the CA-SP1-NC assembly, involving the flexible hinge connecting the two domains. This difference was verified via engineered disulfide crosslinking, revealing that inter-hexamer contacts, in particular those at the pseudo three-fold axis, are altered in the CA-SP1-NC assemblies compared to the CA assemblies. Results from crosslinking analyses of mature and immature HIV-1 particles containing the same Cys substitutions in the Gag protein are consistent with these findings. We further show that cleavage of preassembled CA-SP1-NC by HIV-1 protease in vitro leads to release of SP1 and NC without disassembly of the lattice. Collectively, our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of Gag leads to a structural reorganization of the polypeptide and creates the three-fold interhexamer interface, important for the formation of infectious HIV-1 particles.

  14. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

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    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  15. Anti-HERV-K (HML-2) capsid antibody responses in HIV elite controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, Miguel; SenGupta, Devi; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N; Pilcher, Christopher D; Hecht, Frederick M; Sacha, Jonah B; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre

    2017-08-22

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection. We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant "15mer" HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on the matrix (peptides 16 and 31), one on p15 (peptide 85), three on the capsid (peptides 81, 97 and 117), one on the nucleocapsid (peptide 137) and one on the QP1 protein (peptide 157). Four epitopes (peptides 16, 31, 85 and 137) were highly immunogenic. No significant differences in antibody responses were found between HIV infected participants (n = 40) and uninfected donors (n = 40) for 6 out of the 8 epitopes tested. The antibody response against nucleocapsid (peptide 137) was significantly lower (p K (HML-2) capsid recombinant peptide in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme immunospot (Elispot) assays. We found that the HERV-K (HML-2) Gag antibody and T cell response by Elispot were significantly correlated. HIV elite controllers had a strong cellular and antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag directed mainly against the Capsid region. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies targeting capsid could have an immunoprotective effect in HIV infection.

  16. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Karnets, Iryna; Murphy, Gary; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  17. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Simmons

    Full Text Available To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev.Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators.During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7% were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5% recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID.A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy of virus capsids uncover the interplay between mechanics, structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Pedro J.

    The basic architecture of a virus consists of the capsid, a shell made up of repeating protein subunits, which packs, shuttles and delivers their genome at the right place and moment. Viral particles are endorsed with specific physicochemical properties which confer to their structures certain meta-stability whose modulation permits fulfilling each task of the viral cycle. These natural designed capabilities have impelled using viral capsids as protein containers of artificial cargoes (drugs, polymers, enzymes, minerals) with applications in biomedical and materials sciences. Both natural and artificial protein cages have to protect their cargo against a variety of physicochemical aggressive environments, including molecular impacts of highly crowded media, thermal and chemical stresses, and osmotic shocks. Viral cages stability under these ambiences depend not only on the ultimate structure of the external capsid, which rely on the interactions between protein subunits, but also on the nature of the cargo. During the last decade our lab has focused on the study of protein cages with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) (figure 1). We are interested in stablishing links of their mechanical properties with their structure and function. In particular, mechanics provide information about the cargo storage strategies of both natural and virus-derived protein cages. Mechanical fatigue has revealed as a nanosurgery tool to unveil the strength of the capisd subunit bonds. We also interrogated the electrostatics of individual protein shells. Our AFM-fluorescence combination provided information about DNA diffusing out cracked-open protein cages in real time.

  19. Enhancing the clinical potential of AAV vectors by capsid engineering to evade pre-existing immunity

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    Melissa eBartel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors based on adeno-associated viruses have shown considerable promise in both preclinical models and increasingly in clinical trials. However, one formidable challenge is pre-existing immunity due to widespread exposure to numerous AAV variants and serotypes within the human population, which affect efficacy of clinical trials due to the accompanying high levels of anti-capsid neutralizing antibodies. Transient immunosuppression has promise in mitigating cellular and humoral responses induced by vector application in naïve hosts, but cannot overcome the problem that pre-existing neutralizing antibodies pose towards the goal of safe and efficient gene delivery. Shielding of AAV from antibodies, however, may be possible by covalent attachment of polymers to the viral capsid or by encapsulation of vectors inside biomaterials. In addition, there has been considerable progress in using rational mutagenesis, combinatorial libraries, and directed evolution approaches to engineer capsid variants that are not recognized by anti-AAV antibodies generally present in the human population. While additional progress must be made, such strategies, alone or in combination with immunosuppression to avoid de novo induction of antibodies, have strong potential to significantly enhance the clinical efficacy of AAV vectors.

  20. Mapping the AAV capsid host antibody response towards the development of second generation gene delivery vectors

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    Yu-Shan eTseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2. Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from monoclonal antibodies, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  1. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  2. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings. PMID:26445723

  3. Comparative Study of Liver Gene Transfer With AAV Vectors Based on Natural and Engineered AAV Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Bell, Peter; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Wang, Qiang; He, Zhenning; Yu, Hongwei; McMenamin, Deirdre; Goode, Tamara; Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2015-12-01

    Vectors based on the clade E family member adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 have shown promise in patients with hemophilia B and have emerged as best in class for human liver gene therapies. We conducted a thorough evaluation of liver-directed gene therapy using vectors based on several natural and engineered capsids including the clade E AAVrh10 and the largely uncharacterized and phylogenically distinct AAV3B. Included in this study was a putatively superior hepatotropic capsid, AAVLK03, which is very similar to AAV3B. Vectors based on these capsids were benchmarked against AAV8 and AAV2 in a number of in vitro and in vivo model systems including C57BL/6 mice, immune-deficient mice that are partially repopulated with human hepatocytes, and nonhuman primates. Our studies in nonhuman primates and human hepatocytes demonstrated high level transduction of the clade E-derived vectors and equally high transduction with vectors based on AAV3B. In contrast to previous reports, AAVLK03 vectors are not superior to either AAV3B or AAV8. Vectors based on AAV3B should be considered for liver-directed gene therapy when administered following, or before, treatment with the serologically distinct clade E vectors.

  4. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

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    Daniel J Hui

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  5. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  6. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  7. Stability of Norwalk virus capsid protein interfaces evaluated by in-silico nanoindentation

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    Kevin J Boyd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Norwalk virus causes severe gastroenteritis for which there is currently no specific anti-viral therapy. A stage of the infection process is uncoating of the protein capsid to expose the viral genome and allow for viral replication. A mechanical characterization of the Norwalk virus may provide important information relating to the mechanism of uncoating. The mechanical strength of the Norwalk virus has previously been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM nanoindentation experiments. Those experiments cannot resolve specific molecular interactions, and therefore we have employed a molecular modeling approach to gain insights into the potential uncoating mechanism of the Norwalk capsid. In this study, we perform simulated nanoindentation using a coarse-grained structure based model, which provides an estimate of the spring constant in good agreement with the experimentally determined value. We further analyze the fracture mechanisms and determine weak interfaces in the capsid structure which are potential sites to inhibit uncoating by stabilization of these weak interfaces. We conclude by identifying potential target sites at the junction of a weak protein-protein interface.

  8. Hierarchical Assembly of Plasmonic Nanostructures using Virus Capsid Scaffolds on DNA Origami Tiles

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    Wang, Debin; Capehart, Stacy L.; Pal, Suchetan; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Lei; Schuck, P. J.; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Francis, Matthew B.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-07-07

    Plasmonic nanoarchitectures using biological scaffolds have shown the potential to attain controllable plasmonic fluorescence via precise spatial arrangement of fluorophores and plasmonic antennae. However, previous studies report a predominance of fluorescence quenching for small metal nanoparticles (less than ~60 nm) due to their small scattering cross-sections. In this work, we report the design and performance of fluorescent plasmonic structures composed of fluorophore-modified virus capsids and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on DNA origami tiles. The virus capsid creates a scaffold for control over the three dimensional arrangement of the fluorophores, whereas the DNA origami tile provides precise control over the distance between the capsid and the AuNP. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations and multimodal single-particle imaging measurements, we show that the judicial design of these structures places the dye molecules near the hot spot of the AuNP. This effectively increases the fluorescence intensity in the quenching regime of the AuNP, with an enhancement factor that increases with increasing AuNP size. This strategy of using biological scaffolds to control fluorescence paves the way for exploring the parameters that determine plasmonic fluorescence. It may lead to a better understanding of the antenna effects of photon absorption and emission, enabling the construction of multicomponent plasmonic systems.

  9. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Neil J; Nicastro, Giuseppe; Dutta, Moumita; Pollard, Dominic J; Goldstone, David C; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Ramos, Andres; Müllers, Erik; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Stoye, Jonathan P; Taylor, William R; Rosenthal, Peter B; Taylor, Ian A

    2016-11-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV). The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA) and C-terminal domains (CtDCA) of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA). Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN-CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold.

  10. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid.

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    Neil J Ball

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV. The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA and C-terminal domains (CtDCA of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA. Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN-CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold.

  11. Transient Bluetongue virus serotype 8 capsid protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

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    Albertha R. van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants, and has recently caused several outbreaks in Europe. Current vaccines include live-attenuated and inactivated viruses; while these are effective, there is risk of reversion to virulence by mutation or reassortment with wild type viruses. Subunit or virus-like particle (VLP vaccines are safer options: VLP vaccines produced in insect cells by expression of the four BTV capsid proteins are protective against challenge; however, this is a costly production method. We investigated production of BTV VLPs in plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, an inexpensive production system very well suited to developing country use. Leaves infiltrated with recombinant pEAQ-HT vectors separately encoding the four BTV-8 capsid proteins produced more proteins than recombinant pTRA vectors. Plant expression using the pEAQ-HT vector resulted in both BTV-8 core-like particles (CLPs and VLPs; differentially controlling the concentration of infiltrated bacteria significantly influenced yield of the VLPs. In situ localisation of assembled particles was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and it was shown that a mixed population of core-like particles (CLPs, consisting of VP3 and VP7 and VLPs were present as paracrystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of plant cells co-expressing all four capsid proteins.

  12. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  13. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

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    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  14. Chimeric PD-1:28 Receptor Upgrades Low-Avidity T cells and Restores Effector Function of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Adoptive Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Ramona; Olguín-Contreras, Luis Felipe; Leisegang, Matthias; Schnappinger, Julia; Disovic, Anja; Rühland, Svenja; Nelson, Peter J; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Harz, Hartmann; Wilde, Susanne; Schendel, Dolores J; Uckert, Wolfgang; Willimsky, Gerald; Noessner, Elfriede

    2017-07-01

    Inherent intermediate- to low-affinity T-cell receptors (TCR) that develop during the natural course of immune responses may not allow sufficient activation for tumor elimination, making the majority of T cells suboptimal for adoptive T-cell therapy (ATT). TCR affinity enhancement has been implemented to provide stronger T-cell activity but carries the risk of creating undesired cross-reactivity leading to potential serious adverse effects in clinical application. We demonstrate here that engineering of low-avidity T cells recognizing a naturally processed and presented tumor-associated antigen with a chimeric PD-1:28 receptor increases effector function to levels seen with high-avidity T cells of identical specificity. Upgrading the function of low-avidity T cells without changing the TCR affinity will allow a large arsenal of low-avidity T cells previously thought to be therapeutically inefficient to be considered for ATT. PD-1:28 engineering reinstated Th1 function in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that had been functionally disabled in the human renal cell carcinoma environment without unleashing undesired Th2 cytokines or IL10. Involved mechanisms may be correlated to restoration of ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In mouse tumor models of ATT, PD-1:28 engineering enabled low-avidity T cells to proliferate stronger and prevented PD-L1 upregulation and Th2 polarization in the tumor milieu. Engineered T cells combined with checkpoint blockade secreted significantly more IFNγ compared with T cells without PD-1:28, suggesting a beneficial combination with checkpoint blockade therapy or other therapeutic strategies. Altogether, the supportive effects of PD-1:28 engineering on T-cell function make it an attractive tool for ATT. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3577-90. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (pHPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  16. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirte Scherpenisse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. METHODS: Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. RESULTS: Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (p<0.0001. IgG1 and IgG3 were found to be the predominant subclasses observed after HPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. CONCLUSION: Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  17. Specific binding and mineralization of calcified surfaces by small peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Daniel K; Hagerman, Elizabeth; Eckert, Randal; He, Jian; Choi, Hyewon; Cao, Nga; Le, Karen; Hedger, Jennifer; Qi, Fengxia; Anderson, Maxwell; Rutherford, Bruce; Wu, Ben; Tetradis, Sotiris; Shi, Wenyuan

    2010-01-01

    Several small (dentin phosphoprotein, one of the major noncollagenous proteins thought to be involved in the mineralization of the dentin extracellular matrix during tooth development. These peptides, consisting of multiple repeats of the tripeptide aspartate-serine-serine (DSS), bind with high affinity to calcium phosphate compounds and, when immobilized, can recruit calcium phosphate to peptide-derivatized polystyrene beads or to demineralized human dentin surfaces. The affinity of binding to hydroxyapatite surfaces increases with the number of (DSS)(n) repeats, and though similar repeated sequences-(NTT)(n), (DTT)(n), (ETT)(n), (NSS)(n), (ESS)(n), (DAA)(n), (ASS)(n), and (NAA)(n)-also showed HA binding activity, it was generally not at the same level as the natural sequence. Binding of the (DSS)(n) peptides to sectioned human teeth was shown to be tissue-specific, with high levels of binding to the mantle dentin, lower levels of binding to the circumpulpal dentin, and little or no binding to healthy enamel. Phosphorylation of the serines of these peptides was found to affect the avidity, but not the affinity, of binding. The potential utility of these peptides in the detection of carious lesions, the delivery of therapeutic compounds to mineralized tissues, and the modulation of remineralization is discussed.

  18. A central region in the minor capsid protein of papillomaviruses facilitates viral genome tethering and membrane penetration for mitotic nuclear entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci Aydin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Incoming papillomaviruses (PVs depend on mitotic nuclear envelope breakdown to gain initial access to the nucleus for viral transcription and replication. In our previous work, we hypothesized that the minor capsid protein L2 of PVs tethers the incoming vDNA to mitotic chromosomes to direct them into the nascent nuclei. To re-evaluate how dynamic L2 recruitment to cellular chromosomes occurs specifically during prometaphase, we developed a quantitative, microscopy-based assay for measuring the degree of chromosome recruitment of L2-EGFP. Analyzing various HPV16 L2 truncation-mutants revealed a central chromosome-binding region (CBR of 147 amino acids that confers binding to mitotic chromosomes. Specific mutations of conserved motifs (IVAL286AAAA, RR302/5AA, and RTR313EEE within the CBR interfered with chromosomal binding. Moreover, assembly-competent HPV16 containing the chromosome-binding deficient L2(RTR313EEE or L2(IVAL286AAAA were inhibited for infection despite their ability to be transported to intracellular compartments. Since vDNA and L2 were not associated with mitotic chromosomes either, the infectivity was likely impaired by a defect in tethering of the vDNA to mitotic chromosomes. However, L2 mutations that abrogated chromatin association also compromised translocation of L2 across membranes of intracellular organelles. Thus, chromatin recruitment of L2 may in itself be a requirement for successful penetration of the limiting membrane thereby linking both processes mechanistically. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of L2 with mitotic chromosomes is conserved among the alpha, beta, gamma, and iota genera of Papillomaviridae. However, different binding patterns point to a certain variance amongst the different genera. Overall, our data suggest a common strategy among various PVs, in which a central region of L2 mediates tethering of vDNA to mitotic chromosomes during cell division thereby coordinating membrane

  19. Heparin-binding correlates with increased efficiency of AAV1- and AAV6-mediated transduction of striated muscle, but negatively impacts CNS transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, A L H; Beutler, L R; Quintana, A; Allen, J; Finn, E; Palmiter, R D; Chamberlain, J S

    2013-05-01

    Gene delivery vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have great potential as therapeutic agents. rAAV1 and rAAV6, efficiently target striated muscle, but the mechanisms that determine their tropism remain unclear. It is known that AAV6, but not AAV1, interacts with heparin-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPGs are not primary receptors for AAV6, but heparin interactions may affect tissue tropism and transduction. To investigate these possibilities, we generated rAAV1 and rAAV6 capsids that do or do not bind heparin. We evaluated the transduction profile of these vectors in vivo across multiple routes of administration, and found that heparin-binding capability influences tissue transduction in striated muscle and neuronal tissues. Heparin-binding capsids transduce striated muscle more efficiently than non-binding capsids, via both intramuscular and intravenous injection. However, rAAV6 achieved greater muscle transduction than the heparin-binding rAAV1 variant, suggesting that there are additional factors that influence differences in transduction efficiency between AAV1 and AAV6. Interestingly, the opposite trend was found when vectors were delivered via intracranial injection. Non-binding vectors achieved robust and widespread gene expression, whereas transduction via heparin-binding serotypes was substantially reduced. These data indicate that heparin-binding capability is an important determinant of transduction that should be considered in the design of rAAV-mediated gene therapies.

  20. Impact of Heparan Sulfate Binding on Transduction of Retina by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Sanford L.; Bennett, Antonette; Scalabrino, Miranda L.; McCullough, K. Tyler; Van Vliet, Kim; Choudhury, Shreyasi; Ruan, Qing; Peterson, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) currently are being developed to efficiently transduce the retina following noninvasive, intravitreal (Ivt) injection. However, a major barrier encountered by intravitreally delivered AAVs is the inner limiting membrane (ILM), a basement membrane rich in heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of HS binding on retinal transduction by Ivt-delivered AAVs. The heparin affinities of AAV2-based tyrosine-to-phenylalanine (Y-F) and threonine-to-valine (T-V) capsid mutants, designed to avoid proteasomal degradation during cellular trafficking, were established. In addition, the impact of grafting HS binding residues onto AAV1, AAV5, and AAV8(Y733F) as well as ablation of HS binding by AAV2-based vectors on retinal transduction was investigated. Finally, the potential relationship between thermal stability of AAV2-based capsids and Ivt-mediated transduction was explored. The results show that the Y-F and T-V AAV2 capsid mutants bind heparin but with slightly reduced affinity relative to that of AAV2. The grafting of HS binding increased Ivt transduction by AAV1 but not by AAV5 or AAV8(Y733F). The substitution of any canonical HS binding residues ablated Ivt-mediated transduction by AAV2-based vectors. However, these same HS variant vectors displayed efficient retinal transduction when delivered subretinally. Notably, a variant devoid of canonical HS binding residues, AAV2(4pMut)ΔHS, was remarkably efficient at transducing photoreceptors. The disparate AAV phenotypes indicate that HS binding, while critical for AAV2-based vectors, is not the sole determinant for transduction via the Ivt route. Finally, Y-F and T-V mutations alter capsid stability, with a potential relationship existing between stability and improvements in retinal transduction by Ivt injection. IMPORTANCE AAV has emerged as the vector of choice for gene delivery to the retina, with attention focused on developing vectors

  1. Endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

  2. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Merilahti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9, echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1 has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

  3. The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy Esben Axelgaard*; Steffen Thiel*; Jakob Appel Østergaard† and Troels Krarup Hansen† *Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyer´s Allé 4, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. †Department...... of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Danish Diabetes Academy, Nørrebrogade 44, build. 3, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark The complement system is part of the innate immune system and is an important part of the first line of defence against pathogens. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the pattern...... to carbohydrates of both specific type and density, which thus provides sufficient binding avidity. The character of MBL binding-sites on host cells remain unknown, but it is speculated that altered protein glycation in diabetes permits MBL binding. Based on new studies using MBL/double knockout C57bl/6j mice, we...

  4. Capsid protein expression and adeno-associated virus like particles assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backovic Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae supports replication of many different RNA or DNA viruses (e.g. Tombusviruses or Papillomaviruses and has provided means for up-scalable, cost- and time-effective production of various virus-like particles (e.g. Human Parvovirus B19 or Rotavirus. We have recently demonstrated that S. cerevisiae can form single stranded DNA AAV2 genomes starting from a circular plasmid. In this work, we have investigated the possibility to assemble AAV capsids in yeast. Results To do this, at least two out of three AAV structural proteins, VP1 and VP3, have to be simultaneously expressed in yeast cells and their intracellular stoichiometry has to resemble the one found in the particles derived from mammalian or insect cells. This was achieved by stable co-transformation of yeast cells with two plasmids, one expressing VP3 from its natural p40 promoter and the other one primarily expressing VP1 from a modified AAV2 Cap gene under the control of the inducible yeast promoter Gal1. Among various induction strategies we tested, the best one to yield the appropriate VP1:VP3 ratio was 4.5 hour induction in the medium containing 0.5% glucose and 5% galactose. Following such induction, AAV virus like particles (VLPs were isolated from yeast by two step ultracentrifugation procedure. The transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that their morphology is similar to the empty capsids produced in human cells. Conclusions Taken together, the results show for the first time that yeast can be used to assemble AAV capsid and, therefore, as a genetic system to identify novel cellular factors involved in AAV biology.

  5. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E; Hirsch, Matthew L; Monahan, Paul E; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration.

  6. Duration of (18)F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. METHODS: During December 2009, patients...... axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. RESULTS: Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60...... lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month....

  7. GM-CSF DNA: an adjuvant for higher avidity IgG, rectal IgA, and increased protection against the acute phase of a SHIV-89.6P challenge by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lilin; Vödrös, Dalma; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; Wilson, Robert L; Akerstrom, Vicki L; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Yu, Tianwei; Kannanganat, Sunil; Ofielu, Lazarus; Villinger, Francois; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Amara, Rama Rao; Robinson, Harriet L

    2007-12-05

    Single intradermal or intramuscular inoculations of GM-CSF DNA with the DNA prime for a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-89.6 vaccine, which consists of DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boosting, increased protection of both the blood and intestines against the acute phase of an intrarectal SHIV-89.6P challenge. GM-CSF appeared to contribute to protection by enhancing two antibody responses: the avidity maturation of anti-Env IgG in blood (p=oranti-viral IgA in rectal secretions (p<0.01). The avidity of anti-Env IgG showed strong correlations with protection both pre and post challenge. Animals with the highest avidity anti-Env Ab had 1000-fold reductions in peak viremia over those with the lowest avidity anti-Env Ab. The enhanced IgA response was associated with the best protection, but did not achieve significance.

  8. Stability of CTL immunity pathogen dynamics model with capsids and distributed delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaiw, A. M.; AlShamrani, N. H.; Alofi, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a pathogen dynamics model with capsids and saturated incidence has been proposed and analyzed. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) immune response and two distributed time delays have been incorporated into the model. The nonnegativity and boundedness of the solutions of the proposed model have been shown. Two threshold parameters which fully determine the existence and stability of the three steady states of the model have been computed. Using the method of Lyapunov function, the global stability of the steady states of the model has been established. The theoretical results have been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  9. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Kay

    Full Text Available Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y and threonine (T residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F and valine (V, respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice. Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1 were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus

  10. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christine N; Ryals, Renee C; Aslanidi, George V; Min, Seok Hong; Ruan, Qing; Sun, Jingfen; Dyka, Frank M; Kasuga, Daniel; Ayala, Andrea E; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Sanford L; Boye, Shannon E

    2013-01-01

    Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y) and threonine (T) residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F) and valine (V), respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice). Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary) AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1) were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V) transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V) -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus we have

  11. Unprocessed foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor displays discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization.

    OpenAIRE

    Sáiz, J C; Cairó, J; Medina, M.; Zuidema, D.; Abrams, C; Belsham, G.J.; Domingo, E; Vlak, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cDNA cassette containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor P1, peptide 2A and a truncated 2B (abbreviated P1-2A) of type C FMDV, has been modified to generate the authentic amino terminus and the myristoylation signal. This construct has been used to produce a recombinant baculovirus (AcMM53) which, upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells, expressed a recombinant P1-2A precursor with a high yield. This polyprotein reacted with neutraliz...

  12. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the a...

  13. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-24

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  14. Ultrastructural visualization of the transmembranous and cytomatrix-related part of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of frog motor endplate by means of an immunochemical avidity of IgG for d-tubocurarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Tsuji

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fine ultrastructural localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR was attempted, using d-tubocurarine (d-TC, a quaternary ammonium compound binding to nAChR. The localization was based on the binding avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG for acetylcholine (ACh and other quaternary ammonium compounds, such as d-TC. d-TC was applied to the frog neuromuscular preparation and caused a blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Then, d-TC was rendered insoluble in situ by silicotungstic acid (STA, a precipitating agent of soluble proteins and quaternary ammonium compounds. After tissue fixation, a normal rabbit serum was applied to the fine precipitate of the insoluble salt of d-TC silicotungstate (quaternary ammonium radical of d-TC to form the immunochemical complex d-TC- rabbit IgG at ACh binding sites. The IgG of the complex was revealed by means of the conventional immunoperoxidase procedure used for ultrastructural localization. Under the electron microscope, fine diaminobenzidine (DAB precipitates appeared as regular rod-like structures oriented to cytoplasmic side of the horizontal part (crest of the postsynaptic membrane (between the junctional folds which is known to be endowed with nAChR. The rod-like precipitates were not observed in the postsynaptic junctional folds which are devoid of nAChR. The distance separating the rods each other was rather constant (12 - 15 nm, while the length of the rods was variable and exceeded the usual length of nAChR. The present work indicates that the rod-like structures, already observed in association with sarcoplasmic side of the postsynaptic membrane, did correspond to the intramembranous and intracytoplasmic part of nAChR and related proteins. These cytochemical results confirm that d-TC binds to ACh binding sites in the pore of nAChR, and raise the question of DAB staining of cytoskeletal proteins related to the nAChR complex.

  15. IL-4 and IL-13 mediated down-regulation of CD8 expression levels can dampen anti-viral CD8⁺ T cell avidity following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Danushka K; Jackson, Ronald J; Tscharke, David C; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2013-09-23

    We have shown that mucosal HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination can induce high, avidity HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells with reduced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 expression compared to, systemic vaccine delivery. In the current study how these cytokines act to regulate anti-viral CD8(+) T, cell avidity following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral prime-boost vaccination was investigated. Out of a panel of T cell avidity markers tested, only CD8 expression levels were found to be enhanced on, KdGag197-205 (HIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells obtained from IL-13(-/-), IL-4(-/-) and signal transducer and, activator of transcription of 6 (STAT6)(-/-) mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls following, vaccination. Elevated CD8 expression levels in this instance also correlated with polyfunctionality, (interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necorsis factor (TNF)-α and IL-2 production) and the avidity of HIVspecific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, mucosal vaccination and vaccination with the novel adjuvanted IL-13 inhibitor (i.e. IL-13Rα2) vaccines significantly enhanced CD8 expression levels on HIV-specific CD8(+), T cells, which correlated with avidity. Using anti-CD8 antibodies that blocked CD8 availability on CD8(+), T cells, it was established that CD8 played an important role in increasing HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell avidity and polyfunctionality in IL-4(-/-), IL-13(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice compared to WT controls, following vaccination. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 dampen CD8 expression levels on anti-viral CD8(+) T cells, which can down-regulate anti-viral CD8(+) T cell avidity and, polyfunctionality following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination. These findings can be exploited to, design more efficacious vaccines not only against HIV-1, but many chronic infections where high, avidity CD8(+) T cells help protection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

  17. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  18. HIV incidence in the Estonian population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I

    2017-08-01

    Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the Estonian Health Board and the Estonian HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  19. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%, and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm. Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%, paracardiac (45%, internal mammary (25%, and peri-IVC (18% nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63% had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15±11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer.

  20. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  1. Use of IgG avidity ELISA to differentiate acute from persistent infection with Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods...... of persistent infection with S. Dublin in cattle, it can be concluded that the IgG-AI can aid in differentiating between acute and long-term infection on herd level. However, for the test to be useful as an alternative tool to repeated sampling over time for detection of persistently infected carriers during...... control strategies in cattle herds, the test needs to be optimized and studied further in a larger sample of well-characterized infections in cattle. The affinity of IgG(2) is higher than IgG(1) early in the S. Dublin infection. There appears to be no difference in the IgG(2)-AI between the acute...

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins; analysis of protein processing, assembly and utility as vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    precursor enhances the yield of processed capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid particles within mammalian cells. Such particles can potentially form the basis of a vaccine but they may only have the same properties as the current inactivated vaccines. We have expressed the FMDV P1-2A alone...... or with FMDV 3Cpro using a “single cycle” alphavirus vector based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, produced anti-FMDV antibodies but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, vaccination with these vectors primed...... a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector...

  3. Form, symmetry and packing of biomacromolecules. III. Antigenic, receptor and contact binding sites in picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janner, A

    2011-03-01

    The relation between serotype differentiation and crystallographic symmetry, revealed by the contact fingerprint diagrams investigated in Part II [Janner (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 312-326] for the human rhinovirus, is extended to the Picornaviridae family. The approach, outlined in Part I [Janner (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 301-311] and Part II for biomacromolecules packed in a crystal and based on concepts such as packing lattice, kissing points and crystal-packing parameters, can directly be applied to the picornaviruses. In particular, the contact fingerprint diagrams of 20 different virus strains have been derived. In these cases, as for the rhinovirus, these diagrams are serotype/strain specific, justifying the name fingerprint. The molecular basis for the serotype variability, and the associated conservation requirements, is usually analysed by considering antigenic sites, where capsid residues bind with antibodies, and receptor sites, where other residues bind with molecular receptors of the host cell membrane. Both the antigenic variation and the receptor conservation allow repeated infection of the host cells of the given animals. The graphical description of these sites is usually done by footprints and roadmap diagrams, mapping properties of the capsid surface and using the icosahedral symmetry of the capsid. The alternative fingerprint diagrammatic description, based on the crystal symmetry, adopted in Part II for the contact sites, where a capsid is bound to the next one in the crystal packing, is extended to the antigenic and receptor binding sites. Again, the antigenic/receptor fingerprints are specific, at least for the nine picornaviruses investigated so far, despite the more than a factor of ten larger coarse graining with respect to the corresponding footprint and roadmap diagrams. The latter are based on a grid spacing of about 2 Å, whereas the spacing implied by the packing-lattice approximation adopted in fingerprints varies typically from 20 to

  4. Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4, 5, and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Lauriel F; Powers, John M; Adachi, Kei; Baumgart, Joshua T; Meyer, Nancy L; Xie, Qing; Chapman, Michael S; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly. Assembly-activating protein (AAP) is a recently discovered adeno-associated virus (AAV) protein that promotes capsid assembly and provides new opportunities

  5. High-avidity, low-affinity multivalent interactions and the block to polyspermy in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Plaza, Esther; Tracy, Alex S; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Pierce, J Michael; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2002-11-06

    The interaction of the lectin XL35 with the jelly coat protein (JCP) surrounding oocytes in Xenopus laevis is essential for the block to polyspermy. The molecular details of this event are poorly understood, and the present study has been undertaken with a view to delineating the mechanism of formation of the fertilization envelope. A range of JCP-derived oligosaccharides were synthesized, and all were installed with an artificial aminopropyl arm. This arm allowed the preparation of monovalent derivatives by acetylation of the amino group or the synthesis of polyvalent compounds by attachment to an activated polyacrylamide polymer. A number of analytical techniques, including enzyme-linked lectin assays and surface plasmon resonance, have been developed and utilized to study the interactions of the mono- and polyvalent compounds with XL35. The results reveal that the lectin XL35 has remarkably broad specificity for galactose-containing saccharides and the affinities are only slightly modulated by secondary features, such as anomeric configuration of the terminal sugar or the identity and linkage pattern of branching sugars. Broad specificity was also observed when the saccharides were presented in a polyvalent fashion. The glycopolymers displayed 10-20-fold increases in valency-corrected affinities compared to the corresponding monovalent counterparts. Although the synthetic polymers are not as potent as the JCP, the kinetics of their interactions mirror closely those of the native ligand, and in each case extremely long-lived interactions were observed. The results of this study indicate that, in X. laevis, the true biological function of multivalency is not to create an extremely tightly binding complex between XL35 and its natural ligand but, instead, to create a very stable protective layer that will not dissociate and is yet flexible enough to encapsulate the developing embryo. It is postulated that, even if these partners are unable to attain true equilibrium

  6. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Carroll, Miles [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, Wilts (United Kingdom); Rommelaere, Jean [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Division F010, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Almendral, Jose M., E-mail: jmalmendral@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-10

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  7. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2017-10-27

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  9. Capsid serotype and timing of injection determines AAV transduction in the neonatal mice brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV mediated gene expression is a powerful tool for gene therapy and preclinical studies. A comprehensive analysis of CNS cell type tropism, expression levels and biodistribution of different capsid serotypes has not yet been undertaken in neonatal rodents. Our previous studies show that intracerebroventricular injection with AAV2/1 on neonatal day P0 results in widespread CNS expression but the biodistribution is limited if injected beyond neonatal day P1. To extend these observations we explored the effect of timing of injection on tropism and biodistribution of six commonly used pseudotyped AAVs delivered in the cerebral ventricles of neonatal mice. We demonstrate that AAV2/8 and 2/9 resulted in the most widespread biodistribution in the brain. Most serotypes showed varying biodistribution depending on the day of injection. Injection on neonatal day P0 resulted in mostly neuronal transduction, whereas administration in later periods of development (24-84 hours postnatal resulted in more non-neuronal transduction. AAV2/5 showed widespread transduction of astrocytes irrespective of the time of injection. None of the serotypes tested showed any microglial transduction. This study demonstrates that both capsid serotype and timing of injection influence the regional and cell-type distribution of AAV in neonatal rodents, and emphasizes the utility of pseudotyped AAV vectors for translational gene therapy paradigms.

  10. Capsid serotype and timing of injection determines AAV transduction in the neonatal mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Paramita; Rosario, Awilda; Cruz, Pedro; Siemienski, Zoe; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Crosby, Keith; Jansen, Karen; Borchelt, David R; Kim, Ji-Yoen; Jankowsky, Joanna L; Golde, Todd E; Levites, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated gene expression is a powerful tool for gene therapy and preclinical studies. A comprehensive analysis of CNS cell type tropism, expression levels and biodistribution of different capsid serotypes has not yet been undertaken in neonatal rodents. Our previous studies show that intracerebroventricular injection with AAV2/1 on neonatal day P0 results in widespread CNS expression but the biodistribution is limited if injected beyond neonatal day P1. To extend these observations we explored the effect of timing of injection on tropism and biodistribution of six commonly used pseudotyped AAVs delivered in the cerebral ventricles of neonatal mice. We demonstrate that AAV2/8 and 2/9 resulted in the most widespread biodistribution in the brain. Most serotypes showed varying biodistribution depending on the day of injection. Injection on neonatal day P0 resulted in mostly neuronal transduction, whereas administration in later periods of development (24-84 hours postnatal) resulted in more non-neuronal transduction. AAV2/5 showed widespread transduction of astrocytes irrespective of the time of injection. None of the serotypes tested showed any microglial transduction. This study demonstrates that both capsid serotype and timing of injection influence the regional and cell-type distribution of AAV in neonatal rodents, and emphasizes the utility of pseudotyped AAV vectors for translational gene therapy paradigms.

  11. Detection, characterization and quantitation of coxsackievirus A16 using polyclonal antibodies against recombinant capsid subunit proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingwei; Ku, Zhiqiang; Cai, Yicun; Sun, Bing; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Recent findings suggest that the recombination between CVA16 and EV71, and co-circulation of these two viruses may have contributed to the increase of HFMD cases in China over the past few years. Thus, for CVA16, further understanding of its virology, epidemiology and development of diagnostic tests and vaccines are of importance. The present study aimed to develop reagents and protocols for the detection, characterization and quantitation of CVA16. Recombinant CVA16 capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP3 and truncated VP1, were produced in Escherichia coli and used to immunize guinea pigs to generate polyclonal antibodies. The resultant three antisera detected specifically CVA16 propagated in Vero cells by immunostaining, ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera was used to show that CVA16 capsids were composed of correctly processed VP0, VP1 and VP3 subunits, and were present in the form of efficiently assembled particles. A method for the quantitation of the yield of CVA16 in Vero cells was established based on a Western blotting protocol using the recombinant VP0 as a reference standard and anti-VP0 as the detection antibody. This study shows the development and validation of reagents and methods, for qualitative and quantitative determination of CVA16, which are essential for the development of vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-serotype immunity induced by immunization with a conserved rhinovirus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Glanville

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (RV infections are the principle cause of common colds and precipitate asthma and COPD exacerbations. There is currently no RV vaccine, largely due to the existence of ∼150 strains. We aimed to define highly conserved areas of the RV proteome and test their usefulness as candidate antigens for a broadly cross-reactive vaccine, using a mouse infection model. Regions of the VP0 (VP4+VP2 capsid protein were identified as having high homology across RVs. Immunization with a recombinant VP0 combined with a Th1 promoting adjuvant induced systemic, antigen specific, cross-serotype, cellular and humoral immune responses. Similar cross-reactive responses were observed in the lungs of immunized mice after infection with heterologous RV strains. Immunization enhanced the generation of heterosubtypic neutralizing antibodies and lung memory T cells, and caused more rapid virus clearance. Conserved domains of the RV capsid therefore induce cross-reactive immune responses and represent candidates for a subunit RV vaccine.

  13. Induction of Antiviral Immune Response through Recognition of the Repeating Subunit Pattern of Viral Capsids Is Toll-Like Receptor 2 Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Shepardson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections. Utilizing this altered susceptibility to subsequent bacterial challenge as an outcome, we determined that multiple unrelated, empty, and replication-deficient capsids initiated early TLR2-dependent immune responses, similar to intact influenza virus or murine pneumovirus. These TLR2-mediated responses driven by the capsid were not dependent upon the capsid’s shape, size, origin, or amino acid sequence. However, they were dependent upon the multisubunit arrangement of the capsid proteins, because unlike intact capsids, individual capsid subunits did not enhance bacterial clearance. Further, we demonstrated that even a linear microfilament protein built from repeating protein subunits (F-actin, but not its monomer (G-actin, induced similar kinetics of subsequent bacterial clearance as did virus capsid. However, although capsids and F-actin induced similar bacterial clearance, in macrophages they required distinct TLR2 heterodimers for this response (TLR2/6 or TLR2/1, respectively and different phagocyte populations were involved in the execution of these responses in vivo. Our results demonstrate that TLR2 responds to invading viral particles that are composed of repeating protein subunits, indicating that this common architecture of virus capsids is a previously unrecognized molecular pattern.

  14. Maternal immunoglobulin G avidity as a diagnostic tool to identify pregnant women at risk of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masatoki; Ohhashi, Masanao; Minematsu, Toshio; Muraoka, Junsuke; Kusumoto, Kazumi; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity index (AI) is useful to detect primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. However, because IgG matures with time, this index is not useful to detect a primary infection, unless measured at an appropriate time. We aimed to clarify the difference between using IgG AI and IgM positivity according to the stage of pregnancy to identify congenital CMV infection risk. We collected the serum samples from 1115 pregnant women who underwent maternal screening for primary infection (n = 956) and were referred to our hospital because of CMV IgM positivity (n = 155) or had abnormal fetal ultrasonography findings (n = 4). The same sera samples were used to measure CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG AI. An IgG AI of <35% was defined as low. Neonatal urine collected within 5 days after birth was examined by polymerase chain reaction to confirm congenital infection. Fourteen mothers gave birth to infected neonates. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of the low IgG AI group with IgM-positive samples to discriminate between women with congenital infection at ≤14 weeks of gestation were 83.3, 83.8, and 99.1, respectively, which were higher than those of other subjects. Uni- and multivariate analyses revealed that IgM positivity and low IgG AI were independent variables associated with congenital infection at any stage of pregnancy, except low IgG AI at ≥15 weeks of gestation. Low IgG AI with IgM positivity at ≤14 weeks of gestation was a good indicator of congenital infection, which should prove useful in obstetric practice. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of Unnicked β2-Glycoprotein I and High Avidity Anti-β2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Artenjak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient biological material for isolation of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI and high avidity IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (HAv anti-β2GPI dictates its full utilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate/improve procedures for isolation of unnicked β2GPI and HAv aβ2GPI to gain unmodified proteins in higher yields/purity. Isolation of β2GPI from plasma was a stepwise procedure combining nonspecific and specific methods. For isolation of polyclonal HAv aβ2GPI affinity chromatographies with immobilized protein G and human β2GPI were used. The unknown protein found during isolation was identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the nonredundant National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The average mass of the isolated unnicked purified β2GPI increased from 6.56 mg to 9.94 mg. In the optimized isolation procedure the high molecular weight protein (proteoglycan 4 was successfully separated from β2GPI in the 1st peaks with size exclusion chromatography. The average efficiency of the isolation procedure for polyclonal HAv anti-β2GPI from different matrixes was 13.8%, as determined by our in-house anti-β2GPI ELISA. We modified the in-house isolation and purification procedures of unnicked β2GPI and HAv anti-β2GPI, improving the purity of antigen and antibodies as well as increasing the number of tests routinely performed with the in-house ELISA by ~50%.

  16. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  17. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii The mean number of R7041(∆US3 virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii 98% of R7041(∆US3 virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(∆US3 yields were 2.37 × 108 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 108 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(∆US3 virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective.

  19. CapsID: a web-based tool for developing parsimonious sets of CAPS molecular markers for genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provart Nicholas J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping may be carried out by a number of different methods including direct sequencing and polymorphism analysis. For a number of reasons, PCR-based polymorphism analysis may be desirable, owing to the fact that only small amounts of genetic material are required, and that the costs are low. One popular and cheap method for detecting polymorphisms is by using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, or CAPS, molecular markers. These are also known as PCR-RFLP markers. Results We have developed a program, called CapsID, that identifies snip-SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter restriction endonuclease cut sites within a set or sets of reference sequences, designs PCR primers around these, and then suggests the most parsimonious combination of markers for genotyping any individual who is not a member of the reference set. The output page includes biologist-friendly features, such as images of virtual gels to assist in genotyping efforts. CapsID is freely available at http://bbc.botany.utoronto.ca/capsid. Conclusion CapsID is a tool that can rapidly provide minimal sets of CAPS markers for molecular identification purposes for any biologist working in genetics, community genetics, plant and animal breeding, forensics and other fields.

  20. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 angstrom resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schur, F. K. M.; Hagen, W. J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, T.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Briggs, J. A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 7535 (2015), s. 505-508 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : retrovirus * HIV * M-PMV * capsid protein * CA * assembly * immature particles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  1. α-Defensin HD5 Inhibits Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection via Capsid Stabilization and Redirection to the Lysosome

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    Mayim E. Wiens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Defensins are an important class of abundant innate immune effectors that are potently antiviral against a number of nonenveloped viral pathogens; however, a common mechanism to explain their ability to block infection by these unrelated viruses is lacking. We previously found that human defensin 5 (HD5 blocks a critical host-mediated proteolytic processing step required for human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Here, we show that bypassing the requirement for this cleavage failed to abrogate HD5 inhibition. Instead, HD5 altered HPV trafficking in the cell. In the presence of an inhibitory concentration of HD5, HPV was internalized and reached the early endosome. The internalized capsid became permeable to antibodies and proteases; however, HD5 prevented dissociation of the viral capsid from the genome, reduced viral trafficking to the trans-Golgi network, redirected the incoming viral particle to the lysosome, and accelerated the degradation of internalized capsid proteins. This mechanism is equivalent to the mechanism by which HD5 inhibits human adenovirus. Thus, our data support capsid stabilization and redirection to the lysosome during infection as a general antiviral mechanism of α-defensins against nonenveloped viruses.

  2. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

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    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  3. Understanding the in vivo uptake kinetics of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding agent (99m)Tc-Duramycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Said; Li, Zhixin; Capacete, Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Wei; Shu, Laura G; Zhao, Ming

    2012-08-01

    (99m)Tc-Duramycin is a peptide-based molecular probe that binds specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The goal was to characterize the kinetics of molecular interactions between (99m)Tc-Duramycin and the target tissue. High level of accessible PE is induced in cardiac tissues by myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Target binding and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-duramycin were captured using SPECT/CT. To quantify the binding kinetics, the presence of radioactivity in ischemic versus normal cardiac tissues was measured by gamma counting at 3, 10, 20, 60 and 180 min after injection. A partially inactivated form of (99m)Tc-Duramycin was analyzed in the same fashion. A compartment model was developed to quantify the uptake kinetics of (99m)Tc-Duramycin in normal and ischemic myocardial tissue. (99m)Tc-duramycin binds avidly to the damaged tissue with a high target-to-background radio. Compartment modeling shows that accessibility of binding sites in myocardial tissue to (99m)Tc-Duramycin is not a limiting factor and the rate constant of target binding in the target tissue is at 2.2 ml/nmol/min/g. The number of available binding sites for (99m)Tc-Duramycin in ischemic myocardium was estimated at 0.14 nmol/g. Covalent modification of D15 resulted in a 9-fold reduction in binding affinity. (99m)Tc-Duramycin accumulates avidly in target tissues in a PE-dependent fashion. Model results reflect an efficient uptake mechanism, consistent with the low molecular weight of the radiopharmaceutical and the relatively high density of available binding sites. These data help better define the imaging utilities of (99m)Tc-Duramycin as a novel PE-binding agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proton-driven assembly of the Rous Sarcoma virus capsid protein results in the formation of icosahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L; Mitra, Alok K

    2010-05-14

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions.

  5. Proton-driven Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein Results in the Formation of Icosahedral Particles*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L.; Mitra, Alok K.

    2010-01-01

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions. PMID:20228062

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 1 VP1-Unique N-Terminal Domain and Its Role in Capsid Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Yarbrough, Joseph; Domsic, John; Bennett, Antonette; Bothner, Brian; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the phospholipase A2 domain located within the unique N terminus of the capsid viral protein VP1 (VP1u) in parvovirus infection has been reported. This study used computational methods to characterize the VP1 sequence for adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1 to 12 and circular dichroism and electron microscopy to monitor conformational changes in the AAV1 capsid induced by temperature and the pHs encountered during trafficking through the endocytic pathway. Circular dichroism was also used to monitor conformational changes in AAV6 capsids assembled from VP2 and VP3 or VP1, VP2, and VP3 at pH 7.5. VP1u was predicted (computationally) and confirmed (in solution) to be structurally ordered. This VP domain was observed to undergo a reversible pH-induced unfolding/refolding process, a loss/gain of α-helical structure, which did not disrupt the capsid integrity and is likely facilitated by its difference in isoelectric point compared to the other VP sequences assembling the capsid. This study is the first to physically document conformational changes in the VP1u region that likely facilitate its externalization from the capsid interior during infection and establishes the order of events in the escape of the AAV capsid from the endosome en route to the nucleus. PMID:23427155

  7. Venture from the Interior-Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Susanne M.

    2017-11-25

    Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress.

  8. A novel method to produce Influenza A virus matrix protein M1 Capsid Like Particles (CLPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Vahid; Lal, Sunil K

    2014-09-01

    Avian influenza viruses represent a growing threat for an influenza pandemic. The currently licensed influenza vaccines have inherent drawbacks which has led many research groups to explore different approaches of vaccine development among which Virus Like particles (VLPs) seem like a promising alternative in the near future. Although it is known that the Matrix 1 protein (M1) of influenza plays an essential role in VLP formation and it is documented that M1 is able to form dimers, it is not clear if M1 is capable of forming higher order structures without the interference of other influenza proteins or cell derived envelope. Here, for the first time we have demonstrated that expression of M1 alone is enough to form a Capsid Like Particle (CLP) without the requirement of any other external factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K

    2013-04-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the assay to detect a ≥2 fold rise in IgG level in a panel of serum samples from a longitudinal study was compared to a gold standard virus-capture ELISA. A strong association was observed between the assays (pcorrelate of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chasing the Origin of Viruses: Capsid-Forming Genes as a Life-Saving Preadaptation within a Community of Early Replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalasvuori, Matti; Mattila, Sari; Hoikkala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids mediate the transfer of viral genetic information from one cell to another, thus the origin of the first viruses arguably coincides with the origin of the viral capsid. Capsid genes are evolutionarily ancient and their emergence potentially predated even the origin of first free-living cells. But does the origin of the capsid coincide with the origin of viruses, or is it possible that capsid-like functionalities emerged before the appearance of true viral entities? We set to investigate this question by using a computational simulator comprising primitive replicators and replication parasites within a compartment matrix. We observe that systems with no horizontal gene transfer between compartments collapse due to the rapidly emerging replication parasites. However, introduction of capsid-like genes that induce the movement of randomly selected genes from one compartment to another rescues life by providing the non-parasitic replicators a mean to escape their current compartments before the emergence of replication parasites. Capsid-forming genes can mediate the establishment of a stable meta-population where parasites cause only local tragedies but cannot overtake the whole community. The long-term survival of replicators is dependent on the frequency of horizontal transfer events, as systems with either too much or too little genetic exchange are doomed to succumb to replication-parasites. This study provides a possible scenario for explaining the origin of viral capsids before the emergence of genuine viruses: in the absence of other means of horizontal gene transfer between compartments, evolution of capsid-like functionalities may have been necessary for early life to prevail.

  12. Spurious polyadenylation of Norovirus Narita 104 capsid protein mRNA in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lolita G; Maloney, Bryan; Takeda, Naokazu; Mason, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    Noroviruses are members of the family Caliciviridae, and cause a highly communicable gastroenteritis in humans. We explored the potential to develop a plant-based vaccine against Narita 104 virus, a Genogroup II Norovirus. In stably transgenic potato, we obtained very poor expression of Narita 104 virus capsid protein (NaVCP) despite the use of a strong constitutive promoter (dual enhancer 35S) driving the native coding sequence. We identified potentially detrimental sequence motifs that could mediate aberrant mRNA processing via spurious polyadenylation signals. Northern blots and RT-PCR analysis of total RNA revealed truncated transcripts that suggested premature polyadenylation. Site-directed mutagenesis to remove one potential polyadenylation near-upstream element resulted in an increased expression of NaVCP when transiently expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Further, cloning of the truncated cDNAs from transgenic NaVCP potato plants and transiently transfected N. benthamiana allowed us to identify at least ten different truncated transcripts resulting from premature polyadenylation of full length NaVCP transcripts. Comparative studies using real time PCR analysis from cDNA samples revealed lower accumulation of full length transcripts of NaVCP as compared to those from a gene encoding Norwalk Virus capsid protein (a related Genogroup I Norovirus) in transiently transfected plants. These findings provide evidence for impaired expression of NaVCP in transgenic plants mediated by spurious polyadenylation signals, and demonstrate the need to scrupulously search for potential polyadenylation signals in order to improve transgene expression in plants.

  13. Tyrosine Mutation in AAV9 Capsid Improves Gene Transfer to the Mouse Lung

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    Sabrina V. Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are being increasingly used as the vector of choice for in vivo gene delivery and gene therapy for many pulmonary diseases. Recently, it was shown that phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo in different organs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary transgene expression efficacy of AAV9 vectors containing point mutations in surface-exposed capsid tyrosine residues. Methods: Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (1 a control group (CTRL animals underwent intratracheal (i.t. instillation of saline, (2 the wild-type AAV9 group (WT-AAV9, 1010 vg, and (3 the tyrosine-mutant Y731F AAV9 group (M-AAV9, 1010 vg, which received (i.t. self-complementary AAV9 vectors containing the DNA sequence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP. Four weeks after instillation, lung mechanics, morphometry, tissue cellularity, gene expression, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factor expression were analyzed. Results: No significant differences were observed in lung mechanics and morphometry among the experimental groups. However, the number of polymorphonuclear cells was higher in the WT-AAV9 group than in the CTRL and M-AAV9 groups, suggesting that the administration of tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors was better tolerated. Tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors significantly improved transgene delivery to the lung (30% compared with their wild-type counterparts, without eliciting an inflammatory response. Conclusion: Our results provide the impetus for further studies to exploit the use of AAV9 vectors as a tool for pulmonary gene therapy.

  14. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  15. The avidity of cross-reactive virus-specific T cells for their viral and allogeneic epitopes is variable and depends on epitope expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Heleen; Heutinck, Kirstin M; van der Meer-Prins, Ellen M W; Franke-van Dijk, Marry E I; van Miert, Paula P M C; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Ten Berge, Ineke J M; Claas, Frans H J

    2018-01-01

    Virus-specific T cells can recognize allogeneic HLA (allo-HLA) through cross-reactivity of their T-cell receptor (TCR). In a transplantation setting, such allo-HLA cross-reactivity may contribute to harmful immune responses towards the allograft, provided that the cross-reactive T cells get sufficiently activated upon recognition of the allo-HLA. An important determinant of T-cell activation is TCR avidity, which to date, has remained largely unexplored for allo-HLA-cross-reactive virus-specific T cells. For this purpose, cold target inhibition assays were performed using allo-HLA-cross-reactive virus-specific memory CD8+ T-cell clones as responders, and syngeneic cells loaded with viral peptide and allogeneic cells as hot (radioactively-labeled) and cold (non-radioactively-labeled) targets. CD8 dependency of the T-cell responses was assessed using interferon γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the presence and absence of CD8-blocking antibodies. At high viral-peptide loading concentrations, T-cell clones consistently demonstrated lower avidity for allogeneic versus viral epitopes, but at suboptimal concentrations the opposite was observed. In line, anti-viral reactivity was CD8 independent at high, but not at suboptimal viral-peptide-loading concentrations. The avidity of allo-HLA-cross-reactive virus-specific memory CD8+ T cells is therefore highly dependent on epitope expression, and as a consequence, can be both higher and lower for allogeneic versus viral targets under different (patho)physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Escape is a more common mechanism than avidity reduction for evasion of CD8+ T cell responses in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD8+ T cells play an important role in control of viral replication during acute and early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, contributing to containment of the acute viral burst and establishment of the prognostically-important persisting viral load. Understanding mechanisms that impair CD8+ T cell-mediated control of HIV replication in primary infection is thus of importance. This study addressed the relative extent to which HIV-specific T cell responses are impacted by viral mutational escape versus reduction in response avidity during the first year of infection. Results 18 patients presenting with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection, most of whom subsequently established moderate-high persisting viral loads, were studied. HIV-specific T cell responses were mapped in each individual and responses to a subset of optimally-defined CD8+ T cell epitopes were followed from acute infection onwards to determine whether they were escaped or declined in avidity over time. During the first year of infection, sequence variation occurred in/around 26/33 epitopes studied (79%. In 82% of cases of intra-epitopic sequence variation, the mutation was confirmed to confer escape, although T cell responses were subsequently expanded to variant sequences in some cases. In contrast, Conclusions Escape appears to constitute a much more important means of viral evasion of CD8+ T cell responses in acute and early HIV infection than decline in functional avidity of epitope-specific T cells. These findings support the design of vaccines to elicit T cell responses that are difficult for the virus to escape.

  17. The evaluation of rubella and sitomegalovirus IgG avidity tests in pregnants: four-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aim to evaluate the retrospective IgG avidity index (AI test results of the pregnant, who have applied to our hospital and had pregnancy screening test and have been asked for rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests and IgG AI test in 4 year period. Methods: Anti-rubella IgM, anti-rubella IgG, anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV antibodies were performed by IMMULITE 2000XPi™ Immunoassay System (Siemens, Germany whereas IgG AI tests were performed by commercial kits of rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests (Dia.Pro® Diagnostic, Milano-Italy. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 23 (7.32 % of 314 pregnant women tested rubella IgG AI had low AI, and 266 cases had high AI rate; 14 (17.28% of 81 pregnant women tested CMV IgG AI, had lower AI rate, 52 of them had high AI. 9 out of 23 pregnant women, who were detected low rubella were requested only AI without any IgM and IgG value; the IgG antibody of 13 pregnant was reactive, and IgM antibody was not requested; IgG and IgM antibody of 1 pregnant was detected positive. When 5 pregnant, who were detected low CMV AI were requested AI without IgG and IgM value; the IgG and IgM of 4 was reactive; 4 of them had IgG reactive but IgM negative; 1 had IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: As a result, our low rubella AI rate has been detected lower than the rates in our country since our study population contains only the pregnant. Our low CMV AI rate varies due to the same reasons as literature data. During pregnancy scanning, performing of AI testing together with specific IgG and IgM will save both time and will be more meaningful in clinical evaluation for pregnant women. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 420-423

  18. The kinetics of antibody binding to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen and modelling of PfEMP1 antigen packing on the membrane knobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Lars M; Salanti, Ali; Dobrilovic, Tina

    2010-01-01

    on the parasitized erythrocyte membrane influences antibody association with, and dissociation from, its antigenic target. METHODS: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensor was used to measure the association and dissociation kinetics of VAR2CSA PfEMP1 binding to human monoclonal antibodies. Immuno...... molecules. CONCLUSIONS: High avidity is required to achieve the strongest binding to VAR2CSA PfEMP1, but the structures that display PfEMP1 also tend to inhibit cross-linking between PfEMP1 antigens, by holding many binding epitopes at distances beyond the 15-18nm sweep radius of an antibody. The large size...

  19. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release...... or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...

  20. The quantum chemical causality of pMHC-TCR biological avidity: Peptide atomic coordination data and the electronic state of agonist N termini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantum state of functional avidity of the synapse formed between a peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC and a T cell receptor (TCR is a subject not previously touched upon. Here we present atomic pair correlation meta-data based on crystalized tertiary structures of the Tax (HTLV-1 peptide along with three artificially altered variants, all of which were presented by the (Class I HLA-A201 protein in complexation with the human (CD8+ A6TCR. The meta-data reveal the existence of a direct relationship between pMHC-TCR functional avidity (agonist/antagonist and peptide pair distribution function (PDF. In this context, antagonist peptides are consistently under-coordinated in respect to Tax. Moreover, Density Functional Theory (DFT datasets in the BLYP/TZ2P level of theory resulting from relaxation of the H species on peptide tertiary structures reveal that the coordination requirement of agonist peptides is also expressed as a physical observable of the protonation state of their N termini: agonistic peptides are always found to retain a stable ammonium (NH3+ terminal group while antagonist peptides are not.

  1. The quantum chemical causality of pMHC-TCR biological avidity: Peptide atomic coordination data and the electronic state of agonist N termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipas, Georgios S E; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2015-06-01

    The quantum state of functional avidity of the synapse formed between a peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC) and a T cell receptor (TCR) is a subject not previously touched upon. Here we present atomic pair correlation meta-data based on crystalized tertiary structures of the Tax (HTLV-1) peptide along with three artificially altered variants, all of which were presented by the (Class I) HLA-A201 protein in complexation with the human (CD8(+)) A6TCR. The meta-data reveal the existence of a direct relationship between pMHC-TCR functional avidity (agonist/antagonist) and peptide pair distribution function (PDF). In this context, antagonist peptides are consistently under-coordinated in respect to Tax. Moreover, Density Functional Theory (DFT) datasets in the BLYP/TZ2P level of theory resulting from relaxation of the H species on peptide tertiary structures reveal that the coordination requirement of agonist peptides is also expressed as a physical observable of the protonation state of their N termini: agonistic peptides are always found to retain a stable ammonium (NH3 (+)) terminal group while antagonist peptides are not.

  2. Persistence and avidity maturation of antibodies to A(H1N1)pdm09 in healthcare workers following repeated annual vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, Synnøve; Tete, Sarah M; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Hoschler, Katja; Montomoli, Emanuele; Brokstad, Karl A; Cox, Rebecca J

    2015-08-07

    Healthcare workers are at increased risk of influenza infection through direct patient care, particularly during the early stages of a pandemic. Although influenza vaccination is widely recommended in Healthcare workers, data on long-term immunogenicity of vaccination in healthcare workers are lacking. The present study was designed to assess the persistence of the humoral response after pandemic vaccination as well as the impact of repeated annual vaccination in healthcare workers (n=24). Pandemic influenza vaccination resulted in a significant increase in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers with 93-100% of subjects achieving protective titers 21-days post each of the three annual vaccinations. Seroprotective antibodies measured by HI, microneutralization and single radial hemolysis assays were present in 77-94% of healthcare workers 6 months post-vaccination. Repeated vaccination resulted in an increased duration of seroprotective antibodies with seroprotective titers increasing from 35-62% 12 months after 2009 pandemic vaccination to 50-75% 12 months after 2010 vaccination. Furthermore, repeated annual vaccination augmented the avidity of influenza-specific IgG antibodies. In conclusion, we have shown that A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination induces high seroprotective titers that persist for at least 6 months. We demonstrate that repeated vaccination is beneficial to healthcare workers and results in further avidity maturation of vaccine-induced antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: Humoral immune response, estimation of specific IgG avidity and the challenges of reproducing vertical transmission in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Grimm, Felix; Ruetten, Maja; Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp. 3). Besides, six 4.5 week-old piglets inoculated per os with 5×10(3) oocysts were also included in the serological investigations. All animals seroconverted (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine ELISA, Prionics, Switzerland) by 2-3 weeks post inoculation (wpi) and remained seropositive for at least 38 weeks or until euthanasia. Four chronically infected sows from Exp. 1 and 2 were serologically monitored during a further pregnancy and no reactivation, but a decrease of the antibody levels was observed at farrowing (Exp. 4). In all experiments, the specific IgG-avidity was initially low, increased during the course of infection and after re-inoculations. An avidity index (AI) ≥40% could be used to rule out recent infections (toxoplasmosis in pigs are still unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface-exposed adeno-associated virus Vp1-NLS capsid fusion protein rescues infectivity of noninfectious wild-type Vp2/Vp3 and Vp3-only capsids but not that of fivefold pore mutant virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Joshua C; Johnson, Jarrod S; Gurda-Whitaker, Brittney; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2007-08-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant effort has been dedicated to the development of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a vector for human gene therapy. However, understanding of the virus with respect to the functional domains of the capsid remains incomplete. In this study, the goal was to further examine the role of the unique Vp1 N terminus, the N terminus plus the recently identified nuclear localization signal (NLS) (J. C. Grieger, S. Snowdy, and R. J. Samulski, J. Virol 80:5199-5210, 2006), and the virion pore at the fivefold axis in infection. We generated two Vp1 fusion proteins (Vp1 and Vp1NLS) linked to the 8-kDa chemokine domain of rat fractalkine (FKN) for the purpose of surface exposure upon assembly of the virion, as previously described (K. H. Warrington, Jr., O. S. Gorbatyuk, J. K. Harrison, S. R. Opie, S. Zolotukhin, and N. Muzyczka, J. Virol 78:6595-6609, 2004). The unique Vp1 N termini were found to be exposed on the surfaces of these capsids and maintained their phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, as determined by native dot blot Western and PLA2 assays, respectively. Incorporation of the fusions into AAV type 2 capsids lacking a wild-type Vp1, i.e., Vp2/Vp3 and Vp3 capsid only, increased infectivity by 3- to 5-fold (Vp1FKN) and 10- to 100-fold (Vp1NLSFKN), respectively. However, the surface-exposed fusions did not restore infectivity to AAV virions containing mutations at a conserved leucine (Leu336Ala, Leu336Cys, or Leu336Trp) located at the base of the fivefold pore. EM analyses suggest that Leu336 may play a role in global structural changes to the virion directly impacting downstream conformational changes essential for infectivity and not only have local effects within the pore, as previously suggested.

  5. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J.; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P.; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from th...

  6. An Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Sorbent Assay to Evaluate Aptamer Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew D; Escudero-Abarca, Blanca I; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are a class of alternative ligands increasingly growing in importance in the face of contemporary detection challenges. Aptamers offer multiple advantages over traditional ligands like antibodies; however, their ability to specifically bind target molecules must first be confirmed after their generation. Use of a plate-based enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) is a generally rapid way to screen and characterize aptamer binding to protein targets. ELASA involves directly plating a protein target onto a nonspecific (polystyrene) surface and assessing binding of functionalized (biotinylated) aptamers to those plated proteins using an enzyme conjugate that recognizes the aptamers. Here, we describe an ELASA that was designed and used to evaluate and compare binding of ssDNA aptamers against the capsids of different strains of human norovirus.

  7. Sequence Analysis of the Capsid Gene during a Genotype II.4 Dominated Norovirus Season in One University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.4 (GII.4) is responsible for the majority of nosocomial NoV infections. Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible....... Sequences of the capsid gene (1412 nucleotides) were obtained from the first available sample from 55 patients. From six immunocompromised patients with persistent infections a second sample was also included. As a control for a point-source outbreak, five samples from a foodborne outbreak caused...... by the same GII.4 variant were analyzed. Forty-seven of the inpatients (85%) were infected with the GII.4 variant Den Haag 2006b. Phylogenetic analysis of the Den Haag 2006b sequences identified four distinct outbreaks in different departments and a fifth outbreak with possible inter-department spread...

  8. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  9. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y. H.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A.; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B. H.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L.; Gorman, Jeff J.; Hall, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP. PMID:26061335

  10. Synthesis of empty capsid-like particles of Asia I foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells and their immunogenicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Sun, Jiachuan; Bai, Xingwen; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Chen, Yingli; Guo, Jianhong; Li, Dong; Liu, Xiangtao; Liu, Zaixin

    2009-05-28

    The assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) requires the cleavage of the P12A polyprotein into individual structural proteins by protease 3C. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that simultaneously expressed the genes for the P12A and 3C proteins of Asia I FMDV from individual promoters. The capsid proteins expressed in High Five insect cells were processed by viral 3C protease, as shown by Western blotting, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivity in an indirect sandwich-ELISA, and by immunofluorescent assay. The empty capsid-like particles were similar to authentic 75S empty capsids from FMDV in terms of their shape, size and sedimentation velocity, as demonstrated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Both empty capsid-like particles and some small-sized particles (about 10nm in diameter) were also observed using immunoelectron microscopy. Furthermore, the empty capsid-like particles or intermediates induced high levels of FMDV-specific antibodies in guinea pigs following immunization, and neutralizing antibodies were induced in the second week after vaccination. These recombinant, non-infectious, FMDV empty capsids are potentially useful for the development of new diagnostic techniques and vaccines.

  11. Random Insertion of mCherry Into VP3 Domain of Adeno-associated Virus Yields Fluorescent Capsids With no Loss of Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Judd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-derived vectors are promising gene delivery systems, and a number of design strategies have been pursued to improve their performance. For example, genetic insertion of proteins into the capsid may be used to achieve vector retargeting, reduced immunogenicity, or to track vector transport. Unfortunately, rational approaches to genetic insertion have experienced limited success due to the unpredictable context-dependent nature of protein folding and the complexity of the capsid's macroassembly. We report the construction and use of a frame-enriched DNase-based random insertion library based on AAV2 cap, called pAAV2_RaPID (Random Peptide Insertion by DNase. The fluorescent mCherry protein was inserted randomly throughout the AAV2 capsid and the library was selected for fluorescent and infectious variants. A capsid site was identified in VP3 that can tolerate the large protein insertion. In contrast to previous efforts to incorporate fluorescent proteins into the AAV2 capsid, the isolated mCherry mutant maintains native infectivity while displaying robust fluorescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the pAAV2_RaPID platform library can be used to create fully infectious AAV vectors carrying large functional protein domains on the capsid.

  12. Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirnbauer, R.; Booy, F; Cheng, N.; Lowy, D R; Schiller, J T

    1992-01-01

    Infection by certain human papillomavirus types is regarded as the major risk factor in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers of women worldwide. Analysis of the immunogenic and structural features of papillomavirus virions has been hampered by the inability to efficiently propagate the viruses in cultured cells. For instance, it has not been established whether the major capsid protein L1 alone is sufficient for virus particle assembly. In addition, it is not kno...

  13. Mechanisms regulating expression of the HPV 31 L1 and L2 capsid proteins and pseudovirion entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindmarsh Patrick L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPV infect stratified epithelia and restrict expression of late capsid genes to highly differentiated cells. In order to begin to understand the processes regulating HPV 31 infection we examined the synthesis of the HPV 31 capsid proteins, L1 and L2, using heterologous expression systems. Similar to studies in HPV 16, expression of wild type HPV 31 L1 and L2 from heterologous promoters resulted in very low levels of synthesis. In contrast, modification of the codons in the capsid genes to ones more commonly used in cellular genes resulted in high-level synthesis. Through the use of chimeric proteins that fused fragments of wild type L1 to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP coding sequences, a short region was identified that was sufficient to inhibit high level synthesis and similar elements were detected in L2. One element was localized to the 3' end of the L1 gene while a series of elements were localized at the 3' end of the L2 coding sequences. These observations are most consistent with negative RNA regulatory elements controlling the levels of L1 and L2 synthesis that are distinct from those identified in HPV 16. Expression vectors for the codon modified HPV 31 capsid proteins were then transfected together with GFP reporter plasmids to generate HPV 31 pseudoviruses. Infection of cells with HPV 31 pseudoviruses in the presence of the inhibitors, chlorpromazine, nystatin or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, demonstrated that HPV 31, like HPV 16, enters human and monkey cells through a clathrin-mediated pathway rather than through caveolae as previously reported. This suggests that high-risk HPV types may enter cells through common mechanisms.

  14. Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer.   Materials and Methods: A total of 309 patients were recruited and cervical exfoliated cells were collected. Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed to detect the hTERC. Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. However, the expression of hTERC increased with the increase of the histological grade and positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The proportion of patients with L1(-/hTERC(+ was higher in patients with histological grade of CIN2 or higher than that in those with histological grade of CIN1. The L1(+/hTERC(- and L1(-/hTERC(- were negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. L1(-/hTERC(+ was positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The L1/hTERC ratio increased. The negative predictive value of both HPV L1 and hTERC was higher than that of HPV L1 or hTERC, but there was no marked difference in the screening efficacy of cervical cancer among HPV L1, hTERC and HPV L1+hTERC. Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical lesions. The increase in L1/hTERC ratio reflects the progression of cervical lesions to a certain extent.

  15. Transduction of pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus: effect of viral capsid and genome conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Clément, Nathalie; Chen, Dongmei; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Haojiang; Rebollo, Patricia; Linden, R Michael; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2005-09-15

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors currently show promise for islet gene therapy. In the presence of complementing AAV2 Rep proteins, AAV2 genomes can be packaged with other serotype capsids to assemble infectious virions. During transduction, the ssDNA to dsDNA conversion is one of the major rate-limiting steps that contribute to the slow onset of transgene expression. Using pseudotyping strategy, we produced double-stranded (dsAAV) and single-stranded (ssAAV) rAAV2 genomes carrying the GFP reporter gene packaged into AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 capsids. The ability of cross-packaged AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 at the same genome containing particle (gcp) concentration to transduce murine and human pancreatic islets was evaluated by GFP positive cell percentage. Transgenic expression was also determined by transplant transduced human islet into SCID mice. Pseudotyped rAAV2/1 based vectors transduced murine islets at greater efficiency than either rAAV2/2 or rAAV2/5 vectors. For human islets transduction, the rAAV2/2 vector was more efficient than rAAV2/1 or rAAV2/5 vectors. rAAV2/2 transduced human islets more efficiently than murine islets, while rAAV2/1 transducted murine islets more efficiently than human islets. dsAAV, which do not require second strand synthesis and thus are potentially more efficient, evidenced 5 fold higher transduction ability than ssAAV vectors. Pseudotyped rAAV transduced islet grafts maintained normal function, expressed transgenic product persistently in vivo, and reversed diabetes. The transduction efficiency of rAAV vectors was dependent on the cross-packaged capsid. The vector capsids permit species-specific transduction. For human islets, dsAAV2/2 vectors may be the most efficient vector for clinical development.

  16. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  17. Capsid expansion mechanism of bacteriophage T7 revealed by multistate atomic models derived from cryo-EM reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Liu, Zheng; Fang, Ping-An; Zhang, Qinfen; Wright, Elena T; Wu, Weimin; Zhang, Ci; Vago, Frank; Ren, Yue; Jakana, Joanita; Chiu, Wah; Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2014-10-28

    Many dsDNA viruses first assemble a DNA-free procapsid, using a scaffolding protein-dependent process. The procapsid, then, undergoes dramatic conformational maturation while packaging DNA. For bacteriophage T7 we report the following four single-particle cryo-EM 3D reconstructions and the derived atomic models: procapsid (4.6-Å resolution), an early-stage DNA packaging intermediate (3.5 Å), a later-stage packaging intermediate (6.6 Å), and the final infectious phage (3.6 Å). In the procapsid, the N terminus of the major capsid protein, gp10, has a six-turn helix at the inner surface of the shell, where each skewed hexamer of gp10 interacts with two scaffolding proteins. With the exit of scaffolding proteins during maturation the gp10 N-terminal helix unfolds and swings through the capsid shell to the outer surface. The refolded N-terminal region has a hairpin that forms a novel noncovalent, joint-like, intercapsomeric interaction with a pocket formed during shell expansion. These large conformational changes also result in a new noncovalent, intracapsomeric topological linking. Both interactions further stabilize the capsids by interlocking all pentameric and hexameric capsomeres in both DNA packaging intermediate and phage. Although the final phage shell has nearly identical structure to the shell of the DNA-free intermediate, surprisingly we found that the icosahedral faces of the phage are slightly (∼4 Å) contracted relative to the faces of the intermediate, despite the internal pressure from the densely packaged DNA genome. These structures provide a basis for understanding the capsid maturation process during DNA packaging that is essential for large numbers of dsDNA viruses.

  18. Mosaic vectors comprised of modified AAV1 capsid proteins for efficient vector purification and targeting to vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, M D; Bartlett, J S

    2006-06-01

    Vascular-targeted gene therapies have the potential to treat many of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. Unfortunately, these therapies have been ineffective due to poor vascular gene transfer. The use of alternative virus serotypes and the incorporation of vascular targeting ligands into vectors has resulted in only modest increases in vascular gene transfer. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) 1 has shown the most promise among the AAV vectors for the transduction of vascular endothelial cells. However, no straightforward small-scale purification strategy exists for AAV1 as it does for AAV2 making it difficult to quickly produce AAV1 vector for analysis. Here we have combined two AAV1 capsid protein modifications to enhance vascular gene transfer and allow easy purification of vector particles. Mosaic vector particles have been produced comprised of capsid proteins containing the well-characterized RGD4C modification to target integrins present on the vasculature, and capsid proteins containing a modification that permits metabolic biotinylation and efficient purification of mosaic particles by avidin affinity chromatography. We show that the RGD modification results in a 50-100-fold enhancement in endothelial cell gene transfer that is maintained in biotinylated mosaic AAV1 particles. These results suggest that mosaic virions hold significant promise for targeted gene delivery to the vasculature.

  19. Humoral and cellular capsid-specific immune responses to adeno-associated virus type 1 in randomized healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, Philippe; Leborgne, Christian; Monteilhet, Virginie; Boutin, Sylvie; Martin, Samia; Moullier, Philippe; Masurier, Carole

    2012-06-15

    A major impediment to the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery to muscle in clinical applications is the pre-existing immune responses against the vector. Pre-existing humoral response to different AAV serotypes is now well documented. In contrast, cellular responses to AAV capsid have not been analyzed in a systematic manner, despite the risk of T cell reactivation upon gene transfer. AAV1 has been widely used in humans to target muscle. In this study, we analyzed PBMCs and sera of healthy donors for the presence of AAV1 capsid-specific T cell responses and AAV1 neutralizing factors. Approximately 30% of donors presented AAV1 capsid-specific T cells, mainly effector memory CD8(+) cells. IFN-γ-producing cells were also observed among effector memory CD4(+) cells for two of these donors. Moreover, to our knowledge, this study shows for the first time on a large cohort that there was no correlation between AAV1-specific T cell and humoral responses. Indeed, most donors presenting specific Ig and neutralizing factors were negative for cellular response (and vice versa). These new data raise the question of prescreening patients not only for the humoral response, but also for the cellular response. Clearly, a better understanding of the natural immunology of AAV serotypes will allow us to improve AAV gene therapy and make it an efficient treatment for genetic disease.

  20. Structure of Fusarium poae virus 1 shows conserved and variable elements of partitivirus capsids and evolutionary relationships to picobirnavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinghua; Ochoa, Wendy F; Li, Hua; Havens, Wendy M; Nibert, Max L; Ghabrial, Said A; Baker, Timothy S

    2010-12-01

    Filamentous fungus Fusarium poae is a worldwide cause of the economically important disease Fusarium head blight of cereal grains. The fungus is itself commonly infected with a bisegmented dsRNA virus from the family Partitiviridae. For this study, we determined the structure of partitivirus Fusarium poae virus 1 (FpV1) to a resolution of 5.6Å or better by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. The main structural features of FpV1 are consistent with those of two other fungal partitiviruses for which high-resolution structures have been recently reported. These shared features include a 120-subunit T=1 capsid comprising 60 quasisymmetrical capsid protein dimers with both shell and protruding domains. Distinguishing features are evident throughout the FpV1 capsid, however, consistent with its more massive subunits and its greater phylogenetic divergence relative to the other two structurally characterized partitiviruses. These results broaden our understanding of conserved and variable elements of fungal partitivirus structure, as well as that of vertebrate picobirnavirus, and support the suggestion that a phylogenetic subcluster of partitiviruses closely related to FpV1 should constitute a separate taxonomic genus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-assembly of nanoparticles into biomimetic capsid-like nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Chan, Henry; Zhao, Gongpu; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Zhang, Peijun; Král, Petr; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces. They cannot be accurately described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Vervey-Overbeek theory, whereas molecular-dynamics simulations with combined atomistic and coarse-grained description of NPs reveal the emergence of nanoshells and some of their stabilization mechanisms. Morphology of the simulated assemblies formed under different conditions matched nearly perfectly the transmission electron microscopy tomography data. This study bridges the gap between biological and inorganic self-assembling nanosystems and conceptualizes a new pathway to spontaneous compartmentalization for a wide range of inorganic NPs including those existing on prebiotic Earth.

  2. Mapping and modeling of a strain-specific epitope in the Norwalk virus capsid inner shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gabriel I; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Abente, Eugenio J; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Bok, Karin; Dolan, Michael A; Green, Kim Y

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are diverse positive-strand RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. Cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped primarily to conserved sequences in the capsid VP1 Shell (S) domain, and strain-specific epitopes to the highly variable Protruding (P) domain. In this work, we investigated a strain-specific linear epitope defined by MAb NV10 that was raised against prototype (Genogroup I.1) strain Norwalk virus (NV). Using peptide scanning and mutagenesis, the epitope was mapped to amino acids 21-32 (LVPEVNASDPLA) of the NV S domain, and its specificity was verified by epitope transfer and reactivity with a recombinant MAb NV10 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). Comparative structural modeling of the NV10 strain-specific and the broadly cross-reactive TV20 epitopes identified two internal non-overlapping sites in the NV shell, corresponding to variable and conserved amino acid sequences among strains, respectively. The S domain, like the P domain, contains strain-specific epitopes that contribute to the antigenic diversity among the noroviruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Mechanical and assembly units of viral capsids identified via quasi-rigid domain decomposition.

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    Guido Polles

    Full Text Available Key steps in a viral life-cycle, such as self-assembly of a protective protein container or in some cases also subsequent maturation events, are governed by the interplay of physico-chemical mechanisms involving various spatial and temporal scales. These salient aspects of a viral life cycle are hence well described and rationalised from a mesoscopic perspective. Accordingly, various experimental and computational efforts have been directed towards identifying the fundamental building blocks that are instrumental for the mechanical response, or constitute the assembly units, of a few specific viral shells. Motivated by these earlier studies we introduce and apply a general and efficient computational scheme for identifying the stable domains of a given viral capsid. The method is based on elastic network models and quasi-rigid domain decomposition. It is first applied to a heterogeneous set of well-characterized viruses (CCMV, MS2, STNV, STMV for which the known mechanical or assembly domains are correctly identified. The validated method is next applied to other viral particles such as L-A, Pariacoto and polyoma viruses, whose fundamental functional domains are still unknown or debated and for which we formulate verifiable predictions. The numerical code implementing the domain decomposition strategy is made freely available.

  4. Radioiodinated Capsids Facilitate In Vivo Non-Invasive Tracking of Adeno-Associated Gene Transfer Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, P; De, B P; He, B; Chen, A; Chiuchiolo, M J; Kim, D; Nikolopoulou, A; Amor-Coarasa, A; Dyke, J P; Voss, H U; Kaminsky, S M; Foley, C P; Vallabhajosula, S; Hu, B; DiMagno, S G; Sondhi, D; Crystal, R G; Babich, J W; Ballon, D

    2017-01-06

    Viral vector mediated gene therapy has become commonplace in clinical trials for a wide range of inherited disorders. Successful gene transfer depends on a number of factors, of which tissue tropism is among the most important. To date, definitive mapping of the spatial and temporal distribution of viral vectors in vivo has generally required postmortem examination of tissue. Here we present two methods for radiolabeling adeno-associated virus (AAV), one of the most commonly used viral vectors for gene therapy trials, and demonstrate their potential usefulness in the development of surrogate markers for vector delivery during the first week after administration. Specifically, we labeled adeno-associated virus serotype 10 expressing the coding sequences for the CLN2 gene implicated in late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with iodine-124. Using direct (Iodogen) and indirect (modified Bolton-Hunter) methods, we observed the vector in the murine brain for up to one week using positron emission tomography. Capsid radioiodination of viral vectors enables non-invasive, whole body, in vivo evaluation of spatial and temporal vector distribution that should inform methods for efficacious gene therapy over a broad range of applications.

  5. Adaption of FMDV Asia-1 to Suspension Culture: Cell Resistance Is Overcome by Virus Capsid Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Veronika; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. BHK21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of FMDV vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. Serotype Asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. In this study, the Asia-1 strain Shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infection. Cell media composition, pH and ammonium chloride concentration did not affect Asia-1 differently than other serotypes. Virus replication after transfection of viral genome was not impaired, but the adhesion to the cells was markedly reduced for Asia-1 in comparison to serotype A. The Asia-1 Shamir virus was successfully adapted to grow in the resistant cells by using a closely related but susceptible cell line. Sequence analysis of the adapted virus revealed two distinct mutations in the capsid protein VP1 that might mediate cell attachment and entry. PMID:28820470

  6. Structure-based engineering of papillomavirus major capsid L1: controlling particle assembly

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    Dasgupta Jhimli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The outer shell of the papillomavirus particle is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid L1 protein arranged on a T = 7 icosahedral lattice. The recombinant L1 can form T = 7 virus-like particles in vitro. The crystal structure of a T = 7 papilloma virion has not yet been determined; however, the crystal structure of a T = 1 particle containing 12 pentamers is known. The T = 1 structure reveals that helix-helix interactions, through three helices–h2, h3, and h4–near the C-terminus of L1, mediate the inter-pentameric bonding that is responsible for T = 1 assembly. Based on the T = 1 crystal structure, we have generated a set of internal deletions to test the role of the three C-terminal helices in T = 7 assembly. We have demonstrated that the h2, h3, and h4 near the C-terminal end of L1 are important for the L1 structure and particle assembly. In particular, we found that h2 and h3 are essential for L1 folding and pentamer formation, whereas h4 is indispensable for the assembly of not only T1, but also of the T7 virus-like particle.

  7. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance titrations reveal complex multistep-binding of l-fucose to norovirus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallagaray, Alvaro; Rademacher, Christoph; Parra, Francisco; Hansman, Grant; Peters, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), native mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallographic studies have demonstrated that binding of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) to norovirus capsid protein (P-dimers) is a cooperative process involving four binding pockets. Here, we show that binding to norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) is even more complex. We performed saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR titration experiments with two representative genotypes of norovirus VLPs using l-fucose as a minimal HBGA. Compared to titrations with P-dimers, the corresponding binding isotherms reflect at least six distinct binding events. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. T3: Targeted Proteomics of DNA-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagore, Linda I.; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A technique that allows the inclusion of a specific DNA to enrich and direct proteomic identification of transcription factors (TF) while providing a route for high throughput screening on a single platform would be valuable in investigations of gene expression and regulation. Polyvinylpyrrolidone binds DNA avidly while binding negligible amounts of protein. This observation is used in a proof-of-concept method to enrich for TF by combining nuclear extract with a specific DNA sequence and immobilizing the DNA-protein complex on a PVP-coated MALDI plate. Any unbound proteins are washed away and further processed for analysis in a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Enrichment on a PVP-coated plate gives the unique advantage of purification, enzymatic digestion and analysis on a single platform. The method is termed T3 as it combines Targeted purification on a Target plate with Targeted proteomics. Validation was achieved in model experiments with a chimeric fusion protein, green fluorescent protein-CAAT enhancer binding protein (GFP-C/EBP) with an oligonucleotide containing the CAAT sequence. Both domains were identified with an expectation value of less than 10−15 and over 15% sequence coverage. The same oligonucleotide mixed with HEK293 cell nuclear extract allowed the unambiguous identification of native human C/EBP alpha with 24.3% sequence coverage. PMID:25644705

  11. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kolb

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF, and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC. Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc derived capsid-like particles (CLPs to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.

  12. The kinetics of antibody binding to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen and modelling of PfEMP1 antigen packing on the membrane knobs

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    Arnot David E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infected humans make protective antibody responses to the PfEMP1 adhesion antigens exported by Plasmodium falciparum parasites to the erythrocyte membrane, but little is known about the kinetics of this antibody-receptor binding reaction or how the topology of PfEMP1 on the parasitized erythrocyte membrane influences antibody association with, and dissociation from, its antigenic target. Methods A Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensor was used to measure the association and dissociation kinetics of VAR2CSA PfEMP1 binding to human monoclonal antibodies. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize antibody-mediated adhesion between the surfaces of live infected erythrocytes and atomic force microscopy was used to obtain higher resolution images of the membrane knobs on the infected erythrocyte to estimate knob surface areas and model VAR2CSA packing density on the knob. Results Kinetic analysis indicates that antibody dissociation from the VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen is extremely slow when there is a high avidity interaction. High avidity binding to PfEMP1 antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in turn requires bivalent cross-linking of epitopes positioned within the distance that can be bridged by antibody. Calculations of the surface area of the knobs and the possible densities of PfEMP1 packing on the knobs indicate that high-avidity cross-linking antibody reactions are constrained by the architecture of the knobs and the large size of PfEMP1 molecules. Conclusions High avidity is required to achieve the strongest binding to VAR2CSA PfEMP1, but the structures that display PfEMP1 also tend to inhibit cross-linking between PfEMP1 antigens, by holding many binding epitopes at distances beyond the 15-18 nm sweep radius of an antibody. The large size of PfEMP1 will also constrain intra-knob cross-linking interactions. This analysis indicates that effective vaccines targeting the parasite's vulnerable

  13. A study of T cell tolerance to the tumor-associated antigen MDM2: cytokines can restore antigen responsiveness, but not high avidity T cell function.

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    Gavin M Bendle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most tumor-associated antigens (TAA currently used for immunotherapy of cancer are also expressed in normal tissues, which may induce tolerance and impair T cell-mediated immunity. However, there is limited information about how physiological expression in normal tissues alters the function of TAA-specific T cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a T cell receptor transgenic model to study how MDM2 expression in normal tissues affects the function of T cells specific for this TAA that is found at high levels in many different types of tumors. We found that some MDM2-specific T cells escaped thymic deletion and persisted in the peripheral T cell pool. When stimulated with antigen, these T cells readily initiated cell division but failed to proliferate and expand, which was associated with a high rate of apoptosis. Both IL-2 and IL-15 efficiently rescued T cell survival and antigen-specific T cell proliferation, while IL-7 and IL-21 were ineffective. Antigen-stimulated T cells showed impaired expression of the effector molecules CD43, granzyme-B and IFN-gamma, a defect that was completely restored when T cells were stimulated in the presence of IL-2. In contrast, IL-15 and IL-21 only restored the expression of CD43 and granzyme-B, but not IFN-gamma production. Finally, peptide titration experiments with IL-2 rescued T cells indicated that they were of lower avidity than non-tolerant control T cells expressing the same TCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that cytokines can rescue the antigen-specific proliferation and effector function of MDM2-specific T cells, although this does not lead to the recovery of high avidity T cell function. This study sheds light on possible limitations of immunotherapy approaches that target widely expressed TAA, such as MDM2.

  14. Duration of {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

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    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik [OUH, Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV{sub max}) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV{sub max} was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV{sub max} in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  15. Estimating False-Recent Classification for the Limiting-Antigen Avidity EIA and BED-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay in Vietnam: Implications for HIV-1 Incidence Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neha S; Duong, Yen T; Le, Linh-Vi; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Parekh, Bharat S; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Pham, Quang Duy; Cuc, Cao Thi Thu; Dobbs, Trudy; Tram, Tran Hong; Lien, Truong Thi Xuan; Wagar, Nick; Yang, Chunfu; Martin, Amy; Wolfe, Mitchell; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Kim, Andrea A

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory tests that can distinguish recent from long-term HIV infection are used to estimate HIV incidence in a population, but can potentially misclassify a proportion of long-term HIV infections as recent. Correct application of an assay requires determination of the proportion false recents (PFRs) as part of the assay characterization and for calculating HIV incidence in a local population using a HIV incidence assay. From April 2009 to December 2010, blood specimens were collected from HIV-infected individuals attending nine outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam (four from northern and five from southern Vietnam). Participants were living with HIV for ≥1 year and reported no antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment. Basic demographic data and clinical information were collected. Specimens were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) and the Limiting-antigen (LAg)-Avidity EIA. PFR was estimated by dividing the number of specimens classified as recent by the total number of specimens; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Specimens that tested recent had viral load testing performed. Among 1,813 specimens (north, n = 942 and south, n = 871), the LAg-Avidity EIA PFR was 1.7% (CI: 1.2-2.4) and differed by region [north 2.7% (CI: 1.8-3.9) versus south 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.5); p = .002]. The BED-CEIA PFR was 2.3% (CI: 1.7-3.0) and varied by region [north 3.4% (CI: 2.4-4.7) versus south 1.0% (CI: 0.5-1.2), p Vietnam.

  16. The terminal immunoglobulin-like repeats of LigA and LigB of Leptospira enhance their binding to gelatin binding domain of fibronectin and host cells.

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    Yi-Pin Lin

    Full Text Available Leptospira spp. are pathogenic spirochetes that cause the zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Leptospiral immunoglobulin (Ig-like protein B (LigB contributes to the binding of Leptospira to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, elastin, tropoelastin and collagen. A high-affinity Fn-binding region of LigB has been localized to LigBCen2, which contains the partial 11th and full 12th Ig-like repeats (LigBCen2R and 47 amino acids of the non-repeat region (LigBCen2NR of LigB. In this study, the gelatin binding domain of fibronectin was shown to interact with LigBCen2R (K(D = 1.91+/-0.40 microM. Not only LigBCen2R but also other Ig-like domains of Lig proteins including LigAVar7'-8, LigAVar10, LigAVar11, LigAVar12, LigAVar13, LigBCen7'-8, and LigBCen9 bind to GBD. Interestingly, a large gain in affinity was achieved through an avidity effect, with the terminal domains, 13th (LigA or 12th (LigB Ig-like repeat of Lig protein (LigAVar7'-13 and LigBCen7'-12 enhancing binding affinity approximately 51 and 28 fold, respectively, compared to recombinant proteins without this terminal repeat. In addition, the inhibited effect on MDCKs cells can also be promoted by Lig proteins with terminal domains, but these two domains are not required for gelatin binding domain binding and cell adhesion. Interestingly, Lig proteins with the terminal domains could form compact structures with a round shape mediated by multidomain interaction. This is the first report about the interaction of gelatin binding domain of Fn and Lig proteins and provides an example of Lig-gelatin binding domain binding mediating bacterial-host interaction.

  17. Antigenic and Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure Analysis of a Chimeric Sapovirus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Taylor, David W; Hansman, Grant S; Murata, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-23

    The capsid protein (VP1) of all caliciviruses forms an icosahedral particle with two principal domains, shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, which are connected via a flexible hinge region. The S domain forms a scaffold surrounding the nucleic acid, while the P domains form a homodimer that interacts with receptors. The P domain is further subdivided into two subdomains, termed P1 and P2. The P2 subdomain is likely an insertion in the P1 subdomain; consequently, the P domain is divided into the P1-1, P2, and P1-2 subdomains. In order to investigate capsid antigenicity, N-terminal (N-term)/S/P1-1 and P2/P1-2 were switched between two sapovirus genotypes GI.1 and GI.5. The chimeric VP1 constructs were expressed in insect cells and were shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) morphologically similar to the parental VLPs. Interestingly, the chimeric VLPs had higher levels of cross-reactivities to heterogeneous antisera than the parental VLPs. In order to better understand the antigenicity from a structural perspective, we determined an intermediate-resolution (8.5-Å) cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a chimeric VLP and developed a VP1 homology model. The cryo-EM structure revealed that the P domain dimers were raised slightly (∼5 Å) above the S domain. The VP1 homology model allowed us predict the S domain (67-229) and P1-1 (229-280), P2 (281-447), and P1-2 (448-567) subdomains. Our results suggested that the raised P dimers might expose immunoreactive S/P1-1 subdomain epitopes. Consequently, the higher levels of cross-reactivities with the chimeric VLPs resulted from a combination of GI.1 and GI.5 epitopes. We developed sapovirus chimeric VP1 constructs and produced the chimeric VLPs in insect cells. We found that both chimeric VLPs had a higher level of cross-reactivity against heterogeneous VLP antisera than the parental VLPs. The cryo-EM structure of one chimeric VLP (Yokote/Mc114) was solved to 8.5-Å resolution. A homology model

  18. A unique spumavirus Gag N-terminal domain with functional properties of orthoretroviral matrix and capsid.

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    David C Goldstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent.

  19. A unique spumavirus Gag N-terminal domain with functional properties of orthoretroviral matrix and capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, David C; Flower, Thomas G; Ball, Neil J; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Yap, Melvyn W; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Lindemann, Dirk; Stoye, Jonathan P; Taylor, Ian A

    2013-05-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV) from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env) protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent.

  20. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids.IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  1. Decoding of lipoprotein-receptor interactions: properties of ligand binding modules governing interactions with apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Prieto, J Helena; Croy, Johnny E; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2010-02-16

    Clusters of complement-type ligand binding repeats in the LDL receptor family are thought to mediate the interactions between these receptors and their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E, a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR, LRP, and VLDLR, through these clusters. LDLR and VLDLR each contain a single ligand binding repeat cluster, whereas LRP contains three large clusters of ligand binding repeats, each with ligand binding functions. We show that within sLRP3 the three-repeat subcluster CR16-18 recapitulated ligand binding to the isolated receptor binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149). Binding experiments with LA3-5 of LDLR and CR16-18 showed that a conserved W25/D30 pair appears to be critical for high-affinity binding to ApoE(130-149). The triple repeat LA3-5 showed the expected interaction with ApoE(1-191).DMPC, but surprisingly CR16-18 did not interact with this form of ApoE. To understand these differences in ApoE binding affinity, we introduced mutations of conserved residues from LA5 into CR18 and produced a CR16-18 variant capable of binding ApoE(1-191).DMPC. This change cannot fully be accounted for by the interaction with the proposed ApoE receptor binding region; therefore, we speculate that LA5 is recognizing a distinct epitope on ApoE that may only exist in the lipid-bound form. The combination of avidity effects with this distinct recognition process likely governs the ApoE-LDL receptor interaction.

  2. Entrapment of Viral Capsids in Nuclear PML Cages Is an Intrinsic Antiviral Host Defense against Varicella-Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Mike; Wang, Li; Sommer, Marvin; Perrino, John; Nour, Adel M.; Sen, Nandini; Baiker, Armin; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The herpesviruses, like most other DNA viruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus. Subnuclear domains known as promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), or ND10 bodies, have been implicated in restricting early herpesviral gene expression. These viruses have evolved countermeasures to disperse PML-NBs, as shown in cells infected in vitro, but information about the fate of PML-NBs and their functions in herpesvirus infected cells in vivo is limited. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus with tropism for skin, lymphocytes and sensory ganglia, where it establishes latency. Here, we identify large PML-NBs that sequester newly assembled nucleocapsids (NC) in neurons and satellite cells of human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and skin cells infected with VZV in vivo. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy revealed that these distinctive nuclear bodies consisted of PML fibers forming spherical cages that enclosed mature and immature VZV NCs. Of six PML isoforms, only PML IV promoted the sequestration of NCs. PML IV significantly inhibited viral infection and interacted with the ORF23 capsid surface protein, which was identified as a target for PML-mediated NC sequestration. The unique PML IV C-terminal domain was required for both capsid entrapment and antiviral activity. Similar large PML-NBs, termed clastosomes, sequester aberrant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as Huntingtin (Htt), in several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that PML IV cages co-sequester HttQ72 and ORF23 protein in VZV infected cells. Our data show that PML cages contribute to the intrinsic antiviral defense by sensing and entrapping VZV nucleocapsids, thereby preventing their nuclear egress and inhibiting formation of infectious virus particles. The efficient sequestration of virion capsids in PML cages appears to be the outcome of a basic cytoprotective function of this distinctive category of PML-NBs in sensing and safely containing nuclear aggregates of aberrant

  3. Insight into the mechanisms of enhanced retinal transduction by the engineered AAV2 capsid variant -7m8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabou, Hanen; Desrosiers, Mélissa; Winckler, Céline; Fouquet, Stéphane; Auregan, Gwenaëlle; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Sahel, José-Alain; Dalkara, Deniz

    2016-12-01

    Recently, we described a modified AAV2 vector-AAV2-7m8-having a capsid-displayed peptide insertion of 10 amino acids with enhanced retinal transduction properties. The insertion of the peptide referred to as 7m8 is responsible for high-level gene delivery into deep layers of the retina when virus is delivered into the eye's vitreous. Here, we further characterize AAV2-7m8 mediated gene delivery to neural tissue and investigate the mechanisms by which the inserted peptide provides better transduction away from the injection site. First, in order to understand if the peptide exerts its effect on its own or in conjunction with the neighboring amino acids, we inserted the 7m8 peptide at equivalent positions on three other AAV capsids, AAV5, AAV8, and AAV9, and evaluated its effect on their infectivity. Intravitreal delivery of these peptide insertion vectors revealed that only AAV9 benefited from 7m8 insertion in the context of the retina. We then investigated AAV2-7m8 and AAV9-7m8 properties in the brain, to better evaluate the spread and efficacy of viral transduction in view of the peptide insertion. While 7m8 insertion led to higher intensity gene expression, the spread of gene expression remained unchanged compared to the parental serotypes. Our results indicate that the 7m8 peptide insertion acts by increasing efficacy of cellular entry, with little effect on the spread of viral particles in neural tissue. The effects of peptide insertion are capsid and tissue dependent, highlighting the importance of the microenvironment in gene delivery using AAV. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2712-2724. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    harvested 24 hrs post insult; C. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 24 hrs post insult; D1,2. VLPtreated and 2CLP-operated harvested 4 days post ...insult; E. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 12 days post insult. Magnification x400. 11 12 Lungs of the sacrificed rats were...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0125 TITLE: "Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory

  5. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  6. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette; Ferris, Nigel; Owens, Ray; Kotecha, Abhay; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Jones, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the invariable residue 51 mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein on in vitro CA assembly and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höglund Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24 molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. Results We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution mutations (D51E and D51N had no substantial effect on in vitro capsid assembly, yet they impaired viral infectivity and particle production. In contrast, the D51Q mutant was defective both for in vitro capsid assembly and for virus replication in cell culture. Conclusion These results show that substitutions of D51 with glutamate, glutamine, or asparagine, three amino acid residues that are structurally related to aspartate, could partially rescue both in vitro capsid assembly and intra-cellular CAp24 production but not replication of the virus in cultured cells.

  8. Features of reovirus outer capsid protein mu1 revealed by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction of the virion at 7.0 Angstrom resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ji, Yongchang; Zhang, Lan; Harrison, Stephen C; Marinescu, Dan C; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    Reovirus is a useful model for addressing the molecular basis of membrane penetration by one of the larger nonenveloped animal viruses. We now report the structure of the reovirus virion at approximately 7.0 A resolution as obtained by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Several features of the myristoylated outer capsid protein mu1, not seen in a previous X-ray crystal structure of the mu1-sigma3 heterohexamer, are evident in the virion. These features appear to be important for stabilizing the outer capsid, regulating the conformational changes in mu1 that accompany perforation of target membranes, and contributing directly to membrane penetration during cell entry.

  9. Definition of linear antigenic regions of the HPV16 L1 capsid protein using synthetic virion-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Sun, X Y; Davies, H; Crawford, L; Park, D; Frazer, I H

    1992-08-01

    Mice of three haplotypes (H-2d, H-2b, and H-2d/b) were immunized with synthetic HPV16 virus-like particles (VLPs), produced using a vaccinia virus doubly recombinant for the L1 and L2 proteins of HPV16. The resultant anti-VLP antisera recognized HPV16 capsids by ELISA assay and baculovirus recombinant HPV16 L1 and L2 protein on immunoblot. Overlapping peptides corresponding to the HPV16 L1 amino acid sequence were used to define the immunoreactive regions of the L1 protein. The majority of the L1 peptides were reactive with IgG from the mice immunized with the synthetic HPV16 capsids. A computer algorithm predicted seven B epitopes in HPV16 L1, five of which lay within peptides strongly reactive with the murine antisera. The murine anti-VLP antisera failed to react with the two peptides recognized by anti-HPV16L1 monoclonal antibodies raised by others against recombinant L1 fusion protein. We conclude that the immunoreactive epitopes of HPV16 defined using virus-like particles differ significantly from those defined using recombinant HPV16 L1 fusion proteins, which implies that such fusion proteins may not be the antigens to look for HPV16L1 specific immune responses in HPV-infected patients.

  10. In Vivo Selection Yields AAV-B1 Capsid for Central Nervous System and Muscle Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sourav R; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Harris, Anne F; Maitland, Stacy A; Ferreira, Jennifer S; Zhang, Yuanfan; Ma, Shan; Sharma, Rohit B; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Johnson, Jacob A; Johnson, Aime K; Alonso, Laura C; Punzo, Claudio; Wagner, Kathryn R; Maguire, Casey A; Kotin, Robert M; Martin, Douglas R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have shown promise as a platform for gene therapy of neurological disorders. Achieving global gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is key for development of effective therapies for many of these diseases. Here we report the isolation of a novel CNS tropic AAV capsid, AAV-B1, after a single round of in vivo selection from an AAV capsid library. Systemic injection of AAV-B1 vector in adult mice and cat resulted in widespread gene transfer throughout the CNS with transduction of multiple neuronal subpopulations. In addition, AAV-B1 transduces muscle, β-cells, pulmonary alveoli, and retinal vasculature at high efficiency. This vector is more efficient than AAV9 for gene delivery to mouse brain, spinal cord, muscle, pancreas, and lung. Together with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by antibodies in pooled human sera, the broad transduction profile of AAV-B1 represents an important improvement over AAV9 for CNS gene therapy.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of tobacco streak virus and a proteolytically modified form of the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnke, P C; Johnson, J E

    1993-09-01

    Isolated tobacco streak virus strain mild (TSV-M) top nucleoprotein component (TV) was crystallized by vapor diffusion with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methyl pentanediol. The morphology of the crystal suggested a hexagonal space group, however, the crystals were disordered as analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Capsid protein from TSV (strains M and white clover) was treated with trypsin to remove 87 amino terminal residues. The modified capsid protein was purified by ion exchange chromatography and crystallized in both hexagonal and triclinic forms. Hexagonal crystals grown by vapor diffusion in PEG diffract X rays to 4.5 A. The crystals, in the space group P6(2) or its enantiomorph, possess unit cell dimensions of a = 98.3 A, c = 108.7 A and probably contain 12 dimers/unit cell. Triclinic crystals grown by vapor diffusion in ammonium sulfate diffracted X rays to 2.4 A resolution when exposed to X-ray synchrotron radiation. The crystals have unit cell dimensions of a = 60.1 A, b = 77.5 A, c = 73.9 A with alpha = 67.8 degrees, beta = 130 degrees, and gamma = 106 degrees and probably contain 4 dimers/unit cell.

  12. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  14. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

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    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein of the Archaeal Fusellovirus SSV1: Mutational Flexibility and Conformational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Iverson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses with spindle or lemon-shaped virions are rare in the world of viruses, but are common in viruses of archaeal extremophiles, possibly due to the extreme conditions in which they thrive. However, the structural and genetic basis for the unique spindle shape is unknown. The best-studied spindle-shaped virus, Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped Virus 1 (SSV1, is composed mostly of the major capsid protein VP1. Similar to many other viruses, proteolytic cleavage of VP1 is thought to be critical for virion formation. Unlike half of the genes in SSV1, including the minor capsid protein gene VP3, the VP1 gene does not tolerate deletion or transposon insertion. To determine the role of the VP1 gene and its proteolysis for virus function, we developed techniques for site-directed mutagenesis of the SSV1 genome and complemented deletion mutants with VP1 genes from other SSVs. By analyzing these mutants, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of the VP1 protein is required, but the N-terminus, or entire SSV1 VP1 protein, can be exchanged with VP1s from other SSVs. However, the conserved glutamate at the cleavage site is not essential for infectivity. Interestingly, viruses containing point mutations at this position generate mostly abnormal virions.

  16. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of FDG-avid metastatic bone lesions in patients with advanced lung cancer: a safe and effective technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Hao, Bing; Chen, Hao-jun; Zhao, Long; Luo, Zuo-ming; Wu, Hua; Sun, Long [The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Minnan PET Center, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, Xiamen (China)

    2017-01-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT should be performed before a diagnostic biopsy site is chosen in patients with a high clinical suspicion of aggressive, advanced tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in guiding biopsy of bone metastases in patients with advanced lung cancer. PET/CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies were performed in 51 consecutive patients with suspected lung cancer and {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone lesions after whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Generally, one tissue sample was obtained from each patient. The final diagnoses were established on the basis of the histology results. The histopathological and molecular testing results were systematically evaluated. A total of 53 samples were obtained for histological examination or molecular testing as a second biopsy was required in two patients in whom the pathological diagnosis was unclear following the first biopsy. The pathological diagnosis and lung cancer classification were confirmed in 48 patients. The epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status was determined in 23 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 30.4 % (7/23). The anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation status was determined in 19 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 31.6 % (6/19). Two of the 51 biopsies were positive for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one was positive for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The first-time diagnostic success rate of biopsy was 96.1 % (49/51) and the overall diagnostic success rate and sensitivity were 100 %. All 51 patients were eventually confirmed as having stage IV disease. No serious complications were encountered and the average biopsy time was 30 min. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone metastases is an effective and safe method that yields a high diagnostic success rate in the evaluation of hypermetabolic bone lesions in patients with suspected advanced lung cancer. (orig.)

  17. Quantifying transduction efficiencies of unmodified and tyrosine capsid mutant AAV vectors in vitro using two ocular cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Renee C; Boye, Sanford L; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E

    2011-04-29

    With the increasing number of retinal gene-based therapies and therapeutic constructs, in vitro bioassays characterizing vector transduction efficiency and quality are becoming increasingly important. Currently, in vitro assays quantifying vector transduction efficiency are performed predominantly for non-ocular tissues. A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE19) and a mouse cone photoreceptor cell line, 661W, have been well characterized and are used for many retinal metabolism and biologic pathway studies. The purpose of this study is to quantify transduction efficiencies of a variety of self-complementary (sc) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in these biologically relevant ocular cell lines using high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. ARPE19 and 661W cells were infected with sc-smCBA-mCherry packaged in unmodified AAV capsids or capsids containing single/multiple tyrosine-phenylal