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Sample records for capsicum toxicology evaluation

  1. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  2. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of treatment to see a benefit. Symptoms may return after stopping use of capsicum. Cluster headache, when used in the ... Laryngitis. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of capsicum for these uses.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out the importance of short term assays for the characterization of organic residues, specially some methods for toxicological, mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation (Vibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium and Allium cepa, used in the characterization of environmental complex mixtures lixiviates. These methods take part together with other bioassays in the evaluation by toxicological identification (VIT, which allows the evaluation of other ecotoxicological effects: a bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri; b germination and root length of Lepidum sativum; c root length of Allium cepa and Tradescantia sp.; d inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna; and e abnormalities in the development of Oryzias latipes, or medaka fish. All these assays take part in the EU battery of bioassays, applied to discriminate and select between those environmental matrixes which must be subject to more complex and specific chemical characterizations.We make a review of the methods for toxicological evaluation, used for the characterization of chemical compounds or complex mixtures, as well as the use of its results for the human and environmental risk assessment. This evaluation consists, in short, of the identification of dangers, evaluation of dose-response ratio, evaluation of exposure and risk characterization, resulting in the analysis, use and communication of this risk. It is emphasized the high predictive value for carcinogenicity of some of these bioassays.It is shown the utility of short term assays for the evaluation of substances, products and complex mixtures, which would contribute to improve the toxicological knowledge of a greater number substances. This is a vital need in the EU, due to the lack of complete toxicological information of about the 70% of the 106.000 existing and used substances.It is emphasized the great value that mutagenicity assays represent inside the toxicological tests in the basic level, which

  4. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  5. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, V J; Groten, J P

    2002-06-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures have gradually substituted trial-and-error approaches, improving the insight into the testability of joint action and interaction of constituents of mixtures. The acquired knowledge has successfully been used to evaluate the safety of combined exposures and complex mixtures such as, for example, the atmosphere at hazardous waste sites, drinking water disinfection by-products, natural flavouring complexes, and the combined intake of food additives. To consolidate the scientific foundation of mixture toxicology, studies are in progress to revisit the biological concepts and mathematics underlying formulas for low-dose extrapolation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Conspicuous developments include the production of new computer programs applicable to mixture research (CombiTool, BioMol, Reaction Network Modelling), the application of functional genomics and proteomics to mixture studies, the use of nano-optochemical sensors for in vivo imaging of physiological processes in cells, and the application of optical sensor micro- and nano-arrays for complex sample analysis. Clearly, the input of theoretical biologists, biomathematicians and bioengineers in mixture toxicology is essential for the development of this challenging branch of toxicology into a scientific subdiscipline of full value. PMID:11983277

  6. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. PMID:24913753

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  8. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  9. Crossability and evaluation of incompatibility barriers in crosses between Capsicum species

    OpenAIRE

    Kellen Coutinho Martins; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Sérgio Alessandro Machado Souza; Rosana Rodrigues; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Junior

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the crossability rate in combinations of and assess the occurrence of incompatibility barriers between Capsicum species. The species C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. baccatum were crossed and the number of hand-pollinations and of resulting fruits and plants was registered. The resulting hybrids were evaluated for their pollen viability and in the crosses that produced no hybrids, the in vivo g...

  10. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. PMID:23692768

  11. applications of nanomaterials and their toxicological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de herramientas informáticas para procesar toda la información generada en el ámbito de la nanotecnología ha originado el desarrollo de una nueva disciplina conocida como nanoinformática. En los próximos años es esperable poder disponer de bases de datos con información, no sólo de las propiedades físico-químicas de los nanomateriales, sino también con información de sus posibles interacciones con el medio ambiente y sistemas biológicos, lo que favorecerá la investigación de nuevas aplicaciones biomédicas de los nanomateriales, sin olvidar sus aspectos toxicológicos. En este artículo se presentan diversos recursos de estandarización, ontologías, bases de datos, iniciativas y colaboraciones que ayudan a gestionar la información generada sobre nanomateriales, especialmente orientados a favorecer la Investigación biomédica y la toxicología de los nanomateriales. Además, se presentan otros recursos web complementarios que facilitarán el proceso de autoaprendizaje y el desarrollo de contenidos curriculares en escuelas superiores y facultades, útiles en la formación de esta nueva disciplina, denominada nanotecnología.

  12. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  13. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  14. Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossou Jacques Dougnon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to evaluate zootechnic parameters and blood sugar in rabbits submitted to diets containing different levels of pepper (Capsicum frutescens. Materials and Methods: To this end, 30 rabbits weighing on average 1252±35 g at the beginning of the experiment were subjected to five rations with three repetitions for 56 days: The food R0 (or control which is floury provender contains 0% of C. frutescens; R5, R10, R15, and R20 provender containing, respectively, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of C. frutescens fruits’ powder. Rabbits consumed on average from 75.47 to 80.97 g dry matter. Results: Digestibility ranged from 52.39% to 61.01%. The average daily gain and feed consumption index were similar for all diets. Blood glucose was amended by the various servings is 0.98 g/L and 0.88 g/L, respectively, for doses. Conclusion: It appears from this study that rabbits consumed well diets containing C. frutescens. However, C. frutescens’ effect on the growth performances of rabbits is not noticeable. Furthers experiments will be useful to evaluate C. frutescens’ mechanism of action on blood sugar.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

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    Shiying Zou

    Full Text Available A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50 based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system.

  16. Crossability and evaluation of incompatibility barriers in crosses between Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the crossability rate in combinations of and assess the occurrence of incompatibility barriers between Capsicum species. The species C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. baccatum were crossed and the number of hand-pollinations and of resulting fruits and plants was registered. The resulting hybrids were evaluated for their pollen viability and in the crosses that produced no hybrids, the in vivo germination of pollen grains was assessed. Some crosses generated hybrids, while others produced no fruit or, despite generating fruits, no plants grew from them. The crossability rate between species of the complex C. annuum and C. baccatum ranged from 2.2% to 3.7%, and was 14.6% between species of the complex C. annuum. A pre-fertilization barrier was observed in the non-germination of pollen grains, as well as post-fertilization barriers consisting of embryo death, lack of vigor and hybrid sterility

  17. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pa...

  18. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  19. Toxicologic evaluation of analytes from Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company requested PNL to assemble a toxicology review panel (TRP) to evaluate analytical data compiled by WHC, and provide advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents. The team's objectives would be to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by workers, (3) evaluate the toxicological implications of those constituents by comparison to establish toxicological databases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by WHC. The TRP represents a wide range of expertise, including toxicology, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine. The TRP prepared a list of target analytes that chemists at the Oregon Graduate Institute/Sandia (OGI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNL used to establish validated methods for quantitative analysis of head-space vapors from Tank 241-C-103. this list was used by the analytical laboratories to develop appropriate analytical methods for samples from Tank 241-C-103. Target compounds on the list included acetone, acetonitrile, ammonia, benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, butanal, n-butanol, hexane, 2-hexanone, methylene chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, dodecane, tridecane, propane nitrile, sulfur oxide, tributyl phosphate, and vinylidene chloride. The TRP considered constituent concentrations, current exposure limits, reliability of data relative to toxicity, consistency of the analytical data, and whether the material was carcinogenic or teratogenic. A final consideration in the analyte selection process was to include representative chemicals for each class of compounds found

  20. Preparation and toxicological evaluation of methyl pyranoanthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Wu, Nao; Kuang, Minjie; Lamikanra, Olusola; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; He, Jingren

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are increasingly valued in the food industry for their functional properties and as food colorants. The broadness of their applications has, however, been limited by the lack of stability of these natural pigment extracts in a number of food systems. The potential application of pyranoanthocyanins, anthocyanin derivatives with better stability conferred by the added pyran ring, as a food ingredient was determined. Methylpyranoanthocyanin (MPA) was prepared from reaction of acetone and anthocyanin extracts from red grapes. Reaction products were sequentially purified with polyamide resin, TSK gel resin and semi-preparative HPLC to a purity level >98%. Cytoprotective influence tests of the purified MPA indicated its significant protective effect against H2O2 induced MRC-5 cell damage. Results of evaluations of possible acute toxicity effects on MPA-fed mice, including macro and microscopic assessments, support the conclusion of a non-toxic effect of MPA, and its potential safe use as a food additive. PMID:26028581

  1. Toxicological Evaluation of Tetrameles nudiflora Methanolic Extract

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    Sofna DS Banjarnahor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of Mekongga national park resulted in novel finding of anticancer property from Tetrameles nudiflora. The investigation of toxic features of T. nudiflora is vital for further studies of its pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity test was done on methanolic extracts of T. nudiflora in DDY mice. Animal models were ordered into five groups. Group 1 was given 1 ml solution of 2.5% Tween 80 in a sole oral dose. The remaining groups were appointed a sole dose of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg body weight T. nudiflora, respectively. Toxic effects of the extract were evaluated on the basis of behavioral observations in the form of locomotor activity; curiosity; defecation; urination and also animal mortality. Observations were carried out for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight and behavioral activities were recorded. Mortality was recorded up to 22% of the male group, and 11% of the female group. The T. nudiflora extracts tested for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of 46.67 μg/ml. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of T. nudiflora are potential to be explored as anticancer (LC50= 46.67 μg/ml. The extract is slightly toxic in male mice with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 12.6 g/kg body weight, and practically nontoxic for female (LD50>15 g/kg body weight

  2. Toxicological evaluation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Feron, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    A major objective of combination toxicology is to establish whether a mixture of chemicals will result in an effect similar to that expected on the basis of additivity. This requires understanding of the basic concepts of the combined toxicological action of the compounds of the mixture: simple simi

  3. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar; Renate Krause-Sakate; Marcelo Agenor Pavan; Cyro Paulino da Costa

    2009-01-01

    A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar piment...

  4. Different approaches to the toxicological evaluation of irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological evaluation of irradiated starch is performed either through long-term experiments on rats (24 months) and mice (18 months) or through determination of the semichronic toxicity in rats (6 months) of previously identified and determined radiation-induced products. A trial with five groups each of 80 rats (40 males and 40 females; controls receiving the diet raw or cooked; other animals receiving the diet raw after irradiation to 300krad and raw or cooked after irradiation to 600krad) consists of a toxicity test and a study of the reproductive functions. The trial with mice - the same number of animals divided into three groups (standard control, control and 300krad) - consists of a study of the reproductive functions with an examination of teratogenicity and the study of cancerogenic and mutagenic potentiality. In no case have the authors found significant differences between the groups. Of the 35 starch radiolysis products so far identified the authors considered nine (formic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malonaldehyde and glyoxal). After an acute and subacute toxicity trial with a mixture of the nine compounds, a six-month semichronic toxicity trial was carried out with four groups of animals (15 males and 15 females). The daily uptake of 0.3g of the mixture per kilogram was found to have no effect on the rats. This daily uptake corresponds to a quantity of radiolytic products 800 times greater than what would be taken up by a baby consuming 30g of irradiated starch (300krad) and is below the threshold of true general toxicity, which is masked here by the caustic effect of the formic acid. (author)

  5. Different Approaches to the Toxicological Evaluation of Irradiated Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological evaluation of irradiated starch is performed either through long-term experiments on rats (24 months) and mice (18 months) or through determination of the semichronic toxicity in rats ( 6 months) of previously identified and determined radiation induced products. A trial with five groups each of 80 rats (40 males and 40 females; controls receiving the diet raw or cooked; other animals receiving the diet raw after irradiation to 300 krad and raw or cooked after irradiation to 600 krad) consists of a toxicity test and a study of the reproductive functions. The trial with mice - the same number of animals divided into three groups (standard control, control and 300 krad) - consists of a study of the reproductive functions with an examination of teratogenicity and the study of cancerogenic and mutagenic potentiality. In no case have the authors found significant differences between the groups. Of the 35 starch radiolysis products so far identified the authors considered nine (formic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malonaldehyde and glyoxal). After an acute and subacute toxicity trial with a mixture of the nine compounds, a six-month semichronic toxicity trial was carried out with four groups of animals (15 males and 15 females). The daily uptake of 0.3 g of the mixture per kilogram was found to have no effect on the rats. This daily uptake corresponds to a quantity of radiolytic products 800 times greater than what would be taken up by a baby consuming 30 g of irradiated starch (300 krad) and is below the threshold of true general toxicity, which is masked here by the caustic effect of the formic acid. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gören, İsmail Ethem; Duysak, Mustafa İlker; Dağlıoğlu, Nebile; Efeoğlu, Pınar; Gülmen, Mete Korkut

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008) archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After sc...

  7. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI; Joseph Akintade MORAKINYO

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The hi...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the toxicological evaluation of phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was asked by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR to re-evaluate the TDI for phenol of 1.5 mg/kg bw/day, since this value is within the same dose range which was reported to be associated with some haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects in an oral study on phenol. The Panel comprehensively reviewed the available toxicological studies, mainly those using an oral route of exposure. The CEF experts did not consider immunotoxicity as a suitable endpoint on which to base a new TDI for phenol, given the study limitations and the lack of confirmation of phenol-induced immunotoxic effects in other studies. The Panel considered a gavage developmental toxicity study and an oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study as the two most robust toxicity studies, and performed a dose-response analysis of these data using the benchmark dose (BMD approach. The lower 95 % confidence bound (one-sided of the BMD, denoted BMDL, was then taken as the reference point. The lowest reference point for deriving a health based guidance value was provided by the BMDL10 of 52 mg/kg bw/day for reduced maternal body weight gain from a developmental toxicity study where rats were exposed to phenol by gavage from gestational day 6 to 16. The CEF Panel set a TDI for phenol to 0.5 mg/kg bw/day, by applying a standard uncertainty factor of 100 (for inter- and intra-species differences to this BMDL10 value. The Panel did not assess the hazards related to the possible oxidation products of phenol, e.g. quinones/hydroquinones. Therefore, the above TDI only covers phenol. Exposure to phenol may occur via sources other than food contact materials, e.g. flavourings, smoke flavourings, traditionally smoked foods, floor waxes, cosmetics, disinfectants, etc.. The European Commission may wish to take note of all these sources of exposure if setting a restriction for phenol in food contact materials.

  9. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  10. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author)

  11. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of fracturing fluids; Toxikologische Bewertung von Fracking-Fluiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimmel, Fritz H.; Gordalla, Birgit [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserchemie und Wassertechnologie und DVGW-Forschungsstelle Engler-Bunte-Inst.; Ewers, Ulrich [Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Umweltmedizin und Toxikologie; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioanalytische Oekotoxikologie

    2012-11-01

    The fracturing technology utilizes chemicals which have to be evaluated according to the safety and environmental compatibility. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration present an integrated evaluation in terms of human toxicology, ecotoxicology as well as in terms of protection of drinking water on the basis of selected examples.

  13. Toxicological evaluations of rare earths and their health impacts to workers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung Taek; Koo, Kwon Ho; Park, Jung Sun

    2013-03-01

    In concert with the development of new materials in the last decade, the need for toxicological studies of these materials has been increasing. These new materials include a group of rare earths (RE). The use of RE nanotechnology is being considered in some green applications, to increase their efficiency by using nano-sized RE compounds, and therefore hazard evaluation and risk assessment are highly recommended. This review was conducted through an extensive contemplation of the literatures in toxicology with in vitro and in vivo studies. Major aspects reviewed were the toxicological evaluations of these elements and metallic compounds at the molecular and cellular level, animal and human epidemiological studies and environmental and occupational health impacts on workers. We also discuss the future prospect of industries with appliances using RE together with the significance of preventive efforts for workers' health. To establish a safe and healthy working environment for RE industries, the use of biomarkers is increasing to provide sustainable measure, due to demand for information about the health risks from unfavorable exposures. Given the recent toxicological results on the exposure of cells, animals and workers to RE compounds, it is important to review the toxicological studies to improve the current understanding of the RE compounds in the field of occupational health. This will help to establish a sustainable, safe and healthy working environment for RE industries. PMID:23516020

  14. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of two children diagnosed as Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Zeynep; Ziyalar, Neylan; Tari, Itir; Mercan, Selda; Kayiran, Sinan Mahir; Sener, Dicle; Cengiz, Salih; Akçakaya, Necla

    2012-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a kind of child abuse in which affected children are often hospitalized for long periods and endure repetitive, painful and expensive diagnostic attempts. We present herein two toxicologically confirmed cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Case 1 is a 16-month-old male who had fever, peripheral cyanosis, tremor, and reported cardiac arrest. Symptoms recurred in the hospital when the mother administered fluids. Toxicology detected 3.5 ng/ml mercury (Hg) in the fluid and 9.4 microg Hg/g creatinine in the urine. Case 2 is a 14-year-old female who had irregular blood findings and multiple hospitalizations. Serum analysis detected warfarin. Both mothers were transferred to psychiatric care. Munchausen syndrome by proxy should be suspected when clinical/laboratory findings are negative, illness descriptions are inconsistent, and frequent hospitalization yields no diagnosis. Psychiatric evaluation and toxicological analysis are recommended. PMID:23094539

  16. Toxicological evaluation of chicken-breast meat with high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, toxicity and safety of high-dose irradiated chicken-breast meat were evaluated. For assays of acute toxicity, genetic toxicity, and sub-chronic toxicity, ames test, mice bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus, and mice sperm abnormality were performed. The results showed that, in the acute oral toxicity tests, median lethal dose (more than 10 000 mg kg-1) in male and female ICR mice showed no toxicological signs. For subacute 30-d oral toxicology of irradiated chicken-breast meat with dose of 10, 15 and 25 kGy in both male and female SD rats, no noticeable toxicological effects were observed. It is concluded that chicken-breast meat with high-dose irradiation has no acute toxicity and no genotoxicity, nor harmful effects on the animal body at the tested dosage range. Therefore, high-dose irradiated chicken-breast meat is safe for pet consumption

  17. Basis for the toxicological evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Porredon Guarch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de producción anual de nanomateriales eleva la exposición humana y ambiental, y tiene un posible impacto en la opinión pública. Con el fin de reglamentar esta producción, organizaciones internacionales como la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico (OECD y la Comisión Europea a través de la reglamentación REACH han establecido algunas medidas para evaluar la seguridad para la salud y el medio ambiente de los nanomateriales. Esta revisión intenta analizar las medidas propuestas por estas instituciones de acuerdo con las pruebas estándar usadas en toxicología, las distintas clasificaciones de los nanomateriales y los principales mecanismos de toxicidad conocidos de los nanomateriales. Como resultado de este análisis se cree conveniente continuar desarrollando tests específicos para la evaluación de nanomateriales, ya que las medidas establecidas por las organizaciones de referencia no son suficientes para conseguir unas bases estándares para testar nanomateriales. En gran parte esto es debido a la gran diversidad de nanomateriales existentes y la importancia de la manipulación, técnicas y sistemas experimentales escogidos en los resultados de toxicidad.

  18. EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE (NACL) IN TUNISIAN CHILI PEPPER ( CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) ON GROWTH, MINERAL ANALYSIS AND SOLUTES SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther ZHANI; Hermans, Nina; Ahmad, Rezwan; Hannachi, Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L.) cultivars: Tebourba (Tb), Somaa (Sm), Korba...

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were noted in groups fed 0.5% to 5.0% red pepper. The results of 9-and 12-month extension of this study showed normal large intestines and kidneys. In rabbits fed Capsicum Annuum Powder at 5 mg/kg day-1 in the diet daily for 12 months damage to the liver and spleen was noted. A rabbit skin irritation test of Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation, but Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced concentration-dependent (at 25 to 500 microg/ml) cytotoxicity in a human buccal mucosa fibroblast cell line. An ethanol extract of red chili was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in TA100, or in Escherichia coli. Other genotoxicity assays gave a similar pattern of mixed results. Adenocarcinoma of the abdomen was observed in 7/20 mice fed 100 mg red chilies per day for 12 months; no tumors were seen in control animals. Neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumors were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg day-1 for 30 days, intestinal and colon tumors were seen in rats fed red chili powder and 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, but no tumors were observed in controls. In another study in rats, however, red chile pepper in the diet at the same dose decreased the number of tumors seen with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Other feeding studies evaluated the effect of red chili peppers on the incidence of stomach tumors produced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, finding that red pepper had a promoting effect. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract promoted the carcinogenic effect of methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (carcinogen) or benzene hexachloride (hepatocarcinogen) in inbred male and female Balb/c mice dosed orally (tongue application). Clinical findings include symptoms of cough, sneezing, and runny nose in chili factory workers. Human respiratory responses to Capsicum Oleoresin spray include burning of the throat, wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath, gagging

  20. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  1. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  2. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán; José Luis Chávez-Servia; José Cruz Carrillo-Rodríguez; López, Mercedes G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes) of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant d...

  3. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  4. A New Path Forward: The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Warren; Jacobs, Abigail; Maull, Elizabeth; Matheson, Joanna; Clarke, Carol; Lowit, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was congressionally established, with representatives from Federal regulatory and research agencies that require, use, generate, or disseminate toxicologic and safety testing information. For over 15 y, ICCVAM and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) have worked together to promote the development, validation, and r...

  5. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author)

  6. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of carbon-based nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rafael Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of different graphene-based nanoparticles with potential biomedical applications are explored. The results presented within this work show that eukaryotic cells can respond differently not only to different types of nanoparticles, but also identify slight differences in the morphology of nanoparticles, such as size. This highlights the great importance of the synthesis and thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the design of eff...

  7. DNA vaccination for rabies: Evaluation of preclinical safety and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Garg; Manpreet Kaur; Ankur Saxena; Rakesh Bhatnagar

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of rabies and high rates of therapy failure, despite availability of effective vaccines indicate the need for timely and improved prophylactic approaches. DNA vaccination based on optimized formulation of lysosome-targeted glycoprotein of the rabies virus provides potential platform for preventing and controlling rabies. As per the pre-clinical requirements, listed in guidelines of Schedule Y, FDA and that of The European Agency for evaluation of Medicinal Products; we...

  8. DNA vaccination for rabies: Evaluation of preclinical safety and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide incidence of rabies and high rates of therapy failure, despite availability of effective vaccines indicate the need for timely and improved prophylactic approaches. DNA vaccination based on optimized formulation of lysosome-targeted glycoprotein of the rabies virus provides potential platform for preventing and controlling rabies. As per the pre-clinical requirements, listed in guidelines of Schedule Y, FDA and that of The European Agency for evaluation of Medicinal Products; we evaluated the acute (single dose – 14 days using three dosing levels, that is, the therapeutic (1×, average (5× and high dose (10× intramuscular toxicity in the rodent model Swiss Albino mice. Furthermore, the chronic intramuscular toxicity (repeated dose – 43 days with another 14 days for satellite groups was investigated using broad dosing levels ranging from low (7×, mid (14× to high (28× in Wistar rats. A range of parameters including physical, physiological, clinical, immunological, hematological along with histopathology profiles of target organs was monitored to assess the impact of vaccination. There were no observational adverse effects despite high dose administration of the DNA vaccine formulation. Thus, this study indicates the safety of next generation of vaccines as well as highlights their potential application.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  10. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  11. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke. PMID:17905505

  12. Antidiarrhoea and toxicological evaluation of the leaf extract of Dissotis rotundifolia triana (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoto Pius E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Dissotis rotundifolia are used ethnomedically across Africa without scientific basis or safety concerns. Determination of its phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT as well as toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activity against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were compared with Gentamycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the tested organisms. The effect of the ethanol extract on the motility of the GIT in mice using the charcoal plug method and castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats was evaluated. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wistar rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The tissues of the kidneys, liver, heart and testes were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and cardiac glycosides. The crude ethanol extract and fractions inhibited the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhi to varying extents. The degree of transition exhibited by the charcoal meal was dose-dependent. In the castor oil induced diarrhoea test, all the doses showed anti-spasmodic effects. The LD50 in mice was above 500 mg/kg body weight. Toxicological evaluation at 500 mg/kg showed increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia and densely stained nuclei of the liver, tubular necrosis of the kidney, presence of ill-defined testes with indistinct cell outlines and no remarkable changes in the heart. Conclusion Ethanol extracts of Dissotis rotundifolia have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of selected microorganisms. The plant showed potential for application in the

  13. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

  14. Characterization of Different Capsicum Varieties by Evaluation of Their Capsaicinoids Content by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Determination of Pungency and Effect of High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g−1 dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies.

  15. Characterization of different Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their capsaicinoids content by high performance liquid chromatography, determination of pungency and effect of high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Alberto; Sierra-Campos, Erick; Luna-Ortega, J Guadalupe; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Rodríguez Ortiz, Juan Carlos; García-Hernández, José L

    2013-01-01

    The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g(-1) dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU) for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies. PMID:24184818

  16. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings. PMID:27569522

  17. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes we

  18. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting tow

  19. Toxicologic evaluation of pepper spray as a possible weapon for the Dutch police force: risk assessment and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busker, R W; van Helden, H P

    1998-12-01

    The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it causes an acute inflammation, and humans involuntarily close their eyes, experience a burning feeling on the skin, and are usually rapidly incapacitated. Use by the U.S. police was successful in subduing aggressive individuals in 90% of cases, and a reduction of injury to both police and arrested individuals was noted. In general, pepper spray appeared to be a relatively safe weapon with small risk of causing acute physical harm. Despite this evidence, a number of fatalities were reported in the United States following the use of pepper spray. However, it was concluded that it was not the pepper spray but rather other factors such as drugs and hog-tying that contributed to the cause of death. In only 1 case, that of an asthmatic man, was it concluded that the use of pepper spray contributed to the cause of death. Much attention has been paid to possible genotoxic effects of Capsicum extract such as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. It was concluded that the risk of long-term health effects is negligible. Because pepper spray may induce bronchoconstriction, people suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease may be hypersensitive to it. Although the results of one study indicate that asthmatics do not develop additional bronchoconstriction following inhalation of capsaicin, the number of experimental data are too few to draw sound conclusions. PMID:9885922

  20. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ethem Goren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008 archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After screening five-year archives using laboratory registration book, we determined that of 608 cases 49.5 % were from emergency medicine, 19.6 % from pediatric, 7.4 % from psychiatry, 4.4 % 4.4 from neurology, 2.3 % from other units of the hospital, 7.9 % from judicial authorities, 4.8 % from special requests and 6.1 % from circumjacent hospitals. 57.9 % of the cases are male and 42.1 % are female. 87.3 % of 608 cases were clinical cases, 7.9 % were forensic cases, 4.8 % special requests. 95.8 % of judicial cases were male and 85.4 % were drugs of abuse cases. 28.1 % of clinical cases were the carbon monoxide poisoning and 64.3 % of the carbon monoxide poisoning cases were female. Conclusion: When five-year data were evaluated, we determine that numbers of case are increasing every year. Males are more than in females. Forensic cases which were mostly drugs of abuse were most commonly have seen in male. When our data were investigated together with TUBIM’s data belong to 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Turkey Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, the use of drug abuse were seen most commonly in male. Also carbon monoxide poisoning in clinical cases were evaluated and we see that Carbon monoxide intoxication in winter was more than in summer due to heating. Women who exposed to carbon monoxide were more than men to be much more at home according to men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 675-680

  1. Toxicology elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the different aspects of the modern toxicology: toxico-kinetic, biological, medico legal, food, professional, pharmaceuticals, environmental, social and regulatory. It is divided in three parts that consider the principle problems of general toxicology and analytical toxicology. (N.C.)

  2. Comparative analysis of toxicological evaluations for dermal exposure performed under two different EU regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, Emma; Schenk, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general, as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic products. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare toxicological evaluations of dermal exposure performed under current regulatory frameworks. The publicly disseminated hazard information under the respective regulatory frameworks was compiled and compared for the five substances resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. A low consistency between evaluations was observed in respect to data coverage and cited dose descriptors. No systematic differences over all five substances were identified from the viewpoint of dermal hazard assessment. The critical effect and corresponding systemic effect dose descriptor was identical for two substances, differed somewhat for two other (a factor of 2-2.5). For N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine a critical effect was only identified under REACH. PMID:24269627

  3. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of Cr₂O₃ nanoparticles using Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerari, Rodrigo Costa; da Costa, Cristina H; Vicentini, Denice S; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; Melegari, Silvia P; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Matias, William G

    2016-06-01

    Chromium III oxide (Cr2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) are used in pigments for ceramics, dyes, paints and cosmetics. However, few studies addressing the toxic potential of these NPs have been reported in the literature. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of Cr2O3 NPs through acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna. Cr2O3 NPs were synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized through TEM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential (ZP) and surface area analysis. In the acute toxicity tests the EC(50,48h) value obtained with D. magna was 6.79 mg L(-1) and for A. fischeri the EC(50,15min) value was 16.10 mg L(-1) and the EC(50,30min) value was 12.91 mg L(-1). Regarding the chronic toxicity tests with D. magna, effects on longevity (OEC=1.00 mg L(-1)), reproduction (OEC=1.00 mg L(-1)) and growth (OEC=0.50 mg L(-1)) were observed. On the SEM and TEM images, ultrastructural alterations in the organelles of exposed organisms were also observed. Thus, toxicological studies with NPs are of great importance in order to reduce the risk of environmental contamination. PMID:26890188

  4. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo S. Tamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida. are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa. to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used and biodiesel (B100. An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.

  5. [Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of waste of the leading industrial branches of the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkatov, S V; Andreeva, S G

    2004-01-01

    Toxicological and hygienic evaluations were made of the wastes produced by aluminum-making plants and thermal power stations in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which confirmed for the first time the environmental toxicity of ash-dump waste, derived from slicing and dusty burning of brown coals from the Kansk-Achinsk field, and nepheline slurries resulted from the processing of urthites from the Kiy-Shaltyr deposit to prepare alumina. They were found to exert a toxic effect on warm-blooded animals, to have cyto- and phytotoxicity and mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Class III hazard was established for slurries of aluminum making (nepheline and gas purifications) and Class IV hazard for ash-dump waste and coal foam flotation tailings. The study has yielded data on the high level of natural radionuclides (as high as 2 kBq/kg) in the ash slurries from in the Berezovsk brown coal field, which requires that the procedure for their controlling and handling should be determined. PMID:15318604

  6. Toxicological evaluation of Euterpe edulis: a potential superfruit to be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzenszwalb, Israel; da Costa Marques, Monica Regina; Mazzei, José L; Aiub, Claudia A F

    2013-08-01

    Superfruits have a high nutritional value due to their richness in nutrients, antioxidants, proven or potential health benefits and taste appeal. However, there are no scientific criteria for defining which fruits are superfruits. In Brazil, several palms have an edible palm heart, the best known and most widely appreciated of which is called Acai (Euterpe oleracea). Euterpe edulis Mart., commonly called jussara, is an evergreen species that grows in the rainforest. Having initially been consumed in the form of juice and pulp, they have since been incorporated as an ingredient in many foods. A risk assessment to identify adverse health effects is a prerequisite for taking forward the development of new drugs, cosmetics and foods. To make a toxicological evaluation of E. edulis, in the present work this prerequisite was met by an interdisciplinary network that performed mass spectroscopy analyses, blood biochemistry, genotoxicity, bacterial reverse mutation and cytotoxicity assays. Positive mutagenicity results were detected for Salmonella typhimurium TA97 at low doses, and positive results were also obtained for the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, indicating that the pulp of E. edulis contains compounds with the capacity to induce mutagenicity and clastogenic/aneugenic effects. PMID:23712094

  7. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa; Daniel D.R. Arcanjo; Rayra G. Ribeiro; Klinger Antonio F. Rodrigues; Flávia Franceli B. Passos; Celyane A. Piauilino; José Couras Silva-Filho; Bruno Q. Araújo; José S. Lima-Neto; Joaquim S. Costa-Júnior; Fernando Aécio A. Carvalho; Antônia Maria das Graças L. Citó

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae) is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic ex...

  8. ToxEvaluator: an integrated computational platform to aid the interpretation of toxicology study-related findings

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, D.; Wiegers, T. C.; Enayetallah, A.; Kibbey, C.; Gosink, M; Koza-Taylor, P.; Mattingly, C. J.; Lawton, M

    2016-01-01

    Attempts are frequently made to investigate adverse findings from preclinical toxicology studies in order to better understand underlying toxicity mechanisms. These efforts often begin with limited information, including a description of the adverse finding, knowledge of the structure of the chemical associated with its cause and the intended pharmacological target. ToxEvaluator was developed jointly by Pfizer and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (http://ctdbase.org) team at North Caro...

  9. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Nalone Andrade; Ricardo Guimarães Amaral; Grace Anne Azevedo Dória; Cecília Santos Fonseca; Tayane Kayane Mariano da Silva; Ricardo Luiz Cavalcante Albuquerque Júnior; Sara Maria Thomazzi; Lázaro Gomes do Nascimento; Adriana Andrade Carvalho; Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S)-(−)-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 3...

  10. Repellent Compounds Used for Protection From Ticks and Their Toxicological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oral DİNLER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of very harmful diseases in humans and animals. Nine arbovirus, two rickettsia, two protozoa and one helminthic diseases are transmitted by ticks in different climatic and geographical zones. Twenty six tick species have been determined in Turkey until now. These tick species transmit tropical theileriosis and babesiosis, which are cause of important economical loses especially in farm animals, and lyme disease and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. The control of ticks is getting more important due to appearance of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fewer (CCHF in Turkey in recent years. However, the control of ticks is a very difficult and expensive procedure and generally chance of success is very low. The main aims of tick control are acaricidal control of ticks on animals, making different applications for elimination of tick-born diseases in humans and reduction of the contact risk between humans, domestic animals and ticks. The repellent is a common name of the compounds, which are applied on directly skin, clothes and sometimes curtains and nets, and prevent the humans and domestic animals against attacks of harmful organisms such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Although repellent compounds are applied for the organisms which annoy and suck blood at outdoor, some products used in indoor areas (houses, offices and animal shelters, such as mosquito nets, coils and thermal vaporised liquid and mat formulations, are also evaluated in this frame. Repellents are very beneficial products for prevent attack by ticks. But, it should be known that these compounds are not completely harmless and sometimes they can cause toxic effects in humans and domestic animals. In this review, definition and history of the repellent compounds, the action mechanisms and features of an ideal repellent, important repellent compounds and their toxicological importance and safety usage principles of repellents were evaluated.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of a core-shell copper oxide/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Vicentini, Denice S; Costa, Cristina H; Melegari, Silvia P; Matias, William G

    2014-08-01

    The newest generation of copper oxide NPs (CuO NPs) is the CuO core-shell (CS), which has potential applications in several areas (e.g., electronics and paint) and is able to provide a greater service life due to its coating; however, its toxicity is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the aquatic toxicology of CuO NPs and CuO core-shells through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustaceans Daphnia magna and to evaluate its acute toxicity with the marine bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The NPs were synthesized by direct thermal decomposition after being coated as a CS with polyaniline (PANI). With respect to acute toxicity with D. magna, the CuO NPs and CS CuO/PANI presented EC50 values of 0.32 mg L(-1) and 0.48 mg L(-1), respectively. For the tests with V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50-15 min=7.79 mg L(-1)) exhibited behavior similar to that of the CS CuO/PANI (EC50-15 min=9.05 mg L(-1)) after 15 min of exposure. Regarding chronic toxicity, both forms showed a statistically significant effect (ptoxicity results, it can be concluded that both forms of CuO were toxic and presented similar behaviors during the acute tests; however, after 21 d of exposure, CS CuO/PANI showed higher toxicity to the reproduction parameter, highlighting the importance of a complete study of the NP to better understand its toxicity mechanism. PMID:24875919

  12. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting towards flavour as an important quality parameter for fruits and vegetables. The flavour of fruits and vegetables, as perceived during consumption, is the overall sensation provided by the interaction...

  13. Characterization of Different Capsicum Varieties by Evaluation of Their Capsaicinoids Content by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Determination of Pungency and Effect of High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto González-Zamora; Erick Sierra-Campos; J. Guadalupe Luna-Ortega; Rebeca Pérez-Morales; Juan Carlos Rodríguez Ortiz; José L. García-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromato...

  14. Evaluation of new resistance-genes deployment strategies in the pepper Capsicum annuum for the durable management of root-knot nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Risso, S.; Lanza, R.; Taussig, C.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.

    2013-01-01

    The current restrictions on the use of chemical nematicides have contributed to increase rootknot nematode problems in horticultural crops. ln this context, plant resistance appears as the most effective method of control, but the possible occurrence of virulent nematodes able to reproduce on R-plants may constitute a severe threat to this control strategy. ln Capsicum annuum, resistance to RKN is controlled by several dominant genes - the N and Me genes. To implement a rational management of...

  15. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Pérez

    Full Text Available The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ (Spain holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2% were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles. Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern

  16. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain. PMID

  17. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed

  18. Ochratoxin A: a toxicologic evaluation using in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Adriana DEHELEAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a secondary fungal metabolite that enters the food chain by cereals, beer and other products. Its toxicity is an important aim regarding the human pathologies such as nephrotoxicity. This mechanism is intense studied because of the affinity for blood albumins and the renal accumulation by the organic anion transporter. Its serum half-life is different in humans (850 h and chicken (4.1 h after oral administration. These data could lead to the idea of analyzing the deep mechanism in contact with blood elements. An important protocol for observation of necrosis/ toxicity and angiogenesis is CAM (chorioallantoic membrane assay developed on embryonated chicken eggs. This test could be correlated with the red blood cell test (RBC. In this study the toxicological effect of Ochratoxin A was tested. The Ochratoxin A was disolved in corn oil, in the similar concentration used in test on rats. The lipophilic solvent assures an important penetrability for tested compound on vascular plexus. The evolution of embryo vessels was observed after 15 minutes, 1h and 1 day. Samples were collected for haematoxilin-eosin staining and imunohistochemical evaluation. The same corn oil solution was used for the tests on blood red cells to see the damages. The OTA was also administered to Sprague Dawley male rats and a detailed blood test was made. The main results indicated that OTA influences the blood vessels and blood quality in vitro and in vivo. The irritation created on blood vessels is moderate comparing to strong irritants but it is significant. It determines moderate changes on blood elements after a period of presence of a few weeks in sytemic ic circulation.

  19. Capsicum sp.: diversidad y capsicinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Claver, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El género Capsicum, originario del continente americano (Andrews, 1984), comprende 33 especies (GRIN, 2014), de las cuales cinco, Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. chinense Jacq., C. frutescens L., y C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav., han sido domesticadas (Bosland, 1994; Bosland y Votaba, 2000). De ellas, C. annuum es la especie más cultivada en todo el mundo. Los restos más antiguos identificados como C. annuum, que podrían corresponder a las primeras evidencias de su domesticación, se encontra...

  20. Toxicological evaluation of two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as bioindicators of heavy metal contaminants using metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Cao, Lulu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been of great concern in the Bohai marine environment. Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum has been used as a bioindicator in marine toxicology. In this study, NMR-based metabolomics was used to ascertain whether there were significant biological differences between two dominant pedigrees (White and Zebra) of clam and evaluate the suitability of two pedigrees for marine environmental toxicology, together with antioxidant enzymatic analysis. Our results indicated that there were significant biological differences between White and Zebra clams based on the metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In details, the metabolic profiles showed higher levels of amino acids and succinate in Zebra clam digestive glands and higher levels of ATP in White clam digestive glands, respectively. The superoxide dismutase activities in control White and Zebra clam samples were significantly different. Additionally, White clam was more sensitive to Cd based on the significant accumulation of Cd, antioxidant enzymatic alterations and sensitive metabolic changes. Overall, we concluded that White clam could be a preferable bioindicator for marine environmental toxicology. PMID:25681705

  1. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic extract of P. insignis seeds, as well as its in vivo acute oral toxicity. The biological evaluation was performed by the determination of cytotoxic (MTT and hemolysis assay and immunomodulatory (phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume and nitrite production activities of EHSB in murine peritoneal macrophages. In addition, the oral acute toxicity was evaluated using female Wistar rats treated with EHSB (2.0 g/kg, in accordance with the OECD 423 Guideline. The EHSB showed low toxicity for macrophages in the MTT test (CC50 value: 90.03 µg/ml, as well as for erythrocytes, which caused only 2.5% hemolysis at the highest concentration. A strong immunomodulatory activity was observed by a markedly increase of the NO production, phagocytic ability and lysosomal volume. On the other hand, it was not observed deaths or changes in the clinical and behavioral parameters in the toxicological evaluation. This manner, the present study contributes to the knowledge about the immunomodulatory and toxicological properties of the P. insignis. This may provide perspectives for the evaluation and development of effective and safe phytomedicines created from the Brazilian local biodiversity.

  2. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  3. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L. can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, P-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1. With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 /En la última década, se reportó que el consumo de ciertos alimentos y especias, como el chile (Capsicum annuum L., pueden tener un efecto positivo en la salud. Particularmente, los acervos genéticos mexicanos de chile están poco documentados en relación a la diversidad desde la perspectiva fitoquímica. En este trabajo se evaluó la variación de compuestos fitoquímicos en nueve morfotipos de chile silvestres y cultivados de Oaxaca. El ANDEVA detectó diferencias significativas entre morfotipos y estados de madurez en vitamina C, fenoles, flavonoides, P-caroteno, color, y capsaicinoides. Los valores más altos de vitamina C se determinaron en 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' y 'Costeño' (151.6 a 183.2 mg 100 g-1. En fenoles y flavonoides sobresalieron los tipos 'Piquin' y 'Solterito'. Las coordenadas cromáticas a* y b*, y los tonos (C* se correlacionaron

  4. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Agronomic evaluation of Capsicum accessions of the gene Bank of the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.100 accessions from Capsicum gene Bank of the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus, under field conditions of the experimental station at Candelaria, Cauca Valley were studied. In a design of incomplete blocks 10 x 10 with three repetitions, quantitative descriptions were evaluated. The characteristics were related with yield, capsaicin content and virus presence.The agronomic evaluation found that the differences among the accessions are explained for the capsaicin content, yield, characteristics associated and fruits characteristics associated. Inverse correlation among the capsaicin content with production, quantity of fruits for plant with weight was found. The dispersion of the accessions in the Cartesian axis placed the commercial varieties: Cayenne, Tabasco and

  5. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  6. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  7. Identification and toxicological evaluation of musk fragrances and thiophenes in extracts of river sediment samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykopalová, L.; Pěnčíková, K.; Cigánek, M.; Neča, J.; Vondráček, Jan; Brack, W.; Luebcke-Von Varel, U.; Streck, G.; Machala, M.

    Elsevier. Roč. 189, - (2009), S198-S199. ISSN 0378-4274. [EUROTOC 2009, 46th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology. 13.09.2009-16.09.2009, Dresden] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/08/1590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : dioxine activity * estrogenic activity * river sediments Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine

  8. Nitrite, a Hidden Foe in Foods:Evaluation of Nitrite in Toxicological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Erkekoğlu, Pınar; Baydar, Terken

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTNitrites and nitrates possess a unique position in human toxicology. They are both ubiquitous in the environment and can be formed from nitrogenous compounds. Water, vegetables and meat are important sources of nitrite exposure. Nitrites have several detrimental effects on health. The primary health concern regarding nitrate and nitrite exposure is the formation of methemoglobinemia. Baby food and infant formulas can be important sources of nitrite and infants younger than six months ...

  9. [Chronobiology and industrial medicine: approach to the evaluation of the toxicological risk in occupational exposure to xenobiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G; Lorena, M

    1987-01-01

    The recent interest of occupational medicine for chronobiology has been mainly devoted to the fields of energy expense and nutrition, work performance, social and work organization. However, experimental studies of chronotoxicology have showed that the effects of noxious agents vary according to biological time of exposure, nature of toxic agents, and target organ. This fact indicates that the different responses to xenobiotics depend on the temporal variation of susceptibility, which represents a characteristic of each living species. In some instances, the biological differences of susceptibility have been regarded as a consequence of the different capability of the organs to biotransform the xenobiotics itself. Another aspect of chronotoxicology seems to be of great interest for the occupational toxicology. In fact, the evaluation of the toxicological risk in work environment is based, in addition to the environmental monitoring, on the measure of indices both of exposure and effect. Recently, it has pointed out the importance of the knowledge of the temporal behaviour of these indices to avoid misinterpretations of the results. These considerations may lead to a new and wider approach to the evaluation of environmental risk. PMID:3334377

  10. Evaluación toxicológica de residuos orgánicos Toxicological evaluation of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2005-12-01

    una necesidad imperiosa en la UE, dada la carencia de datos toxicológicos completos del 70% de las 106.000 sustancias ya existentes y empleadas.Se destaca el gran valor que los ensayos de mutagenicidad representan dentro de las pruebas toxicológicas de nivel básico, que se emplean en la evaluación de las sustancias nuevas y existentes. También con ello se contribuye a un mejor conocimiento del elevado número de las sustancias con datos toxicológicos incompletos. Otro aspecto a considerar de estos métodos es que son una alternativa a la experimentación animal, cumpliendo con ello uno de los requisitos básicos que establece la nueva política sobre sustancias en la UE, que se denomina y reconoce como REACH (acrónimo de registro, evaluación y autorización de sustancias químicas, parte fundamental de la estrategia europea sobre medioambiente y salud (SCALE.It is pointed out the importance of short term assays for the characterization of organic residues, specially some methods for toxicological, mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation (Vibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium and Allium cepa, used in the characterization of environmental complex mixtures lixiviates. These methods take part together with other bioassays in the evaluation by toxicological identification (VIT, which allows the evaluation of other ecotoxicological effects: a bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri; b germination and root length of Lepidum sativum; c root length of Allium cepa and Tradescantia sp.; d inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna; and e abnormalities in the development of Oryzias latipes, or medaka fish. All these assays take part in the EU battery of bioassays, applied to discriminate and select between those environmental matrixes which must be subject to more complex and specific chemical characterizations.We make a review of the methods for toxicological evaluation, used for the characterization of chemical compounds or complex mixtures, as well as

  11. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Amaral, Ricardo Guimarães; Dória, Grace Anne Azevedo; Fonseca, Cecília Santos; da Silva, Tayane Kayane Mariano; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcante; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; do Nascimento, Lázaro Gomes; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S)-(−)-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 35.3%, 45.4% and 68.1% at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, perillyl alcohol and 25 mg/kg/day for 5-FU intraperitoneal treatments, respectively. No toxicologically significant effect was found in liver and kidney parameters analyzed in Sarcoma 180-inoculated mice treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, and kidneys were free from any morphological changes in the organs of the animals treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. In conclusion, the data suggest that perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide possesses significant antitumor activity without systemic toxicity for the tested parameters. By comparison, there was no statistical difference for the antitumor activity between perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide and perillyl alcohol. PMID:26742032

  12. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nalone Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S-(−-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 35.3%, 45.4% and 68.1% at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, perillyl alcohol and 25 mg/kg/day for 5-FU intraperitoneal treatments, respectively. No toxicologically significant effect was found in liver and kidney parameters analyzed in Sarcoma 180-inoculated mice treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, and kidneys were free from any morphological changes in the organs of the animals treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. In conclusion, the data suggest that perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide possesses significant antitumor activity without systemic toxicity for the tested parameters. By comparison, there was no statistical difference for the antitumor activity between perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide and perillyl alcohol.

  13. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  15. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

      Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion, auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype   Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) production as it minimizes yield irregularity, enhances total yieldandmakes theproduction possible under suboptimal environmental conditions. Beside this, parthenocarpyimproves the commercial value of the fruitsince parthen...

  16. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  17. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Mendes Medeiros; Rosana Rodrigues; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Hérica Santos de Oliveira; Marilene Hilma dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci), to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield...

  18. Antimicrobial and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Baissea axillaries Hua used in the management of HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoreyo Freddy O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent diarrhea is a common endemic disease with high incidence among the Africans including Nigerians. It also represents a frequent opportunistic disease in people living with HIV. Diarrhea represents one of the most distressful and persistent symptoms of HIV/AIDS, which may or may not be accompanied by an infection. The leaves decoction of Baissea axillaries Hua (Apocynaceae is used by traditional herbalists in Edo state, Nigeria for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS. Determination of its antimicrobial activity and toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continuous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis were compared with Togamycin (Spectinomycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the test organisms. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wister rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The kidneys, liver, heart and testis tissues were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and cyanogenetic glycosides. The extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to varying extents, but only the ethanolic extract inhibited growth in Streptococcus faecalis. The LD50 of the extract in mice was above 5000 mg/kg body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Toxicological evaluation showed mere ballooning degeneration of the liver at 250 mg/kg while at 500 mg/kg there was tissue necrosis. The low and high doses showed ill-defined leydig cells in the testis and no remarkable changes in the heart and kidneys. Conclusion Extracts of Baissea axillaries have

  19. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied indetail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C. ann...

  20. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  1. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza; Angela Celis de Almeida; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Ana Paula Peron

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI). These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the ...

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-An Hwang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement.

  3. Toxicological Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pai-An; Yan, Ming-De; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Li, Kuan-Lun; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement. PMID:27347980

  4. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2004-12-02

    tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

  6. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-01

    TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the

  7. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  8. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber films from vulcanized latex by the conventional process and the alternative process with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made all over the world by conventional process using sulphur and heat but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. In this research the NRL was tested by 13 physical, chemical and mechanical assays which showed its good quality. It was done a preliminary study of the toxicological properties of 4 natural rubber films obtained by casting process of NRL: one non vulcanized, other vulcanized by the conventional process and two vulcanized by the alternative process. In the alternative process the films were obtained by irradiation of NRL by gamma rays from the 60 Co source at 250 kGy in the absence of sensitizer and irradiated NRL at 12 kGy in the presence of 4ph r of n-butyl acrylate / 0.2 phr of KOH. These vulcanization doses were determined from broken tensile strength. In the conventional process, sulphur vulcanized NRL was made using a classical composition. Another film was made with non vulcanized NRL. The preliminary evaluation of the toxicological properties was made from in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity assays. The LBN films vulcanized by the alternative process have less cytotoxicity than the NRL film vulcanized by the conventional process. The sensitized vulcanized films by gamma rays and non vulcanized films showed similar cytotoxicity while the vulcanized films without sensitizer showed a slight lower cytotoxicity. The non vulcanized NRL film and the NRL films vulcanized by the alternative process did not show toxic effects int he 72 hours period of the systemic toxicity assay. However the NRL film vulcanized with sulphur induced effects like allaying and motor in coordination on the animals treated with an oil extract at the fourth hour and recovering after that. The alternative process promoted lower toxic effects than conventional process because there was no toxic substances present. (author)

  10. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Naci ONUS

    2000-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  11. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in C. chinense, it was above 80 %. Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum, mainly in C. baccatum, considering the low PV estimated, were significant but not impeditive for fertilization.

  12. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  13. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  14. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  15. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  16. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Guillermo, E-mail: grepkuh@upo.es [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Zurita, Jorge L. [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M. [Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  17. Field evaluation of a new particle concentrator- electrostatic precipitator system for measuring chemical and toxicological properties of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakbin Payam

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A newly designed electrostatic precipitator (ESP in tandem with Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES was developed by the University of Southern California to collect ambient aerosols on substrates appropriate for chemical and toxicological analysis. The laboratory evaluation of this sampler is described in a previous paper. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the new VACES-ESP system in the field by comparing the chemical characteristics of the PM collected in the ESP to those of reference samplers operating in parallel. Results The field campaign was carried out in the period from August, 2007 to March, 2008 in a typical urban environment near downtown Los Angeles. Each sampling set was restricted to 2–3 hours to minimize possible sampling artifacts in the ESP. The results showed that particle penetration increases and ozone concentration decreases with increasing sampling flow rate, with highest particle penetration observed between 100 nm and 300 nm. A reference filter sampler was deployed in parallel to the ESP to collect concentration-enriched aerosols, and a MOUDI sampler was used to collect ambient aerosols. Chemical analysis results showed very good agreement between the ESP and MOUDI samplers in the concentrations of trace elements and inorganic ions. The overall organic compound content of PM collected by the ESP, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, hopanes, steranes, and alkanes, was in good agreement with that of the reference sampler, with an average ESP -to -reference concentration ratio of 1.07 (± 0.38. While majority of organic compound ratios were close to 1, some of the semi-volatile organic species had slightly deviated ratios from 1, indicating the possibility of some sampling artifacts in the ESP due to reactions of PM with ozone and radicals generated from corona discharge, although positive and negative sampling artifacts in the

  18. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage

  19. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Magalhães Souza; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Rosana Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV) studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in ...

  20. ToxEvaluator: an integrated computational platform to aid the interpretation of toxicology study-related findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, D; Wiegers, T C; Enayetallah, A; Kibbey, C; Gosink, M; Koza-Taylor, P; Mattingly, C J; Lawton, M

    2016-01-01

    Attempts are frequently made to investigate adverse findings from preclinical toxicology studies in order to better understand underlying toxicity mechanisms. These efforts often begin with limited information, including a description of the adverse finding, knowledge of the structure of the chemical associated with its cause and the intended pharmacological target. ToxEvaluator was developed jointly by Pfizer and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (http://ctdbase.org) team at North Carolina State University as an in silico platform to facilitate interpretation of toxicity findings in light of prior knowledge. Through the integration of a diverse set of in silico tools that leverage a number of public and proprietary databases, ToxEvaluator streamlines the process of aggregating and interrogating diverse sources of information. The user enters compound and target identifiers, and selects adverse event descriptors from a safety lexicon and mapped MeSH disease terms. ToxEvaluator provides a summary report with multiple distinct areas organized according to what target or structural aspects have been linked to the adverse finding, including primary pharmacology, structurally similar proprietary compounds, structurally similar public domain compounds, predicted secondary (i.e. off-target) pharmacology and known secondary pharmacology. Similar proprietary compounds and their associated in vivo toxicity findings are reported, along with a link to relevant supporting documents. For similar public domain compounds and interacting targets, ToxEvaluator integrates relationships curated in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, returning all direct and inferred linkages between them. As an example of its utility, we demonstrate how ToxEvaluator rapidly identified direct (primary pharmacology) and indirect (secondary pharmacology) linkages between cerivastatin and myopathy. PMID:27161010

  1. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2005-03-31

    to oxidized emissions were performed. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biological endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. No significant differences between exposed animals and sham animals (exposed to filtered air) were observed for any of the endpoints; histopathological results are pending and will be reported in the next semiannual report. The scenarios evaluated during this reporting period were slightly modified from those originally proposed. We substituted a new scenario, secondary aerosol + SOA, to investigate the effects of a strongly acidic aerosol with a biogenic component. Since we did not observe any biological response to this scenario, the neutralized secondary aerosol scenario (i.e., oxidized emissions + ammonia) was deemed unnecessary. Moreover, in light of the lack of response observed in the Stage I assessment, it was decided that a Stage II assessment (evaluation of cardiac function in a compromised rat model) was unlikely to provide useful information. However, this model will be employed at Plant 1 and/or 2. During this reporting period, significant progress was made in planning for fieldwork at Plant 1. Stack sampling was carried out at the plant in mid-December to determine the concentration of primary particles. It was found that PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations were approximately three times higher than those observed at Plant 0. In mid-February, installation and setup for the mobile laboratories began. Animal exposures are scheduled to begin at this plant on March 21, 2005. During the next reporting period, we will initiate fieldwork at Plant 1. At either or both Plants 1 and 2, a detailed Stage II assessment will be performed, even if no significant findings are observed in Stage I. The next semiannual report is expected to include a

  2. Overview: developmental toxicology: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Dana; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    Since regulatory agencies began implementing the use of standardized developmental toxicology protocols in the mid-1960s, our knowledge base of embryo-fetal development and technologies for experimentation has grown exponentially. These developmental toxicology protocols were a direct result of the thalidomide tragedy from earlier that decade, when large numbers of women were exposed to the drug and over 10,000 cases of phocomelia resulted. In preventing a recurrence of such tragedies, the testing protocols are immensely successful and the field of toxicology has been dedicated to using them to advance safety and risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, our perspectives on toxicity testing have been challenged by a growing awareness that while we have excelled in hazard identification, we are in dire need of improved methodologies for human health risk assessment, particularly with respect to the large numbers of environmental chemicals for which we have little toxicology data and to the growing sentiment that better alternatives to whole animals tests are needed. To provide a forum for scientists, researchers, and regulators, the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute organized a 2-day workshop titled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" to evaluate lessons learned over the past 30 years and discuss the future of toxicology testing. The following four articles describe different presentations and discussions that were held over the course of those 2 days. PMID:21770024

  3. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  4. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... December 16-18, 2009, CERHR (74 FR 53508) convened an expert panel to conduct an updated evaluation of the... CERHR in 1998 (63 FR 68782). CERHR is a publicly accessible resource for information about adverse... Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); Availability of the Final Expert Panel Report on...

  5. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing--recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, George; Knight, Derek J; Schwarz, Michael; Gocht, Tilman; Thomas, Russell S; Mahony, Catherine; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December 2015. Drawing on the experience gained in SEURAT-1 and appreciating international advancement in both basic and regulatory science, we reflect here on how SEURAT should evolve and propose that further research and development should be directed along two complementary and interconnecting work streams. The first work stream would focus on developing new 'paradigm' approaches for regulatory science. The goal here is the identification of 'critical biological targets' relevant for toxicity and to test their suitability to be used as anchors for predicting toxicity. The second work stream would focus on integration and application of new approach methods for hazard (and risk) assessment within the current regulatory 'paradigm', aiming for acceptance of animal-free testing strategies by regulatory authorities (i.e. translating scientific achievements into regulation). Components for both work streams are discussed and may provide a structure for a future research programme in the field of predictive toxicology. PMID:25433540

  6. Qualitative versus Quantitative Evaluation of Scientists' Impact: A Medical Toxicology Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afshari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of scientists working in a specific area of science is necessary, as they may strive for same limited resources, grants and academic promotions. One of the most common and accepted methods of assessing the performance and impact of a scientist is calculating the number of citations for their publications. However, such method suffer from certain shortcomings. It has become more and more obvious that evaluation of scientists should be qualitative in addition to quantitative. Moreover, the evaluation process should be pragmatic and reflective of the priorities of an institution, a country or an intended population. In this context, a scoring scale called "360-degree researcher evaluation score" is proposed in this paper. Accordingly, scientists are evaluated in 5 independent domains including (I science development, (II economic impact, (III policy impact, (IV societal impact and (V stewardship of research. This scale is designed for evaluation of impacts resulted from research activities and thus it excludes the educational programs done by a scientist. In general, it seems necessary that the evaluation process of a scientist’s impact moves from only scintometric indices to a combination of quantitative and qualitative indices.

  7. Qualitative versus Quantitative Evaluation of Scientists' Impact: A Medical Toxicology Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Afshari; Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientists working in a specific area of science is necessary, as they may strive for same limited resources, grants and academic promotions. One of the most common and accepted methods of assessing the performance and impact of a scientist is calculating the number of citations for their publications. However, such method suffer from certain shortcomings. It has become more and more obvious that evaluation of scientists should be qualitative in addition to quantitative. Moreove...

  8. 76 FR 2388 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... forwarded recommendations to Federal agencies and made these recommendations available to the public (75 FR... maximization test (GPMT) or the Buehler test (BT), could also significantly reduce animal use and improve animal welfare. Based on this evaluation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2003), the...

  9. 75 FR 51815 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... in 1998 (63 FR 68782). CERHR is a publicly accessible resource for information about adverse... Reproduction (CERHR); Evaluation of the Health Effects of Low-Level Lead Exposure: Call for Information and... reproduction and/or development and provide opinion on whether these substances are hazardous for...

  10. 75 FR 76995 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in 1998 (63 FR 68782) to... Reproduction (CERHR); NTP Workshop: Role of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and Obesity... (collectively referred to as ``substances'') cause adverse effects on reproduction and development and...

  11. Toxicological Evaluation of Pooled Selected Fractions of Mimosa invisa and Protective Effect of Herbal Decoction

    OpenAIRE

    P.T.A. Usha; Gopakumar, N.; Chandrasekhran Nair, A. M.; Nair, N. Divakran

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity produced by the pooled selected fractions of Mimosa invisa in rabbits. An attempt was made to protect the animal from the toxicity using a decoction containing Hygrophila auriculata, Tribulus terrestris and Boerhaavia diffusa. Eighteen adult rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I served as control. Group II received pooled fraction of M. invisa at 0.4 g/kg orally. Group III was administered with pooled fraction alo...

  12. Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) total extract in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari; Leila Hosseinzadeh; Yalda Shokoohinia; Majid Aslany; Mohammad Kamali-Nejad

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total e...

  13. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI. These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the squash method and Giemsa staining. The chromosome number 2n=2x=24 was verified for each of the four species. Chromosomal polymorphisms were observed for the C. frutencens accession BGC 37, which presented 12 pairs of metacentric chromosomes instead of 11 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 1 submetacentric chromosome pair present in other accessions. In the accessions BGC 01 and BGC 37, secondary constrictions were observed in the 1 and 12 as well as in the 6 and 11 homologs, respectively. The karyotypes of the studied species were asymmetrical among themselves. The results obtained in this study confirm the high genetic diversity previously described in the literature for this genus.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  15. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  16. Evaluation of work capacity of laboratory animals under the conditions of toxicologic experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on the effect of different doses of X-radiation on the behaviour of mongrel male rats in an alternative labyrinth and on the heart rythnic activity are presented. It is ascertained that X-irradiation of rates leads to a change of rat behaviour stereotype, accompanies by increased values of cardiovascular activity which conditions thereduction of the number of paces per a unit of time. It is possible to perform comparative analysis of available data on the level of integral work capacity of man and animals, using unified criteria for evaluating the organism functional state

  17. Decontamination of synthetic textile wastewater by electrochemical processes: energetic and toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater, prepared with several compounds used in the finishing of textile materials, was comparatively studied by electrochemical methods such as electrooxidation (EO) (titanium electrode) and electrocoagulation (EC) (with aluminum and iron electrodes). The influence of pH, current density and operating time on the treatment was assessed by the parameters used to measure the level of organic contaminants in the wastewater; i.e. color, toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The experimental results showed that an effective electrochemical oxidation was achieved in which the wastewater was decolorized and 92% of COD was completely eliminated. In particular, the mineralization took place by indirect oxidation, mediated by active chlorine, and the treatment efficiency was enhanced by the addition of NaCl to the wastewater and by increasing the applied current density. The toxicity, still higher than the toxicity of the raw effluent, indicated a presence of toxic products after EO. Good results were obtained with the Al and Fe electrodes, mainly with respect to the removal of color and toxicity. EC is more economical than EO and the toxicity evaluation with the Daphnia magna test shows a significant reduction after EC. PMID:23109574

  18. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of Cassia sopherain streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple-organ failure is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for major diabetic complications, including multiple-organ failure. Medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity may reduce oxidative stress and improve the functions of various organs affected by hyperglycemia. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Aqueous Extract of Cassia sophera (AECS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: AECS (200 mg/kg body weight (bw and the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kgbw were administered orally by gavaging for 28 days. Results: Oral administration of AECS inhibited STZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver of diabetic rats. Significant increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and a reduced level of glutathione (GSH, were observed in the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis on AECS treatment. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that AECS is not only useful in controlling blood glucose, but also has antioxidant potential to protect the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis against damage caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae total extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total extract and screened for signs of toxicity two weeks after administration. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, E. platyloba was administered for 45 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study. RESULTS: We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study. The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex. There was a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase in the female groups. A significant increase in the relative lung weight of female rats was noted at 500 mg/kg. Histopathological examinations revealed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg. In the females, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: The no observed adverse effect level of E. platyloba was determined to be 200 and 50 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.

  1. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  2. Discussion on Improvement of Toxicological Pathology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenJin

    2003-01-01

    Toxicological pathology plays a key role in drug safety assessment. To enhance the research level of toxicological pathology, the following stud-ies should be carried out urgently: setting up a standard operation procedure (SOP) for toxico-logical pathology assessment; emphasizing on immunotoxicology evaluation; adopting a new ex-periment model of replacement, featuring high speed and reliability; introducing new techniques and new models in toxicological mechanism re-search; and establishing a new appraisal system to screen innovative drug and rapid and high pre-cision methods for early security assessment, de-tection and measurement.

  3. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    OpenAIRE

    Kellen Coutinho Martins; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Sérgio Alessandro Machado Souza; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e ...

  4. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Susana González-Pérez; Ana Garcés-Claver; Cristina Mallor; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Oreto Fayos; Federico Pomar; Fuencisla Merino; Cristina Silvar

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the pr...

  5. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Pérez, Susana; Garcés Claver, Ana; Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Fayos Avellán, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a tota...

  6. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  7. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  8. Evaluating the use of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a metalworking fluid from a toxicological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedmahmoudi, S. H. [Oregon State University, Industrial Sustainability Laboratory, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering (United States); Harper, Stacey L. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology & School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (United States); Weismiller, Michael C. [Master Chemical Corporation (United States); Haapala, Karl R., E-mail: karl.haapala@oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University, Industrial Sustainability Laboratory, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Adding nanoparticles (NPs) to metalworking fluids (MWFs) has been shown to improve performance in metal cutting. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs), for example, have exhibited the ability to improve lubricant performance, decrease the heat created by machining operations, reduce friction and wear, and enhance thermal conductivity. ZnO and TiO{sub 2} NPs are also relatively inexpensive compared to many other NPs. Precautionary concerns of human health risks and environmental impacts, however, are especially important when adding NPs to MWFs. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential environmental and human health effects of these nanoenabled products during early design and development. This research builds on a prior investigation of the stability and toxicity characteristics of NPs used in metalworking nanofluids (MWnF™). The previous study only investigated one type of NP at one level of concentration. This research expands on the previous investigations through the valuation of three different types of NPs that vary in morphology (size and shape) and was conducted over a wide range of concentrations in the base fluid. In the presented work, mixtures of a microemulsion (TRIM{sup ®} MicroSol{sup ®} 585XT), two different types of TiO{sub 2} NPs (referred to as TiO{sub 2}A and TiO{sub 2}B) and one type of ZnO NP were used to evaluate MWnF™ stability and toxicity. Dynamic light scattering was used to assess stability over time and an embryonic zebrafish assay was used to assess toxicological impacts. The results reveal that, in general, the addition of these NPs increased toxicity relative to the NP-free formulation. The lowest rate of zebrafish malformations occurred at 5 g/L TiO{sub 2}A NP, which was even lower than for the base fluid. This result is particularly promising for future MWnF™ development, given that the mortality rate for 5 g/L TiO{sub 2}A was not significantly different

  9. Inheritance of Value Added Traits in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varying hues of green to purple foliar pigmentation, affords a myriad of opportunities to develop novel cultivars f...

  10. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... TEF In the Classroom Our Goal The Toxicology Education Foundation seeks to help build the public's understanding ...

  11. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum. Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced to Kosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutesc...

  12. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island,Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum.Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense.Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced toKosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutescens, especially ...

  13. Evaluation of a Diverse, Worldwide Collection of Wild, Cultivated, and Landrace Pepper (Capsicum annuum) for Resistance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot, Genetic Diversity, and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Tomlinson, A J; Hausbeck, M K

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is the third most important solanaceous crop in the United States and fourth most important worldwide. To identify sources of resistance for commercial breeding, 170 pepper genotypes from five continents and 45 countries were evaluated for Phytophthora fruit rot resistance using two isolates of Phytophthora capsici. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed on a subset of 157 genotypes using 23 polymorphic simple sequence repeats. Partial resistance and isolate-specific interactions were identified in the population at both 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi). Plant introductions (PIs) 640833 and 566811 were the most resistant lines evaluated at 5 dpi to isolates 12889 and OP97, with mean lesion areas less than Criollo de Morelos. Genetic diversity was moderate (0.44) in the population. The program STRUCTURE inferred four genetic clusters with moderate to very great differentiation among clusters. Most lines evaluated were susceptible or moderately susceptible at 5 dpi, and no lines evaluated were completely resistant to Phytophthora fruit rot. Significant population structure was detected when pepper varieties were grouped by predefined categories of disease resistance, continent, and country of origin. Moderately resistant or resistant PIs to both isolates of P. capsici at 5 dpi were in genetic clusters one and two. PMID:25054617

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  15. Results of chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations of dioxins, furans, and guaicol/organic acids in sediments from the Grays Harbor/Chehalis River area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, to assist in planning and conducting sampling, toxicological tests, and chemistry evaluations on sediment samples collected from the Chehalis River in Grays Harbor, Washington. The objectives of the study were to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of sediments that might potentially contain dioxins, furans, and organic acids, as a result of industrial practices in the Grays Harbor area, on sensitive marine species. In addition to the toxicological tests conducted using standard bioassays, sediment chemistry tests were performed to determine levels of selected chemicals, and elutriates of sediments were tested chemically and biologically to determine contaminant mobility in water. Also, bioaccumulation measurements were made to determine chemical mobility in animal tissue. A joint task group, including representatives from the USACE, Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDOF), and Region 9 of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) participated in designing the testing program and reviewing data produced by MSL. The results of this analysis will be included in a supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the USACE for the Grays Harbor Dredging Program, beginning in early 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Chili (Capsicum annuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Shairul R.  Omar; Osumanu H.   Ahmed; Shaharudin Saamin; Nik M.A.  Majid

    2008-01-01

    Induced mutation by gamma irradiation has been found to be a very useful technique for crop improvement. Apart from this, the proper use of induced mutation in plant breeding has become a profitable approach. This investigation was carried out to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on germination, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from irradiated seeds of chili (Capsicum annuum). Seeds of chili were treated ...

  17. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e divisão assincrônica. Os acessos estudados apresentaram um índice meiótico variando de 75,6 a 93,6%, e a viabilidade polínica em todos os acessos foi superior a 90%, demonstrando que as irregularidades meióticas observadas não comprometeram a viabilidade destes.The objective of this research was to study the meiotic behavior and pollen viability in four accessions of species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum. In all accessions, twelve bivalents were observed, confirming the number and ploidy level reported in the literature for these species. The results showed a normal cell division although some abnormalities had been detected, as early chromosome migration at metaphases I and II, later chromosomes at anaphase I and asynchronous division. The studied accessions presented a meiotic index (MI that varied from 75.6 to 93.6% and the pollen viability in all accessions was higher than 90%, demonstrating that the meiotic irregularities observed didn't affect their viability.

  18. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  19. Screening Capsicum accessions for capsaicinoids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Jarret, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Ninety Capsicum accessions selected from the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection were screened for their capsaicinoids content using gas hromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). Fresh fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were extracted with methanol and analyzed for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, 307, and 293, which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively, have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in pepper fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected. Capsaicin concentrations were typically greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from not detectable to 11.2 mg fruit(-1). Statistical analysis revealed that accession PI-441624 (C. chinense) had the highest capsaicin content (2.9 mg g(-1) fresh fruit) and accession PI-497984 (C. frutescens) had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (2.3 mg g(-1) fresh fruit). Genebank accessions PI-439522 (C. frutescens) and PI-497984 contained the highest concentrations of total capsaicinoids. PMID:16785178

  20. Genetic relationships within and between Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ayşe Gul; Karaca, Mehmet; Onus, A Naci

    2010-02-01

    Genetic relationships were estimated among 24 accessions belonging to 11 species of Capsicum, using 2,760 RAPD markers based on touch-down polymerase chain reactions (Td-RAPD-PCR). These markers were implemented in analyses of principal coordinates, unweighted pair group mean average, and 2,000 bootstrap replications. The accessions were divided into four groups, corresponding to previously described Capsicum complexes: C. annuum complex (CA), C. baccatum complex (CB), C. pubescens complex (CP), and C. chacoense accessions (CA/B). Their overall mean genetic similarity index was 0.487 +/- 0.082, ranging from 0.88 to 0.32, based on Jaccard's coefficient. The highest genetic variation was observed among the accessions in CP; the accessions in CB had a low level of variation as judged from the standard deviations of the genetic similarity indices. Based on the Td-RAPD-PCR markers, the 24 accessions were divided into four major groups, three of which corresponded to the three distinct Capsicum complexes. Accessions of C. chacoense were found to be equally related to complexes CA, CB, and CP. PMID:19916044

  1. Toxicological screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity testing of new compounds is essential for drug development process. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, organ- and dose- specific toxic effects of an investigational product. The toxicity of substances can be observed by (a studying the accidental exposures to a substance (b in vitro studies using cells/ cell lines (c in vivo exposure on experimental animals. This review mainly focuses on the various experimental animal models and methods used for toxicity testing of substances. The pre-clinical toxicity testing helps to calculate "No Observed Adverse Effect Level" which is needed to initiate the clinical evaluation of investigational products.

  2. Antioxidants in Capsicum chinense: Variation among countries of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worldwide search for sources of beneficial phytochemicals continues. In this vein, many pepper (Capsicum L.) species and their cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of the health-promoting antioxidants ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, or capsaicin. Capsicum chinense has be...

  3. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Rooij, de H.; Vogelaar, A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in i

  4. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2005-09-30

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, fieldwork was completed at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + secondary organic aerosol (SOA)--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Stage I assessment endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. Stage II assessments included continuous ECG monitoring via

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-31

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2005 through February 28, 2006. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, data processing and analyses were completed for exposure and toxicological data collected during the field campaign at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. To recap from the previous progress report, Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + SOA--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Mass concentrations in exposure atmospheres ranged from 13.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for the primary particle scenario (P) to 385 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for one of the oxidized

  6. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus Ngullie; Loli Daiho

    2013-01-01

    Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest pe...

  7. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Zhani; Mohamed Aymen Elouer; Hassan Aloui; Cherif Hannachi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water contain...

  8. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  9. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui)

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, R. C.; V. C. Castro; I. A. Devilla; C.A. Oliveira; Barbosa, L. S.; R. Rodovalho

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui) both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P

  10. AT3 (Acyltransferase) Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Habibi; Andi Madhihah Manggabarani; Eko Sri Sulasmi; Dwi Listyorini

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born b...

  11. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  12. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla;

    2014-01-01

    reduction. This objective is partly achieved through core principles of green chemistry. However, better utilization of existing predictive toxicological tools alongside new inventions is still required. For this, input from toxicologists early in the chemical enterprise is necessary to make informed...... safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...... be applied in chemical risk assessment to a greater extent than is currently the case. Greater focus on these tools, their strengths and weaknesses, should be part of chemistry training at the university level, thus ensuring constant focus on the issue and fostering new inventions into the future....

  13. Toxicological evaluation of an Allium-based commercial product in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Jos, A; Cameán, A M

    2016-04-01

    Proallium AP(®) is a commercial Allium extract intended to be used in active food packaging as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of some organosulfur compounds are well known. However, there is little information on its toxicity and the Scientific Committee on Food (UE) requires the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct for the first time a subchronic oral toxicity study of Proallium AP(®) with groups of 10 males and 10 females Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 0, 25, 100, 400 mg/kg/d for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs or mortality were noted. Besides, no treatment-related effects with regard to any of the toxicological biomarkers considered were observed, including biochemical, haematological and histopathology parameters. In conclusion, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Proallium AP(®) in rats was determined to be a dietary dose of 400 mg/kg/d under the present experimental conditions, a value 500-fold higher than the exposure derived from its potential use in active packaging. PMID:26827789

  14. Toxicological evaluation of advanced glycation end product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine: Acute and subacute oral toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Liangqing; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Shensheng; Qiao, Xiaoting; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) as a novel potential noxious compound in various food products has aroused extensive concern in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of CML in mice as per OECD 420 and 407 guidelines. Acute administration of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg CML did not induce any mortality within 14 days, nevertheless some toxicological symptoms and histopathological changes were observed. The estimated LD50 of CML was >5000 mg/kg. In subacute toxicity test, CML was dosed at 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in both genders for 28 days. The body weights reduced which was accompanied with the decrease of food consumptions. Hematology parameters viz. RBC, HGB and MCH showed minor alteration but these were still within normal range. Biochemical analysis of hepatic and renal function markers showed significant elevating in AST, ALT, Cr and BUN etc. Histopathological alterations were observed in lung, liver, kidney and spleen. Subacute toxicity of CML involved oxidative stress caused by reducing antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-Px) activities, and significantly increasing lipid peroxide (MDA) level. In conclusion, CML was unlikely to present an acute hazard, but repeated administration could produce deleterious effects on mice especially inducing liver and kidney damage through oxidative stress. PMID:26921796

  15. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  16. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  17. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  18. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2009-01-01

    The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2) showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100...

  19. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously. PMID:20198584

  20. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  1. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2007-02-28

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2007 through February 28, 2007. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, fieldwork was completed at Plant 2, located in the Midwest. The following scenarios were completed: (1) July 19-22: POS (oxidized + SOA); (2) July 25-28: PONS (oxidized + neutralized + SOA); (3) August 8-13: P (primary); (4) August 14-15: POS; (5) August 16-17: POS (MI rats); (6) August 28-31: OS (oxidized + SOA, without primary particles); (7) September 1-4: O (oxidized, no primary particles); (8) September 6-9: S (SOA, no primary particles); and (9) September 19-22: PO (oxidized). Results indicated some biological effects with some scenarios. Also during this reporting period, the annual meeting of the TERESA Technical Advisory Committee was held at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. During the next reporting period, data analyses will continue for Plant 2 as well as for pooled data from all three plants. Manuscripts documenting the overall

  2. Capsaicin Content and Pungency of Different Capsicum spp. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SANATOMBI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Six chilli cultivars belonging to three species of Capsicum: Capsicum annuum L. (cvs 'Meiteimorok' and 'Haomorok', Capsicum frutescens L. (cvs 'Uchithi' and 'Mashingkha' and Capsicum chinense Jacq. (cvs 'Umorok' and 'Chiengpi' are economically important food crops. The capsaicin content and pungency in scoville heat unit (SHU of these six chilli cultivars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The capsaicin content and pungency of the chillies varied depending upon the genotype. Among the six chilli cultivars studied, the cultivar 'Umorok' had the highest capsaicin content (2.06%, and was also the most pungent of with 329.100 SHU while the cultivar 'Haomorok' had the least capsaicin content (0.17% with a corresponding pungency of 26.000 SHU.

  3. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  4. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for over 600 chemicals from authoritative groups worldwide Animal Testing Alternatives ALTBIB Resources on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing Archived, No Longer Updated ... cancer tests GENE-TOX Genetic Toxicology Data Bank. ...

  5. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  6. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria E. Barboza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here.

  7. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli): origin, distribution, and its economical value

    OpenAIRE

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense). ...

  8. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Karina Pereira de Campos

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%). The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frut...

  9. Producción y evaluación de híbridos de pimentón, Capsicum annuum L., a través de la habilidad combinatoria Production and evaluation of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. hybrids using combining ability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar V. Myriam

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete progenitores de pimentón (Roque 8, Morviones, Pimenta Verde Agronómico, IAC-7, Pimentao Amarelo, Yolo Wonder y Red Pipper y sus respectivas combinaciones híbridas, sin incluir las recíprocas, fueron evaluadas a través del análisis de habilidad combinatoria con el fin de determinar el tipo de acción génica y los métodos de mejoramiento más apropiados para los caracteres producción por planta, número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de fruto. Los tratamientos se sembraron en la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de Palmira, utilizando un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por un surco simple de seis plantas, sembradas a 1.20 m entre surcos y 0.50 metros entre plantas. Se evaluaron individualmente cuatro plantas por parcela, en libre competencia. El análisis estadístico genético se efectuó siguiendo la metodología propuesta por Griffing (1956, utilizando el método experimental 2, y el modelo 1. El análisis de varianza para habilidad combinatoria mostró que en la transmisión y expresión de los caracteres evaluados, actúan en forma conjunta y altamente significativa tanto los efectos génicos aditivos (habilidad combinatoria general como los efectos génicos no aditivos (habilidad combinatoria específica, pero con predominio de éstos últimos. Las variedades Roque 8, Morviones y Yolo Wonder exhibieron las mayores producciones por planta y los mayores efectos de habilidad combinatoria general. Los híbridos Roque 8 x Yolo Wonder y Morviones x IAC-7 exhibieron los mayores efectos de habilidad combinatoria específica y los mayores valores promedios, para el carácter producción por planta.An analysis of combining ability of traits related with production per plant was carried out using a diallel crossing between different sweet pepper cultivars, Capsicum annuum L. (seven parents and 21 F1 hybrids from all possible crossing in one direction

  10. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  11. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-15

    Combustion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) with biodiesel or n-butanol on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a non-road diesel engine. The results indicated that compared to ULSD, both the blended fuels could effectively reduce the particulate mass and elemental carbon emissions, with butanol being more effective than biodiesel. The proportion of organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in particles increased for both blended fuels. However, biodiesel blended fuels showed lower total particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions. The total number emissions of particles ≤560nm in diameter decreased gradually for the butanol blended fuels, but increased significantly for the biodiesel blended fuels. Both the blended fuels indicated lower soot ignition temperature and activation energy. All the particle extracts showed a decline in cell viability with the increased dose. However, the change in cell viability among test fuels is not statistically significant different with the exception of DB-4 (biodiesel-diesel blend containing 4% oxygen) used at 75% engine load. PMID:24316811

  12. Health risk assessment of environmental pollutants. Loose-leaf handbook of toxicological reference data and their evaluation. 16. supplement; Gefaehrdungsabschaetzung von Umweltschadstoffen. Ergaenzbares Handbuch toxikologischer Basisdaten und ihre Bewertung. 16. Ergaenzungslieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, Thomas [Giessen Univ. (Germany); Heinrich, Uwe [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany); Heinzow, Birger [Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste - Umweltbezogener Gesundheitsschutz, Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Konietzka, Rainer (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The 16th supplement on health risk assessment of environmental pollutants, a loose-leaf handbook of toxicological reference data and their evaluation, includes supplementary paragraphs on the following issues: human biomonitoring values (HBM), substance monography for lead; 1,2-dichloroethene; human biomonitoring values (HBM), substance monography for nickel: new reference values for nickel in urine of children in Germany; human biomonitoring values (HBM), substance monography for mercury; tetra chloromethane.

  13. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9th Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.)

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

  15. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  16. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  17. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  18. Polinização e fixação de frutos em Capsicum chinense Jacq. Pollinization and fruit fixation in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucifrancy Vilagelim Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia é um importante centro de diversidade de Capsicum spp., em especial de C. chinense. Informações relativas à biologia reprodutiva são importantes para o melhoramento e conservação da espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o sistema de reprodução de C. chinense. Foram avaliados cinco genótipos e quatro tratamentos: polinização natural, proteção dos botões florais, autopolinização manual e polinização cruzada manual. Os genótipos avaliados demonstraram auto-compatibilidade e reprodução como plantas autógamas.The Amazon is an important diversity center of Capsicum spp. especially C. chinense. Information about their reproductive biology is important to species breeding and conservation. The objective of this work was to study the C. chinense reproductive system. We evaluated five genotypes and four treatments: natural pollination, protection of floral bottoms, manual self pollination and manual cross pollination. The results showed that the genotypes evaluated are self-compatible and autogamous.

  19. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing – Recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December ...

  20. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; García Marisol Cudris; Quintero Barrera Lorena

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  1. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  2. Toxicological evaluation of essential oil from the leaves of Croton tetradenius (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti and Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Karine da Silva; E Silva, Sandra Lúcia da Cunha; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; Gualberto, Simone Andrade; da Cruz, Rômulo Carlos Dantas; Dos Santos, Frances Regiane; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2016-09-01

    For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg kg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50 = 0.152 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 0.297 mg mL(-1)) and on adults (LC50 = 1.842 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 3.156 mg mL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24 h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49 %) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50 = 200 mg kg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50 = 500 mg kg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study. PMID:27169864

  3. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  4. In vitro plant regeneration of 4 Capsicum spp. genotypes using different explant types

    OpenAIRE

    ORLINSKA, Marta; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of in vitro regeneration of 4 genotypes of pepper (Capsicum spp.) that differ in origin and functional properties: California Wonder, (ATZ × Sono)F1, Jalapeno, and SF-9. In order to investigate the effect of the initial explant type, photoperiod, and presence of 2.0 mg L-1 of glycine in the medium, organogenesis was induced on the MS medium with 2.0 g L-1 2-(N-morpholine) ethanesulfonic acid, 1.7 mg L-1 AgNO3, 0.4 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and 6...

  5. COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR FRUIT YIELD AND QUALITY IN MANZANO HOT PEPPER (Capsicum pubescens R & P) LANDRACES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez-Grajales; V. A. González-Hernández; A. Peña-Lomelí; J. Sahagún-Castellanos

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization as a method for plant breeding may create improved varieties with higher fruit yield and quality by taking advantage of the combining ability and heterosis between the crossed parents. Six landrace varieties (five collected in Mexico and one in Peru) of manzano hot pepper (Capsicum pubescens R P) and all their possible direct single crosses were evaluated, for heterosis and general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for fruit yield and quality. Plants were grown un...

  6. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulat...

  7. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio Ballina-Gomez; Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Esau Ruiz-Sanchez; Alfonso Perez-Gutierrez; Gabriel Rosado-Lugo

    2013-01-01

    The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate...

  8. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Alex Ic-Caamal; Esaú Ruiz-Sánchez; Horacio Ballina-Gómez; Ignacio Islas-Flores; Wilberth Chan-Cupul; Daniel González-Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-rela...

  9. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  11. Antibacterial and toxicological evaluation of beta-lactams synthesized by immobilized beta-lactamase-free penicillin amidase produced by Alcaligenes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Jiaur R; Majee, Sutapa B; Das, Shuvendu; Samanta, Timir B

    2007-12-01

    Search for anti-beta-lactamase and synthesis of newer penicillin were suggested to overcome resistance to penicillin in chemotherapy. It was found that clavulanic acid, an ant-beta-lactamase was ineffective due to its structural modification by bacteria. Thus, there is a need for the synthesis of newer pencillins. Retro-synthesis was inspired by the success of forward reaction i.e.conversion of penicillin G to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) by biological process. In the present study a better enzymatic method of synthesis of newer pencillin by a beta-lactamase-free penicillin amidase produced by Alcaligenes sp. is attempted. Antibacterial and toxicological evaluation of the enzymatically synthesized beta-lactams are reported. Condensation of 6-APA with acyl donor was found to be effective when the reaction is run in dimethyl formamide (DMF 50% v/v) in acetate buffer (25 mM pH 5.0) at 37 degrees C. Periplasm entrapped in calcium alginate exihibited the highest yield (approximately 34%) in synthesis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthetic products against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi varied between 20-80 microg/ml. Some of the products exhibited antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens. It was interesting to note that product A was potent like penicillin G. LD50 value of three products (product A, B and C) was more than 12 mg/kg. Furthermore, these synthetic beta-lactams did not exihibit any adverse effect on house keeping enzymes viz., serum glutamate oxalacetate-trans-aminase, serum glutamate pyruvate -trans-aminase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase of the test animals. The hematological profile (RBC and WBC) of the test animals also remained unaffected. PMID:18254214

  12. Evaluation of submarine atmospheres: effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen on general toxicology, neurobehavioral performance, reproduction and development in rats. II. Ninety-day study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Daniel J; James, R Arden; Gut, Chester P; McInturf, Shawn M; Sweeney, Lisa M; Erickson, Richard P; Gargas, Michael L

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and low-level oxygen (O2) (hypoxia) are submarine atmosphere components of highest concern because of a lack of toxicological data available to address the potential effects from long-duration, combined exposures on female reproductive and developmental health. In this study, subchronic toxicity of mixed atmospheres of these three submarine air components was evaluated in rats. Male and female rats were exposed via inhalation to clean air (0.4 ppm CO; 0.13% CO2; 20.6% O2) (control), a low-dose (5.0 ppm CO; 0.41% CO2; 17.1% O2), a mid-dose (13.9 ppm CO; 1.19 or 1.20% CO2; 16.1% O2) and a high-dose (89.9 ppm CO; 2.5% CO2; 15.0% O2) gas mixture for 23 h per day for 70 d premating and a 14-d mating period. Impregnated dams continued exposure to gestation day 19. Adverse reproductive effects were not identified in exposed parents (P0) or first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring during mating, gestation or parturition. No adverse changes to the estrous cycle or in reproductive hormone concentrations were identified. The exposure-related effects were reduced weight gains and adaptive up-regulation of erythropoiesis in male rats from the high-dose group. No adverse, dose-related health effects on clinical data or physiological data were observed. Neurobehavioral tests identified no apparent developmental deficits at the tested levels of exposure. In summary, subchronic exposures to the submarine atmosphere gases did not affect the ability of the exposed rats or their offspring to reproduce and did not appear to have any significant adverse health effects. PMID:25687554

  13. Evaluation of sugar-cane vinasse treated with Pleurotus sajor-caju utilizing aquatic organisms as toxicological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz F Romanholo; Aguiar, Mario M; Messias, Tamara G; Pompeu, Georgia B; Lopez, Ana M Queijeiro; Silva, Daniel P; Monteiro, Regina T

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool in the evaluation, prediction and detection of the potential effect of pollutants from environmental samples in living organisms. Vinasse, a highly colored effluent, is a sub-product rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, with high pollutant potential when disposed in the environment. Assays for vinasse decolorization were performed using the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju CCB020 in vinasse biodegradation study, were occurred reductions of 82.8% in COD, 75.3% in BOD, 99.2% in the coloration and 99.7% in turbidity. The vinasse toxicity reduction was determined by the exposition to the following organisms: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Daphnia similis and Hydra attenuata. This work concluded that the systematic combination of P. sajor-caju and vinasse can be applied in the bioprocess of color reduction and degradation of complex vinasse compounds, with reduction in the toxicity and improving its physical-chemical properties. PMID:20843550

  14. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  15. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made

  16. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones. PMID:23376510

  17. Biochemical and toxicological evaluation of nano-heparins in cell functional properties, proteasome activation and expression of key matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Afratis, Nikolaos A; Bouris, Panagiotis; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Belmiro, Celso L R; Pavão, Mauro S G; Vynios, Dimitrios H; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparin and its derivatives act strongly on blood coagulation, controlling the activity of serine protease inhibitors in plasma. Nonetheless, there is accumulating evidence highlighting different anticancer activities of these molecules in numerous types of cancer. Nano-heparins may have great biological significance since they can inhibit cell proliferation and invasion as well as inhibiting proteasome activation. Moreover, they can cause alterations in the expression of major modulators of the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of two nano-heparin formulations: one isolated from porcine intestine and the other from the sea squirt Styela plicata, on a breast cancer cell model. We determined whether these nano-heparins are able to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion, as well as proteasome activity and the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. Specifically, we observed that nano-Styela compared to nano-Mammalian analogue has higher inhibitory role on cell proliferation, invasion and proteasome activity. Moreover, nano-Styela regulates cell apoptosis, expression of inflammatory molecules, such as IL-6 and IL-8 and reduces the expression levels of extracellular matrix macromolecules, such as the proteolytic enzymes MT1-MMP, uPA and the cell surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and -2, but not on syndecan-4. The observations reported in the present article indicate that nano-heparins and especially ascidian heparin are effective agents for heparin-induced effects in critical cancer cell functions, providing an important possibility in pharmacological targeting. PMID:26476401

  18. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichewicz, R H; Thorpe, P A

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the Mayan pharmacopoeia revealed that tissues of Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are included in a number of herbal remedies for a variety of ailments of probable microbial origin. Using a filter disk assay, plain and heated aqueous extracts from fresh Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinese, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum pubescens varieties were tested for their antimicrobial effects with fifteen bacterial species and one yeast species. Two pungent compounds found in Capsicum species (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) were also tested for their anti-microbial effects. The plain and heated extracts were found to exhibit varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:8735449

  19. Smoke chemistry, in vitro and in vivo toxicology evaluations of the electrically heated cigarette smoking system series K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Freelin, Susan A; Wrenn, Susan E; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Roemer, Ewald; Schramke, Heike; Van Miert, Erik; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Weber, Susanne; Coggins, Christopher R E

    2008-11-01

    The Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System Series K (EHCSS) produces smoke through the controlled electrical heating of tobacco. Evaluation of the EHCSS was accomplished by comparison with commercial and reference cigarettes, using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and alternative puffing regimens based on nicotine exposures measured in a short-term clinical study. Using the alternative puffing regimen and compared with conventional cigarettes on a per cigarette basis, the EHCSS had 50-60% reductions in tar and nicotine; at least 90% reductions in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, aromatic amines, tobacco specific nitrosamines, and phenol; and least a 40% reduction in 2-nitropropane. Other important smoke constituents in EHCSS smoke were reduced as well. The in vitro studies showed similar large reductions in biological activity. Ames mutagenicity of total particulate matter (TPM) from the EHCSS was reduced by 70-90%; cytotoxicity of the TPM was reduced by approximately 82% and 65% for the gas-vapor phase. In vivo testing under ISO smoking conditions in the mouse skin painting assay demonstrated later dermal tumor onset, lower dermal tumor incidence, reduced dermal tumor multiplicity, and a lower proportion of malignant dermal tumors in EHCSS smoke condensate-exposed mice. Thirty-five day and 90-day nose-only inhalation studies in rats showed reductions in pulmonary inflammation and other biological activity, including histopathological endpoints. We conclude that under the conditions of these in vitro and in vivo studies, the EHCSS demonstrated significantly lower biological activity compared to conventional cigarettes, and may suggest the potential for reductions in human smokers. PMID:18590791

  20. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  1. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  2. FINAL REPORT ON THE EVALUATION OF FOUR TOXIC CHEMICALS IN AN 'IN VIVO/IN VITRO' TOXICOLOGICAL SCREEN: ACRYLAMIDE, CHLORDECONE, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vivo/in vitro Toxicological Screen (Tox Screen) has been developed for screening large numbers of wastes for biological activity. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide range of potential toxic responses by employing diverse test methods with toxic endpoints in mutagenesi...

  3. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus. PMID:26959315

  4. Society of Toxicologic Pathology position paper: organ weight recommendations for toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Rani S; Morton, Daniel; Michael, Bindhu; Roome, Nigel; Johnson, Julie K; Yano, Barry L; Perry, Rick; Schafer, Ken

    2007-08-01

    The evaluation of organ weights in toxicology studies is an integral component in the assessment of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and medical devices. The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) has created recommendations for weighing organs in GLP general toxicology studies lasting from 7 days to 1 year. The STP recommends that liver, heart, kidneys, brain, testes, and adrenal glands be weighed in all multidose general toxicology studies. Thyroid gland and pituitary gland weights are recommended for all species except mice. Spleen and thymus should be weighed in rodent studies and may be weighed in non-rodent studies. Weighing of reproductive organs is most valuable in sexually mature animals. Variability in age, sexual maturity, and stage of cycle in non-rodents and reproductive senescence in female rodents may complicate or limit interpretation of reproductive organ weights. The STP recommends that testes of all species be weighed in multidose general toxicology studies. Epididymides and prostate should be weighed in rat studies and may be weighed on a case-by-case basis in non-rodent and mouse studies. Weighing of other organs including female reproductive organs should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Organ weights are not recommended for any carcinogenicity studies including the alternative mouse bioassays. Regardless of the study type or organs evaluated, organ weight changes must be evaluated within the context of the compound class, mechanism of action, and the entire data set for that study. PMID:17849358

  5. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  6. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp. Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omodesola O. Ogunruku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM and Capsicum chinense (RO and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P<0.05 ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P<0.05 ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated.

  7. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  8. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  9. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  10. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Chili (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shairul R.  Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced mutation by gamma irradiation has been found to be a very useful technique for crop improvement. Apart from this, the proper use of induced mutation in plant breeding has become a profitable approach. This investigation was carried out to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on germination, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from irradiated seeds of chili (Capsicum annuum. Seeds of chili were treated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 Gy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT. The treated seeds including control were sown in sand beds in size 4.6 x 0.7 m2 in a greenhouse at Horticulture Unit, UPMKB. Water was applied manually to maintain the soil moisture at field capacity as well as weed was manually controlled. The experiment was designed as 5 x 6 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Lethal dose 50 % of population (LD50 was assayed. Observation showed that germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root weight and shoot dry weight decreased with increasing dose of gamma rays. The 800 Gy gamma ray dose had a profound effect on these variables perhaps due to injury the higher doses may have caused to the seeds of chili. This resulted in poor growth and development of chili seedlings. The LD50 for chili (survival percentage was estimated at 445 Gy. Loan contracts performance determines the profitability and stability of the financial institutions and screening the loan applications is a key process in minimizing credit risk. Before making any credit In general, higher gamma ray doses particularly 600 and 800 Gy had negative effect on the morphological characteristics of chili seedlings derived from irradiated seeds.

  11. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  12. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in Capsicum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum fruit contain a number of phytochemicals, including the newly characterized capsinoids that have been shown to have positive effects on human health (10-15). Closely related to the pungent capsaicinoids, the non-pungent casinoids exhibit antioxidant activity, promote energy metabolism and r...

  13. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  14. Gene expression in isolated plastids from fruits of capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastids were obtained from the ripening fruits of Capsicum annum, and incubated in vitro in the presence of [35S]methionine(Met). There was polypeptide synthesis at all stages of pepper tissue studied in both chloroplasts and chromoplasts, dependent on the addition of nuclioside triphosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate and inhibited by D-threo-chloramphenicol. l8. refs. (author)

  15. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  16. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum. PMID:26125877

  17. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Jarret, Robert; Russo, Vincent; Majetich, George; Shimkus, Joel; Bushway, Rodney; Perkins, Brian

    2009-05-13

    Capsicum fruits contain a newly discovered phytochemical called capsinoids. Because little is known about the quantities of these compounds in both sweet and pungent pepper fruits, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify and quantify the capsinoids (naturally present E-capsiate and dihydrocapsiate) utilizing fruit obtained from a variety of Capsicum spp. in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Capsicum germplasm collection. Capsinoids were extracted with acetonitrile, filtered, and analyzed using an HPLC system equipped with a C(18) monolithic column, gradient pump, and diode array detector. The elution solvents were acetonitrile and water (60:40) with an isocratic flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Forty-nine samples representing distinct morphotypes of four cultivated species ( C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, C. baccatum , C. chinense , and C. frutescens ) contained detectable levels (11-369 microg/g) of E-capsiate quantified at a wavelength of 280 nm. Nine of the E-capsiate-containing samples also had dihydrocapsiate (18-86 micro/g). Gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) confirmed the presence of these compounds in the Capsicum spp. PMID:19415923

  18. Toxicological study of the hepatotherapeutic herbal formula, Chunggan extract, in beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Woo-Jin; Shin, Jang-Woo; Son, Jin-Young; Seo, Dong-Seok; Park, Hark-Soo; Han, Seung-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jung; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yeon-Weol LEE; Son, Chang-Gue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of a Chinese herbal formula, Chunggan extract (CGX), traditionally prescribed as a hepatotherapeutic drug via systemic acute and subacute toxicological study.

  19. human and environmental nuclear toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the civil nuclear is in expansion, this book takes stock of the situation on the geochemical processes implied the accumulation of radioactive or stable chemical elements and on the toxicity and all that is ensuing. It is important to answer at the best to increasing demands of toxicology, ecotoxicology for evaluation and management of environmental and sanitary risks. This work is divided in five parts: the behaviour of chemical species in biosphere, particularly for the living, the cell molecular mechanisms of interactions among the living, their consequences on human health and the ecosystems, the state of knowledge, element by element and the new development of technology opened with the knowledge progress. The fields of application, goes from the detection to the treatments of contaminations, from environment to man. (N.C.)

  20. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analysis for pharmacopoeial qualification of industrial Capsicum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Mónika; Fodor, Krisztina; Boros, Borbála; Perjési, Pál

    2015-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamid), dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide) and the main capsaicinoid contents of Capsicum extracts. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C8 column using isocratic mobile phase consisting of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 60% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid solution with flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The concentration of the eluting compounds was monitored by a diode-array detector at wavelength of 281 nm. The method was evaluated for number of validation characteristics (selectivity, accuracy (confidence intervals calibration range). The LOD was 0.25 µg/mL and the LOQ was 0.5 µg/mL. Using methanolic solutions of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Reference Standards, the method was linear over the concentration range 0.0005-0.5000 mg/mL for both capsaicinoids. The method was applied to qualify capsaicinoid content of two industrial capsicum extracts according to the USP 29. PMID:24557717

  1. A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J P; Lackney, V K; Angeles, C; Blauth, J R; Kyle, M M

    1995-04-01

    Interspecific genetic variation was examined in the genus Capsicum based on shared restriction fragments in Southern analyses. Four distinct clusters were delineated among 21 accessions of cultivated and wild pepper (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chacoense, C. chinense, and C. frutescens). Three tight clusters comprised of accessions belonging to C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. baccatum, respectively, were formed, along with a fourth cluster comprised of one accession each of C. chinense and C. chacoense. All accessions were differentiated by this technique, and the clusters corresponded closely to previous morphology-based classification. Sufficient DNA polymorphism exists among these accessions that segregating populations useful for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping could be constructed using any two pepper accessions as parents. Regression analysis indicates that genetic distance is a good predictor (R2 = 0.872) of the level of mappable DNA polymorphism in Capsicum. Intraspecific variability was examined among four C. annuum cultivars (NuMex R Naky, Jupiter, Perennial, and Criollo de Morelos 334) using both RFLPs and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), allowing a comparative evaluation of the two techniques. Seventeen percent of the clones used singly in RFLP analyses were sufficient for the differentiation of these varieties, as were 12.5% of the RAPD PCR amplifications. Dendrograms constructed from RFLP and RAPD analyses of the intraspecific data are similar but not identical. Southern analysis and RAPD PCR should be useful for DNA fingerprinting and the discrimination of closely related C. annuum genotypes. PMID:7774796

  2. Evaluación del efecto de la edad de transplante sobre el rendimiento en tres selecciones de ají dulce Capsicum chinense Jacq. en Jusepín, estado Monagas Evaluation of the effect of the transplant age on yield in three selections of sweet pepper Capsicum chinense Jacq in Jusepin, Monagas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Montaño-Mata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la edad de transplante 50, 45, 40 y 35 días sobre el rendimiento de frutos en las selecciones de ají dulce UDO A-16R, UDO A-8R y UDO A-7R, en un ensayo establecido en la estación experimental de producción vegetal de la Universidad de Oriente, Jusepín, estado Monagas, utilizando un diseño experimental de bloques al azar en arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. Los resultados mostraron que el número de frutos por planta y número de frutos por kilogramo tuvieron un efecto directo sobre los rendimientos de las selecciones evaluadas. El mayor rendimiento de frutos lo produjo la selección UDO A-16R (17.874 Kg/ha cuyas plantas permanecieron 45 días en el semillero. UDO A-7R produjo un rendimiento promedio de 15.030 Kg/ha con plántula de 45 o 40 días de edad. La selección UDO A-8R obtuvo su mejor rendimiento (16.066 Kg/ha cuando las plántulas permanecieron 50 días en el semillero. Las selecciones produjeron los rendimientos más bajos cuando las plántulas permanecieron 35 días en el semillero con promedio de 10.654 Kg/ha. La altura de la planta al momento de la primera cosecha, última cosecha, longitud y ancho del fruto no fueron afectadas por la edad de transplante. A mayor edad de transplante mayor fue el número de hojas (9,00 y la altura de la plántula (21,4 cm.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the transplant age at 50, 45, 40 and 35 days, on the yield of fruit in the UDO A-16R, UDO A-8R and UDO A-7R selections of sweet pepper, in a trial established at the experimental station for vegetable production in the Universidad de Oriente, Jusepin, Monagas State, using a random block factorial arrangement experimental design with three replications. The results showed that the number fruit per plant and number fruits per kilo had a direct effect on the yield of the evaluated selection. The highest yields of fruits was produced by the seedlings of

  3. Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Pei, Lei

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the implications of synthetic biology (SB) for toxicological sciences. Starting with a working definition of SB, we describe its current subfields, namely, DNA synthesis, the engineering of DNA-based biological circuits, minimal genome research, attempts to construct protocells and synthetic cells, and efforts to diversify the biochemistry of life through xenobiology. Based on the most important techniques, tools, and expected applications in SB, we describe the ramifications of SB for toxicology under the label of synthetic toxicology. We differentiate between cases where SB offers opportunities for toxicology and where SB poses challenges for toxicology. Among the opportunities, we identified the assistance of SB to construct novel toxicity testing platforms, define new toxicity-pathway assays, explore the potential of SB to improve in vivo biotransformation of toxins, present novel biosensors developed by SB for environmental toxicology, discuss cell-free protein synthesis of toxins, reflect on the contribution to toxic use reduction, and the democratization of toxicology through do-it-yourself biology. Among the identified challenges for toxicology, we identify synthetic toxins and novel xenobiotics, biosecurity and dual-use considerations, the potential bridging of toxic substances and infectious agents, and do-it-yourself toxin production. PMID:21068213

  4. History of wildlife toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  5. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalisation of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures

  6. Chemical study and anti-inflammatory activity of Capsicum chacoense and C. baccatum

    OpenAIRE

    Paula López; Susana Gorzalczany; Cristina Acevedo; Rosario Alonso; Graciela Ferraro

    2012-01-01

    Capsicum species, Solanaceae, have been used for centuries as food additives by populations of different regions of the world. Capsaicin (trans-methyl-N-vainillyl-nonenamide) is the main pungent compound extracted from the red hot pepper fruit (Capsicum spp.). The capsaicin content was determined by means of a HPLC method. The results showed that Capsicum chacoense Hunz., contains similar amounts of capsaicin (13.9 mg/100 g of dry fruit) in comparison with Capsicum baccatum L. (12.6 mg/100 g)...

  7. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O.

    2010-01-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick’s law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma ...

  8. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  9. Methods in radioimmunoassay, toxicology, and related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were discussed at the conference: past, present, and potential of radioimmunoassay; measurement of biogenic amines at the picogram level; parathyroid hormone; in vitro radioisotope methods for clinical evaluation of vitamin B12 and folic acid metabolism; forensic toxicology; role of biotransformation reactions in prenatal and postnatal chemical toxicity; the use of electrochemical techniques in FDA analytical procedures; and atomic absorption in food analysis

  10. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando relacionar a reação de Capsicum spp. resistentes e suscetíveis à Oidiopsis haplophylli com o padrão dos respectivos complexos estomáticos, foram analisados em dois ensaios, 5 e 15 genótipos de Capsicum spp. em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Avaliou-se a abertura do ostíolo, a morfometria do estômato (comprimento, largura e área, o número de estômatos.mm-2 e a freqüência de estômatos (unidades de estômatos por células da epiderme nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial da epiderme foliar de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. A variável abertura ostiolar não explicou a reação dos genótipos ao oídio, nem na face adaxial (R²=0,16 nem na abaxial (R²=0,13. Entretanto, o número de estômatos.mm-2 explicou a reação ao oídio em 84 % (face adaxial ou 74 % (face abaxial. Para a freqüência de estômatos, o modelo ajustou-se melhor na face adaxial (R² = 0,76, do que na face abaxial (R²=0,48. Maiores números e freqüências de estômatos em ambas as faces foliares ocorreram em pimentão 'Magali' (altamente suscetível, com valores significativamente maiores do que em 'HV-12' (altamente resistente. Sugere-se que a suscetibilidade de genótipos de Capsicum a O. haplophylli está parcialmente relacionada a mecanismos de defesa estruturais pré-formados, como o número e freqüência de estômatos, os quais se relacionam com o número de sítios de infecção. Por outro lado, para alguns genótipos, esta relação não foi significativa, indicando que outros mecanismos de resistência também estejam envolvidos.This work reports the reaction of Capsicum genotypes to the powdery mildew pathogen with variables of the stomatal complex, from samples of five to 15 Capsicum genotypes in a complete randomized experiments. Ostiolum size, stomatal morphometry (length, width and surface area, the number of stomata.mm-2, and the frequency of stomata (stomatal units per unit of epidermal cells were evaluated on both leaf

  11. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  12. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  13. Potent Production of Capsaicinoids and Capsinoids by Capsicum Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    古旗, 賢二; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; 矢澤, 進; 渡辺, 達夫

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact frui...

  14. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Nora; Ismail, Abdelrahman; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified rec...

  15. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barboza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae about the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentification. In addition, some specimens that serve as types have never been found or were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War while others exhibit uncertain locality data or are composed of plants belong to more than one species, and thus require lectotypification. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name are here proposed.

  16. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    OpenAIRE

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Enrique Sauri-Duch; María de Lourdes Miranda-Ham; Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha; Luis F. Cuevas-Glory; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabol...

  17. The Paleobiolinguistics of domesticated chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Cecil H.; Charles R. Clement; Patience Epps; Eike Luedeling; Søren Wichmann

    2013-01-01

    Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) developed significance for different prehistoric Native Am...

  18. AFLP-ANALYSIS OF VARIETAL POLYMORPHYSM IN Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Snigir’, E.; Pyshnaya, O.; Kochieva, E; Ryzhova, N.

    2013-01-01

    AFLP-system of multipoint marking was used for estimation of genetic diversity in 45 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. As a result, it was selected 8 primer combinations, which were the most informative for marking of paprika genome. Due to these primers the authors obtained the specific DNA-spectrums for each variety. In total, 956 polymorphous AFLP-fragments were detected, of which 182 fragments characterize the individual varietal genotypes. The calculated coefficients of intervarietal genet...

  19. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options

  20. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  1. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  2. Echo-toxicological evaluation of the influence of the discharges of the production field, La Cira-infantas (GCO) over two receiving bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of a methodology to determine acute toxicity and toxic charge of the six effluents of Ecopetrol's production field La Cira-Infantas, as well as to assess water quality of receptor streams (La Cira and Reposo), through toxicity test with three native organisms from the region: an algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), a macrophite (Lemna aequinoctialis) a cladoceran (Moinodaphnia macleayi) and Daphnia pulex as the reference organism. The toxic potential of the effluents, by conducting additional bioassays with BaCl2 and NaCl, was also determined since high concentrations of (Ba+2 and Cl) are present in the effluents. All tested organisms showed sensitivity to the reference toxicant (K2Cr2O7) and met international criteria for their use as bio-indicators in eco-toxicology studies. The response of the bio-indicators to the effluents depended on each organism; however effluents 2 and 3, the more highly contaminated, presented the highest toxicities

  3. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  4. Morphological Variation for Fruit Characteristics in the USDA/ARS Capsicum Baccatum L. Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature fruit of two hundred and ninety-five accessions of Capsicum baccatum from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, and color. Mean fruit weight was determined to be 5.91 g with a range from 0.15 g to 22.8 g. Mean fruit length was 6.01 cm with a ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum annuum extract and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Moema Mocaiber Peralva; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Gonçalves, Paula Santos; Maria, Edmilsom José; Terra, Wagner Silva; Rodrigues, Rosana; Souza, Claudio Luiz Melo

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of the ethyl acetate extract and capsaicin (1) and dihydrocapsaicin (2) isolated from fruits of Capsicum annuum chili pepper type, and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives (N-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl)decamide (3), (E)-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3,7-dimethylocta- 2,6-dienamide (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-((E)-3, 7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzamide (5) andN-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxybenzyl)decamide (6) at different concentrations were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration at which the ethyl acetate extract prevented the growth of S. mutans was 2.5 mg/mL; those of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were 1.25 μg/mL, while 3 was 5.0 μg/mL, and 4, 5 and 6 were 2.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:21858615

  6. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  7. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus Ngullie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest per plant yield was also recorded from the same combination and it was followed by T. viride. However, the commercially available fungicide Copper oxychloride (0.1% showed 9.82 % and11.88% disease incidence in greenhouse and field condition respectively

  8. Análisis del crecimiento y calidad de semillas de tres tipos de chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Villegas, Misael Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El chile es una de las hortalizas más importante a nivel mundial. México es de los países con mayor producción y al ser centro de origen y domesticación de la especie Capsicum annuum L. tiene una amplia diversidad de materiales agrupados en tipos. Los estudios referentes al crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta y semilla de chile, son escasos y no son recientes. Aquí, se comparó el crecimiento de la planta de los tipos de árbol, ancho y guajillo y se evaluó la calidad de semillas durante su d...

  9. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  10. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84

    OpenAIRE

    Hanau, Claudia; Morré, D. James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early i...

  11. Impact of salt stress (NaCl) on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Zhani; Ben Fredj Mariem; Mani Fardaous; Hannachi Cherif

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) cultivars: Tebourba (Tb), Somaa (Sm), Korba (Kb), Awald Haffouzz (AW) and Souk jedid (Sj). Thus, an experiment of five months w...

  12. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body...

  13. Chemical study and anti-inflammatory activity of Capsicum chacoense and C. baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species, Solanaceae, have been used for centuries as food additives by populations of different regions of the world. Capsaicin (trans-methyl-N-vainillyl-nonenamide is the main pungent compound extracted from the red hot pepper fruit (Capsicum spp.. The capsaicin content was determined by means of a HPLC method. The results showed that Capsicum chacoense Hunz., contains similar amounts of capsaicin (13.9 mg/100 g of dry fruit in comparison with Capsicum baccatum L. (12.6 mg/100 g and Capsicum annum L. (10.1 mg/100 g. Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and ethanol (EtOH extracts of C. chacoense elicited a 46% and 38 % of inhibition on the arachidonic acid (AA pathway in ear edema respectively while the CH2Cl2 and EtOH extracts of C. baccatum inhibited 52% and 35% the arachidonic acid response respectively.

  14. Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

    1996-09-01

    A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

  15. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  16. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by ...

  17. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  18. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  19. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  20. American College of Medical Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club ACMT Grand Rounds Medical Toxicology LLSA JMT Peer Reviewer Webinar Resident-Medical Student Webinars 2015 Fellows-in-Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ...

  1. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  3. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  4. Morphological and chemical characterization of fruits of Capsicum spp. accessions Caracterização morfológica e química de frutos de acessos do gênero Capsicum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizanilda R do Rêgo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate 69 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Roraima, for some fruit quality traits. The experiment was performed in a completely random design, with 69 treatments and 3 replications. The 69 accessions were evaluated for fourteen quantitative and two qualitative traits of ripe fruits. Quantitative fruits data were subjected to an analysis of variance, and the means were grouped by Scott-Knott test (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 69 acessos do gênero Capsicum, pertencentes ao Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Roraima, quanto a 16 descritores relacionados à qualidade de frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. Quatorze descritores quantitativos e dois qualitativos foram utilizados na caracterização e para obtenção de caracteres morfológicos de qualidade. Obteve-se a média de dez frutos por repetição, aleatoriamente dentro de cada acesso, quando os frutos atingiram a maturidade. Os dados quantitativos foram submetidos à análise de variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias pelo teste Scott-Knott. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,01 entre os 69 acessos tanto para caracteres morfológicos quanto químicos dos frutos, podendo essa diversidade ser utilizada em programa de melhoramento de Capsicum. Se o programa de melhoramento visar à obtenção de maior rendimento de pó, indica-se o uso dos acessos 33, 44 e 41, cujos valores de teor de matéria seca e sólidos solúveis totais foram mais elevados. Entretanto, se o objetivo for o comércio de frutos in natura, recomenda-se o acesso 48 que apresentou maiores valores de matéria fresca, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto. O acesso 33, Capsicum frutescens, apresentou o maior teor de vitamina C.

  5. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes. PMID:15650909

  6. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M

    2013-09-14

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens α-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to α-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum α-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550

  7. Rapid analysis of taurine in energy drinks using amino acid analyzer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as basis for toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, S; Sproll, C; Reusch, H; Godelmann, R; Lachenmeier, D W

    2007-09-01

    So-called energy drinks with very high amounts of taurine (up to 4000 mg/l are usually granted by certificates of exemption) are increasingly offered on the market. To control the currently valid maximum limits of taurine in energy drinks, a simple and rapid analytical method is required to use it routinely in food monitoring. In this article, we describe a fast and efficient analytical method (FTIR-spectroscopy) that is able to reliably characterize and quantify taurine in energy drinks. The determination of taurine in energy drinks by FTIR was compared with amino acid analyzer (ion chromatography with ninhydrin-postcolumn derivatization). During analysis of 80 energy drinks, a median concentration of 3180 mg/l was found in alcohol-free products, 314 mg/l in energy drinks with spirits, 151 mg/l in beer-containing drinks and 305 mg/l in beverages with wine. Risk analysis of these products is difficult due to the lack of valid toxicological information about taurine and its interferences with other ingredients of energy drinks (for example caffeine and alcohol). So far, the high taurine concentrations of energy drinks in comparison to the rest of the diet are scientifically doubtful, as the advertised physiological effects and the value of supplemented taurine are unproven. PMID:17051421

  8. Development of a research strategy for integrated technology-based toxicological and chemical evaluation of complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jane Ellen; Richardson, Susan D; Speth, Thomas F; Miltner, Richard J; Rice, Glenn; Schenck, Kathleen M; Hunter, E Sidney; Teuschler, Linda K

    2002-12-01

    Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health triumph of the 20th century. Dramatic decreases in both morbidity and mortality of waterborne diseases are a direct result of water disinfection. With these important public health benefits comes low-level, chronic exposure to a very large number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), chemicals formed through reaction of the chemical disinfectant with naturally occurring inorganic and organic material in the source water. This article provides an overview of joint research planning by scientists residing within the various organizations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development. The purpose is to address concerns related to potential health effects from exposure to DBPs that cannot be addressed directly from toxicological studies of individual DBPs or simple DBP mixtures. Two factors motivate the need for such an investigation of complex mixtures of DBPs: a) a significant amount of the material that makes up the total organic halide and total organic carbon portions of the DBPs has not been identified; and b) epidemiologic data, although not conclusive, are suggestive of potential developmental, reproductive, or carcinogenic health effects in humans exposed to DBPs. The plan is being developed and the experiments necessary to determine the feasibility of its implementation are being conducted by scientists from the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, the National Risk Management Research Laboratory, the National Exposure Research Laboratory, and the National Center for Environmental Assessment. PMID:12634133

  9. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS AND RADIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIGSBY KM

    2011-04-07

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farms safety analysis. The basis equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included. In this revision, the time averaging for toxicological consequence evaluations is clarified based on a review of DOE complex guidance and a review of tank farm chemicals.

  10. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  11. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  12. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  13. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  14. The role of urine toxicology in chronic opioid analgesic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    The current trend of treating chronic nonmalignant pain with opioid therapy means that pain management nurses are increasingly involved in the care of patients who are prescribed and using potent opioid analgesics on a daily basis. Although demonstrated to be quite effective in certain patients, sanctioned access to these medications brings with it risks for abuse, addiction, and diversion. Urine toxicology analysis is a valuable, yet underutilized, tool to monitor patterns of medication use and potential use of illicit drugs to evaluate the effect of these on health outcomes. This review provides a guide for the use of urine toxicology in the nursing management of chronic pain patients on opioid therapy, detailing the information provided by urine toxicology analysis, the benefits and limitations of urine drug testing, principles of sample collection, and correct interpretation of findings. It is emphasized that the results of urine toxicology analysis should never be used in isolation to identify abuse, addiction, or diversion, and that patterns of medication and other drug use should always be evaluated with respect to evidence of improved functionality. Nurses involved in the care of patients with chronic pain are encouraged to consider urine toxicology analysis as an integral component in care plan for those on chronic opioid therapy, and to knowledgeably implement and interpret this powerful tool in the practice of pain care. PMID:18036504

  15. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 ...

  16. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 uniq...

  17. Caracterización morfologica de accesiones de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Castro, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp., procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, Salvador) y representativas de 4 especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores (6 cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; 8 de caracteres vegetativos, 3 de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla) propuestos por el IPGRI (1983). La caracterización morfológica permitió confirmar la pr...

  18. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies

  19. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�). Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for the...

  20. Alleviative Effect and Its Evaluation of LaCl3 Treatment on Acid Rain Stresses for Capsicum Seed Germination%LaCl3对辣椒种子酸雨胁迫的缓解效应及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Alleviative effects of LaCl3 on acid rain (AR) stresses for capsicum seed were analyzed using two evaluation systems. The results showed that the damage of AR (pH 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0) were alleviatedby treating the seeds with LaCl3 solution ( 10 mg·L-1 ).The alleviative effects were 14.48%, 19.24%,15.14% and 13.48% as a relative rate of vigor index. However, the vigor index in seeds treated with LaCl3 and AR (pH 3.5 and 3.0 ) was significantly higher than with only AR as its increment. Meanwhile, the destructions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) reduced notably, and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced at pH ≤ 2.5; whereas these indexes did not change obviously at pH ≥ 3.0. This indicated that LaCl3 probably alleviated AR damage by improving the seed resistance at pH ≤2.5 and the seed tolerance at pH ≥3.0. The growth index was an indirect indicator of the resistance, so should not be used as main evaluation system. The activate oxygen metabolic indices had their threshold values, but should be evaluated based on possibility which the index felt within its threshold value range. This method just gave an approximate threshold values, but could show inner causes for improving growth of crop species.%采用两种评价系统分析了镧对酸雨胁迫下辣椒种子萌发的影响.结果表明,经10 mg·L-1的LaCl3浸种,可显著缓解酸雨(pH 3.5,3.0,2.5和2.0)对辣椒种子的伤害,以活力指数的增幅为标准,缓解能力依次为14.48%,19.24%,15.14%和13.48%;以指标值的增量为标准,只有pH 3.5和3.0时显著提高.同时,镧处理可提高酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化酶的活性,减少丙二醛的积累,在pH≤2.5时,与酸雨处理差异显著,而pH≥3.0时没有明显变化,说明镧处理分别提高种子的抗性和耐受性.基于生长指标是间接的抗逆性指标,不宜作为评价的主体.活性氧代谢指标都有一个阈值,可依据

  1. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  2. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Otsu, Keigo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-24

    Capsiconinoid is a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits, which we recently identified. Capsiconinoids have agonist activity for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which is reported to be a receptor for capsaicin. It is, therefore, important to screen cultivars containing high levels of capsiconinoid for their use as a vegetable or dietary supplement. This study describes the quantitative analysis of capsiconinoid content in fruits of 35 Capsicum cultivars: 18 cultivars of C. annuum, 7 of C. baccatum, 5 of C. chinense, 4 of C. frutescens, and 1 of C. pubescens. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found that 10 cultivars contained capsiconinoids. Capsiconinoid Baccatum (CCB) (C. baccatum var. praetermissum) showed the highest capsiconinoid content (3314 microg/g DW) and Charapita (C. chinense) had the second highest content. The other 8 cultivars had much lower capsiconinoid content than these two cultivars (<300 microg/g DW). Time-course analysis during fruit development clarified that capsiconinoid content in CCB fruits increased until 30 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased rapidly until 40 DAF. PMID:19489540

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Of these, seven genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats and 12 genes contain one or two introns. Comparative analysis with the reference chloroplast genome revealed 125 simple sequence repeat motifs and 34 variants, mostly located in the noncoding regions. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. frutescens reported here is a valuable genetic resource for Capsicum species. PMID:27213127

  4. In silico toxicology – non-testing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu eRaunio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology. Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterise and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure-activity relationship (SAR, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds.

  5. Toxicogenomics: Applications of new functional genomics technologies in toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Heijne, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Toxicogenomics studies toxic effects of substances on organisms in relation to the composition of the genome. It applies the functional genomics technologies transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that determine expression of the genes, proteins and metabolites in a sample. These methods could facilitate toxicological research and eventually, toxicogenomics could improve human health risk assessment. This thesis evaluated applications of toxicogenomics, especially to investigate mechani...

  6. [Analysis of microsatellite loci of the chloroplast genome in the genus Capsicum (Pepper)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhova, N N; Kochieva, E Z

    2004-08-01

    Six plastome microsatellites were examined in 43 accessions of the genus Capsicum. In total, 33 allelic variants were detected. A specific haplotype of chloroplast DNA was identified for each Capsicum species. Species-specific allelic variants were found for most wild Capsicum species. The highest intraspecific variation was observed for the C. baccatum plastome. Low cpDNA polymorphism was characteristic of C. annuum: the cpSSRs were either monomorphic or dimorphic. The vast majority of C. annuum accessions each had alleles of one type. Another allele type was rare and occurred only in wild accessions. The results testified again to genetic conservation of C. annuum and especially its cultivated forms. The phylogenetic relationships established for the Capsicum species on the basis of plastome analysis were similar to those inferred from the morphological traits, isozyme patterns, and molecular analysis of the nuclear genome. PMID:15523848

  7. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  8. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings that deal will radioactive particles. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics

  9. Toxicology Selective Toxicity dan Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur

    2002-01-01

    Toxicology adalah pemahaman-pemahaman mengenai effek-effek bahan kimia yang merugikan bagi organisme. Dari definisi tersebut, jelas terdapat unsur-unsur bahan kimia dan organisme, dimana didalam kedua unsur-unsur ini terdapat istilah-istilah toksisitas dan animal test-test. Tulisan ini bermaskud membicarakan mengenai selective toxicity dan animal toxicity tetst. kedokteran-mansyur5

  10. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96. ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  11. Sensory evaluation of irradiated powered paprika (Capsicum Annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices are usually contaminated with microorganisms from soil. Its industrial use may lead to fermentation and/or putrefaction problems affecting the quality of elaborated product. Different dosis of gamma radiation upon the initial microflora were studied, specially on the genus Rhizopus, main contaminant of powered paprika. A 5 kGy dosis was chosen and its effect on the sensory quality and pungency, through the Scoville index, was studied. Our results showed no changes either on the organoleptic characters of powered paprika, nor on the pungency. An increase in the pungent taste was observed on 65% of the studied products. (author)

  12. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Maria Passador; Edson Luiz Furtado; Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão), é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne) e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero), que após a forma...

  13. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  14. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten van Zonneveld; Marleni Ramirez; Williams, David E; Michael Petz; Sven Meckelmann; Teresa Avila; Carlos Bejarano; Llermé Ríos; Karla Peña; Matthias Jäger; Dimary Libreros; Karen Amaya; Xavier Scheldeman

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions fo...

  15. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E.; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs a...

  16. The influence of different growth regulators to Capsicum annuum Jalapeno vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu POP; Cristian Felix BLIDAR; Simona Ana GABOR-POTOR; Violeta TURCUS

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum annuum is an important vegetable for human alimentation, because of its content in vitamins, minerals and, especially, the capsaicine. In this experiment we have studied the development of Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets, the Mexican variety (Jalapeño), obtained by aseptic germination of this plant’s seeds. The seeds were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog medium (BM), with and without growth regulators, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0–control variant = BM without growth regulato...

  17. Method for the flotation oil extraction of light filth from ground capsicums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1977-05-01

    The present official first action method for ground capsicums, 44.123, was adopted in 1945 and there have been great changes in processing and examination of spices since that time. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, followed by wet sieving and extraction of the light filth from 60% ethanol with flotation oil. The filter papers were clean and recoveries were good (95%) for 5 different lots of capsicums and annato spiked with insect fragments and rodent hairs. PMID:870482

  18. Olfaktorische, gustatorische und instrumentell-analytische Charakterisierung von getrockneten Früchten nativer Capsicum-Spezies

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Benavides, Evelyn Meylin

    2014-01-01

    Peru und Bolivia dispose of a unique variety of Capsicum accessions mainly from the species C. baccatum and C. chinense that have not been characterized by its biochemical and sensory traits. This research aims to study the relationship between sensory attributes like sweet, sour, and bitter as well as the content of sugars and organic acids obtained by instrumental analysis in Capsicum powders. Prior to the analysis, the capsicum fruits were harvested, solar or oven-dried, milled in their na...

  19. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  1. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  2. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  3. Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J S; Whipple, R E; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Volpe, A M; Pelkey, G E

    1997-01-01

    In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted. PMID:9022856

  4. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  5. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Pa Pa Wai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp. collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum pepper plants carrying Bs₁, Bs₂ and Bs₃, and PI235047 (C. pubescens were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047.

  6. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  7. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  8. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  9. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  10. Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Theresa A.; Hamid Ashrafi; Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo; JiQiang Yao; Kevin Stoffel; Maria-Jose Truco; Alexander Kozik; Michelmore, Richard W; Allen Van Deynze

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterizat...

  11. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  12. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Vedanarayanan; A. C. Fernandez

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasi...

  13. Toxicology of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to obtain biological data to supplement earlier evaluations of the hazards of 85Kr exposure. The studies include both short-term and chronic exposure of rats, dogs and sheep to determine tissue distribution and retention kinetics for metabolic modeling. We have also included dose-effect studies in rats exposed acutely as newborns or chronically for most of their life span to identify tissues at risk and determine tumorigenic potency

  14. Toxicology of Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to obtain biological data to supplement earlier evaluations of the hazards of 85Kr exposure. The studies include both short-term and chronic exposure of rats, dogs and sheep to determine tissue distribution and retention kinetics for metabolic modeling purposes. Dose-effect studies in rats exposed acutely as newborns or chronically for most of their life span are included to identify tissues at risk and determine tumorigenic potency

  15. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.

    OpenAIRE

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of risk from exposure to environmental air pollutants is complex, and involves the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human inhalation studies. Controlled, quantitative studies of exposed humans help determine health-related effects that result from breathing the atmosphere. The major unique feature of the clinical study is the ability to select, control, and quantify pollutant exposures of subjects of known clinical status, and determine their effects under id...

  16. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace x...

  17. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Vedanarayanan

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasised since in our country, at present, there are no regulations covering the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Finally the question of the general and subtle long term systemic toxicity of biomedical polymers have been brought to attention with the suggestion that this question needs to be resolved permanently by appropriate studies.

  18. Studies on assessment of health effects of radiation processed foods: Part 1. genetic toxicological evaluation in somatic and germ cells of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies summarized in this report form a part of the program on the safety evaluation of radiation-processed foods, an important component of the development of radiation technology for food preservation from the public health point of view. These studies contributed significantly and critically to the acceptance of safety of radiation processed foods by regulatory agencies both at the national and international levels. This report contains only genetic studies, one aspect of this program, while the remaining studies will be summarized in a separate report

  19. Finding toxicological information: An approach for occupational health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be difficult for occupational health professionals to assess which toxicological databases available on the Internet are the most useful for answering their questions. Therefore we evaluated toxicological databases for their ability to answer practical questions about exposure and prevention. We also propose recommended practices for searching for toxicological properties of chemicals. Methods We used a systematic search to find databases available on the Internet. Our criteria for the databases were the following: has a search engine, includes factual information on toxic and hazardous chemicals harmful for human health, and is free of charge. We developed both a qualitative and a quantitative rating method, which was used by four independent assessors to determine appropriateness, the quality of content, and ease of use of the database. Final ratings were based on a consensus of at least two evaluators. Results Out of 822 results we found 21 databases that met our inclusion criteria. Out of these 21 databases 14 are administered in the US, five in Europe, one in Australia, and one in Canada. Nine are administered by a governmental organization. No database achieved the maximum score of 27. The databases GESTIS, ESIS, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, TOXNET and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards all scored more than 20 points. The following approach was developed for occupational health professionals searching for the toxicological properties of chemicals: start with the identity of the chemical; then search for health hazards, exposure route and measurement; next the limit values; and finally look for the preventive measures. Conclusion A rating system of toxicological databases to assess their value for occupational health professionals discriminated well between databases in terms of their appropriateness, quality of information, and ease of use. Several American and European databases yielded high scores and

  20. The occurrence and control of pepper mild mottle virus(PMMoV)in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four-thousand-four-hundred and three seed inventories of Capsicum spp. obtained from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were tested for the presence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV). Approximately 32% of these inventories tested positive for PMMoV and the virus distribution was nearly un...

  1. The Annapolis Accords on the use of toxicology in decision-making. Annapolis Center Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.M.; Baskin, S.I.; Charnley, G.; Cohen, J.T.; Gold, L.S.; Kerkvliet, N.I.; Koenig, H.M.; Lewis, S.C.; McClain, R.M.; Rhomberg, L.R.; Snyder, J.W.; Weekley, L.B.

    2000-12-01

    The science of toxicology plays an important role in identifying safe conditions of use or exposure for many different kinds of environmental agents. The use of toxicologic information in risk assessment requires careful analysis, evaluation of data, and scientific judgment. These Annapolis Accords are intended to guide appropriate use in risk assessment of the scientific information from toxicology. We believe that application of these principles will improve the scientific credibility of risk assessment and the quality of decisions aimed at reducing and eliminating risks to human health and the environment.

  2. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC's approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs)

  3. Evaluation of a group of health professionals on the physics and toxicological concepts of the radiopharmaceuticals that uses 123I e 131I radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the level of knowledge of a group of health professionals in the area west of the city of Rio de Janeiro, a survey of nurses, nursing technicians, doctors and graduate students in pharmacy, concerning production, radiation emitted, applications and toxicities of radiopharmaceuticals using 123I radioisotopes and 131I. These radioisotopes are widely used in Nuclear Medicine to aid in the diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures. In this paper is presented an approach on radiopharmaceuticals using radioisotopes mentioned above so that it has knowledge of what was asked to group of professionals here. With this work, it is expected to contribute to the knowledge of these professionals, as well as the general public, in Nuclear Physics and radiation protection concepts for the subject in question. (author)

  4. Toxicology evaluation and hazard review for non-CFC containing rigid foams BKC 44317 and last-a-foam MSL-02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Archuleta, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    New pour-in-place, low density, rigid polyurethane foam kits have been developed to mechanically stabilize damaged explosive ordnance. Although earlier foam systems used chlorofluorocarbons as blowing agents, the current versions rely on carbon dioxide generated by the reaction of isocynates with water. In addition, these kits were developed to manually generate small quantifies of rigid foam in the field with minimal or no protective equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize available hazard information for the components of these rigid foam kits and to provide recommendations for personal protective equipment to be used while performing the manual combination of the components. As with most rigid foam systems, these kits consist of two parts, one a mixture of isocyanates; the other, a combination of polyols, surfactants, and amine catalysts. Once completely deployed, the rigid foam is non-toxic. The components, however, have some important health effects which must be considered when establishing handling procedures.

  5. Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abdel Ghafar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum samples collected from city markets in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia, calculate their pungency in Scoville heat units (SHU and evaluate the average daily intake of capsaicin for the population of Riyadh. The investigated samples consisted of hot chillies, red chillies, green chillies, green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers. Extraction of capsaicinoids was done using ethanol as solvent, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for separation, identification and quantitation of the components. The limit of detection (LOD of the method was 0.09 and 0.10 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.30 and 0.36 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. Hot chillies showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (4249.0 ± 190.3 µg/g and the highest pungency level (67984.60 SHU, whereas green peppers had the lowest detected concentration (1.0 ± 0.9 µg/g; green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers were non pungent. The mean consumption of peppers for Riyadh city population was determined to be 15.5 g/person/day while the daily capsaicin intake was 7.584 mg/person/day.

  6. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water containing 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 g L-1 NaCl. Results: Results showed that different salinity stress levels had significant effect on germination percentage and germination time. In pot experiment, increasing NaCl concentration, for all cv, induced a significant decrease on plant height, root length, leaves number, leaf area and chlorophyll amount. The fresh and dry weights are also affected. In addition, salinity increased Na+ and Cl– levels but decreased K+ level in roots and shoots. Conclusions: Awlad Haffouz cv had the highest K+/Na+ ratio compared to cv Korba and Tebourba and it has showed the best response under salt stress during germination and growth stage which lets it to be the most tolerant cv.

  7. Protective Effect of Capsicum Frutescens on Contractile Reactivity of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Roghani-Dehkordi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Considering the higher incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes mellitus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral one-month administration of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens on the contractile reactivity of isolated aorta in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods : For this purpose, male Wistar rats(n=32 were randomly divided into control, pepper-treated control, diabetic, and pepper-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60 mg/Kg. Pepper-treated groups received pepper mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1/15. After one month, contractile reactivity of aortic rings to KCl and noreadrenaline was determined using isolated tissue setup. Results : Serum glucose level showed a significant increase in diabetic group at 2nd and 4th weeks (P<0.001, while this increase was less marked in pepper-treated diabetic group at the 2nd week (P<0.05. In addition, the latter group showed a lower contraction to KCl (P<0.05 and noreadrenaline (P<0.05 as compared to diabetic group. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between control and pepper-treated control groups regarding contractile reactivity. Conclusion : It can be concluded that oral administration of pepper for one month could attenuate the contractile responsiveness of the vascular system and may prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats.

  8. Evaluation of submarine atmospheres: effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen on general toxicology, neurobehavioral performance, reproduction and development in rats. I. Subacute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Daniel J; James, R Arden; Gut, Chester P; McInturf, Shawn M; Sweeney, Lisa M; Erickson, Richard P; Gargas, Michael L

    2015-02-01

    The inhalation toxicity of submarine contaminants is of concern to ensure the health of men and women aboard submarines during operational deployments. Due to a lack of adequate prior studies, potential general, neurobehavioral, reproductive and developmental toxicity was evaluated in male and female rats exposed to mixtures of three critical submarine atmospheric components: carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2; levels elevated above ambient), and oxygen (O2; levels decreased below ambient). In a 14-day, 23 h/day, whole-body inhalation study of exposure to clean air (0.4 ppm CO, 0.1% CO2 and 20.6% O2), low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose gas mixtures (high dose of 88.4 ppm CO, 2.5% CO2 and 15.0% O2), no adverse effects on survival, body weight or histopathology were observed. Reproductive, developmental and neurobehavioral performance were evaluated after a 28-day exposure in similar atmospheres. No adverse effects on estrus phase, mating, gestation or parturition were observed. No developmental or functional deficits were observed in either exposed parents or offspring related to motor activity, exploratory behavior or higher-level cognitive functions (learning and memory). Only minimal effects were discovered in parent-offspring emotionality tests. While statistically significant increases in hematological parameters were observed in the offspring of exposed parents compared to controls, these parameters remained within normal clinical ranges for blood cells and components and were not considered adverse. In summary, subacute exposures to elevated concentrations of the submarine atmosphere gases did not affect the ability of rats to reproduce and did not appear to have any significant adverse health effects. PMID:25600219

  9. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  10. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P <0.05 compared with the fresh pepper. There was a significant difference in concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and capsaicinoids between the fresh pepper and those submitted to the drying treatments. It was concluded that higher temperatures increase shelf life and decrease the volume of the product, preserve macronutrients and degrade micronutrients, antioxidants and the spicy hotness of the Cumari pepper.

  11. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  12. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Tate, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsu, Keigo; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2008-03-01

    Coniferyl esters--capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate--were isolated from the fruits of the pepper, Capsicum baccatum L. var. praetermissum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be coniferyl (E)-8-methyl-6-nonenoate (capsiconiate) and coniferyl 8-methylnonanoate (dihydrocapsiconiate). This finding was further confirmed by the lipase-catalyzed condensation of coniferyl alcohol with its corresponding fatty acid derivative. The agonist activity of the esters for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was evaluated by conducting an analysis of the intracellular calcium concentrations in TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. The EC50 values of capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate were 3.2 and 4.2 microM, respectively. PMID:18190936

  13. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  14. Chromosomal localization and sequence variation of 5S rRNA gene in five Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Park, K C; Park, C H; Kim, N S

    2000-02-29

    Chromosomal localization and sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA gene were carried out in five Capsicum species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that chromosomal location of the 5S rRNA gene was conserved in a single locus at a chromosome which was assigned to chromosome 1 by the synteny relationship with tomato. In sequence analysis, the repeating units of the 5S rRNA genes in the Capsicum species were variable in size from 278 bp to 300 bp. In sequence comparison of our results to the results with other Solanaceae plants as published by others, the coding region was highly conserved, but the spacer regions varied in size and sequence. T stretch regions, just after the end of the coding sequences, were more prominant in the Capsicum species than in two other plants. High G x C rich regions, which might have similar functions as that of the GC islands in the genes transcribed by RNA PolII, were observed after the T stretch region. Although we could not observe the TATA like sequences, an AT rich segment at -27 to -18 was detected in the 5S rRNA genes of the Capsicum species. Species relationship among the Capsicum species was also studied by the sequence comparison of the 5S rRNA genes. While C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum formed one lineage, C. baccatum was revealed to be an intermediate species between the former three species and C. pubescens. PMID:10774742

  15. Soil Manganese and Iron Released due to Calcium Salts:Bioavailability to Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI You-Bin; ZHOU Jing; ZHOU Dong-Mei; CHEN Huai-Man

    2004-01-01

    Releases of manganese and iron ions from an albic soil (Albic-Udic Luvisol), a yellow-red soil (Hap-Udic Ferrisol) and a yellow-brown soil (Arp-Udic Luvisol) induced by calcium salt addition and their bioavailability to pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in a pot experiment. Addition of Ca(NO3)2 decreased soil pH and increased both exchangeable and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Mn and Fe in soils. Meanwhile, total Mn accumulation in the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. on the salt-treated soils increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the control, suggesting that salt addition to soil induced Mn toxicity in Capsicum frutescens L. Although exchangeable and DTPA-extractable Fe increased also in the salt-treated soils, Fe uptake by the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased. The effect of added salts in soils on dry matter weight of pepper varied with the soil characteristics, showing different buffer capacities of the soils for salt toxicity in an order of yellow-brown soil > albic soil > yellow-red soil. Fe/Mn ratio in shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased with increasing salt addition for all the soils, which was ascribed to the antagonistic effect of Mn on Fe accumulation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in the tissue was a better indicator of the appearance of Mn toxicity symptoms than Mn concentration alone.

  16. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Using Illumina Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast (cp genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp. The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  17. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future; Toxicologie predictive: les voies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N' Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A. [and others

    2010-07-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  18. Distance learning and toxicology: New horizons for Paracelsus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional 'face-to-face' lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class (!). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional 'face-to-face' model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine 'face-to-face' interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do 'review' or 'remedial' work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers

  19. Distance learning and toxicology: new horizons for Paracelsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane; Morris, John; Peterson, C Erik

    2005-09-01

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional "face-to-face" lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class (!). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional "face-to-face" model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine "face-to-face" interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do "review" or "remedial" work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers. PMID:15979660

  20. The National Toxicology Program chemical nomination selection and testing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, J J

    1988-01-01

    The NTP is an interagency program of the Federal Government which coordinates toxicological programs at the NIH (NIEHS), FDA (NCTR), and CDC (NIOSH) with input from NCI, NIH, OSHA, CPSC, EPA, and ATSDR. The NTP has the capability to completely characterize the toxicologic profile of a chemical, including studies of chemical disposition, genetic toxicity, immunotoxicity, teratology, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and specific organ toxicity. The NTP encourages nominations of chemicals of human health concern from all sectors of the public, including industry, labor, and the general public. The specific process of nomination, evaluation, and selection of chemicals for testing by the NTP is described. It is a multicomponent system with several evaluations and a public peer review step to assure adequate consideration of all nominated chemicals. The results of NTP studies are all peer reviewed and available to the general public as well as to the scientific community. PMID:2980357

  1. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  2. Comparative study on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of three colored varieties of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsalya Krupa Khabade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background &Aim: The current study reviews the correlation between the three Indian,coloured capsicum species, the green, yellow and red varieties (colour depends on time ofharvest and degree of ripening with respect to their antioxidant/anti inflammatory properties.Methods:This was achieved by screening of aqueous plant extracts for antioxidant properties like totalphenolic content, reducing power assay and 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavengingactivity. The anti-inflammatory activity is assessed by inhibiting Soyal ipoxygenase enzyme (LOX.Results: the green capsicum extract showed greater phenolic content (3.2985±0.1004, reducing power(0.243 nm, DPPH scavenging effect (92.26% and LOX % inhibition (46.12 %compared to yellow andred extracts.Conclusion:Result thus suggests that green capsicum is a potential source of useful naturalantioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as well when compared with the other varieties.

  3. Identidade e propriedades de isolados de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp. Identity and properties of potyvirus isolates obtained from Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.C. Truta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte isolados virais provenientes de Capsicum spp. foram coletados em Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo e Rio de Janeiro visando definir a etiologia dos mosaicos. Para a caracterização biológica realizou-se teste de gama de hospedeiros e inoculação em cultivares diferenciadoras de pimentão (Capsicum annuum. Dois isolados provenientes de batata (Solanum tuberosum (PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR foram utilizados como controles. Os resultados indicaram considerável grau de variabilidade biológica entre os isolados, embora todos tenham sido identificados preliminarmente como Potato virus Y (PVY. A reação das cultivares diferenciadoras classificou os isolados como patótipo 1 ou 1.2 de PVY. Anti-soros foram produzidos a partir de partículas virais purificadas de um isolado fraco e um forte. O uso desses anti-soros em ELISA indireto levou a resultados positivos contra os isolados testados. Os anti-soros reagiram também contra PVY N-BR e PVY O-BR, embora este último tenha apresentado reação mais fraca. Para caracterização molecular, seqüenciaram-se os genes da polimerase (NIb e da proteína capsidial (cp, e da região 3' não-traduzida (3'NTR de isolados biologicamente distintos. A análise filogenética confirmou a identidade de seis isolados como Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV, um potyvírus descrito recentemente infetando pimentão no Brasil. Esse resultado sugere que o PepYMV pode ser a espécie de potyvírus predominante em Capsicum spp. no Brasil. O fato de isolados de PepYMV apresentarem gama de hospedeiros semelhante à do PVY, e de os dois vírus apresentarem relacionamento sorológico, ressalta a utilidade da análise molecular para a classificação de potyvírus provenientes de Capsicum spp.Twenty isolates were obtained from Capsicum spp. plants in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. The isolates were biologically characterized using a host range assay and inoculation into a series

  4. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  5. Toxicological assessment of noxious inhalants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, N H; Sassen, A W; Wallner, B W; Staudenmaier, R; Harréus, U A; Richter, E

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  6. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Potent production of capsaicinoids and capsinoids by Capsicum peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-11-20

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact fruits of a pungent cultivar, Peru, and a non-pungent cultivar, CH-19 Sweet. Labeled vanillylamine was incorporated into capsaicinoids in both cultivars. While labeled vanillyl alcohol was incorporated into capsinoids in both cultivars, the accumulation of intact capsaicinoids in Peru was suppressed by over 60% after administration of vanillyl alcohol. In Peru, labeled vanillin was converted to both vanillylamine and, in 5-fold excess, vanillyl alcohol. Moreover, labeled vanillin was converted exclusively to vanillyl alcohol in CH-19 Sweet. These data are consistent with the incorporation of labeled vanillin into capsaicinoids and capsinoids in both cultivars. We conclude that pungent cultivars are highly potent producers of vanillyl alcohol that is incorporated into capsinoids and that biosynthesis of capsinoids is catalyzed by capsaicin synthase. PMID:24147886

  8. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  9. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  10. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. PMID:24238720

  11. HERENCIA DE CAPSAICINOIDES EN CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez; Víctor A González-Hernández; Ana B. Cruz-Pérez; Mario Pérez-Grajales; María A. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Alfonso A. Gardea-Béjar; Miguel Á. Gómez-Lim

    2010-01-01

    Los capsaicinoides son alcaloides importantes en la salud humana, alimentaria y farmaceútica, y sólo son producidos por plantas del género Capsicum. En este estudio se analizó la herencia del contenido de los tres principales capsaicinoides causantes del picor (nordihidro-, dihidro- y capsaicina), en 25 materiales genéticos de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.), que incluyen a cinco poblaciones (Huatusco, Zongolica, Tacámbaro, Puebla y Perú) más sus 20 cruzas interpoblacionales posibl...

  12. ACTIVIDAD FITOTÓXICA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R & P)

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pérez-Grajales; Claudia Sánchez-Navarro; Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos; Juan Martínez- Solís

    2013-01-01

    La búsqueda de nuevos herbicidas de origen natural se ha realizado mediante los estudios de sustancias fitotóxicas debido a que no afectan el ambiente y son menos tóxicos que los sintéticos. En la literatura existen pocas evidencias de los efectos fitotóxicos de los capsaicinoides presentes en el género Capsicum , por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar in vitro el efecto fitotóxico de los extractos del fruto de chile manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R P) en la germinaci...

  13. Búsqueda de resistencia a Phytophthora capsici Leonian en germoplasma de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Tenorio, Ifigenia

    2010-01-01

    Las especies del género Capsicum son de gran importancia mundial debido a su valor y uso, alimenticio, medicinal e industrial. Phytophthora capsici es el agente causal de La secadera una enfermedad que produce la pudrición del cuello de la raíz y tallo en los cultivos de Capsicum generando pérdidas hasta del 100%. Por esta razón la obtención de materiales resistentes es la alternativa más deseable de manejo de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de la investigación es Identificar fuentes de resisten...

  14. Biodegradation and toxicological evaluation of lubricant oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Shodji Tamada; Paulo Renato Matos Lopes; Renato Nallin Montagnolli; Ederio Dino Bidoia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different toxicity levels of lubricant oils. The tests were performed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei), arugula seeds (Eruca sativa) and lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), with three types of contaminants (mineral lubricant oil, synthetic lubricant oil and used lubricant oil) for various biodegradation periods in the soil. The toxicity tests indirectly measured the biodegradation of the contaminants. The samples were analyzed at t0, t60, t120 and t180 days...

  15. Biodegradation and toxicological evaluation of lubricant oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Shodji Tamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare different toxicity levels of lubricant oils. The tests were performed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei, arugula seeds (Eruca sativa and lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa, with three types of contaminants (mineral lubricant oil, synthetic lubricant oil and used lubricant oil for various biodegradation periods in the soil. The toxicity tests indirectly measured the biodegradation of the contaminants. The samples were analyzed at t0, t60, t120 and t180 days of biodegradation. The used lubricant oil was proved very toxic in all the tests and even after biodegradation its toxicity was high. The mineral and synthetic oils were biodegraded efficiently in the soil although their toxicity did not disappear completely after 180 days.

  16. Current status and prospects of the toxicological assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano toxicology is a branch of experimental toxicology dealing with identification and characterization of the harmful biological effects of engineered nanomaterials. The physico-chemical properties of these materials affect their biological level interactions. From the first generation of experimental studies it showed the need for adaptation to nanomaterials methodologies and toxicological evaluation of current strategies. Special challenges are presented by the variety of materials to be tested, from the definition of relevant dose quantities, by the standardization of the preparation and characterization of the nanomaterial in the biological sample matrices, by techniques for the determination of the biodistribution in the body. 'Omics' technologies are now an innovative tool for toxicological approach based on understanding the mechanisms of action, which will allow the most advanced laboratories to implement high-performance screening test.

  17. Waste tank safety program annual status report for FY 1993, Task 5: Toxicology and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A toxicology team independently reviewed analytical data and provided advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents at the Hanford site. Most of the emphasis was directed toward Tank 241-C-103, but a preliminary assessment was also made of the toxicologic implication of the cyanide levels in the headspace of Tank 241-C-108. The objectives of this program are to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from various tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by waste-tank workers, (3) evaluate the toxicologic implications of those constituents by comparison to established toxicologic data bases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by the project manager and the cognizant Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issues Safety Resolution Manager

  18. Waste tank safety program annual status report for FY 1993, Task 5: Toxicology and epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.

    1993-09-01

    A toxicology team independently reviewed analytical data and provided advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents at the Hanford site. Most of the emphasis was directed toward Tank 241-C-103, but a preliminary assessment was also made of the toxicologic implication of the cyanide levels in the headspace of Tank 241-C-108. The objectives of this program are to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from various tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by waste-tank workers, (3) evaluate the toxicologic implications of those constituents by comparison to established toxicologic data bases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by the project manager and the cognizant Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issues Safety Resolution Manager.

  19. 广东梅县一野生红菇化学成分及急性毒性研究%Study on the Chemical Components and Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Wild Russula sp. from Meixian County,Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍业; 金美华; 赵灵颖; 李晶晶; 韦玉; 蒋祯凤; 罗琴; 陈新华

    2014-01-01

    采用化学反应鉴别方法和经口灌胃实验对广东梅县一野生红菇“棺材菌”分别进行化学成分检测和急性毒性研究。结果表明该野生菇中含有氨基酸、多肽、蛋白质、有机酸、多糖、皂苷、生物碱、黄酮及其苷类、酚类、植物甾醇、三萜、挥发油等多种化学成分。受试样品组小鼠毛色,皮肤,黏膜,眼睛,呼吸,循环,自主活动及中枢神经系统、行为表现等均与对照组小鼠无明显差别,整个试验期内无小鼠死亡,红菇样品对小鼠的LD50>15.00 g/kg体重,属无毒级别。对所有试验小鼠进行大体解剖,组织器官未见有颜色、体积、质地等改变,表明该野生红菇样品的毒性很小。%The chemical components and acute toxicological evaluation was studied on wild Russula sp. that was collected from Meixian county,Guangdong province. It was found that the wild mushroom contained amino acids, polypeptide,proteins,organic acids,polysaccharides,glycoside,alkaloids,flavonoids,phenolic compounds,plant sterols,three terpene composition,volatile oil and some other effective components. The result showed that compared with rats control group,there were no abnormal reactions during the observation period on skin, mucosa,coat color,eyes,breath,circulation,locomotor activity,central nervous system,behavior etc. in rats sample group,without rats'death,and the maximum tolerance was 15.00 g/kg by gastric perfusion. There were no change in the tissues and organs on volume,color and texture,which showed the mushroom was low toxic.

  20. 河豚鱼皮胶原寡肽的毒理学安全性评价%Toxicology and Safety Evaluation of Collagen Oligopeptide from Puffer Fish Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪辉; 王安; 洪专

    2015-01-01

    以河豚鱼皮作为原料,采用两步酶解法制备河豚鱼皮胶原寡肽,分子量分布主要集中在100 u~1 000 u.根据《食品安全性毒理学评价程序和方法》和《化学药物刺激性、过敏性和溶血性研究技术指导原则》的要求,利用动物试验对河豚鱼皮胶原寡肽的安全性进行评价.急性经口、经皮毒性试验选用SD大鼠,大鼠经口LD50>5 000 mg/kg,经皮LD50均>2 000 mg/kg;皮肤、眼刺激试验选择健康白色家兔,皮肤刺激强度平均分值为0,平均眼刺激积分指数(I.A.O. I)为0,眼刺激平均指数(M.I.O.I)48 h为5.皮肤变态反应(致敏)试验选用豚鼠,致敏强度为Ⅰ级.%Collagen oligopeptide from puffer fish skin was prepared by two-step enzymatic hydrolysis. The molecular weight of prepared collagen oligopeptide ranged from 100 u to 1000 u. According to the request of"procedures for toxicological assessment of food"and "Chemical irritation, allergic and haemolytic technology guidelines for research", animal test was utilized for the safety evaluation of collagen oligopeptide from puffer fish skin. Acute oral toxicity test and acute dermal toxicity test indicated that its LD50 on SD rats exceeded 5 000 mg/kg and 2 000 mg/kg, respectively. Skin, eye irritation tests were conducted on healthy white rabbits. The mean index of skin irritation and eye irritation (I.A.O.I) on rabbits were 0. The mean index of eye irritation after 48 h was 5. Guinea pigs were used in dermal allergy reaction. The intensity of sensitization wasⅠ.

  1. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  2. Variation in insect pest and virus resistance among habanero peppers (Capsicum chinenseJacq.) in Yucatán, México.  [Variación en resistencia a insectos herbívoros y virosis en líneas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) en Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Berny-Mier y Teran, Jorge C; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Durán-Yáñez, Antonio; Tut-Pech, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of crop genetic variation for herbivore resistance is a relevant tool that can provide information about plant breeding strategies and biological control. The objective of this study was to provide a field–based assessment of pest resistance in five lines of habenero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Weekly surveys were conducted at an experimental site in Mocochá (Yucatán, México) from July 2010 to December 2010, including incidence of Bemisiatabaci nymphs and Liriomyza trifol...

  3. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  4. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  5. Monogenic Segregations in Backcross Progenies of Capsicum baccatumx Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids and Some Possible Explanations for Distorted Segregation Ratios in Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Naci ONUS

    2000-01-01

    Monogenic segregations of certain morphological and isozymic characters were studied in backcross progenies of Capsicum baccatumL. ( Solanaceae) x two interspecific F1 hybrids and distorted segregation ratios were noted. It was observed that isozyme markers Est-5, Idh-1, Pgm-2, and Pgi-2, and morphological marker gene P for fruit persistence showed distorted segregation ratios in the first backcross generation of both C. baccatumHawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith) x F1 ( C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x Capsi...

  6. Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C A; Crouch, D J; Yost, G S

    2001-05-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants. PMID:11372985

  7. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  8. Inhaltsstoffzusammensetzung und sensorische Qualität von 20 Kultivaren verschiedener Capsicum-Arten

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmannsberger, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    20 verschiedene Kultivare der Arten Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. pubescens und C. annuum wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Scharfstoffe, ihrer geruchlich relevanten und sonstigen gaschromatographisch fassbaren Inhaltsstoffe gaschromatographisch-massenspektrometrisch (GC-MS) und humansensorisch charakterisiert. Die Unterschiede zwischen diesen Kultivaren, die Verteilung der Inhaltsstoffe auf verschiedene Fruchtkompartimente, die Eignung der Dampfraum-Festphasen-Mikroextraktion (...

  9. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and described. Components of integrat

  10. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  11. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  12. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  14. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  15. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    KRAFT, KH; Brown, CH; Nabhan, GP; Luedeling, E.; De Jesús Luna Ruiz, J; D'Eeckenbrugge, GC; Hijmans, RJ; Gepts, P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum,...

  16. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  17. Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq. inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blat Sally Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pepper species C. chinense has been considered one of the most important resistance sources to powdery mildew Capsicum spp. However, the inheritance in this species was unknown. The purpose of this work was to study its reaction inheritance. Two powdery mildew resistant parents, 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1 and PI 152225 and two moderately susceptible ones, 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 and 'Pimenta Índio', were used to obtain three F1 and their respective F2 generations: 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225 and 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 PI 152225. The powdery mildew epidemy was natural using inoculum from a highly-sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruiting stage using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: gene action, heritability coefficient and expected selection gain in the F3 generation. The transgressive segregation in F2 indicated oligogenic inheritance. Results show the presence of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene action. The dominant and epistatic effects detected in crosses presented negative values, tending towards susceptibility. The heritability and selection gain estimates were moderate, with values of 35.5% and 1.7% for 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, from 50.4% to 3.5% for 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225, and 49% and 2.7% for the 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 PI 152225 crosses, respectively. These gene action results are favorable for breeding programs and exploration of hybrids.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  19. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  20. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  1. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ACROLEIN (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  2. MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

  3. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  4. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods. PMID:27319209

  5. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio; García Mario; Pardey Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Paciï¬c, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central a...

  6. Cytotoxic Effect on MG-63 Cell Line and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Seed Extracts of Capsicum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying the concept of ethnobotany, plant extract was taken into consideration as an alternative to chemicals synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The extracts from the chilli seeds were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. In this study two species of chilli, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, have been used to analyse the characteristics of the bio-active compounds found in their seeds. Analysis of the bioactive compound was performed by using Soxhlet extraction with solvents followed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS. Furthermore, green synthesis of nanoparticles with chilli extracts was carried out using silver nitrate to detect its antimicrobial activity. The characterizations of both the nanoparticles were carried out using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. Antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens and the antioxidant assay using DPPH and FRAP assays were performed. The cytotoxicity effects on osteosarcoma cell lines were also evaluated with the synthesized AgNPs.

  7. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwate...

  8. lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework

    OpenAIRE

    ChristophHelma; AndreasMaunz

    2013-01-01

    lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar f...

  9. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    encountered chemicals, or aircraft cabin air contaminants and point out the need for future research to better address toxicological evaluation of aircraft-engine oil additives. PMID:21913123

  10. Special-purpose fiber type 475--toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M

    2007-02-01

    Type 475 special-purpose glass fiber is rather unique among the family of synthetic mineral fibers. It is used not for insulation but for "high-end" filtration products designed for high and ultra-high purity filtration of air and liquids. The designation for these types of filters varies with country and includes HEPA, ULPA, EU 10-13, EN1822, and S3. In its evaluation, type 475 has been grouped together with E-glass another special-purpose fibre often with little distinction made in terms of its chemistry and corresponding toxicological response. The detailed review of the available toxicology data on type 475 glass fibers clearly shows that following inhalation of this fiber even at relatively high doses, which likely exceed that at which lung overload in the rat is known to occur, type 475 glass fibers are not fibrogenic and do not cause tumors. These data clearly show an important differentiation in potency between type 475 glass fibers and E-glass and support treating these two types of fibers independently and not equating them though the term "special-purpose fibers." Analysis of the intraperitoneal studies taking into account fibre dimensions shows that at 109 fibers injected, there was a 0.3 tumor incidence. While these studies indicate according to the European Commission (EC) classification criteria that 475 should not be fully exonerated as a carcinogen, the results of the inhalation study fully support classification in category 3. The IP results are more difficult to interpret, however, the IP study itself provides no toxicological basis for determining what range of dose-response should correspond to EU category 3 or 2. Following the EC classification criteria, the toxicological data clearly indicate that 475 fibers are appropriately classified in EC category 3. PMID:17169862

  11. Reproductive toxicological aspects of chromium in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To expand our present understanding of the effects of chromium on male fertility a number of studies were designed to achieve this through the use of chromium intoxicated experimental animals and through investigation of sexual hormones and sperm quality in welders. Also in view of the lack of an experimental model for effects of noxious substance on the epididymal spermatozoa the main objectives of the series of studies reviewed here were: A. To establish a model for evaluation of epididymal sperm count and motility in the rat. B. To investigate and compare the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on epididymal spermatozoa. Further to describe the effects of low-dose long-time exposure of rats to the most toxicological interesting chromium oxidative state - hexavalent chromium. C. By the use of autoradiography and γ-countinuing to expand the present knowledge on the distribution of chromium in the body with special reference to the male reproductive organs. D. To describe the effects of exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fume on levels of sexual hormones and semen parameters in welders. (EG)

  12. Role of quinones in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J L; Trush, M A; Penning, T M; Dryhurst, G; Monks, T J

    2000-03-01

    Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and cellular damage can occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can cause severe oxidative stress within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Formation of oxidatively damaged bases such as 8-oxodeoxyguanosine has been associated with aging and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, ROS can activate a number of signaling pathways, including protein kinase C and RAS. This review explores the varied cytotoxic effects of quinones using specific examples, including quinones produced from benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, and catecholamines. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone toxicity (i.e., alkylation vs oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology of the parent compound(s). PMID:10725110

  13. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  14. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  15. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández María Soledad; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Manduca Fermín Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG) fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense e...

  16. Osmocondicionamento em sementes de pimenta 'amarela comprida' (Capsicum annuum L. Submetidas à deterioração controlada Osmotic conditioning in seeds of 'long yellow' pepper (Capsicum annuum L. subjected to controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sessa Fialho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico no desempenho de sementes de pimenta submetidas à deterioração controlada. Para tanto, sementes de pimenta 'Amarela Comprida' (Capsicum annuum L., com teor de água ajustado para 24%, foram submetidas à deterioração controlada em banho-maria a 45ºC por 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Em seguida, foram osmocondicionadas em solução de PEG 6000 a -1,1 MPa, por 0, 6 e 8 dias. Avaliaram-se a germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, germinação a baixa temperatura, velocidade de germinação a 15ºC e a 25°C, massa seca de plântulas e comprimento de raiz primária. Verificou-se que o condicionamento osmótico foi benéfico à germinação das sementes de pimenta deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, não prejudicando a germinação das sementes de alta qualidade fisiológica e ainda contribuiu para melhorar o vigor tanto das sementes não deterioradas quanto das deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, constituindo-se em procedimento promissor para elevar a qualidade fisiológica das mesmas.The osmotic conditioning technique has been considered promising for improving the physiological potential of seeds of various species. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of osmotic conditioning on the performance of pepper seeds subjected to controlled deterioration. Thus, seeds of 'Long Yellow pepper' (Capsicum annuum L., with water content adjusted to 24%, were subjected to controlled deterioration in water bath at 45 °C for 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. After that, they were osmotic conditioning in PEG 6000 to -1.1 MPa during 0, 6 and 8 days. The germination, first count of germination, germination at low temperature, speed of germination at 15 º C and 25 °C, dry weight of seedlings and length of primary root were evaluated. It was found that the osmotic conditioning was beneficial to the germination of pepper seeds deteriorated by 48 and 72 hours, not affecting the

  17. BIOATIVIDADE DE Solanum melongena L. E Capsicum annuum L. SOBRE Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciene Ferreira Freire

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO uso contínuo e indiscriminado de produtos químicos na agricultura pode trazer sérios prejuízos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma opção é o emprego de plantas com ação inseticida. Diante do exposto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do pó de folhas de Solanum melongena L. e Capsicum annuum L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram tratados com os pós nas concentrações 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 % [100*(massa do pó/massa de grãos] e realizados testes de sobrevivência e repelência contra C. maculatus. Os dados da sobrevivência foram analisados utilizando o teste de Log-rank (p ≤ 0,05, pelo método de D-collet e para a repelência utilizou-se o teste do Qui-Quadrado (p ≤ 0,05. Todos os pós e concentrações avaliadas foram repelentes contra C. maculatus, com exceção do pó de C. annuum na concentração de 2,5 %. No que se refere à sobrevivência, ambas as espécies vegetais causaram elevada mortalidade em C. maculatus, com morte total dos insetos em até 120 h.ABSTRACTThe continuous and indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture can bring serious problems to human health and the environment. One option is the use of plants with insecticidal action. Given the above, the aim of this work was to evaluate the insecticide activity powder of leaves of Solanum melongena L. and Capsicum annuum L. against Callosobruchus maculatus in three concentrations. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil. The grains of cowpea were treated with the powders in concentrations 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % [100*(mass of powder/ mass of grains] and performed tests of survival and repellency against C. maculatus. Survival data were analyzed using

  18. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for 'statistical significance' is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena

  19. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture. PMID:27075312

  20. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  1. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

  2. Predictive Toxicology: Modeling Chemical Induced Toxicological Response Combining Circular Fingerprints with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios eKoutsoukas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern drug discovery and toxicological research are under pressure, as the cost of developing and testing new chemicals for potential toxicological risk is rising. Extensive evaluation of chemical products for potential adverse effects is a challenging task, due to the large number of chemicals and the possible hazardous effects on human health. Safety regulatory agencies around the world are dealing with two major challenges. First, the growth of chemicals introduced every year in household products and medicines that need to be tested, and second the need to protect public welfare. Hence, alternative and more efficient toxicological risk assessment methods are in high demand. The Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 consortium a collaborative effort was formed to develop and investigate alternative assessment methods. A collection of 10,000 compounds composed of environmental chemicals and approved drugs were screened for interference in biochemical pathways and released for crowdsourcing data analysis. The physicochemical space covered by Tox21 library was explored, measured by Molecular Weight (MW and the octanol/water partition coefficient (cLogP. It was found that on average chemical structures had MW of 272.6 Daltons. In case of cLogP the average value was 2.476. Next relationships between assays were examined based on compounds activity profiles across the assays utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficient r. A cluster was observed between the Androgen and Estrogen Receptors and their ligand bind domains accordingly indicating presence of cross talks among the receptors. The highest correlations observed were between NR.AR and NR.AR_LBD, where it was r=0.66 and between NR.ER and NR.ER_LBD, where it was r=0.5.Our approach to model the Tox21 data consisted of utilizing circular molecular fingerprints combined with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine by modeling each assay independently. In all of the 12 sub-challenges our modeling

  3. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  4. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Elena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern was further supported by the pattern of spatial

  5. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, G. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  6. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-01-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 lan...

  7. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE) "ROCOTO"

    OpenAIRE

    Misael Guevara; María Siles; Olga Bracamonte

    2014-01-01

    Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae). Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  8. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  9. Integrated Management of Wilt Complex Disease in Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq R. Rather; V. K. Razdan; Tewari, A. K.; Efath Shanaz; Z.A. Bhat; Mir G. Hassan; T. A. Wani

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various disease management tools on seedling emergence, wilt incidence and yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Var. California Wonder was studied as part of integrated management strategies under both glass house and field conditions. Different fungicides were tested against the four wilt pathogens viz, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii under in- vitro conditions. The fungicides viz, Captan, Carbendazim, Metalaxyl and Carboxin w...

  10. Chromosome orientation and sterility in gamma-ray induced interchanges in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After gamma irradiation (30 Kr) of seeds of Capsicum annuum cultivar cerasiformis (2 n = 24) two plants were recorded each carrying two interchanges. The nucleolus organiser chromosome appeared not to be involved. The interchange heterozygotes were weak and meiosis was irregular. At least one multivalent association per PMC was recorded. At metaphase I the predominant orientation was adjacent. The probable reasons for anaphase I and other meiotic irregularities and the incidence of high pollen sterility are discussed. (author)

  11. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  12. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-01-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The f...

  13. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  14. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht Elena; Zhang Dapeng; Mays Anne; Saftner Robert A; Stommel John R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection...

  15. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Pelgrom, Koen T. B.; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J.; Arnaud G. Bovy

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis us...

  16. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription fac...

  17. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  18. UJI PENAMBAHAN BERBAGAI DOSIS VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF CABAI MERAH BESAR Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zohra Hasyim; Elis Tambaru; Andi Ilham Latunra

    2015-01-01

    This research entitled " Effect of Vermicompost on growth of Capsicum annuum Chilli Red Big L. " . Is aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost on the growth of vegetative big red chili . Planting medium used is consisted of soil and vermicompost . Vermicompost derived from the cultivation of earthworms Lumbricus rubellus . Large red chilli seeds purchased from the farm shop . Large red chilli seeds germinated in vermicompost mixed soil and covered with clear plastic . This study is an ex...

  19. Respon Pertumbuhan Tiga Varietas Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L. ) Pada Beberapa Tingkat Salinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Rini

    2013-01-01

    The research to observe growth responses of three varieties of chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) to salinity treatment was conducted at The Plant Physiology Laboratory of Faculty Mathematics and Science, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan. Experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomized Factorial Design of six treatments of salinity (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10000 ppm of NaCl) and three variety of chili peppers (Local, Genie and Bhaskara). The result showed that interaction betwe...

  20. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p pepper gas exerts destructive changes on rat nasal mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes. PMID:24627077

  2. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  3. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  4. Molecular profiling for genetic variability in Capsicum species based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Darokar, Mahendra P; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-06-01

    The taxonomic identity of Capsicum species is found to be difficult as it displays variations at morpho-chemical characters. Twenty-two accessions of six Capsicum species, namely, C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, and C. luteum were investigated for phenotypic diversity based on flower color and for genetic differences by molecular makers. The genetic cluster analyses of 27 RAPD and eight ISSR primers, respectively, revealed genetic similarities in the ranges of 23-88% and 11-96%. Principal component analysis of the pooled RAPD and ISSR data further supports the genetic similarity and groupings. Different species showed variations in relation to corolla shade of flower. C. annuum accessions formed a single cluster in the molecular analysis as maintaining their flower characteristic. C. chinense accession shared flower features with the accessions of C. frutescens and were found to be closer at genotypic level. C. luteum was found to be rather closer to C. baccatum complex, both phenotypically and genetically. The only accession of C. eximium presenting purple flowers falls apart from the groupings. The floral characteristics and the molecular markers are found to be useful toward the delineation of the species specificity in Capsicum collection and identification of genetic stock. PMID:21861246

  5. The influence of different growth regulators to Capsicum annuum Jalapeno vitroplantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu POP

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum is an important vegetable for human alimentation, because of its content in vitamins, minerals and, especially, the capsaicine. In this experiment we have studied the development of Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets, the Mexican variety (Jalapeño, obtained by aseptic germination of this plant’s seeds. The seeds were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog medium (BM, with and without growth regulators, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0–control variant = BM without growth regulators, V1 = BM+NAA(0.1mg/l, V2 = BM+IBA(0.1mg/l, and V3 = BM+KIN (0.1mg/l. The experiment, which lasted for 40 days, have revealed that the best growth medium for Capsicum annuum vitroplantlets is V1 (BM+NAA, the IBA and KIN having a negative influence to these plantlets development. After 40 days of “in vitro” culture, the ex-vitroplantlets were acclimatized successfully in common soil.

  6. Toxicological issues after depleted uranium weapons attacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the uranium enrichment for producing nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. DU is used in the military as an armor-piercing projectile due to its hardness, strength, and density. A lot of DU weapons were fired in the Gulf War, and bring about critical environmental and internal contamination. Therefore, DU becomes suddenly a hot issue. Some toxicological problems after DU weapons attacked have been reviewed, which include features of internal DU contamination. Hazard of wound contamination and inhalation with insoluble uranium, and other urgent toxicological issues. The healthy effects of implanted with depleted uranium pellets were illustrated in particular

  7. Radiation sterilization of red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radapertization using 60Co gamma radiation on the chemical and organoleptic properties of ground and whole dry pungent red pepper has been investigated. The fungal population was eliminated with a dose of 7.5 kGy and a dose of 10 kGy was required to radapertize the samples. Irradiation up to 10 kGy did not produce any significant (P 0.05) changes in the contents of capsaicin and carbohydrate. Oleoresin content was significantly (P 0.05) increased from 24.45 to 31.61% and lipid from 16.80 to 19.30%. The observed effect on apparent oleoresin and lipid contents was due to enhanced extractability. Storage time had no effect on the sensory properties of the spice but rather enhanced microbial load reduction in the medium dose (5.0 and 7.5 kGy) treated samples. A dose of 10 kGy has been certified to pose no health hazard to humans; hence decontamination of red pepper with up to 10 kGy gamma radiation does not require any further toxicological study and is therefore recommended

  8. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-01

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research. PMID:26054557

  9. Actual problems of toxicology and radiobiology. Russian scientific conference with international participation. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains abstracts of the Russian scientific conference with international participation, which took place May 19-20, 2011 in St. Petersburg. Proceedings of the conference include a general description of the chemical and radiological factors of nature, questions of radiation ecology and ecotoxicology. Modern methods of toxicological and radiobiological researches, including evaluation of radiation and chemical risks, mechanisms of development, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of various forms of toxic and radiation processes are under consideration. Current approaches to prevention and early therapy of chemical and radiation injuries are given. Issues of radiation and chemical safety, as well as the problems of training in toxicology and radiobiology are discussed

  10. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  11. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis) Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays), Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus) and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI; Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE

    2014-01-01

    This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with maize (Zea mays Linn.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum). This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran...

  12. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis was...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  13. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  14. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  15. Estabilidade da resistência de Capsicum spp. ao oídio em telado e casa de vegetação Stability of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to powdery mildew in protected cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Milton L. Paz Lima; Carlos A. Lopes; Adalberto C. Café Filho

    2004-01-01

    Oídio (Oidiopsis taurica) é uma importante doença do pimentão (Capsicum annuum) e outras espécies de Capsicum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência no germoplasma de Capsicum spp. e relatar suas reações ao oídio em ambientes de telado e de casa de vegetação. Em telado, com inoculação artificial, testaram-se 104 genótipos de C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum e C. frutescens. A avaliação foi repetida em canteiros de casa de vegetação com inoculação natural. Em telad...

  16. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation, as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%, lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%, α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34% and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80% were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption.

  17. Substance-tailored testing strategies in toxicology : an in silico methodology based on QSAR modeling of toxicological thresholds and Monte Carlo simulations of toxicological testing

    OpenAIRE

    Pery, Alexandre; Desmots, Sophie; Mombelli, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    International audience The design of toxicological testing strategies aimed at identifying the toxic effects of chemicals without (or with a minimal) recourse to animal experimentation is an important issue for toxicological regulations and for industrial decision-making. This article describes an original approach which enables the design of substance-tailored testing strategies with a specified performance in terms of false-positive and false-negative rates. The outcome of toxicological ...

  18. 大蒜、辣椒混合物对夏季蛋鸡生产性能、血清生化指标及蛋品质的影响%Effects of Garlic and Capsicum Compound on Performance, Serum Biochemical Indexes and Egg Quality of Laying Hens in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡娟; 王强; 常玲玲; 童海兵; 卜柱; 陈帆

    2015-01-01

    This test was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic and Capsicum in compound on performance, serum biochemical indexes and egg quality of laying hens in summer. A total of six hundred 31-week-old healthy Suqin green eggshell laying hens were divided into 10 groups ( with 4 replicates per group and 15 hens per replicate) , and fed 10 kinds of diets, respectively: 9 experimental diets were composed of basal diet and additives compounding with garlic, Capsicum, oligosaccharide, Bacillus subtilis and citric acid. The garlic (2.50, 5.00 and 7.50 g/kg) and Capsicum dosages (1.50, 2.00 and 2.50 g/kg) were 3×3 factors designed. Diet of control group did not contain garlic and Capsicum, and the other component were the same as experi-mental diet. The pre-test lasted for 1 week, and formal test lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) the dosages of garlic and Capsicum did not significantly affect the final body weight, laying rate and aver-age daily total egg weight ( P>0.05) , but they had significant effects on the feed intake and the ratio of feed to egg ( P0.05) . Garlic dosage significantly affected on phosphorus ion concentration ( P0.05). 3) Garlic dosage significantly affected eggshell strength (P0.05) . The dosages of gar-lic and Capsicum had a significant interaction effect on egg yolk color ( P0.05),但显著或极显著影响采食量和料蛋比( P0.05);大蒜剂量对磷离子浓度影响显著(P0.05)。3)大蒜剂量显著影响蛋壳强度(P0.05),大蒜和辣椒剂量对蛋黄颜色存在显著互作效应( P<0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中适量的大蒜和辣椒对夏季高温期苏禽绿壳蛋鸡生产性能与机体抗热应激能力及蛋品质的提升有利。

  19. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão, é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero, que após a formação dos espermogônios (11 dias, apresentou manchas necróticas na região periférica aos espermogônios, aos 15 dias após a inoculação, não havendo evolução da infecção. Também foi observada reação de hipersensibilidade, de forma mais moderada em folhas C. annuum (pimenta serrano e C. baccatum (chapéu-de-frade. Com relação às outras solanáceas inoculadas (jiló e berinjela não foram observados os sintomas e sinais da infecção.The Capsicum spp. (pepper and green pepper rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia pampeana. This is an important disease in these crops which may cause complete losses in crops of several species of Capsicum. Although specific to the genus Capsicum, and despite the fact that many species within this genus are susceptible to rust, some of them have shown a hypersensitivity reaction. That was the case with Capsicum annuum (Cayenne pepper and C. chinense (datil pepper, which, after spermogonia formation (11 days, showed necrotic spots in the peripheral region of the spermogonia 15 days after inoculation, without evolution of the infection. A milder hypersensitivity reaction was also observed only in leaves of C. annuum (chili pepper and C. baccatum ("chapéu-de-frade". With regard to other solanaceous plants inoculated ("jiló" and eggplant, no symptoms or signs of infection were observed.

  20. Reação de acessos de Capsicum e de progênies de cruzamentos interespecíficos a isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum Reaction of Capsicum accessions and progenies from interspecific crosses to Colletotrichum acutatum isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica JZ Pereira; Nelson S Massola Junior; Angelo AB Sussel; Fernando C. Sala; Cyro P da Costa; Leonardo S Boiteux

    2011-01-01

    A antracnose, causada por um complexo de espécies de Colletotrichum, é uma das doenças mais importantes de Capsicum em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Fontes de resistência têm sido identificadas em programas de melhoramento conduzidos em diferentes continentes. No entanto, ainda são restritas as informações sobre a abrangência e estabilidade desta resistência aos diferentes isolados de espécies de Colletotrichum que compõem o complexo causador da antracnose em Capsicum. Foram avaliadas as ...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber films from vulcanized latex by the conventional process and the alternative process with ionizing radiation; Avaliacao toxicologica de filmes de borracha natural obtidos do latex vulcanizado pelo processo convencional e pelo processo alternativo com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Vania Elisabeth

    1997-07-01

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made all over the world by conventional process using sulphur and heat but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. In this research the NRL was tested by 13 physical, chemical and mechanical assays which showed its good quality. It was done a preliminary study of the toxicological properties of 4 natural rubber films obtained by casting process of NRL: one non vulcanized, other vulcanized by the conventional process and two vulcanized by the alternative process. In the alternative process the films were obtained by irradiation of NRL by gamma rays from the {sup 60} Co source at 250 kGy in the absence of sensitizer and irradiated NRL at 12 kGy in the presence of 4ph r of n-butyl acrylate / 0.2 phr of KOH. These vulcanization doses were determined from broken tensile strength. In the conventional process, sulphur vulcanized NRL was made using a classical composition. Another film was made with non vulcanized NRL. The preliminary evaluation of the toxicological properties was made from in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity assays. The LBN films vulcanized by the alternative process have less cytotoxicity than the NRL film vulcanized by the conventional process. The sensitized vulcanized films by gamma rays and non vulcanized films showed similar cytotoxicity while the vulcanized films without sensitizer showed a slight lower cytotoxicity. The non vulcanized NRL film and the NRL films vulcanized by the alternative process did not show toxic effects in the 72 hours period of the systemic toxicity assay. However the NRL film vulcanized with sulphur induced effects like allaying and motor in coordination on the animals treated with an oil extract at the fourth hour and recovering after that. The alternative process promoted lower toxic effects than conventional process because there was no toxic substances present. (author)

  2. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24956589

  3. Toxicological risk assessment of complex mixtures through the Wtox model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are important tools for environmental management and risk assessment. Predictions about the toxicity of chemical mixtures must be enhanced due to the complexity of eects that can be caused to the living species. In this work, the environmental risk was accessed addressing the need to study the relationship between the organism and xenobiotics. Therefore, ve toxicological endpoints were applied through the WTox Model, and with this methodology we obtained the risk classication of potentially toxic substances. Acute and chronic toxicity, citotoxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the organisms Daphnia magna, Vibrio scheri and Oreochromis niloticus. A case study was conducted with solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic and pulp and paper industries. The results have shown that several industrial wastes induced mortality, reproductive eects, micronucleus formation and increases in the rate of lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation of the organisms tested. These results, analyzed together through the WTox Model, allowed the classication of the environmental risk of industrial wastes. The evaluation showed that the toxicological environmental risk of the samples analyzed can be classied as signicant or critical.

  4. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Tutul, Ershad; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Hassan, Md Abul; Faiz, M A; Hossain, Moazzem; Hussain, Maleeha; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and toxicological evaluations of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Bangladesh. In toxicity evaluation on rats, the methanol extract of seedlings showed mortality, while both seedling and mature plant extracts raised the serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values and produced significant abnormalities in the histopathology of liver and kidney of rats. On the other hand, the aqueous soluble fraction of methanol extract of mature plant (LC50 = 0.352 microg/mL) and methanol crude extract of seedlings (LC50 = 0.656 microg/mL) demonstrated significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A total of four compounds were purified and characterized as stigmasterol (1), 11-hydroxy-11-carboxy-4-oxo-1(5),2(Z)-xanthadien-12,8-olide (2), daucosterol (3) and lasidiol-10-anisate (4). The present study suggests that X. strumarium is toxic to animal. PMID:20922910

  5. Effect of drip and surface irrigation on yield, water- use-efficiency and economics of capsicum (c apsicum annum l. Grown under mulch and non mulch conditions in eastern coastal india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiments was conducted on the loamy sand soil at Bhubaneswar in eastern coastal of India for two years (2007-08 and 2008-09 to evaluate the yield, water-use-efficiency and economic feasibility of capsicum grown under drip and surface irrigation with non-mulch and black Linear Low Density Poly Ethylene (LLDPE plastic mulch. Actual evapotranspiration for capsicum crop was estimated using modified pan evaporation method. The net irrigation volume (V was determined after deducting the effective rainfall. Effect of three irrigation levels viz. VD, 0.8 VD and 0.6 VD (VD = full irrigation volume with drip in conjunction with LLDPE mulch and no mulch were studied on biometric and yield response of capsicum crop. The results of surface irrigation were compared with drip irrigation system under no mulch and in conjunction with LLDPE mulch. The study indicated better plant growth, more number of fruits per plant and enhancement in the yield under drip irrigation system with LLDPE mulch. The highest yield (28.7 t/ha was recorded under 100% net irrigation volume with drip irrigation (VD and plastic mulching as compared to other treatments. This system increased the yield and net seasonal income by 57 % and 54 % respectively as compared to conventional surface irrigation without mulch with a benefit cost ratio of 2.01. The benefit cost ratio was found to be the highest (2.44 for the treatment VD without mulch. Drip irrigation system could increase the yield by 28 % over surface irrigation even in the absence of mulch. Similarly, LLDPE mulch alone could increase the yield by 13 % even in the absence of drip irrigation system.1,2,3 Associate Professor, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India, plp_ouat@yahoo.co.in4 Professor, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India, kajal_bp@yahoo.co.in

  6. Effect of drip and surface irrigation on yield, water- use-efficiency and economics of capsicum (c apsicum annum l. Grown under mulch and non mulch conditions in eastern coastal India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiments was conducted on the loamy sand soil at Bhubaneswar in eastern coastal of India for two years (2007-08 and 2008-09 to evaluate the yield, water-use-efficiency and economic feasibility of capsicum grown under drip and surface irrigation with non-mulch and black Linear Low Density Poly Ethylene (LLDPE plastic mulch. Actual evapotranspiration for capsicum crop was estimated using modified pan evaporation method. The net irrigation volume (V was determined after deducting the effective rainfall. Effect of three irrigation levels viz. VD, 0.8 VD and 0.6 VD (VD = full irrigation volume with drip in conjunction with LLDPE mulch and no mulch were studied on biometric and yield response of capsicum crop. The results of surface irrigation were compared with drip irrigation system under no mulch and in conjunction with LLDPE mulch. The study indicated better plant growth, more number of fruits per plant and enhancement in the yield under drip irrigation system with LLDPE mulch. The highest yield (28.7 t/ha was recorded under 100% net irrigation volume with drip irrigation (VD and plastic mulching as compared to other treatments. This system increased the yield and net seasonal income by 57 % and 54 % respectively as compared to conventional surface irrigation without mulch with a benefit cost ratio of 2.01. The benefit cost ratio was found to be the highest (2.44 for the treatment VD without mulch. Drip irrigation system could increase the yield by 28 % over surface irrigation even in the absence of mulch. Similarly, LLDPE mulch alone could increase the yield by 13 % even in the absence of drip irrigation system.

  7. In silico toxicology models and databases as FDA Critical Path Initiative toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Luis G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In silico toxicology methods are practical, evidence-based and high throughput, with varying accuracy. In silico approaches are of keen interest, not only to scientists in the private sector and to academic researchers worldwide, but also to the public. They are being increasingly evaluated and applied by regulators. Although there are foreseeable beneficial aspects -- including maximising use of prior test data and the potential for minimising animal use for future toxicity testing -- the primary use of in silico toxicology methods in the pharmaceutical sciences are as decision support information. It is possible for in silico toxicology methods to complement and strengthen the evidence for certain regulatory review processes, and to enhance risk management by supporting a more informed decision regarding priority setting for additional toxicological testing in research and product development. There are also several challenges with these continually evolving methods which clearly must be considered. This mini-review describes in silico methods that have been researched as Critical Path Initiative toolkits for predicting toxicities early in drug development based on prior knowledge derived from preclinical and clinical data at the US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

  8. Advances in Genetic Resources and Molecular Breeding of Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒(Capsicum spp.)遗传资源与分子育种进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣; 陈学军; 缪南生; 万新建; 胡新龙

    2004-01-01

    综述了辣椒的起源(起源于美洲热带地区)、分类(有5个栽培种:Capsicum annuum、C.chinense、C.frutescens、C.baccatum、C.pubecens和若干野生种)、遗传演化背景、种间杂交障碍(单向不亲和性、种子败育、胞质雄性不育)、染色体倍性控制以及辣椒分子育种(分子连锁遗传图谱的构建、质量性状和数量性状的分子标记)研究进展等.

  9. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries. PMID:27092031

  10. Regulatory assessment of reproductive toxicology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines a regulator's personal approach to the assessment of reproductive toxicology data in the context of the assessment of the overall nonclinical data package for pharmaceutical agents. Using as a framework the International Conference on Harmonisation Common Technical Document headings, guidance is provided on the expectations of regulators for the presentation and discussion of the data by the applicant to facilitate the risk assessment process. Consideration is given to the use of reproductive toxicology data in the assessment process for both clinical trial applications (CTAs) and marketing authorization applications (MAAs). Suggestions for some guiding principles in drafting of the various product information documents (for example the Investigator's Brochure (IB) for CTAs and the Nonclinical Overview and Summary of Product Characteristics for MAAs) are included. PMID:23138923

  11. Toxicology of iodine: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilin Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is necessary for all living organisms. Deficiency of iodine in the organism leads to various diseases (including mental and increased rates of cancer. It is well known that one third of the world’s population lived in iodine-deficient areas. At present time, the primary intervention for preventing iodine deficiency disorders worldwide is through the iodization of salt. The two most common types of fortificant used to iodize salt are potassium iodide and potassium iodate. Iodine-containing compounds are also widely used in clinical medicine as a highly effective topical antimicrobial agent that has been used clinically in the treatment of wounds. Hence, the genetic toxicology of iodine and iodine-containing compounds is very essential topic. In this literature review are analyzed the data concerning genetic toxicology and the influence of these compounds on tumor rates in epidemiological and experimental studies.

  12. Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vince

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning issue is best shown by report and communications on the toxicology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT. A special workshop on the CNT has now been organized twice in Nagano (Japan and this editorial contains a summary of the most important outcomes. Finally, we take the opportunity discuss some recent reports from the nanotech literature, and more specifically a Chinese study that claims severe consequences of nanoparticle exposure.

  13. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Maynard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology.

  14. Toxicology in Asia--Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX), which consists of the seven national toxicology member societies of Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, and Iran, now boasts of more than 3,000 members from a variety of industries, academia, and regulatory organizations. ASIATOX congresses are spaced three years apart and rotated among the member societies. In 1995, ASIATOX joined the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) as a regional society, and now serves as the scientific voice of toxicology in Asia under the IUTOX umbrella. Since its inauguration, the society has worked diligently to handle matters deemed essential to promoting the vision set fourth by its founders. Future perspectives of ASIATOX include the establishment of education and training programs, and the certification and accreditation of toxicologists. As the leading voice of toxicology in Asia, the society seeks to extend knowledge of toxicological issues to developing nations in Asia based on the following missions and goals: (1) to provide leadership as a worldwide scientific organization that objectively addresses global issues involving the toxicological sciences, (2) to broaden the geographical base of toxicology as a discipline and profession to all countries of the world, and (3) to pursue capacity building in toxicology, particularly in developing countries, while utilizing its global perspective and network to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists. PMID:26614818

  15. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues. PMID:27075215

  16. Genomic Characterization of the Chili Peppers (Capsicum Solanaceae) Germplasm by Classical and Molecular Cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA coordinated research project entitled 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' we carried out genomic characterization of wild and cultivated samples of chilli peppers (genus Capsicum) by classical chromosome staining methods (AgNOR and fluorescent chromosome banding) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). For the first approach, fluorochromes with affinity for specific chromosome regions were used, i.e. chromomycin A3 (CMA) and diamidino-phenyl-indole (DAPI) which have preference for GC-rich and AT-rich regions, respectively. In addition, Ag-staining to detect active nucleolus organizing regions was applied. The heterochromatin could be characterized in respect to type, amount and distribution in the different accessions examined. On the other hand, the number and position of active NORs could be determined. Using FISH, different DNA probes were used in order to map specific sequences in the chromosomes, i.e. 45S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and cloned restriction fragments of repetitive nature. As an example of the work done, we present the results obtained on a sample of Capsicum annuum var. annum (cultivar NMCA 10272), the most broadly exploited cultivar of chilli pepper. The results allowed us to characterize the Capsicum species and accessions and the possible evolutionary pathways for chilli peppers was deduced based on the available cytogenetic data. It is worth mentioning that the research work done under this CRP is part of work being done within an exsting network of chilli pepper research of this important plant group utilized by man and among one of the first cultivated plants in the history of humanity. (author)

  17. Toxicological awakenings: the rebirth of hormesis as a central pillar of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses historical reasons that may account for the marginalization of hormesis as a dose-response model in the biomedical sciences in general and toxicology in particular. The most significant and enduring explanatory factors are the early and close association of the concept of hormesis with the highly controversial medical practice of homeopathy and the difficulty in assessing hormesis with high-dose testing protocols which have dominated the discipline of toxicology, especially regulatory toxicology. The long-standing and intensely acrimonious conflict between homeopathy and 'traditional' medicine (allopathy) lead to the exclusion of the hormesis concept from a vast array of medical- and public health-related activities including research, teaching, grant funding, publishing, professional societal meetings, and regulatory initiatives of governmental agencies and their advisory bodies. Recent publications indicate that the hormetic dose-response is far more common and fundamental than the dose-response models [threshold/linear no threshold (LNT)] used in toxicology and risk assessment, and by governmental regulatory agencies in the establishment of exposure standards for workers and the general public. Acceptance of the possibility of hormesis has the potential to profoundly affect the practice of toxicology and risk assessment, especially with respect to carcinogen assessment

  18. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states o...

  19. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of ...

  20. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques...

  1. Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castranova Vince; Borm Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning is...

  2. Wind of Change Challenges Toxicological Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Tralau, Tewes; Riebeling, Christian; Pirow, Ralph; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Seiler, Andrea; Liebsch, Manfred; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: In biomedical research, the past two decades have seen the advent of in vitro model systems based on stem cells, humanized cell lines, and engineered organotypic tissues, as well as numerous cellular assays based on primarily established tumor-derived cell lines and their genetically modified derivatives. Objective: There are high hopes that these systems might replace the need for animal testing in regulatory toxicology. However, despite increasing pressure in recent years to red...

  3. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Zenia Michałojć

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO3)2, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred ...

  4. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; GREILHUBER, JOHANN; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In ...

  5. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L). A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12). Band no. (11) and (5,12) are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100%) between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the...

  6. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  7. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  8. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aloui, Hassen; Souguir, Maher; Hannachi, Chérif

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.): ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM) for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h). Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After ...

  9. Study of in vitro anther culture in selected genotypes of genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    OLSZEWSKA, Dorota; Kisiala, Anna; NIKLAS-NOWAK, Aleksandra; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of anther incubation time on CP induction medium (12, 14, and 16 days) and 2 concentrations of kinetin in R1 regeneration medium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/L) on the effectiveness of androgenesis was investigated in 17 genotypes of Capsicum grown in Poland. Plant material consisted of breeding lines and intraspecific hybrids of C. annuum; the species of C. frutescens, C. chinense, and C. baccatum var. pendulum; interspecific hybrids F1 (C. frutescens × C. chinense) and F1 (C. frutesc...

  10. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  11. Oil flotation extraction of light filth from ground capsicums excluding paprika: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1978-07-01

    A collaborative study has been completed on an improved method for the isolation of light filth from ground capsicums other than paprika. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, wet-sieving, and extraction from cooled 60% ethanol with a mineral oil-heptane mixture. The collaborative tests by the proposed method showed an approximate 2-fold increase in recoveries of insect fragments and rodent hairs with acceptable coefficients of variation and clean filter papers. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.123. PMID:681260

  12. Nonclinical toxicology study of recombinant-plasmid DNA anti-rabies vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Uday P; Kumara, Dinesh B; Annapurna, VV; Krishna, Prasanna T; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Harishankar, N; Jagadeesan, V; Hariharan, S; Naidu, Nadamuni A; Krishnaswamya, Kamala; Rangarajan, PN; Srinivasan, VA; Reddy, GS; Sesikeran, B.

    2006-01-01

    The absence of standard guidelines from National and International regulatory agencies for the safety evaluation of biotechnology products challenges the ingenuity of toxicologists. At present, the development of standard pre-clinical toxicology protocols for Such products is on an individual case basis. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed DNA based anti-rabies vaccine in India. The test compounds were DNA rabies vaccine {...

  13. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  14. A survey of insect populations in Capsicum chinense L. plantings in Georgetown, St. Vincent, using modified CC traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect populations in hot pepper, Capsicum chinense L., were surveyed in Georgetown, St. Vincent, during the 2004 wet and 2005 dry seasons. Modified white, blue, and yellow CC traps were used to capture insects in the plantings. Overall, 69 insect families were captured, 41 of which were capture...

  15. Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Kleensang, André; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment. PMID:26977253

  16. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component. PMID:12824068

  17. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  18. Identification, validation and survey of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Claver, Ana; Fellman, Shanna Moore; Gil-Ortega, Ramiro; Jahn, Molly; Arnedo-Andrés, María S

    2007-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency was detected within an expressed sequence tag (EST) of 307 bp. This fragment was identified after expression analysis of the EST clone SB2-66 in placenta tissue of Capsicum fruits. Sequence alignments corresponding to this new fragment allowed us to identify an SNP between pungent and non-pungent accessions. Two methods were chosen for the development of the SNP marker linked to pungency: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Results showed that both methods were successful in distinguishing genotypes. Nevertheless, tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was chosen for SNP genotyping because it was more rapid, reliable and less cost-effective. The utility of this SNP marker for pungency was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish between 29 pungent and non-pungent cultivars of Capsicum annuum. In addition, the SNP was also associated with phenotypic pungent character in the tested genotypes of C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, C. eximium, C. tovarii and C. cardenasi. This SNP marker is a faster, cheaper and more reproducible method for identifying pungent peppers than other techniques such as panel tasting, and allows rapid screening of the trait in early growth stages. PMID:17882396

  19. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

  20. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.