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Sample records for capsicum chinense jacq

  1. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Marinus Ngullie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest per plant yield was also recorded from the same combination and it was followed by T. viride. However, the commercially available fungicide Copper oxychloride (0.1% showed 9.82 % and11.88% disease incidence in greenhouse and field condition respectively

  2. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

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    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  3. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  4. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  5. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

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    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  6. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

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    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  7. Elaboración artesanal de dos abonos líquidos fermentados y su efectividad en la producción de plántulas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

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    Salaya Domínguez, Jotam

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de dos abonos líquidos fermentados elaborados de subproductos regionales, en la producción de plántulas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq), en la fase de vivero; se estableció el experimento en un predio del poblado C-34, Plan Chontalpa, Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Para la obtención de los abonos líquidos fermentados se utilizó el biodigestor tipo estacionario o Batch, a los cuales se les hizo las adecuaciones en la tapa que funcionó como válvula de esc...

  8. Antioxidants in Capsicum chinense: Variation among countries of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worldwide search for sources of beneficial phytochemicals continues. In this vein, many pepper (Capsicum L.) species and their cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of the health-promoting antioxidants ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, or capsaicin. Capsicum chinense has be...

  9. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells. PMID:24141419

  10. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells.

  11. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

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    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  12. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

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    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  13. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  14. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

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    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production.

  15. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Nora; Ismail, Abdelrahman; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified rec...

  16. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulat...

  17. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues. PMID:27075215

  18. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  19. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  20. Capsicum sp.: diversidad y capsicinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Claver, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El género Capsicum, originario del continente americano (Andrews, 1984), comprende 33 especies (GRIN, 2014), de las cuales cinco, Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. chinense Jacq., C. frutescens L., y C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav., han sido domesticadas (Bosland, 1994; Bosland y Votaba, 2000). De ellas, C. annuum es la especie más cultivada en todo el mundo. Los restos más antiguos identificados como C. annuum, que podrían corresponder a las primeras evidencias de su domesticación, se encontra...

  1. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui

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    R. C. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P <0.05 compared with the fresh pepper. There was a significant difference in concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and capsaicinoids between the fresh pepper and those submitted to the drying treatments. It was concluded that higher temperatures increase shelf life and decrease the volume of the product, preserve macronutrients and degrade micronutrients, antioxidants and the spicy hotness of the Cumari pepper.

  2. USO DE AGUA, POTENCIAL HÍDRICO Y RENDIMIENTO DE CHILE HABANERO (CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.)

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    Wendy C. Quintal Ortiz; Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez; Luis Latournerie Moreno; Cesar May-Lara; Esaú Ruiz Sánchez; Armando J. Martínez Chacón

    2012-01-01

    En las plantas el agua constituye típicamente de 80 a 95 % de la masa de los tejidos en crecimiento, donde desempeña funciones esenciales. La baja disponibilidad de agua en el suelo provoca el estrés abiótico de mayor incidencia en el crecimiento vegetal que en los sistemas agrícolas representa en pérdidas económicas. Es importante entonces estimar los requerimientos hídricos de los cultivos para mejorar su potencial productivo y el uso del agua. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de cinco n...

  3. Dramatic changes in leaf development of the native Capsicum chinense from the Seychelles at temperatures below 24 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-11-01

    When a pepper cultivar (Capsicum chinense cv. Seychelles-2, Sy-2) native to the Seychelles was grown in Japan, all seedlings showed seasonal developmental abnormalities such as development of abnormally shaped leaves. Other pepper cultivars grew well in all seasons while the growth of cv. Sy-2 was stunted. In this study, we first examined the effects of various changes in temperature and photoperiod on the cv. Sy-2 phenotype. The results showed that temperatures lower than 24 degrees C led to the formation of abnormal leaves. Second, morphological and anatomical analyses of cotyledons and true leaves developed at 28 and 20 degrees C were conducted. The narrower and thicker cotyledons developed at 20 degrees C had fewer palisade cells in the leaf-length direction, and more cells in the leaf-thickness direction. True leaves developed at 20 degrees C were irregularly shaped, thicker and had smaller leaf area. In addition, true leaves developed at 20 degrees C had fewer palisade cells in the leaf-length and leaf-width directions and had more cells in the leaf-thickness direction. Furthermore, abnormal periclinal cell divisions in the mesophyll and/or epidermal cell layers were observed during leaf blade development at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that the observed changes in cell proliferation and abnormal periclinal cell divisions were related, at least in part, to abnormal leaf development of cv. Sy-2 at temperatures below 24 degrees C.

  4. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  5. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum, also known as red pepper or chili pepper, is an herb. The fruit of the capsicum plant is used to make medicine. Capsicum is used for ... face. This form is used in self-defense pepper sprays.

  6. Isolation,Identification of Fermentation Microorganism in Capsicum chinense Based on PCR-DGGE%利用PCR-DGGE技术筛选分离海南黄帝椒产品微生物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉文; 诸葛斌; 方慧英; 孙进; 龚星慧; 诸葛健

    2012-01-01

    黄帝椒是海南特产高辣度辣椒。该研究以黄帝椒产品为原料,采用聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术分析了其微生物种群关系,并结合传统平板筛选法进行菌种分离及鉴定,获得了海南特辣黄帝椒产品优势微生物。研究结果显示,海南黄帝椒产品平板筛选分离到了Pseudomonas stutzeri,Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus brevis等可培养的菌株;DGGE图谱中检测到了6个条带,其中,乳酸菌占总菌数的65%,处于最优势地位,假单胞菌占总菌数的16%,处于次要地位。该研究也首次提及了不同的微生物对黄帝椒产品的颜色、脆性的影响。%Capsicum chinense is a high pungency capsicum fruit specially produced in Hainan Province.A molecular biology method based on polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE) was developed to investigate bacterial community of Capsicum chinense,and the traditional isolation method was combined to acquire dominant microorganisms of Capsicum chinense.The results showed that Pseudomonas stutzeri,Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus brevis,which can be cultured,were screened in Capsicum chinense by traditional isolation method.The six bands'16S rDNA gene sequences were detected in Capsicum chinense by PCR-DGGE,among which Lactobacillus sp.was in a dominant position which is 65% of the total microorganisms.And Pseudomonas stutzeri is in a secondary position which is 16% of the total microorganisms.The browning and the softened coursed by microorganism is reported in Capsicum chinense for the first time.

  7. Defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense has immunomodulatory effects on bovine mammary epithelial cells during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Murillo, Violeta; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    β-Defensins are members of the antimicrobial peptide superfamily that are produced in various species from different kingdoms, including plants. Plant defensins exhibit primarily antifungal activities, unlike those from animals that exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Recently, immunomodulatory roles of mammal β-defensins have been observed to regulate inflammation and activate the immune system. Similar roles for plant β-defensins remain unknown. In addition, the regulation of the immune system by mammalian β-defensins has been studied in humans and mice models, particularly in immune cells, but few studies have investigated these peptides in epithelial cells, which are in intimate contact with pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the chemically synthesized β-defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) infected with Staphylococcus aureus, the primary pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis, which is capable of living within bMECs. Our results indicate that γ-thionin at 0.1 μg/ml was able to reduce the internalization of S. aureus into bMECs (∼50%), and it also modulates the innate immune response of these cells by inducing the mRNA expression (∼5-fold) and membrane abundance (∼3-fold) of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), as well as by inducing genes coding for the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (∼14 and 8-fold, respectively) before and after the bacterial infection. γ-Thionin also induces the expression of the mRNA of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (∼12-fold). Interestingly, the reduction in bacterial internalization coincides with the production of other antimicrobial products by bMECs, such as NO before infection, and the secretion into the medium of the endogenous antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 after infection. The results from this work support the potential use of β-defensins from plants as immunomodulators of the mammalian

  8. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum. Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced to Kosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutesc...

  9. Use of Capsicum on Kosrae Island, Federated States of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2013-01-01

    I surveyed the nomenclature and usage of Capsicum, in particular C. frutescens on Kosrae Island,Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia, to identify the relationship between people and Capsicum.Three species of Capsicum are cultivated on Kosrae Island: C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense.Many cultivars of C. annuum and one accession of C. chinense are thought to have been introduced toKosrae Island quite recently. In contrast to C. annuum and C. chinense, C. frutescens, especially ...

  10. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:27338325

  11. Molecular characterizations of microbial antagonists and development of bioformulations for management of bacterial wilt of Naga Chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq. in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohit Kataki, Kuldeep Talukdar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive strains of five different saprophytic antagonists Trichoderma parareesei TPJ-S-1, Trichoderma viride TVJ-S-1, Paecilomyces variotii Isolate-1, Bacillus thuringiensis BTJ-S-1 and Citrobacter farmeri CTJ-S-1 and their consortial formulations were evaluated during 2012-14, for their effectiveness in management of bacterial wilt disease (c. o. Ralstonia solanacearum of Naga chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq.. The molecular characterization of selected antagonists was undertaken to determine their distinctiveness from their close relatives through sequencing of the 18S & 28S region of ribosomal DNA in case of fungal antagonists and 16S region in case of bacterial antagonists along with its phylogenetic analysis. The antagonistic potential of the five microbes were tested in vitro singly and in consortia against R. solanacearum adopting dual culture method. Altogether 31 treatment combinations were compared; the inhibition zones (mm and percent inhibitions were recorded and analyzed. The highest inhibition (91.47% against R. solanacearum was recorded in consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride and B. thuringiensis followed by the consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride, P. variotii, B. thuringiensis and C. farmeri (82.22%. Quantitative aspect of population dynamics of selected antagonists in three different substrate carrier viz. vermicompost, talcum powder (TP and mustard oil cake (MOC were compared to evaluate their shelf – life at different days of storage

  12. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days. The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days. Higher conidial yield 86×106 was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya 70×106 and C. arborea 45×106, respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm, number of leaves (600–650, and yield of chili (120–150 fruits were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations.

  13. NOTE - Meiotic irregularities in Capsicum L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Magalhães Souza; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Rosana Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and pollen viability (PV) studies were performed in pepper accessions, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum. Irregularities such as laggard and univalent chromosomes, bridges, problems in the spindle fibers and cytomixis were observed, especially in C. baccatum which was the most unstable genotype. In the post-meiotic products, irregularities were observed, on average, at 20 % of the microspores in C. baccatum and 17 % in C. chinense. PV in C. baccatum was below 70 %, while in ...

  14. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.;

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings were...

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum annuum (Bird's Eye Chili) and Capsicum chinense (Yellow Lantern Chili), Respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Savka, Michael A; Triassi, Alexander J; Wheatley, Matthew S; Naqvi, Kubra F; Foxhall, Taylor E; Anauo, Michael J; Baldwin, Mariah L; Burkhardt, Russell N; O'Bryon, Isabelle G; Dailey, Lucas K; Busairi, Nurfatini Idayu; Keith, Robert C; Khair, Megat Hazmah Megat Mazhar; Rasul, Muhammad Zamir Mohd; Rosdi, Nur Aiman Mohd; Mountzouros, James R; Rhoads, Aleigha C; Selochan, Melissa A; Tautanov, Timur B; Polter, Steven J; Marks, Kayla D; Caraballo, Alexander A; Hudson, André O

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum spp. Annotation revealed gene clusters for the synthesis of bacilysin, lichensin, and bacillibactin and sporulation killing factor (skfA) in Bacillus safensis RIT372 and turnerbactin and carotenoid in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370.

  16. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Karina Pereira de Campos

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%). The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frut...

  17. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández María Soledad; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Manduca Fermín Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG) fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense e...

  18. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  19. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  20. Proline and soluble sugars accumulation in three pepper species (Capsicum spp) in response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gideon O Okunlola; Richard O Akinwale; Adekunle A Adelusi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major production constraint for major fruits and vegetable crops in the tropics. This study was conducted to in-vestigate the effect of limited water supply at three growth stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting) on the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in three pepper species. Seeds of the three pepper species,Capsicum chinense Jacq., C. annuumL. andC. frutescens L. were raised in a nursery and the seedlings were transplanted into seventy two plastic pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, 25 days after planting. Four water treatments, 200 mL of water supplied twice daily (W1), once in every three days (W2), once in every five days (W3), and zero water supplied throughout growing period (W0) were imposed at three vegetative, flowering, and fruiting growth stages. Data were collected on relative water content, free proline and total soluble sugar. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test. Results show that the concentration of proline and soluble sugar in leaves of the three pepper species were found to be remarkable at the different stages of growth in the stressed plants.

  1. Screening Capsicum accessions for capsaicinoids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Jarret, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Ninety Capsicum accessions selected from the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection were screened for their capsaicinoids content using gas hromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). Fresh fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were extracted with methanol and analyzed for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, 307, and 293, which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively, have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in pepper fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected. Capsaicin concentrations were typically greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from not detectable to 11.2 mg fruit(-1). Statistical analysis revealed that accession PI-441624 (C. chinense) had the highest capsaicin content (2.9 mg g(-1) fresh fruit) and accession PI-497984 (C. frutescens) had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (2.3 mg g(-1) fresh fruit). Genebank accessions PI-439522 (C. frutescens) and PI-497984 contained the highest concentrations of total capsaicinoids. PMID:16785178

  2. Inhaltsstoffzusammensetzung und sensorische Qualität von 20 Kultivaren verschiedener Capsicum-Arten

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmannsberger, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    20 verschiedene Kultivare der Arten Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. pubescens und C. annuum wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Scharfstoffe, ihrer geruchlich relevanten und sonstigen gaschromatographisch fassbaren Inhaltsstoffe gaschromatographisch-massenspektrometrisch (GC-MS) und humansensorisch charakterisiert. Die Unterschiede zwischen diesen Kultivaren, die Verteilung der Inhaltsstoffe auf verschiedene Fruchtkompartimente, die Eignung der Dampfraum-Festphasen-Mikroextraktion (...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  4. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  5. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Pérez

    Full Text Available The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ (Spain holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2% were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles. Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern

  6. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain. PMID

  7. Caracterización morfologica de accesiones de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Castro, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp., procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, Salvador) y representativas de 4 especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores (6 cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; 8 de caracteres vegetativos, 3 de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla) propuestos por el IPGRI (1983). La caracterización morfológica permitió confirmar la pr...

  8. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  9. Novel Neolignan from Penthorum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new neolignan(7'E)-2',4,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-2,4'-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-en-7-one(1)was isolated from the whole plants of Penthorum chinense Pursh,along with lupeol (2), betulinic acid(3),glyceryl monopalmitate(4),β-sitosterol(5),palmitic acid(6),ursolic acid(7),2β,3β,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid(8),glyceryl monolaurate(9),scopoletin(10).luteolin(16),β-daucosterol(17),quercetin(18),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,2'R,3R,4E,8E)-2-(2'-hydroxyhexadecanoy-lamino)-4,8-octdecadiene-1,3-dool (19),gallic acid (20),pinocembrin-7-O-β-D-glucoside(21),and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(22).The structures of these compounds ware elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence.

  10. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Otsu, Keigo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-24

    Capsiconinoid is a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits, which we recently identified. Capsiconinoids have agonist activity for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which is reported to be a receptor for capsaicin. It is, therefore, important to screen cultivars containing high levels of capsiconinoid for their use as a vegetable or dietary supplement. This study describes the quantitative analysis of capsiconinoid content in fruits of 35 Capsicum cultivars: 18 cultivars of C. annuum, 7 of C. baccatum, 5 of C. chinense, 4 of C. frutescens, and 1 of C. pubescens. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found that 10 cultivars contained capsiconinoids. Capsiconinoid Baccatum (CCB) (C. baccatum var. praetermissum) showed the highest capsiconinoid content (3314 microg/g DW) and Charapita (C. chinense) had the second highest content. The other 8 cultivars had much lower capsiconinoid content than these two cultivars (<300 microg/g DW). Time-course analysis during fruit development clarified that capsiconinoid content in CCB fruits increased until 30 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased rapidly until 40 DAF. PMID:19489540

  11. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH

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    Hernández María Soledad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los niveles de la actividad poligalacturonasa (PG fueron cuantificados en diferentes estadios de madurez de frutos de cuatro especies de ají Capsicum chinense, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens. Las muestras fueron colectadas y almacenadas a -10º C. La determinación de la actividad poligalacturonasa fue medida por el método de azúcares reductores de Somogyi-Nelson y el contenido de proteínas por Bradford. El comportamiento de la actividad PG de la especie C. chinense es muy temprano y similar a C. frutescens, pero el rango de la actividad PG de C. chinense es inferior a la de C. frutescens (picos máximos de 1678,572 y
    3581,5080 nmoles*min-1*mg prot-1, respectivamente. C. frutescens presentó dos períodos de actividad; y al igual que C. annuum, C. baccatum es de actividad tardía. El pico climatérico del fruto de Arazá fue de 102,49 mgCO2/kg/h, mientras que el pico de etileno fue de 26,62 mgC2H4/kg/h coincidiendo con la máxima madurez del fruto.

  12. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  13. Chromosomal localization and sequence variation of 5S rRNA gene in five Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Park, K C; Park, C H; Kim, N S

    2000-02-29

    Chromosomal localization and sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA gene were carried out in five Capsicum species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that chromosomal location of the 5S rRNA gene was conserved in a single locus at a chromosome which was assigned to chromosome 1 by the synteny relationship with tomato. In sequence analysis, the repeating units of the 5S rRNA genes in the Capsicum species were variable in size from 278 bp to 300 bp. In sequence comparison of our results to the results with other Solanaceae plants as published by others, the coding region was highly conserved, but the spacer regions varied in size and sequence. T stretch regions, just after the end of the coding sequences, were more prominant in the Capsicum species than in two other plants. High G x C rich regions, which might have similar functions as that of the GC islands in the genes transcribed by RNA PolII, were observed after the T stretch region. Although we could not observe the TATA like sequences, an AT rich segment at -27 to -18 was detected in the 5S rRNA genes of the Capsicum species. Species relationship among the Capsicum species was also studied by the sequence comparison of the 5S rRNA genes. While C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum formed one lineage, C. baccatum was revealed to be an intermediate species between the former three species and C. pubescens. PMID:10774742

  14. Estabilidade da resistência de Capsicum spp. ao oídio em telado e casa de vegetação Stability of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to powdery mildew in protected cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Milton L. Paz Lima; Carlos A. Lopes; Adalberto C. Café Filho

    2004-01-01

    Oídio (Oidiopsis taurica) é uma importante doença do pimentão (Capsicum annuum) e outras espécies de Capsicum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência no germoplasma de Capsicum spp. e relatar suas reações ao oídio em ambientes de telado e de casa de vegetação. Em telado, com inoculação artificial, testaram-se 104 genótipos de C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum e C. frutescens. A avaliação foi repetida em canteiros de casa de vegetação com inoculação natural. Em telad...

  15. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper transformatio

  16. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; GREILHUBER, JOHANN; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In ...

  17. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  18. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  19. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

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    Martha Maria Passador

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão, é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero, que após a formação dos espermogônios (11 dias, apresentou manchas necróticas na região periférica aos espermogônios, aos 15 dias após a inoculação, não havendo evolução da infecção. Também foi observada reação de hipersensibilidade, de forma mais moderada em folhas C. annuum (pimenta serrano e C. baccatum (chapéu-de-frade. Com relação às outras solanáceas inoculadas (jiló e berinjela não foram observados os sintomas e sinais da infecção.The Capsicum spp. (pepper and green pepper rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia pampeana. This is an important disease in these crops which may cause complete losses in crops of several species of Capsicum. Although specific to the genus Capsicum, and despite the fact that many species within this genus are susceptible to rust, some of them have shown a hypersensitivity reaction. That was the case with Capsicum annuum (Cayenne pepper and C. chinense (datil pepper, which, after spermogonia formation (11 days, showed necrotic spots in the peripheral region of the spermogonia 15 days after inoculation, without evolution of the infection. A milder hypersensitivity reaction was also observed only in leaves of C. annuum (chili pepper and C. baccatum ("chapéu-de-frade". With regard to other solanaceous plants inoculated ("jiló" and eggplant, no symptoms or signs of infection were observed.

  20. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 93 accesions of Capsicum spp of germoplasm bank of National University of Colombia - Palmira

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    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.Morphologic characterization of 93 Capsicum accessions of Capsicum spp., from 11 countries (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú and El Salvador and representative of four species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, 21 IBPGR's descriptors were used (six quantitative y 15 qualitative; eight of vegetative traits, three of flower traits and ten of fruit and seed traits. Morphologic characterization permited confirm the presence of intragenetic variability, in special for of plant architecture descriptors, reproductive structures and production, wich explain the 78% of the total variability. Dice's distance permitted groups formation based in their origin and flower and fruit traits, but didn't permit to interespecific discrimination. Narrow genetic distances among C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense can indicate these three species conform only one morphological group.

  1. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  2. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

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    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  3. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

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    García Davalos Mario Augusto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  4. Algunos componentes esteroidales del solanum havanense jacq

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    Mario J. Basterrechea Rey

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo alcaloide esteroidal llamado acetil etiolina, ha sido aislado de las hojas, tallos y raices del Solanum havanense Jacq y su estructura corresponde con (25S-16a-acetoxi-22.26-epiminocolest-5.22(N-dien-3ß-ol.

  5. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

      Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion, auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype   Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) production as it mini

  6. Characterization and genetic diversity of pepper (Capsicum spp) parents and interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M P S D; do Rêgo, M M; da Silva, A P G; do Rêgo, E R; Barroso, P A

    2016-01-01

    Pepper species exhibit broad genetic diversity, which enables their use in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity between the parents of different species and their interspecific hybrids using morphological and molecular markers. The parents of Capsicum annuum (UFPB-01 and -137), C. baccatum (UFPB-72), and C. chinense (UFPB-128) and their interspecific hybrids (01x128, 72x128, and 137x128) were used for morphological and molecular characterization. Fruit length and seed yield per fruit (SYF) traits showed the highest variability, and three groups were formed based on these data. CVg/CVe ratio values (>1.0) were calculated for leaf length (1.67) and SYF (5.34). The trait that most contributed to divergence was the largest fruit diameter (26.42%), and the trait that least contributed was pericarp thickness (0.33%), which was subject to being discarded. The 17 primers produced 58 polymorphic bands that enabled the estimation of genetic diversity between parents and hybrids, and these results confirmed the results of the morphological data analyses. The principal component analysis results also corroborated the morphological and random-amplified polymorphic DNA data, and three groups that contained the same individuals were identified. These results confirmed reports in the literature regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the species used as parents, which demonstrated that C. annuum was closer to C. chinense as compared to C. baccatum. PMID:27173311

  7. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously. PMID:20198584

  8. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin) Kitag by ISSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the study,the reasonable sampling of the grey Aneurolepidium chinense of green grassland,the grey-green A.chinense of green grassland,the grey A.chinense of Wulimu and the grey-green A.chinense of Wulimu were analyzed by ISSR.Eight primers with clear and diverse products were screened out from 20 primers and 47 DNA fragments were amplified from 39 individuals.The average number of DNA fragments produced by each primer was 5.9,and polymorphic bands were 41 and the polymorphic rate was 87.23%,which could r...

  9. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis) Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays), Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus) and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI; Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE

    2014-01-01

    This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with maize (Zea mays Linn.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum). This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran...

  10. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component. PMID:12824068

  11. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  12. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  13. 辣椒属种间杂交及杂种鉴定研究%Interspecific Hybridization and Identification of Hybrid in Capsicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志芳; 钱春桃; 陈学军; 陈劲枫

    2007-01-01

    通过辣椒属5个栽培种(Capsicum annuum,C. chinense,C. frutescens,C. baccatum和C. pubescens)种间正反杂交试验,获得了3株C. baccatum×C. chinense (Hbc)和7株C. annuum×C. chinense(Hac)种间杂种植株.除Hac-7单株表型异常外,其他杂种F1植株均生长正常.Hac、Hbc花粉可染率分别为 13.9%和23.8%,显著低于其双亲.同一组合内单株间花粉育性、形态性状和同工酶电泳图谱表现一致,形态学观察和过氧化物同工酶电泳分析结果均验证了种间杂种的真实性.

  14. Técnicas y estrategias de mejora para facilitar la hibridación interespecífica y el acortamiento del ciclo generacional en el género Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    MANZUR POBLETE, JUAN PABLO ANDRES

    2014-01-01

    Los pimientos, chiles y ajíes suponen uno de los productos de mayor importancia económica del mundo, ocupando la séptima posición en superficie entre las hortícolas. Bajo estas denominaciones se engloba un grupo de cinco especies cultivadas y más de veinte especies silvestres pertenecientes al género Capsicum. Entre las especies domesticadas, C. annuum es la más relevante económicamente y su cultivo se extiende por casi todo el mundo. C. chinense (Ej. Tipo Habanero) y C. frutescens (Ej. Tipo ...

  15. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  16. 甜椒抗番茄斑点萎蔫病毒的种质创新%Innovation of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Germplasm Resource with Resistance to Tomato spots wilt virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立浩; 张正海; 毛胜利; 曹亚从; 堵玫珍; 张宝玺

    2016-01-01

    番茄斑点萎蔫病毒病是我国辣椒生产的一种新兴和潜在重大威胁病害.利用引进的中国辣椒(Capsicum chinenseJack.)抗源材料PI152225,通过种间杂交和分子标记辅助回交选育,历时10年,将抗性基因Tsw转育到中椒系列骨干亲本一年生辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)大果甜椒自交系0516中,创新材料0516(Tsw)的生长势和果实长度超过对照0516,商品性和配合力与骨干亲本0516差异不显著.

  17. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  18. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied indetail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C. ann...

  19. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  20. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  1. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Lü, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC(2)F(2) , was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC(2)F(2) fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C(16) monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  3. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Naci ONUS

    2000-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  4. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  5. Polyphenols with Anti-Proliferative Activities from Penthorum Chinense Pursh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doudou Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyphenols, penthorumin C (1 and 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone-4-O- [4ꞌ,6ꞌ-(S-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucose (2, along with four known polyphenolic acids, pinocembrin-7-O-[4ꞌꞌ,6ꞌꞌ-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucose(3, pinocembrin-7-O-[3ꞌꞌ-O- galloyl- 4ꞌꞌ,6ꞌꞌ-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-β-D-glucose (4, thonningianin A (5, and thonningianin B (6 were isolated from Penthourm chinense. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity in HSC-T6 cells, and 2 and 5 showed significant activity, with IC50 values of 12.7 and 19.2 μM, respectively.

  6. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  7. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia Morphological characterization of accesions of Capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica C.I. Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.68 accessions from the Capsicum collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica, Palmira were morphologically characterized by using 12 quantitative and 10 qualitative descriptors. For the principal components analysis the variables with highest contribution were associated to plant architecture and fruit descriptors and their explained 70.8% of total variability. Classification analysis based on quantitative data showed 5 groups but did not allow discrimination between species. For the multiple correspondence analysis 83.4% of the variability was explained by variables related with flower and fruit traits. The classification analyses using qualitative descriptors showed 4 groups and allowed discrimination of C. baccatum species. The discriminant analysis showed that C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense are phylogenetically closely related.

  8. GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagavathi Perumal Ezhilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant contained mainly a triterpene compound-squalene (47.01%, and a plasticizer compound-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%. All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound -1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl-acetate-(R-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Carotenoid Accumulation in Lycium chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY, phytoene desaturase (LcPDS, ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS, lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB, lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE, ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE, zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1, and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of β-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense.

  10. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Susana González-Pérez; Ana Garcés-Claver; Cristina Mallor; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Oreto Fayos; Federico Pomar; Fuencisla Merino; Cristina Silvar

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the pr...

  11. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study distinctions in the morphology of the pepper fruits (Capsicum spp., Solanaceae used by indigenous (living in traditional villages and non-indigenous groups (originated from migration and colonization, with or without miscegenation, living on non-indigenous lands in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. In this sense, we used a database with 182 subsamples of Capsicum spp. Accessions were collected at 39 sites (14 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous, which were characterized additionally in relation to the predominant phytophysiognomy (savanna or forest and home zone (rural or urban. We found morphological differences in pepper fruits related to both phytophysiognomy and home zone of the collecting site, but not to ethnical origin. We believe those differences are more related to the inherent crop practices, which suffer strong environmental influence, than to user preference. Both indigenous and non-indigenous groups preferred morphotypes from C. chinense and C. frutescens, which have small and highly pungent fruits. Nevertheless, fruit color was not important. These morphotypes are used by both indigenous and non-indigenous users for preparing sauce and jiquitaia (pepper powder. We suggested 'cultural adherence' as the reason for the common preferred use of peppers by both ethnical groups analyzed in Roraima.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar distinções no padrão morfológico de frutos de pimentas do gênero Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae utilizados por grupos tradicionais indígenas (vivendo em aldeias e não-indígenas (derivado da migração/colonização, contendo ou não miscigenação, situados fora de áreas indígenas, em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. Para tanto foi utilizado um banco de dados com 182 subamostras de Capsicum spp. coletadas em 39 localidades daquele estado (14 indígenas e 25 não-indígenas. As localidades foram caracterizadas também por tipos fitofision

  12. Inheritance of Value Added Traits in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varying hues of green to purple foliar pigmentation, affords a myriad of opportunities to develop novel cultivars f...

  13. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  14. 涮辣与辣椒属5个栽培种亲缘关系的研究%Studies on the Genetic Relationship Between Capsicum frutescens var. shuanlaense and Other Five Cultivated Capsicum Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟金贵; 张卿哲; 王硕; 张应华

    2012-01-01

    The study of the phylogenetic relationship was carried out with ISSR molecular markers among Shuanla (Capsicumfrutescens L. vat. shuanlaense) and other five cultivated Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum and C. pubescens ) including 71 pieces of germplasm in total. Genomic DNA was amplified with 11 screened ISSR primers by PCR, a total of 112 polymorphic bands were amplified, polymorphism bands reached 90.17% in average. Genetic similarity coefficient of all material located between 0.049 and 0.875. At the point of the similarity coefficient 0.31, C. frutescens var. shuanlaense and C. frutescens which originate in USA was classified in a group, which proved C. frutescens var. shuanlaense belonged to C. frutescens with molecular measure. C. frutescens var. shuanlaense had the closest relationship with C. annuum, followed by C. chinense, and C. baccatum more distantly related, the relationship with C. pubescens is the most distant. At the point of similarity coefficient 0.397, 66 pieces of germplasm belong to C. annuum were further classified into 7 subgroups,Gejiu Wrinkled Pepper and Jianshui Yingtaojiao (C. annuum var. cerasiforme) were separated into two subgroups. The rest were var. longum, var. dactylus + var. breviconoideum, var. grossum, var. cerasiforme and var.fascicutatum. Basically they are consistent with the pepper morphological classification results.%利用筛选出的11对ISSR引物对涮辣(Capsicum frutescens L.var.shuanlaense)和辣椒属5个栽培种[一年生辣椒(Capsicumannuum)、灌木状辣椒(C.frutescens)、中国辣椒(C.chinense)、浆果状辣椒(ebaccatum)和绒毛辣椒(C.pubescens)]共计71份种质的DNA进行PCR扩增,共扩增出112条谱带,多态性平均为90.17%,材料问遗传相似系数在0.049~0.875之间。在相似系数为O.31时,涮辣与C.frutescens聚在一组,

  15. Genetic relationships within and between Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ayşe Gul; Karaca, Mehmet; Onus, A Naci

    2010-02-01

    Genetic relationships were estimated among 24 accessions belonging to 11 species of Capsicum, using 2,760 RAPD markers based on touch-down polymerase chain reactions (Td-RAPD-PCR). These markers were implemented in analyses of principal coordinates, unweighted pair group mean average, and 2,000 bootstrap replications. The accessions were divided into four groups, corresponding to previously described Capsicum complexes: C. annuum complex (CA), C. baccatum complex (CB), C. pubescens complex (CP), and C. chacoense accessions (CA/B). Their overall mean genetic similarity index was 0.487 +/- 0.082, ranging from 0.88 to 0.32, based on Jaccard's coefficient. The highest genetic variation was observed among the accessions in CP; the accessions in CB had a low level of variation as judged from the standard deviations of the genetic similarity indices. Based on the Td-RAPD-PCR markers, the 24 accessions were divided into four major groups, three of which corresponded to the three distinct Capsicum complexes. Accessions of C. chacoense were found to be equally related to complexes CA, CB, and CP. PMID:19916044

  16. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Rooij, de H.; Vogelaar, A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in i

  17. AT3 (Acyltransferase) Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Habibi; Andi Madhihah Manggabarani; Eko Sri Sulasmi; Dwi Listyorini

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born b...

  18. Obiteljsko trovanje korijenom bijelog buna (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuculić, M.; Kalodera, Z.; Sindik, J.; Kvasić, D.; Petričić, J.

    1989-01-01

    Trovanje plodovima velebilja dobro je poznato, jer njihova lijepa sjajno-crna boja privlači djecu a i odrasle da ih okušaju. Manje je poznato trovanje korijenom velebilja, a trovanje korijenom bijelog buna nije poznato. Korijen bijelog buna (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.) sadržava istu alkaloidnu smjesu kao i korijen velebilja, ali su glavni alkaloidi u drugom količinskom odnosu. Ovaj rad obraduje trovanje jedne obitelji iz Novog Vinodolskog korijenom bijelog buna upotrijebljenog za pripremu gove...

  19. Soil flood tolerance of seven genotypes of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Schio Silva; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Liana Jank

    2009-01-01

    The soil flood tolerance of seven genotypes of Panicum maximum Jacq. (PM11, PM34, PM40 and PM45, and the commercial cultivars Massai, Mombaça and Tanzânia) was evaluated in plants subjected to two conditions: flooded and not flooded, during a period of 14 days. Flooding significantly decreased the total and above ground biomass of PM40 and PM45. For cultivar Tanzânia, flooding decreased these two variables and also root biomass. The root, total and above ground relative growth rates were sign...

  20. 川黄柏微繁殖技术%Micropropagation Technique of Phellodendron chinense In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦红玫; 王永清; 叶萌

    2009-01-01

    @@ 川黄柏(Phellodendron chinense Sehoneid.)(又名黄皮树、川黄柏、黄柏等)为芸香科(Rutaceae)黄檗属(Phelloden-dron)落叶乔木,是有名的"三木药材"之一.川黄柏常规繁殖多为播种繁殖,繁殖速度较慢,且苗木一致性难以保证.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Bupleurum chinense focusing on genes involved in the biosynthesis of saikosaponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chengmin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bupleurum chinense DC. is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Saikosaponins are the major bioactive constituents of B. chinense, but relatively little is known about saikosaponin biosynthesis. The 454 pyrosequencing technology provides a promising opportunity for finding novel genes that participate in plant metabolism. Consequently, this technology may help to identify the candidate genes involved in the saikosaponin biosynthetic pathway. Results One-quarter of the 454 pyrosequencing runs produced a total of 195, 088 high-quality reads, with an average read length of 356 bases (NCBI SRA accession SRA039388. A de novo assembly generated 24, 037 unique sequences (22, 748 contigs and 1, 289 singletons, 12, 649 (52.6% of which were annotated against three public protein databases using a basic local alignment search tool (E-value ≤1e-10. All unique sequences were compared with NCBI expressed sequence tags (ESTs (237 and encoding sequences (44 from the Bupleurum genus, and with a Sanger-sequenced EST dataset (3, 111. The 23, 173 (96.4% unique sequences obtained in the present study represent novel Bupleurum genes. The ESTs of genes related to saikosaponin biosynthesis were found to encode known enzymes that catalyze the formation of the saikosaponin backbone; 246 cytochrome P450 (P450s and 102 glycosyltransferases (GTs unique sequences were also found in the 454 dataset. Full length cDNAs of 7 P450s and 7 uridine diphosphate GTs (UGTs were verified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or by cloning using 5' and/or 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Two P450s and three UGTs were identified as the most likely candidates involved in saikosaponin biosynthesis. This finding was based on the coordinate up-regulation of their expression with β-AS in methyl jasmonate-treated adventitious roots and on their similar expression patterns with β-AS in various B. chinense tissues. Conclusions A collection of

  2. [Determination of trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xing-Ming; Xu, Min; Gu, Yong-Zuo

    2007-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense after microwave-assisted digestion of the sample has been developed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of corresponding trace heavy metal elements in standard reference materials (GBW 07604 and GBW 07605). By applying the proposed method, the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense cultivated in different areas (in Bazhong, Yibin and Yingjing, respectively) of Sichuan and different growth period (6, 8 and 10 years of samples from Yingjing) were determined. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is in the range of 3.2%-17.8% and the recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 70%-120%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense. The results also show that the concentrations of 4 harmful trace heavy metal elements As, Cd, Hg and Pb in cortex Phellodendron chinense are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation. Therefore, the cortex Phellodendron chinense is fit for use as medicine and export.

  3. [Determination of trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xing-Ming; Xu, Min; Gu, Yong-Zuo

    2007-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense after microwave-assisted digestion of the sample has been developed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of corresponding trace heavy metal elements in standard reference materials (GBW 07604 and GBW 07605). By applying the proposed method, the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense cultivated in different areas (in Bazhong, Yibin and Yingjing, respectively) of Sichuan and different growth period (6, 8 and 10 years of samples from Yingjing) were determined. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is in the range of 3.2%-17.8% and the recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 70%-120%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense. The results also show that the concentrations of 4 harmful trace heavy metal elements As, Cd, Hg and Pb in cortex Phellodendron chinense are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation. Therefore, the cortex Phellodendron chinense is fit for use as medicine and export. PMID:17763791

  4. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  5. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  6. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  7. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF Capsicum GENUS PEPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Teixeira de Souza Sora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have a great metabolic and structural importance. Evaluation of fatty acid composition of peppers is still incomplete. Pulps and seeds from six varieties of the genus Capsicum were evaluated in this work with respect to their contents in fatty acids. A total of 25 different fatty acids, including some with odd number of carbons were identified in the samples. The most abundant fatty acids were palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1n-9 and linoleic (18:2n-6 acids. The polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA ratios for all peppers were high due to the elevated amounts of polyunsaturated acids, particularly linoleic acid. In the pulps, the omega-6/omega-3 ratios ranging from 1.28 to 4.33, were relatively adequate if one considers that ratios between 0.25 and 1.0 in the human diet are regarded as highly appropriate. In the seeds, the levels of omega-3 were very low whereas the levels of omega-6 were high, leading to very inadequate omega-6/omega-3 ratios ranging from 74.2 to 279.6. Principal component analysis (PCA explained 93.49% of the total variance of the data. Considering the PUFA/SFA ratio and omega-6/omega-3 ratio, our data suggest that, among the peppers of the genus Capsicum evaluated in this work, the bell pepper and orange habanero pepper present the best nutritional characteristics concerning fatty acid composition.

  8. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  9. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  10. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  11. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  12. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria E. Barboza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here.

  13. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli): origin, distribution, and its economical value

    OpenAIRE

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense). ...

  14. Nutrient element contents of cutting seedlings of hybrid species ( Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiao-ping; FANGYan-ming; DINGYu-long

    2003-01-01

    The cutting seedlings of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were treated with the different concentrations of auxin (treatmenh: IBA of 50 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1; treatment2- IBA of 100 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1). The biomass and the nutrient element contents for different organs (root, stem, leaf) of cutting seedling of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were measured by the dry method, Kjeldahl method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The result showed that the biomass of root, stem, and leaf of the cutting seedling treated with auxin was all remarkably increased. The contents of element C in root, stem and leaf had no significant difference between the control and auxin treatments, while the contents of N, P, K and Ca in stem were much lower than that in leaf and root. Variance analysis showed that for the same organ with different concentration treatment of auxin, the four nutrient elements (N, P, K, and Ca) had no significant difference in contents, while there existed significant or very significant difference in contents of the four nutrient elements in different organs with the same concentration auxin treatment. The N, P, K and Ca contents were very low in cutting seedlings; as a result, additional fertilizer should be applied to the seedlings when they were planted in the field.

  15. Inhibition of inflammatory injure by polysaccharides from Bupleurum chinense through antagonizing P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Haibin; Tian, Dan; Li, Tianbao; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Guiquan; Sun, Xin

    2014-05-25

    P-selectin-mediated adhesion between endothelium and neutrophils is a crucial process leading to acute inflammatory injure. Thus, P-selectin has been considered as promising target for therapeutics of acute inflammatory-related diseases. In the present study, the water-soluble polysaccharides (BCPs) were isolated from Bupleurum chinense, and we evaluated their therapeutical effects on acute inflammatory injure and antagonistic function against P-selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion. Our results showed that BCPs significantly impaired the leukocyte infiltration and relieve lung injury in LPS-induced acute pneumonia model. BCPs significantly blocked the binding of P-selectin to neutrophils and inhibited P-selectin-mediated neutrophils rolling along CHO-P cell monolayer. The result from in vitro protein binding assay showed a direct evidence indicating that BCPs-treatment significantly eliminated the interaction between rhP-Fc and its physiological ligand PSGL-1 at protein level. Together, these results provide a novel therapeutical strategy for amelioration of inflammation-related disease processes by polysaccharides from B. chinense.

  16. Regeneración de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jaqc.) a partir de cultivos hidropónicos in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimarez Montiel, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Una alternativa para mejorar la producción de plantas de chile habanero es el cultivo de tejidos; no obstante, las características de esta técnica, incrementan considerablemente el costo de las plantas regeneradas y limita su capacidad de adaptación a las condiciones de invernadero o campo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de mezclas de Perlita-Vermiculita (PV), Vermiculita-Perlita (VP), Fibra de coco-Tezontle (FT) y Perlita-Fibra de coco (PF), distintas concentraciones de lo...

  17. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichewicz, R H; Thorpe, P A

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the Mayan pharmacopoeia revealed that tissues of Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are included in a number of herbal remedies for a variety of ailments of probable microbial origin. Using a filter disk assay, plain and heated aqueous extracts from fresh Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinese, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum pubescens varieties were tested for their antimicrobial effects with fifteen bacterial species and one yeast species. Two pungent compounds found in Capsicum species (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) were also tested for their anti-microbial effects. The plain and heated extracts were found to exhibit varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:8735449

  18. Performance of lambs supplemented with fodder salt Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate productive performance of lambs fed different levels of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. in the making of gliricidia forage salt. A total of 30 180-day-old male crossbred Santa Inês lambs of 25 kg body weight were confined in 1 m² stalls, fed Tifton-85 (Cynadon spp. hay, fodder salts and water ad libitum. The experimental design was randomized, composed of six repetitions of five treatments. The formulation of gliricidia forage salt was 0 (100% NaCl, 93, 95, 97 and 99% gliricidia hay with 7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl, respectively. The experiment was conducted for 74 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 60 d for sampling. Gliricidia forage salt supplementation showed no effect (P>0.05 on dry matter, organic matter or neutral detergent fiber intake, although it affected (P<0.05 crude protein and ether extract intake. The highest performance of animals was observed in gliricidia forage salt with 99% addition of gliricidia.

  19. Isolation of new flavan-3-ol and lignan glucoside from Loropetalum chinense and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Kong, Lingbao; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2013-10-01

    Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity study on the ethanol extract of the leaves and stems of Loropetalum chinense led to the isolation of a new flavan-3-ol compounds, 8-[1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl]-catechin (loropetaliside A) (1) and a new lignan glucoside, 1-(5-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-β-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-5-(1-(E)propen-3-ol)-phenyl)-propane-3-ol (loropetaliside B) (3) and several known compounds manglieside D (2), quercetin (4), kaempferol-3-O-D-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-β-L-rhamnoside (6) and tiliroside (7). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Tirucallane-type triterpenoids from the fruits of Phellodendron chinense Schneid and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Wang, Xing-Hui; Geng, Shun-Dong; Wang, Tian-Yuan; Sun, Mao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Eleven triterpenoids were isolated from the fruits of Phellodendron chinense Schneid, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The results show that four new tirucallane-type triterpenoids 1, 2, 5, and 6 and seven known compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated. Structurally, compound 6 was uncommon; it has a chlorine atom instead of a methyl group at the C-20 position. The cytotoxicities of the compounds was evaluated against the in vitro proliferation of four human tumor cell lines HEL, K562, MDA, and PC3 using adriamycin as the positive control. Compound 1 showed a similar cytotoxicity as the positive control; compounds 3 and 10 showed moderate cytotoxicities compared to the control (P<0.05). This indicates that these compounds have great potential for the development of new antitumor drugs. PMID:27491752

  1. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  2. (木幽)木化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of Loropetalum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 刘劲松; 李红艳; 张凌; 刘吉开

    2011-01-01

    采用硅胶柱、ODS和凝胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,通过理化方法和波谱分析进行结构鉴定.从橙木(Loropetalum chinense(R.Br.)oliver)茎叶中分离并鉴定了六个化合物:植物醇(1)、glycerol 1-(14-methlpentadecanoate)(2)、methyl-(7R,8R)-4.hydroxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-ate(3)、trans-P-coumarie acid ethyl ester(4)、落叶松树脂酸(laricinouc acid)(5)、tiliroside(6).除化合物1外,其余化合物均为首次从橙木中分离得到,化合物2、3首次从该属中分离得到.%Six compounds were isolated and purified from Loropetalum chinense ( R. Br. ) oliver by using silica gel, ODS,and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and their structures were determined on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were identified as trans-phytol (1) ,glycerol 1-(14-methlpentadecanoate) (2),methyl-(7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-8',9'-dinor-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-7'-ate (3),trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester (4),laricinolic acid (5), tiliroside (6). All of these compounds except 1 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Moreover,it is the first time to report 2 and 3 from the genus Loropetalum.

  3. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  4. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in Capsicum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum fruit contain a number of phytochemicals, including the newly characterized capsinoids that have been shown to have positive effects on human health (10-15). Closely related to the pungent capsaicinoids, the non-pungent casinoids exhibit antioxidant activity, promote energy metabolism and r...

  5. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  6. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum. PMID:26125877

  7. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  8. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  9. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iza Farhana; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Kadir, Farkaad A.; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Awang, Khalijah

    2012-01-01

    Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg) to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS) stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer. PMID:23365597

  10. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Farhana Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer.

  11. Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Efektivitas Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Sayat

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Cinta Suci

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf family Arecaceae widely growing in Indonesia, which is common known with its oil. One of the medical using is for wound healing, and also effective for hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and can heal acut toxicity. The objective of this research is to test phytochemicals screening and effectiveness test ethanol extract gel of oil palm leaf (elaeis guineensis jacq.) for wound healing. Palm’s leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 d...

  12. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O.

    2010-01-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick’s law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma ...

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  14. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  15. Evaluación de la diversidad genética del género Capsicum sp. presente en los Departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo por medio de Isoenzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Capsicumcomprende 25 especies de las cuales cinco han sido domesticadas y dadoorigen a numerosos cultivares. Sin embargo, la alta selección a la que está siendo sometido elgénero podría llevarla a su erosión genética, por ello se requiere la introducción de nuevogermoplasma que suministre una fuente de diversidad genética, para el mejoramiento de loscultivares comerciales. Dicha fuente se debe encontrar en aquellas zonas donde las especiessilvestres, cercanas y/o relacionadas se distribuyen, ya que estas áreas funcionan como reser-vorio de genes y es allí donde se encuentran variedades con acervos genéticos amplios; fuentesgenéticas para resistencia a enfermedades, alta productividad y calidad nutricional. Teniendoen cuenta lo anterior la región amazónica colombiana tiene un valor potencial en la exploraciónde germoplasma importante para el género Capsicum, por ser considerada como el lugar deorigen del complejo silvestre annuum-chinense-frutescens. Así mismo se requiere de unaevaluación urgente de la diversidad genética de la región amazónica, antes de que se agotela disponibilidad de material vivo debido al proceso de deforestación. Con el propósito devalorar la diversidad genética presente del género Capsicum, en la Amazonía colombiana seutilizó la técnica de electroforésis de isoenzimas para los materiales de Ají colectados enhuertos y chagras indígenas de los departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo. Para laevaluación se utilizaron cinco isoenzimas polimórficas: alfabetaEST (alfabeta esterasa, GOT(glutamato oxaloacetato transaminasa, PRX (peroxidasa, 6PGDH (6-fosfoglucona-todehidrogenasa y ME (enzima málica. Con los resultados de presencia-ausencia de bandasse construyeron fenogramas con el índice de similaridad de Dice o Nei (1945 por mediodel programa estadístico NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analisys System. Deacuerdo a los resultados se pudo establecer la alta variabilidad

  16. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  17. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  18. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African locust bean, is one of the 34 known species of the genusParkiawhose centre of origin isSouth America. It is anagroforestrytree species spread throughout the Africansudaniansavannas, fromSenegalin the West toUgandain the East. P.biglobosa is also an important socio-economic species in high demand by local communities for its multiple amenities and uses (food, traditional medicine and pharmacy, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, rites and custom...

  19. Indeks Keanekaragaman Jenis Serangga Pada Ekosistem Pembibitan Dan Bukaan Baru Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Holmes HutaBarat, Diversity Of Insect On Nursery and Land Clearing Ecosystem at Oil Palm Plantation (Elaeis guinensis Jacq) with counselor commision Ir. Mena Uly Tarigan, MS as chief and Ir. Yuswani Pangestiningsih, MS as member. The experiment was aimed to know the diversity of insect population on nursery and land clearing ecosystem at oil palm plantation and was to know the usefull insect, destructive insect, parasitoid and predator at that area. The experiment was done on two place, Land ...

  20. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Antikolesterol (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Menggunakan Mencit Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Syahfitri, Rifany

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest producer oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in the world. Palm leaves are generally only as waste, but the development of science and technology can be used for the treatment of some diseases, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, acute toxicity, wound healing drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the ethanol extract of palm leaves (EOPLE) as anti-cholesterol using male mice. Simplici...

  1. Pengujian Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Sebagai Obat Luka Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Contain alkaloids that have the ability as an antibacterial, astringent activity of flavonoids and saponins that can stimulate the formation of collagen, which plays a role in wound healing process and. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the ethanol extract gel palm leaves for the healing of burns. Palm’ leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 days, filtered, the residue has extraction by ethanol, then the filtrate leave for 2 day and ...

  2. Analisis Histologi Embriogenesis Somatik Dari Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var Tenera

    OpenAIRE

    Meilvana, Tengku Nilayanda

    2014-01-01

    A study of Histological Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis from Apical Bud of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera has been conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of FMIPA USU. The experimental design was completely randomized with three levels of 2,4-D concentrations: 110; 120; 130 mg/L and three position of explants: apical, median, and basal. The statistical analysis showed that 120 mg/L of 2,4-D significantly affected the primary and embryogenic calluses initiation. Explant...

  3. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-01

    Background Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptom...

  4. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  5. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  6. Potent Production of Capsaicinoids and Capsinoids by Capsicum Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    古旗, 賢二; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; 矢澤, 進; 渡辺, 達夫

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact frui...

  7. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  8. The Paleobiolinguistics of domesticated chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Cecil H.; Clement, Charles R.; Patience Epps; Eike Luedeling; Søren Wichmann

    2013-01-01

    Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) developed significance for different prehistoric Native Am...

  9. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  10. Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterat, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, Goji berries and juice are being sold as health food products in western countries and praised in advertisements and in the media for well-being and as an anti-aging remedy. The popularity of Goji products has rapidly grown over the last years thanks to efficient marketing strategies. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium barbarum and L. chinense, two close species with a long tradition of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, in particular in China. While only L. barbarum is officinal, the fruit (fructus Lycii) and the root bark (cortex Lycii radicis) of both species are used in the folk medicine. We review here the constituents, pharmacology, safety, and uses of L. barbarum and L. chinense with consideration to the different parts of the plant. Investigations of the fruit have focused on proteoglycans, known as " Lycium barbarum polysaccharides", which showed antioxidative properties and some interesting pharmacological activities in the context of age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. As to the root bark, several compounds have demonstrated a hepatoprotective action as well as inhibitory effects on the rennin/angiotensin system which may support the traditional use for the treatment of hypertension. While there are no signs of toxicity of this plant, two cases of possible interaction with warfarin point to a potential risk of drug interaction. In view of the available pharmacological data and the long tradition of use in the traditional Chinese medicine, L. barbarum and L. chinense certainly deserve further investigation. However, clinical evidences and rigorous procedures for quality control are indispensable before any recommendation of use can be made for Goji products. PMID:19844860

  11. Overexpression of lycopene ε-cyclase gene from lycium chinense confers tolerance to chilling stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Zhaodi; Wu, Jiang; Josine, Tchouopou Lontchi; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-15

    Lutein plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage and eliminating ROS to render normal physiological function of cells. As a rate-limiting step for lutein synthesis in plants, lycopene ε-cyclase catalyzes lycopene to δ-carotene. We cloned a lycopene ε-cyclase gene (Lcε-LYC) from Lycium chinense (L. chinense), a deciduous woody perennial halophyte growing in various environmental conditions. The Lcε-LYC gene has an ORF of 1569bp encoding a protein of 522 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence of Lcε-LYC gene has higher homology with LycEs in other plants, such as Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum tuberosum. When L. chinense was exposed to chilling stress, relative expression of Lcε-LYC increased. To study the protective role of Lcε-LYC against chilling stress, we overexpressed the Lcε-LYC gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lcε-LYC overexpression led to an increase of lutein accumulation in transgenic A. thaliana, and the content of lutein decreased when transgenics were under cold conditions. In addition, the transgenic plants under chilling stress displayed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and less H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control. Moreover, the photosynthesis rate, photosystem II activity (Fv/fm), and Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also increased in the transgenetic plants. On the whole, overexpression of Lcε-LYC ameliorates photoinhibition and photooxidation, and decreases the sensitivity of photosynthesis to chilling stress in transgenic plants. PMID:26526130

  12. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  13. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  15. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  16. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 ...

  17. Establishment of Somatic Cell Clones in Thesium chinense Turcz and Its in vitro Rootinq Technique%百蕊草无性系建立与瓶外生根研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江芹; 董玲; 宁志怨; 陈静娴; 廖华俊

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to establish the rapid micro-propagation system in Thesium chinense Turcz. [Method] With stem frag-ments of wild Thesium chinense Turcz as explants, different culture media were designed to conduct induction culture, strengthening plantlet culture and in vitro rooting. [Result] The optimum medium for inducing clustered shoots was determined to be MS medium appended with 1.5 mg/L 6-BA, 0. 01 mg/L NAA and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D; in addition, 60 mg/kg ABT was suitable for rooting, by which the percentage of rooted plantlets reached 76.6%. [Conclu-sion] This study simplified the procedures of tissue culture in Thesium chinense Turcz and enhanced the proliferation rate, providing basis for artificial cul-tivation and resource protection of Thesium chinense Turcz.

  18. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de Camerún

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz; Diana Marcela Arias Moreno; Zaida Zarely Ojeda Perez; Hernán Mauricio Romero Angulo

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de CamerúnTítulo en ingles: Diversity and genetic structure of oil palm accession (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.)  from CameroonTítulo corto: Diversidad genética de accesiones de palma de aceiteResumen: La palma de aceite Elaeis guineesis Jacq. posee gran importancia debido al aceite que se extrae de sus frutos, del cual se obtienen derivados refinados de gran valor comercial co...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain; Allou Désiré; Adon Benjamin; Konan Jean-Noël; Sékou Diabaté; Konan K. Eugène; Simon-Pierre A Nguetta

    2014-01-01

    To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli) prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the firs...

  20. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudradjat -; Nindyta Agustina Siagian

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial rand...

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Of these, seven genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats and 12 genes contain one or two introns. Comparative analysis with the reference chloroplast genome revealed 125 simple sequence repeat motifs and 34 variants, mostly located in the noncoding regions. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. frutescens reported here is a valuable genetic resource for Capsicum species. PMID:27213127

  2. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  3. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudradjat -

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was P: 0, 3.00, 6.00, and 12.00 g P plant-1 ;  and the second was K: 0, 9.00, 18.00 and 36.00 g K plant-1. The results of the study showed that phosphor did not influence the plant height, number of frond, number of chlorophyll, and stem diameter. Potassium fertilizer influenced the stem diameter at 24 weeks after planting (WAP. There were the interaction between P and K  on stem diameter variable at 16 and 20 WAP.Keywords :  Fertilizer, phosphor, potassium, Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.

  4. Saponins isolated from Allium chinense G. Don and antitumor-promoting activities of isoliquiritigenin and laxogenin from the same drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M; Ohmura, M; Kishi, N; Okada, Y; Shibata, S; Peng, J; Yao, S S; Nishino, H; Okuyama, T

    2000-05-01

    Investigation of the Chinese crude drug "Xiebai," the bulbs of Allium chinense G. Don (Liliaceae), led to the isolation of 2 saponins, xiebai-saponin I (laxogenin 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[alpha-arabinopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside) (1) and laxogenin 3-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and the aglycone, laxogenin (3), together with 2 chalcones, isoliquiritigenin (4) and isoliquiritigenin-4-O-glucoside (5), and beta-sitosterol glucoside (6). Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for their inhibitory effect on the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated 32Pi-incorporation into phospholipids of HeLa cells. In addition to this, laxogenin (3) was proven to have an antitumor-promoting activity in a two-stage lung carcinogenesis experiment. PMID:10823685

  5. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  6. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten van Zonneveld; Marleni Ramirez; Williams, David E; Michael Petz; Sven Meckelmann; Teresa Avila; Carlos Bejarano; Llermé Ríos; Karla Peña; Matthias Jäger; Dimary Libreros; Karen Amaya; Xavier Scheldeman

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions fo...

  7. Method for the flotation oil extraction of light filth from ground capsicums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1977-05-01

    The present official first action method for ground capsicums, 44.123, was adopted in 1945 and there have been great changes in processing and examination of spices since that time. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, followed by wet sieving and extraction of the light filth from 60% ethanol with flotation oil. The filter papers were clean and recoveries were good (95%) for 5 different lots of capsicums and annato spiked with insect fragments and rodent hairs. PMID:870482

  8. Heat-clearing And Detoxifying Effects of Eupatorium chinense L.%华泽兰清热解毒作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅萍; 徐江平; 黄芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究华泽兰清热解毒作用.方法 通过二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀、糖皮质激素诱导小鼠免疫功能低下、干酵母致大鼠发热等实验,研究华泽兰的清热解毒作用.结果 华泽兰可抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀,并随剂量的增加作用增强;华泽兰能提高糖皮质激素诱导的免疫功能低下小鼠的免疫功能,且华泽兰1 g·kg-1药效作用显著;华泽兰1.5 g·kg-1能对抗干酵母所致大鼠发热.结论 华泽兰具有清热解毒作用.%Objective To preliminary study the antipyretic and detoxifying effect of Eupatorium chinense L.Methods The antipyretic and detoxifying effects of Eupatorium chinense L.were demonstrated through experiments on auricle swelling induced by xylene in mice, immune insufficientcy induced by glucocorticoid in mice and fever induced by dry yeast in rats .Results Eupatorium chinense L.inhibited ear swelling and the effect enhanced with the dose; Eupatorium Chinese L.improved the immune function in immunosuppressed mice and reduced the fever in rats, especially for which at the dose of 1 g·kg-1 ; Eupatorium Chinese L.1.5 g·kg-1 relieved fever induced by dried yeast.Conclusion Eupatorium chinense L.presents antipyretic and detoxifying function.

  9. 杂交马褂木回交优株的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics of backcrossed superior plant in L. chinense × tulipifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓星; 房义福; 姜楠南; 王翠香; 康鹏

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate physiological basis of the excellent characteristics of backcrossed superior plant in L. Chinense Χ tulipifera under natural conditions, the photosynthetic indexes of backcrossed superior plant in 9-year-old L. Chinense Χ tulipifera and its parent plant were determinated. The results showed that a two-peak curve pattern was observed in the diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate for backcrossed superior plant of L. Chinense Χ tulipifera, L. Chinense Χ tulipifera and L. Chinens. The main factors affecting net photosynthetic rate were environmental CO2 concentration, photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature and stomata conductance. By comparing the net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, apparent light use efficiency and apparent CO2 use efficiency of three tree species, the resources utilization efficiency of backcrossed superior plant was higher than parent plant.%为研究杂交马褂木回交优株优异性状的生理基础,对自然条件下9年生杂交马褂木回交优株及亲本的光合特性指标进行测定.结果表明,杂交马褂木回交优株、杂交马褂木、马褂木的净光合速率呈“双峰”曲线,环境CO2浓度值、叶面光合有效辐射值、叶表面温度、气孔导度是影响净光合速率的主要因子.通过分析3个树种的净光合速率、瞬时水分利用效率、表观光能利用效率和表观CO2利用效率,表明回交优株的资源利用效率高于亲本.

  10. Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J S; Whipple, R E; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Volpe, A M; Pelkey, G E

    1997-01-01

    In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted. PMID:9022856

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  12. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  13. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  14. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Pa Pa Wai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp. collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum pepper plants carrying Bs₁, Bs₂ and Bs₃, and PI235047 (C. pubescens were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047.

  15. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  16. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  17. Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Theresa A.; Hamid Ashrafi; Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo; JiQiang Yao; Kevin Stoffel; Maria-Jose Truco; Alexander Kozik; Michelmore, Richard W; Allen Van Deynze

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterizat...

  18. 柴胡皂苷类化学成分的LC-MS分析%LC-MS Analysis of Saponins in Bupleurum Chinense DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 张立富; 范斌; 吕俊海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study investigate the saponins in Bupleurum Chinense DC. by LC-MS. Methods The sample was extracted with 60% ethanol. The structures were detected by LC-MS experiments. Results 23 saponins were identified from Bupleurum Chinense DC. Conclusion This method can be used for rapid and accurate identification of saponins in Bupleurum chinense DC.%目的 建立柴胡皂苷类成分的LC-MS分析方法,研究柴胡皂苷类的化学成分.方法 60%乙醇回流提取柴胡;运用LC-MSn联用技术得到各化合物的总离子流图和多级质谱图,从而对各色谱峰进行鉴定.结果 从柴胡提取物中鉴定出23个化合物.结论 HPLC-MSn法可用于柴胡中皂苷类成分的结构分析,为建立快速、准确的质量评价方法提供了参考.

  19. Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R

    2013-12-15

    Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. PMID:23993629

  20. Characterization of genes related to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) drought stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jazayeri, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) es la primera planta oleaginosa con la producción de más aceite con menos precio. El déficit hídrico reduce la producción de palma de aceite. Es necesario entender las respuestas de plantas al déficit hídrico para obtener plantas más tolerantes. Se usó RNA-Seq para diferenciar dos genotipos de palma de aceite en relación con las respuestas a estrés hídrico. Usando la tecnología de Illumina HiSeq2000 para obtener 1.27 billones de lecturas cortas de 101...

  1. FLUSHING PADA Amherstia nobilis Wall. DAN Brownea capitella Jacq. DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suraehah Tul Azhari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fenologi adalah telaah penampakan periodisitas pada tumbuhan dalam hubungannya dengan iklim, seperti waktu pembungaan dan flushing. Flushing yaitu pertumbuhan tunas/flush secara serempak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengamati pertumbuhan tunas daun dalam merespon intensitas cahaya dengan posisi tumbuh berbeda dan faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhinya. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan pengambilan purposive sampling, flush dibedakan posisi tumbuhnya yaitu terminal dan aksilar dalam kondisi terpapar dan ternaungi. Laju tumbuh Amherstia nobilis Wall. dan Brownea capitella Jacq. di daerah terpapar cahaya lebih cepat dibandingkan daerah ternaungi. Laju pertumbuhan diiringi dengan perubahan warna. Perubahan warna pada daun  A. nobilis berlangsung selama dua bulan lebih cepat dari B. capitella. Intensitas cahaya dan posisi tumbuh (terminal dan aksilar berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan kedua spesies.

  2. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  3. Stability of Tilo® tablets formulation obtained from dry extract of Justice pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Rodríguez-Chanfrau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb known popularly in Cuba as Tilo and used traditionally as sedative. The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material. The aim of the present study was to carry out chemical and biological stability studies to the formulation. A method of coumarin determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used and validated. The stability studies during different periods of time (24 months showed a stability of the product stored at 32 ± 2 °C, and protected of the light.

  4. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  5. Plant regeneration of transgenic China Rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) from organogenic callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji-ren; Liu Rong; Chen Shou-yi; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Different types of explants of China Rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) were placed on a Schenk and Hildebrandi (SH) medium containing L-proline and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacefic acid (2,4-D). Organogenesis was observed on callus induced from both whole leaf and petiole and the high frequency of organogenesis was observed on the whole leaf. Shoot regeneration was obtained via organogenesis. The effects of pH and concentrations of antibiotics on maintenance of organogenesis capacity were investigated in subsequent subcultures. The pH value was found to play a critical role in retaining organogenesis capacity. The binary vector pBI121,carrying the gus gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the npt Ⅱ gene mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was used for transformation of organogenic callus using 50 mg·L-1 geneficin for selection. Six regenerated lines showed GUS activity, of which five were verified for the presence of npt Ⅱ gene by PCR.

  6. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  7. Gamma irradiations of the seeds and pollen grains of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollen grains and seeds of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were irradiated with up to 1400 Gy of gamma rays from a 60Co source. Pollen viability tests and subsequent development of embryos from the irradiated seeds showed that a dosage of up to 50 Gy could be tolerated by both the pollen grains and the seeds. Higher doses caused a drastic drop in the germination of seeds, thus reducing the potential size of any population for further studies. Plants of high bunch production were identified in both irradiated and non-irradiated materials. The potential use of gamma irradiation to induce useful mutation in the characters contributing to yield in the oil palm is discussed. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  9. Molecular cloning and identification of a flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene from Lycium chinense, and its overexpression enhances drought stress in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, as plant secondary metabolites, are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. Drought resistance is attributed to flavonoids with respect to protective functions in the cell wall and membranes. The flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene which encodes flavanone 3-hydroxylase, is essential in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. Lycium chinense (L. chinense) is a deciduous woody perennial halophyte that grows under a large variety of environmental conditions and survives under extreme drought stress. A novel cDNA sequence coding a F3H gene in Lycium chinense (LcF3H, GenBank: KJ636468.1) was isolated. The open reading frame of LcF3H comprised 1101 bp encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 42 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.32. The deduced LcF3H protein showed high identities with other plant F3Hs, and the conserved motifs were found in LcF3H at similar positions like other F3Hs. The recombinant protein converted naringen into dihydrokaempferol in vitro. Since studies have shown that amongst flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) have direct free radical scavenging activity to maintain the normal physiological function of cells in vivo, these data support the possible relationship between the oxidative damage and the regulation of LcF3H gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. In order to better understand the biotechnological potential of LcF3H, gene overexpression was conducted in tobacco. The content of flavan-3-ols and the tolerance to drought stress were increased in LcF3H overexpressing tobacco. Analysis of transgenic tobacco lines also showed that antioxidant enzyme activities were increased meanwhile the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the content of H2O2 were reduced comparing to nontransformed tobacco plants. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate was less decreased in the transgenetic plants. These results suggest that LcF3H

  10. 畲药大发散的黄酮类化学成分研究%Study on the Flavonoids in She Medicine Eupatorium chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程聪梅; 毛菊华; 余乐

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the flavonoids in She medicine Eupatorium chinense. METHODS:Silica gel,ODS and Sep-hadex LH-20 column chromatography were conducted to isolate and purify the flavonoids in She medicine E. chinense,and com-pound structures were analyzed and identified based on the physicochemical properties and spectral data. RESULTS:From the ethyl acetate extract of E. chinense,10 flavonoids were isolated as tricin (1),quercetin(2),kaempferol(3),luteolin(4),luteo-lin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (5),4-methoxyctricin (6),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(7),kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside(8),kaempfer-ol-3-O-rutinoside(9)and rutin(10). CONCLUSIONS:Compound 1-10 are isolated from E. chinense for the first time. The study provides certain basis for the quality evaluation of E. chinense.%目的:研究畲药大发散中的黄酮类成分.方法:采用硅胶、ODS、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对畲药大发散中黄酮类成分进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定化合物结构.结果:从大发散的乙酸乙酯萃取部位中共分离得到10个黄酮类成分,分别鉴定为苜蓿素(1)、槲皮素(2)、山柰酚(3)、木犀草素(4)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(5)、4-甲氧基苜蓿素(6)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(7)、山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(8)、山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(9)和芦丁(10).结论:化合物1~10均为首次从畲药大发散中分离得到,本研究为大发散质量评价奠定了一定基础.

  11. The occurrence and control of pepper mild mottle virus(PMMoV)in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four-thousand-four-hundred and three seed inventories of Capsicum spp. obtained from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were tested for the presence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV). Approximately 32% of these inventories tested positive for PMMoV and the virus distribution was nearly un...

  12. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  13. Soil Manganese and Iron Released due to Calcium Salts:Bioavailability to Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI You-Bin; ZHOU Jing; ZHOU Dong-Mei; CHEN Huai-Man

    2004-01-01

    Releases of manganese and iron ions from an albic soil (Albic-Udic Luvisol), a yellow-red soil (Hap-Udic Ferrisol) and a yellow-brown soil (Arp-Udic Luvisol) induced by calcium salt addition and their bioavailability to pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in a pot experiment. Addition of Ca(NO3)2 decreased soil pH and increased both exchangeable and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Mn and Fe in soils. Meanwhile, total Mn accumulation in the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. on the salt-treated soils increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the control, suggesting that salt addition to soil induced Mn toxicity in Capsicum frutescens L. Although exchangeable and DTPA-extractable Fe increased also in the salt-treated soils, Fe uptake by the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased. The effect of added salts in soils on dry matter weight of pepper varied with the soil characteristics, showing different buffer capacities of the soils for salt toxicity in an order of yellow-brown soil > albic soil > yellow-red soil. Fe/Mn ratio in shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased with increasing salt addition for all the soils, which was ascribed to the antagonistic effect of Mn on Fe accumulation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in the tissue was a better indicator of the appearance of Mn toxicity symptoms than Mn concentration alone.

  14. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  15. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Using Illumina Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast (cp genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp. The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  16. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Media MS Dengan Kombinasi 2,4D Dan BAP

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Siti Shofiya

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang “Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS dengan Kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP” telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Tumbuhan Departemen Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Sumatera Utara dari bulan Januari 2013 sampai dengan bulan Desember 2013. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP terbaik pada induksi kalus dan pertumbuhan kultur eksplan bunga betina kelapa sawit...

  17. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi; Rajion, Mohamed A; Goh Y. Meng; Parisa Shokryazdan; Awis Qurni Sazili; Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm fronds (OPF), normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond pel...

  18. Peningkatan Kualitas Kayu Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Yang Di Kompregnasi Dengan Resin Getah Damar (Agathis dammara)

    OpenAIRE

    Widiarti, Leni

    2015-01-01

    The quality increasing of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by compregnated with dammar resin (Agathis dammara) has been performed. Sellulose as a natural polymer of the oil palm trunk interacted with dammar resin and the mechanical properties of the oil palm trunk was increased. OPT compregnate with dammar resin was performed in vacum compregnator with the duration time of two seconds. The temperature of compregnate was room temperature with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% concentrations o...

  19. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit ( Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Dengan Menggunakan Media Sekam Padi dan Frekuensi Penyiraman di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    HERMANTO : The Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by the application of Rice Husk And Frequency Of Watering In The Main Nursery. Supervised by FERRY AZRA T SITEPU and JONATAN GINTING. This research aims to study aimed to determine the growth of oil palm seedlings to rice husk and watering frequency on the main nursery. This research was conducted in Greenhouses in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatera, Medan with ± 25 m altitude above sea level in J...

  20. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  1. Qualidade nutricional da polpa de bocaiúva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Nutritional quality of the pulp of bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Lima Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de incentivar o consumo e o aproveitamento de alimentos oriundos do Cerrado Brasileiro, foram determinados os teores de umidade, lipídios totais, proteínas, carboidratos, cinzas, fibra, minerais e os principais carotenóides da polpa de bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. A porção comestível do fruto (polpa e amêndoa representou aproximadamente a metade do peso total do fruto. A polpa apresentou 52,99% de umidade, 8,14% de lipídios totais, 1,5% de proteínas, 22,08% de carboidratos, 1,51% de cinzas e 13,76% de fibra. O valor energético foi estimado em 167,67 kcal.100 g-1 de polpa úmida, o qual mostrou-se superior ao de outros frutos da região Centro-Oeste. Entre os minerais avaliados, a maior concentração foi a do potássio (766,37 ± 18,36 mg.100 g-1, seguida do cálcio (61,96 ± 2,30 mg.100 g-1 e do fósforo (36,70 mg.100 g-1. Relacionando-se os resultados de minerais às IDR de referências dos mesmos, a polpa de bocaiúva pode ser classificada como rica em cobre para crianças, como fonte de zinco e potássio para crianças e como fonte de cobre e potássio para adultos. A polpa mostrou-se rica em β-caroteno (49,0 ± 2,0 µg.g-1 de polpa integral, principal carotenóide identificado no fruto analisado, podendo contribuir com o enriquecimento da dieta regional em programas de suplementação alimentar, como uma fonte natural desse nutriente e dos minerais cobre, potássio e zinco.With the aim at stimulating the consumption of natural food from the Brazilian Cerrado (vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, the contens of moisture, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, ash, fiber, minerals, and main carotenoids were determinated in the bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. pulp. The edible portion of the fruit (pulp and kernel corresponded to 50% of the whole fruit. The pulp presented 52.99% of moisture, 8.14% of total lipids, 1.5% of protein, 22.08% of carbohydrates, 1.51% of ash, and 13.76% of fiber. The

  2. Quick Detection of Pollen Developmental Stages of Hamelia patens Jacq.%希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)花粉发育时期快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琳; 匡延凤; 廖景平

    2014-01-01

    茜草科希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)的花粉用DAPI(4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)直接染色不能观察到花粉核,本研究探索出适宜在DAPI染色前处理希茉莉花粉壁的水浴加热-氧化方法,使得希茉莉花粉核能在荧光显微镜下清晰地显示出来,从而快速检测花粉所处的发育阶段.结果表明:(1)单核花粉和二核花粉最适宜的水浴加热温度和时间分别为65℃、20~50 min和55℃、20~40 min; (2)花粉发育阶段与花朵、花药长度的对应关系为:花朵0.90~1.00cm、花药0.50 ~0 60 cm时对应花粉的四分体时期,花朵1.10~1.60 cm、花药0.60 ~0.85cm时对应单核花粉时期,花朵1.80 ~2.70cm(花冠裂片张开前)、花药0.91~1.01 cm时对应二核花粉时期.

  3. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth. O. Ktze (TFCC against doxorubicin- (DOX- induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress.

  4. Robust PLS Prediction Model for Saikosaponin A in Bupleurum chinense DC. Coupled with Granularity-Hybrid Calibration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated particle size effect on the measurement of saikosaponin A in Bupleurum chinense DC. by near infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy. Four types of granularity were prepared including powder samples passed through 40-mesh, 65-mesh, 80-mesh, and 100-mesh sieve. Effects of granularity on NIR spectra were investigated, which showed to be wavelength dependent. NIR intensity was proportional to particle size in the first combination-overtone and combination region. Local partial least squares model was constructed separately for every kind of samples, and data-preprocessing techniques were performed to optimize calibration model. The 65-mesh model exhibited the best prediction ability with root mean of square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.492 mg·g−1, correlation coefficient RP=0.9221, and relative predictive determinant (RPD = 2.58. Furthermore, a granularity-hybrid calibration model was developed by incorporating granularity variation. Granularity-hybrid model showed better performance than local model. The model performance with 65-mesh samples was still the most accurate with RMSEP = 0.481 mg·g−1, RP=0.9279, and RPD = 2.64. All the results presented the guidance for construction of a robust model coupled with granularity-hybrid calibration set.

  5. Potent production of capsaicinoids and capsinoids by Capsicum peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-11-20

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact fruits of a pungent cultivar, Peru, and a non-pungent cultivar, CH-19 Sweet. Labeled vanillylamine was incorporated into capsaicinoids in both cultivars. While labeled vanillyl alcohol was incorporated into capsinoids in both cultivars, the accumulation of intact capsaicinoids in Peru was suppressed by over 60% after administration of vanillyl alcohol. In Peru, labeled vanillin was converted to both vanillylamine and, in 5-fold excess, vanillyl alcohol. Moreover, labeled vanillin was converted exclusively to vanillyl alcohol in CH-19 Sweet. These data are consistent with the incorporation of labeled vanillin into capsaicinoids and capsinoids in both cultivars. We conclude that pungent cultivars are highly potent producers of vanillyl alcohol that is incorporated into capsinoids and that biosynthesis of capsinoids is catalyzed by capsaicin synthase. PMID:24147886

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  7. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  8. HERENCIA DE CAPSAICINOIDES EN CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez; Víctor A González-Hernández; Ana B. Cruz-Pérez; Mario Pérez-Grajales; María A. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Alfonso A. Gardea-Béjar; Miguel Á. Gómez-Lim

    2010-01-01

    Los capsaicinoides son alcaloides importantes en la salud humana, alimentaria y farmaceútica, y sólo son producidos por plantas del género Capsicum. En este estudio se analizó la herencia del contenido de los tres principales capsaicinoides causantes del picor (nordihidro-, dihidro- y capsaicina), en 25 materiales genéticos de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.), que incluyen a cinco poblaciones (Huatusco, Zongolica, Tacámbaro, Puebla y Perú) más sus 20 cruzas interpoblacionales posibl...

  9. ACTIVIDAD FITOTÓXICA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R & P)

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pérez-Grajales; Claudia Sánchez-Navarro; Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos; Juan Martínez- Solís

    2013-01-01

    La búsqueda de nuevos herbicidas de origen natural se ha realizado mediante los estudios de sustancias fitotóxicas debido a que no afectan el ambiente y son menos tóxicos que los sintéticos. En la literatura existen pocas evidencias de los efectos fitotóxicos de los capsaicinoides presentes en el género Capsicum , por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar in vitro el efecto fitotóxico de los extractos del fruto de chile manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R P) en la germinaci...

  10. 红花檵木叶黄酮类化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Constituents from Loropetalum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏晓; 樊建领; 张秋颖

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the flavonoid constituents of Loropetalum chinense. METHODS: The flavonoid constituents were isolated and purified from ethanol extract of L. Chinense by the column chromatography of D101 macroporous resin coupled with silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-ODS column chromatography. Their chemical structures of compound were elucidated by NMR, UV and ESI-MS spectral analysis. RESULTS: Five flavonoid constituents were isolated and identified as kaempferol (1), quercetin(2) ,myricetin(3), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamn-oside (4), isoquercetin (5). All of the flavonoid compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. CONCLUSION: The results provide the scientific basis for further exploitation of L. Chinense.%目的:研究红花檵木叶中的黄酮类化学成分.方法:采用D101大孔树脂分离富集红花檵木叶乙醇提取物中的黄酮类成分,应用硅胶柱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱和RP-ODS柱色谱分离化合物,并通过核磁共振光谱、紫外光谱和电喷雾质谱等谱学手段鉴定化合物结构.结果:从红花檵木叶乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了5个黄酮类化合物,分别为山柰酚、槲皮素、杨梅素、杨梅素-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷、异槲皮苷.所有黄酮类化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.结论:本试验结果可为红花檵木的进一步开发利用提供科学依据.

  11. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  12. PENGEMBANGAN AGRIBISNIS CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annuum L DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernoiz Antriyandarti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of major commodity of horticulture in Central Java Province is chili (Capsicum annuum L. As a central area for agribusiness of Chili, Magelang needs the development to stimulate investment growth potential by involving all regional agribusiness, government, farmers/ agribusiness and private groups to work together in an integrated. This study aims to (1 Determine the feasibility of chilli farm; (2 Knowing the comparative advantage of the chili farm; and (3 Formulate developing agribusiness of Chili. This research uses descriptive analytical method. On farm analysis, quantitative data are converted and tabulated in the same unit. To determine the feasibility of Chili farm used analysis of R/C ratio. The greater the value of R/C ratio was more viable farm. Determination of comparative advantage of Chili is analyzed by the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. PAM results show the individual and collective effects of price and factor policies. Furthermore, this method can analyze the comparative advantage of a commodity. The result showed that Agribusiness of Chili is profitable both the private and social, and there are no disadvantage caused by the activities of Chili agribusiness. Thus agribusiness of chili can be further developed. The nontradeable inputs of chili farming have been used efficiently and provide added value for farmers. Domestic demand of chili is more profitable supplied by domestic production rather than imports. Farmers receive chili prices lower than it should and not get product price protection. Farmers pay the nontradeable input lower than it should. As for the tradeable inputs, farmers pay higher than it should. It can be concluded that the chili agribusiness has not received adequate protection.

  13. Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C A; Crouch, D J; Yost, G S

    2001-05-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants. PMID:11372985

  14. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  15. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  16. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and described. Components of integrat

  17. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  18. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  19. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

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    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  1. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  2. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    KRAFT, KH; Brown, CH; Nabhan, GP; Luedeling, E.; De Jesús Luna Ruiz, J; D'Eeckenbrugge, GC; Hijmans, RJ; Gepts, P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum,...

  3. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Vivian-Smith, A.; Ljung, K.; Offringa, R.; Heuvelink, E.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also appli

  4. Auxin-induced Fruit Set in Capsicum annuum L. Requires Downstream Gibberellin Biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Offringa, R.; Heuvelink, E.

    2012-01-01

    A hierarchical scheme for the central role of the plant hormones auxin and gibberellins in fruit set and development has been established for the model plants Arabidopsis and tomato. In the fruit crop Capsicum annuum, the importance of auxin as an early signal in fruit set has also been recognized;

  5. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  6. Genetic variation for silvicultural traits in open-pollinated progenies of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the genetic variation for silvicultural traits in an open-pollinated progeny test of Astronium graveolens Jacq., established at Luiz Antônio Experimental Station (State of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was planted in a random block experimental design, containing 23 families, six replications and five plants per plot. The traits measured were diameter at breast height (DBH, total height and stem form. The assessments were taken at the age of 19 years. Significant differences were not detected by the analysis of variance, suggesting that the genetic variation was low, as well as the probability to raising genetic gains through selection among progenies. The coefficient of genetic variation was moderate for the traits height (8.2% and DBH (21.2% and low to stem form (4.0%. However, the average coefficient of heritability among progenies was low for all studied traits (ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, confirming the low probability of genetic improvement of this population by selection among progenies.

  7. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C, and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1. The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition.

  8. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees.

  9. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  10. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. based on RAPD analysis

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    Nualsri, C.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14 were chosen to analyse for genetic variation in 151 individuals representing 52 dura, 60 tenera and 39 pisifera. Two hundred and nine amplified fragments were obtained from 7 primers with an average of 29.85 RAPD markers per primer. A dendrogram showing genetic similarities among oil palm was constructed based on polymorphic bands using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed using the SPSS program, which revealed four major clusters: 1 dura, tenera and pisifera from Paorong Oil Palm Company, Oil Palm Research Center, dura and tenera from private plantation in Krabi, and dura from Thepa Research Station;2 dura and tenera from Thai Boonthong Company, pisifera and tenera from Thepa Research Station, dura, tenera and pisifera from Klong Hoi Khong Research Station; 3 and 4 dura and tenera from Univanit Company, respectively. In general, a similarity index showed relatively high levels of 0.6 or greater.

  11. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  12. Características morfogênicas e perfolhamento do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia irrigado Morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of irrigated Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando França da Cunha; Antônio Alves Soares; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Daniel Moreira Lambertucci; Franklin Vitor de Souza Abreu

    2007-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes turnos de rega e níveis de irrigação sobre as características morfogênicas e o perfilhamento de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Uma bancada experimental foi montada sob ambiente protegido, onde foram colocados recipientes cultivados com o capim. As irrigações foram realizadas com turnos de rega de 1, 4 e 7 dias, e lâminas de irrigação para restabelecer 50, 75 e 100% da disponibilidade total de água no solo. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi obtida...

  13. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

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    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  14. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Tunas Apikal Kelapa Sawit (ElaeisguineensisJacq.) Pada Media Ms Dengan Kombinasi BAP dan 2,4-D

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    Astuti, Novi

    2015-01-01

    The research about oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) apical bud in the MS medium by using combination 2,4-D and BAP has been performed in Tissue Culture Laboratory, Departemen of Biology, University of Sumatera Utara.The aim of this research was to determine the effect of concentration of Benzyl Amino Purin (BAP) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid on the growth of the apical bud oil palm in vitro culture. Completely Randomized Design Method (RAL) with 2 factors namely 2,4-D with fourlevels...

  15. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

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    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  16. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: comportamento ingestivo de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Brâncio Patrícia Amarante; Euclides Valéria Pacheco Batista; Nascimento Junior Domicio do; Fonseca Dilermando Miranda da; Almeida Roberto Giolo de; Macedo Manuel Cláudio Motta; Barbosa Rodrigo Amorim

    2003-01-01

    Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidas a pastejo rotativo foram avaliadas ao longo do ano quanto aos componentes do comportamento ingestivo (tamanho de bocados, tempo de pastejo e taxa de bocados). Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1) cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2) cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3) cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4) cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. Os valores do tamanho de bocados foram provavelmente superestimados, mas valores abaixo de 0,300 g MS/bocado foram observa...

  17. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  18. Vorkommen und Einfluss von Acyl-Thioestern auf das Fettsäuremuster der Vanillylamide in Capsicum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Plants of the genus Capsicum (e.g. bell pepper and chili pepper) are among the oldest cultivated plants. Their fruits are used as spice for over 8000 years, as archaeological findings on millstones and pottery show. Pungency, a quality criterion in chili, is caused by a group of vanillylamides, the capsaicinoids. They are a unique category of alkaloids restricted to the genus Capsicum. More than 30 capsaicinoids, differing only in the fatty acid structures, have been described. Capsaicinoi...

  19. 九龙山多脉青冈-鹅掌楸林演替过程种群生态位%The population niches during the succession of Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Liriodendron chinense forests in Jiulongshan Mountain, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华朝晖; 罗修宝; 商继东; 唐娟娟; 唐星; 程樟富; 郭联华

    2016-01-01

    浙江九龙山分布有珍稀濒危落叶树种为主要树种的亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林。为探明这些落叶树种在常绿落叶阔叶混交林进展演替过程中生态位变化规律,选择该地区多脉青冈—鹅掌楸林演替过程中4个不同阶段的代表性群落,进展演替过程中,在群落垂直空间上常绿阔叶树不断挤压落叶阔叶树的生存空间,该地区常绿阔叶林顶极群落对珍稀濒危落叶树种是致危生境,不利于生物多样性保护。%In the Jiulong shan Mountain of Zhejiang Province, in certain areas were rich in Liriodendron chinense and other rare and endangered deciduous broadleaf trees, form Cyclobalanopsis multinervis—L. chinense forests. To verify these deciduous broadleaf trees niche change law during evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf mixed community succession, four represent ative communities plots at different succession stages in C . multinervis—L . chinense forests were chos en to investigate, during progressive succession, evergreen broadleaf trees are squeezing L. chinense and other deciduous broadleaf trees living space continuously, It is suggested that, in the area, the evergreen broadleaf climax community is dangerous habitat to L. chinense and other deciduous broadleaf trees, is not in favor of biodiversity conservation.

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Limbah Kalapa sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinsensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Awal

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh pemberian Limbah Kelapa Sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pre Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Gedung Johor Kecamatan Medan Johor pada ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian berlangsung dari bulan November-Maret 2001. 950301088

  1. Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum

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    Mishra Manasi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and −10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and −43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating

  2. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

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    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the first breeding cycle were used as controls. The bunch production components, vascular wilt susceptibility and vertical growth rate were used as criterion of evaluation. The Abak × Deli, Ahoada × Deli and Uli × Deli materials were characterized at the young age by bunch productions higher than that of the LM 2 T × DA 10 D control. The bunch productions at the adult period of various Nigerian × Deli materials were lower than those of the two controls. Abak × Deli material was tolerant to the vascular wilt. Ayangba × Deli material had a slower vertical growth rate than those of the two controls. Seven parents were identified in the four populations for their good general combining ability for the precocity and/or vascular wilt tolerance or the slow vertical growth rate. Prospects for utilization of these parents for the improvement of bunch production at the young age, the reduction of the vertical growth and the diversification of sources of vascular wilt tolerance of populations used in the reciprocal recurrent selection scheme were discussed.

  4. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  6. VERMINOSE EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGENS DE Panicum maximum Jacq. NO PERÍODO CHUVOSO DO ANO

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    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the worm disease on goats and sheep kept on Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, in the rainy season of the year. The dry matter density (DM of different layers (0-15, 15-30 and above 30 cm of Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, and the forage contamination by gastrintestinal nematode infective larvae (L3 were quantified. Forty animals were submitted monthly to coproparasitological examinations (ECG and coproculture during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out in Barreiras-Bahia-Brazil, in a split-plot design, with 10 replications on pastures and 20 replications on animals, from October of 2003 to March of 2004, and samples were taken from December to February. The number of infective larvae per kg/DM did not change with the grass layer, with average of 22.2 L3/kg DM. On the forage, Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. L3 larvae were indentified, reflecting the coproculture results. Goats showed higher ECG counting (2602 than Sheep (865, demanding more sanitary care.

  7. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

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    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  8. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  9. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-01-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 lan...

  10. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O

    2010-10-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick's law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma and hue angle of fresh- and osmo-oven dried peppers were evaluated. Drying rates occurred predominantly in the falling rate. Moisture diffusivity varied from 8.071 × 10(-10)-1.048 × 10(-8), 7.710 × 10(-11)-1.018 × 10(-9), 9.807 × 10(-9)-1.746 × 10(-8) and 8.748 × 10(-10)-1.464 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for Bawa, Rodo, Shombo, and Tatashe, respectively. Ea for moisture diffusion during drying of peppers varied from 53.86 to 84.86 kJ/mol and was affected by cultivars and osmotic pretreatment concentration. Osmotic pretreatment and drying temperature had significant effect (p < 0.05) on a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values of dried peppers. PMID:23572676

  11. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE) "ROCOTO"

    OpenAIRE

    Misael Guevara; María Siles; Olga Bracamonte

    2014-01-01

    Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae). Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  12. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

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    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  13. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  14. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  15. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Woo Taek; Cho Hye-Sun; Lee Bong-Woo; Kim JungEun; Lee Seung-Won; Baek Kwang-Hyun; Kim Hyun-Jin; Choi Doil; Hur Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was desi...

  16. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  17. UJI PENAMBAHAN BERBAGAI DOSIS VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF CABAI MERAH BESAR Capsicum annuum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zohra Hasyim; Elis Tambaru; Andi Ilham Latunra

    2015-01-01

    This research entitled " Effect of Vermicompost on growth of Capsicum annuum Chilli Red Big L. " . Is aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost on the growth of vegetative big red chili . Planting medium used is consisted of soil and vermicompost . Vermicompost derived from the cultivation of earthworms Lumbricus rubellus . Large red chilli seeds purchased from the farm shop . Large red chilli seeds germinated in vermicompost mixed soil and covered with clear plastic . This study is an ex...

  18. Respon Pertumbuhan Tiga Varietas Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L. ) Pada Beberapa Tingkat Salinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Rini

    2013-01-01

    The research to observe growth responses of three varieties of chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) to salinity treatment was conducted at The Plant Physiology Laboratory of Faculty Mathematics and Science, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan. Experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomized Factorial Design of six treatments of salinity (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10000 ppm of NaCl) and three variety of chili peppers (Local, Genie and Bhaskara). The result showed that interaction betwe...

  19. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p pepper gas exerts destructive changes on rat nasal mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes. PMID:24627077

  20. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  1. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  2. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However

  3. Morfogênese e dinâmica do perfilhamento de Panicum maximum JACQ. cv. Tanzânia-I sob pastejo Morphogenesis and tillering dynamics of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-I under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Biasi Ferlin; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Beatriz Lempp; Manoel Carlos Gonçalves; Antonio Carlos Cubas

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de dois resíduos de forragem pós-pastejo quanto às características morfogênicas de folhas e perfilhos e estrutura do relvado de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-I até os 35 dias após a desfolha, em duas estações do ano, verão e outono. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com os resíduos de forragem na parcela principal, estação do ano nas subparcelas e dias após o pastejo nas sub-subparcelas, com três repetições. Os resíduos de forragem não influ...

  4. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) pastejado em diferentes alturas Nutritive value of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) grazed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano; Ulysses Cecato; Marcos Weber do Canto; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Sandra Galbeiro; Elias Nunes Martins; Rodrigo Távora Mira

    2004-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as concentrações de proteína bruta (PB), de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), de fósforo (P), de potássio (K), de cálcio (Ca) e de magnésio (Mg) e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) nas frações lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) manejada em quatro alturas de dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm). O método de pastejo foi o de lotação contínua, com taxa de lota...

  5. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo Forage losses in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) managed in different sward height under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses Cecato; Christian Roberto de Carvalho Castro; Marcos Weber do Canto; Maurício Peternelli; Josmar Almeida Júnior; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Clovenilson Claudio Perissato Cano

    2001-01-01

    RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 ) manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos) estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcent...

  6. [Use of kenaf fibre in the elaboration of specific substrates for Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Perona Zamora, Ma Aquilina; Pardo Núñez, José

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the viability of the kenaf fibre use, alone or combined with cereal straw, vine shoots and olive mill dried waste, in the elaboration of specific substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, second mushroom in importance cultivated in Spain, is described. Furthermore, three different methods of preparation of the substrate have been considered in order to obtain selectivity for the growth and later fruiting of Pleurotus sporophore. As for the production parameters, the best results have been provided by the substrates that combined kenaf with straw and with vine shoots, being unfavourable the substrates based in just kenaf or combined with olive mill dried waste. As for the treatment applied to the materials, the immersion in water alone and subsequent pasteurization and thermophilic conditioning, together with the semi-anaerobic fermentation, has been favoured in front of the immersion in water with fungicide and later pasteurization.

  7. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  8. Growth and Foliar Yield Responses of Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare Jacq) to Complementary Application of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers in a Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, N. U.; Ikeh, A. O.; K. K. Nkeme; Akpan, E. A.; Udoh, E. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Growth and foliar yield responses of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare Jacq) to complementary application of organic and inorganic fertilizers were studied in a Ultisol. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Place and Duration of Study: The University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm, located at Use Offot - Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and was conducted between March, 06 and June, 06 in both 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons. ...

  9. Model pendugaan cadangan karbon pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) umur 5 tahun di perkebunan kelapa sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat.

    OpenAIRE

    Silaban, Dedy Hamonangan

    2015-01-01

    Palm Oil Plant a CO2 absorber as well as other crops such as forest plants. Currentlythe center ofoil palm plantationslocatedin the province ofNorth Sumatra. This study aimedtoobtaincarbonestimationmodelsAllometricpalmplantationsinPT. PutriHijau, Langkatand to getpotentialcarbon contentof plantoil palm(Elaeis guineensisJacq.) Age5years. The researchcarried outin twostages, the first stage was datacollectioninthe field andthe secondstage wasbiomassandcarbonanalyzesof each ofthe laboratory. The...

  10. Advances in Genetic Resources and Molecular Breeding of Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒(Capsicum spp.)遗传资源与分子育种进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣; 陈学军; 缪南生; 万新建; 胡新龙

    2004-01-01

    综述了辣椒的起源(起源于美洲热带地区)、分类(有5个栽培种:Capsicum annuum、C.chinense、C.frutescens、C.baccatum、C.pubecens和若干野生种)、遗传演化背景、种间杂交障碍(单向不亲和性、种子败育、胞质雄性不育)、染色体倍性控制以及辣椒分子育种(分子连锁遗传图谱的构建、质量性状和数量性状的分子标记)研究进展等.

  11. Comparative study on the antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC.and Bupleurum marginatum Wall.ex DC%竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜士明; 杜婷; 王刚; 叶方; 孙荣进; 陈科力

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用的差异.方法:采用2,4-二硝基苯酚致热大鼠模型比较2种柴胡水煎液的解热作用;采用醋酸扭体试验及热板法比较2种柴胡水煎液及醇提液的镇痛作用.结果:竹叶柴胡和北柴胡的水煎液均具有明显的解热作用,两者解热作用没有显著性差异(P>0.05);醋酸扭体试验的结果表明竹叶柴胡和北柴胡的水煎液、醇提液均有镇痛作用,且两者差异没有显著性;热板法试验结果表明2种柴胡的水煎液有镇痛作用且无明显差异(P>0.05),但醇提液无明显镇痛作用.结论:竹叶柴胡与北柴胡解热镇痛作用相似.%OBJECTIVE To compare the antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. METHODS The antipyretic effects of Bupleurum decoction were observed by 2,4- dinitrophenol-induced rat pyrexia, and the analgesic effect was verified by the test of HAc-induced writhing response in mice and hot-plate. RESULTS The decoction of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. all showed significant antipyretic effects, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0. 05); Both the decoction and alcohol extract of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. possessed the analgesic effect in the test of HAc-induced writhing response; The decoction of Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. all showed the analgesic effect in the test of hot-plate and there were no significant differences (P>0. 05), but alcohol extracts of them had no significant analgesic effect. CONCLUSION There were similar antipyretic and analgesic effects between Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC.

  12. Tolerability of Capsaicinoids from Capsicum Extract in a Beadlet Form: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Deshpande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single center, open-label, dose-finding adaptive study was conducted in twelve healthy overweight female subjects. The study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the capsaicinoids (CAPs from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form compared to placebo in a healthy overweight population. The investigational product capsaicinoids (CAPs from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form (Capsimax® a proprietary encapsulated form of Capsicum extract in beadlet form supplemented at 2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg and 10 mg of CAPs. An ascending dose protocol evaluated a total dose of 10 mg daily given in five divided doses (2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg and 10 mg of CAPs. Each dose was given for a week. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Primary outcomes were tolerability assessments and reports of adverse events. Tolerability assessments were observed on skin color and any changes in skin, bowel movement, digestion, mouth or throat, hair color or changes in hair color, urination includes frequency and burning sensations, breathing, any changes in their health. Secondary outcomes were body weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (SBP/DBP, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical chemistry parameters including liver function tests, lung function tests and kidney function tests and complete blood count (CBC. No dose effective changes were observed. The escalating dose levels of CAPs in a beadlet form product found was tolerable and safe for weight management studies. Tolerability assessments and safety blood markers showed no significant changes from baseline. No significant serious adverse events were reported throughout the duration of the study. Further longer term studies are required to explore the tolerability of the product. This trial is registered with ISRCTN: #  ISRCTN10975080.

  13. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Zenia Michałojć

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO3)2, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred ...

  14. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  15. Oil flotation extraction of light filth from ground capsicums excluding paprika: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1978-07-01

    A collaborative study has been completed on an improved method for the isolation of light filth from ground capsicums other than paprika. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, wet-sieving, and extraction from cooled 60% ethanol with a mineral oil-heptane mixture. The collaborative tests by the proposed method showed an approximate 2-fold increase in recoveries of insect fragments and rodent hairs with acceptable coefficients of variation and clean filter papers. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.123. PMID:681260

  16. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  17. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo Forage losses in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 managed in different sward height under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcentagem de forragem senescente foi influenciada de forma quadrática pelos níveis de altura. Os resultados indicam que foram altos os níveis de acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem, em média, 38,9 kg/ha/dia de MS e 2179 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. Devido à possibilidade de se reduzirem a persistência da pastagem e a modificação da estrutura das plantas, recomenda-se não utilizar pastagens de capim-Tanzânia em alturas próximas ou iguais a 20 e 80 cm, sob lotações contínuas.The experiment was conducted to evaluate, the forage losses and litter accumulation, in a pasture of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cv. Tanzania managed in different sward height levels. The studied levels of sward heights (treatments were: 29.8, 32.0, 47.1, 51.5, 57.9, 62.7, 72.6 and 80.0 cm, in a completely randomized design and two replications. The litter accumulation rate, litter accumulation and forage losses were similar in all heights. The percentage of senescent forage in the plant canopy was influenced on a quadratic way by the sward height levels. The results show that the litter accumulation and forage losses were high, with average DM of 38.9 kg/ha.day and 2179 kg/ha of DM, respectively. Due to the possibility to reduce the pasture persistence and plant structure deteriorate, it is not recommended to utilize Tanzania grass pastures, in levels sward height near or equal of 20 and 80 cm, under continuous stocking rate.

  18. Características morfogênicas e perfolhamento do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia irrigado Morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of irrigated Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando França da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes turnos de rega e níveis de irrigação sobre as características morfogênicas e o perfilhamento de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Uma bancada experimental foi montada sob ambiente protegido, onde foram colocados recipientes cultivados com o capim. As irrigações foram realizadas com turnos de rega de 1, 4 e 7 dias, e lâminas de irrigação para restabelecer 50, 75 e 100% da disponibilidade total de água no solo. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi obtida por meio de contagem de perfilhos vivos após cada corte. As características morfogênicas foram estudadas por meio da taxa de aparecimento de folhas (TApF, taxa de alongamento de folhas (TAlF e colmos (TAlC, número de folhas emergentes (NFEm, expandidas (NFEx e vivas (NFV. O perfilhamento foi maior para maior nível de irrigação. O clima proporcionou maior efeito nas características morfogênicas que os tratamentos. Os fatores estudados não proporcionaram efeito expressivo na TAlC, NFEm, NFEx e NFV.The aim of this work was to study the effect of different irrigation interval and irrigation depth on morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of the Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania. The grass was cultivated in recipients in a greenhouse. The irrigations were performed with intervals of 1, 4 and 7 days, in order to reestablish soil water content to 50, 75 and 100% of the total available water in the soil. The tillering was obtained through counting of living tiller after each cut. The morphogenetic characteristics were studied through the leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf elongation rate (LER and stem elongation rate (SER, emerging leaf numbers (EmLN, expanded leaf numbers (ExLN and living leaf numbers (LLN. The tillering was larger for larger irrigation depth. The climate provided greater effect in the morphogenetic characteristics than the treatments. The studied factors were not significant for SER, EmLN, ExLN and LLN.

  19. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  20. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  1. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Vivian-Smith, A.; Voorrips, R.E.; Habets, M.E.J.; Xue, L.B.; Offringa, R.; Heuvelink, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these

  2. Extraction Process of Total Flavones in the roots of Clerodendrum chinense%重瓣臭茉莉根总黄酮提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬凡; 房志坚

    2013-01-01

    Using single factor test and orthogonal test, the optimal processes of extracting total flavonoids from Clerodendrum Chinense (Lour) Merr were established by the absorption of total flavonoids. The optimum conditions for extracting the total flavonoids assisted were as follow:extraction temperature 80℃, extraction time 90 min, 80%ethanol and ratio of solid to liquid 1∶25. The mass fraction of total flavonoids extracted was up to 2.68%. It was suggested that the optimum extraction process was simple, stable, efficient and feasible.%以总黄酮的提取率为考察目标,通过单因素及正交试验,对重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的提取工艺进行优化。结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:以25倍量80%乙醇,在80℃下回流提取90 min。重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的平均质量分数为2.68%。此优化工艺简单可行且稳定高效,可作为重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的优选提取工艺。

  3. Phenolic compositions and antioxidant attributes of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller harvested at various times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Jau-Tien; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shen, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chang, Ya-Ling; Shih, Chia-Huing; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2017-01-15

    Antioxidant components and properties (assayed by scavenging DPPH radicals, TEAC, reducing power, and inhibiting Cu(2+)-induced human LDL oxidation) of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller, namely ML01, ML02 and ML02-TY, harvested from January to April were studied. Their flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were also analyzed by HPLC. For each variety, the leaves and stems collected in higher temperature month had higher contents of total phenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin. Contents of these components in the samples collected in different months were in the order: April (22.3°C)>March (18.0°C)>January (15.6°C)>February (15.4°C). Antioxidant activities of the leaves and stems for all assays also showed similar trends. The samples from different varieties collected in the same month also possessed different phenolic compositions and contents and antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with flavonoid and phenolic contents. PMID:27542477

  4. 辣椒研究现状及发展策略%Situation of Research in Capsicum and its Developmental Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 龙应霞

    2009-01-01

    The capsicum has a very high nutritional value and health-care function. Its developmental potential is huge. In this article, the situation of research and exploitation in capsicum is generalized, and a brief introduction to the industrial present situation of Guizhou is given. Sim-ultaneously, the developmental strategy of capsicum industry in Guizhou has been discussed.%辣椒(Capsicum frutescens L.)具有很高的营养价值与保健功能,产品开发潜力巨大.本文综述了国内外对辣椒中功能成分的研究进展并简要介绍了贵州辣椒的产业现状,同时探讨了贵州的辣椒产业的发展策略.

  5. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site
    Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade; Maurício Cruz Mantoani; Jose Marcelo Domingues Torezan; Alba Lúcia Cavalheiro

    2012-01-01

    Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory mor...

  6. Effect of light intensity and growth substratum on plant development and production of secondary metabolites in Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult Efeito da intensidade de luz e substrato no crescimento da planta e produção de metabólitos secundários em Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Terezinha Silveira Paulilo; Flávia Simão Lapa; Miriam de Barcellos Falkenberg

    2010-01-01

    Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae), also referred to as Cordia verbenacea DC, has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study was driven to verify the behavior of the species in similar conditions to its natural environment, such as high light intensity and sandbank soil, and in conditions of low light intensity and fertilized substratum (dystroferric red nitosoil plus earthworm humus). The growth of the plant, the income of leaf crude extracts and, in th...

  7. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Blenzar A.; Boughdad A.; Bouchelta A.

    2005-01-01

    Biocide effects of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). In an attempt to elaborate a strategy of integrated pest management on vegetable crops in Morocco, insecticidal activities of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. fruits against eggs and adults of Bemisia tabaci infesting tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, were carried out u...

  8. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  9. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  10. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. PMID:26805742

  11. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  12. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses. PMID:19444610

  13. The Effect of Latitudes on the Structure of Secondary Xylem in Liriodendron chinense Sarg.%不同纬度对鹅掌楸次生木质部结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽娟; 林月惠; 吴树明

    2001-01-01

    对生长在北纬23至32度的鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense Sarg.)的次生木质部进行了比较解剖学研究。观察的特征有:导管分子的长度、直径、壁厚、梯状穿孔板横闩的数目;导管密度、纤维长度、直径、壁厚;射线的高度、宽度,单列射线的比例,射线的密度等。结果表明,随着纬度的增加,导管分子变短变细,壁变薄,梯状穿孔板的横闩数目减少;纤维也变短变细,壁变薄;木射线变矮变窄,单列射线的比例和射线密度增加。%This paper reports a comparative anatomical study of the secondary xylem of Liriodendron chinense Sarg. growing in lat 23°~32°N. A detailed description is given of the characteristics of the secondary xylem in L. chinense Sarg.,including vessel element and fibre lengths, diameters, wall ticknesses, the number of bars of perforation plate,the density of versels,the height, width and density of rays,and ratio of uniseriate rays.It is shown that with the increase of latitude, vessel elements and fibres become thinner and shorter, vessel and fibre walls become thinner in early wood and late wood,the number of bars of perforation plate decreases, rays become shorter and narrower, the ratio of uniseriate rays and the density of rays increase in secondary xylem.

  14. A Study on Germination of Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd%菜用土人参种子发芽特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 吴才君; 陈鸿海; 杨丕军

    2003-01-01

    用菜用土人参Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd种子进行发芽特性的研究,结果显示:菜用土人参种子的适宜浸种时间为3 h,适宜催芽温度为35 ℃.GA3和PEG处理均可明显促进菜用土人参种子发芽,适宜浓度分别为150 mg/L和25%.

  15. Estimación de la capacidad germinativa y el vigor de las semillas de diomate (astronium graveolens jacq.) sometidas a diferentes tratamientos y condiciones de almacenamiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Restrepo, Martha Ligia

    2011-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  16. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  17. Pengaruh Komposisi Media Tanam Serta Pemberian Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Kolam Aerob Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Pre-Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Firman K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of top soil as an oil palm sead plant media is very limited, so to contend it is used sub soil plant media which more available and easier to get it, but it has bad chemical characteristics. Application Oil Palm Empty Bunch (OPEB) compost or Palm Oil Liquid Waste) aerobic pond is expected to bost growth of Palm Seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).This research had been conducted At Rumah Kasa of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 until January 2014,, using factorial rando...

  18. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food)

    OpenAIRE

    Felzenszwalb, I.; da Costa Mazzei, J. L.; Feitosa, S.; Fortes Aiub, C. A.; de Almeida, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC), which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonel...

  19. Ataque e Caracterização de Danos de Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Silma Camilo; Márcia Santos; Marcus Soares; Evaldo Pires

    2014-01-01

    As pastagens cultivadas constituem a base da bovinocultura no Brasil sendo que, os gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum ocupam lugar de destaque. Brachiaria decumbens Stapf possui vantagens como grande adaptabilidade a solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, ao clima tropical, além de proporcionar alto rendimento de massa seca. Panicum maximum Jacq. é importante devido ao alto potencial de produção de massa seca por unidade de área, adaptabilidade, qualidade de forragem, facilidade de estabelecimento e ...

  20. Avaliação do potencial gastroprotetor e cicratizante da fração Diclorometano e da piplartina obtidos dos frutos Piper Tuberculatum Jacq. em ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Burci, Lígia Moura

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A Piper tuberculatum Jacq. pertence a família Piperaceae e é conhecida popularmente como pimenta d’ardo, jaborandi falso ou jamburana. Embora seja utilizada popularmente como estimulante digestivo e na redução dos gases intestinais, até o momento não havia nenhum estudo científico que comprovasse seu uso popular como gastroprotetor. Dessa forma, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a possível atividade protetora gástrica e esofágica da fração diclorometano obtida dos frutos de...

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4) gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    OpenAIRE

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin; Waleerath Thongin; Kanokon Petsean; Amornrat Phongdara; Alisa Nakkaew

    2013-01-01

    The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4) genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLE...

  2. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. PMID:26920284

  3. APPLICATION OF WATER HYACINTH VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.BLESSY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth has been developed into biofertilizer by vermicomposting through two methods. Samples have been collected from Kanakkan Yeri, Pondicherry, India. The earthworm chosen for this study was Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermicompost has been prepared using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, two methods were followed. In one method, water hyacinth waste was collected composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the other method, the cellulose present in water hyacinth was hydrolyzed enzymatically and composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. The vermicompost was collected from both the methods and used for analyzing enzymes, physicochemical parameters, level of macro and micronutrients. The efficacy of the prepared vermicompost has been studied on the vegetable plant Capsicum annum. Germination time, growth of the plant, number of the leaves has been studied. Finally, it has been compared with the plants which were grown using chemical fertilizers (NPK.

  4. Multiple microscopic approaches demonstrate linkage between chromoplast architecture and carotenoid composition in diverse Capsicum annuum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Collins, Aaron M; Richins, Richard D; Timlin, Jerilyn A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2013-12-01

    Increased accumulation of specific carotenoids in plastids through plant breeding or genetic engineering requires an understanding of the limitations that storage sites for these compounds may impose on that accumulation. Here, using Capsicum annuum L. fruit, we demonstrate directly the unique sub-organellar accumulation sites of specific carotenoids using live cell hyperspectral confocal Raman microscopy. Further, we show that chromoplasts from specific cultivars vary in shape and size, and these structural variations are associated with carotenoid compositional differences. Live-cell imaging utilizing laser scanning confocal (LSCM) and confocal Raman microscopy, as well as fixed tissue imaging by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), all demonstrated morphological differences with high concordance for the measurements across the multiple imaging modalities. These results reveal additional opportunities for genetic controls on fruit color and carotenoid-based phenotypes.

  5. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  6. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  7. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

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    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  8. Diallel Crossing Analyses of Resistance to Main Diseases in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xue-xiao; HOU Xi-lin; CHEN Wen-chao; LIU Rong-yun; ZHANG Zhu-qing; MA Yan-qing; DAI Xiong-ze; YANG Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen capsicum combinations were made with 6 parents by (1/2)n(n-1) diallel crossing. Genetic parameters in the resistance to TMV, CMV, phytophthora blight, bacterial spot of these combinations were studied by Hayman. The results indicated that the resistance to TMV, CMV and bacterial spot conformed genetically to the "additive-dominant" model but the resistance to phytophthora blight did not and significant epistatic dominance effect existed in it. F1 hybrid's resistance to CMV was controlled by homozygous dominant gene (s), but resistance to bacterial spot by heterozygous one (s). There were little, or no sum of dominant effect and genomes controlling the dominant expression of F1 hybrids in its phytophthora blight resistance.

  9. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

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    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  10. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Avaliação química e nutricional de amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

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    Priscila A. Hiane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein characterization and results of proximate composition and mineral analyses of fruit kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., are reported. The kernels presented high contents of oil (51.7%, protein (17.6% and fiber (15.8%. The seeds´ soluble proteins were isolated according to their solubility. The main separated proteins were globulins (53.5% and glutelins (40.0%. Moreover, the presence of low molecular mass proteases in these two fractions was shown by the SDS-PAGE method. The assays of protease-inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities showed that bocaiuva´s protein fractions were not resistant to trypsin or chymotrypsin activities and that both had low lectin content. The globulin in vitro digestibility assay resembled a casein standard. Neither globulin nor glutelin enzymatic hydrolyses increased significantly (p Caracterização de proteínas e análises da composição centesimal e teores de minerais foram realizados nas amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. As amêndoas apresentaram alto teor de lipídio (51,7%, proteína (17,6% e fibra (15,8%. Proteínas solúveis das sementes foram fracionadas de acordo com a sua solubilidade. As principais proteínas separadas foram as globulinas (53,5% e glutelinas (40,0%, e a presença de proteases de baixo peso molecular nessas duas frações foi revelada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Ensaios da atividade inibitória de proteases e da hemaglutinação mostraram que as frações protéicas da bocaiúva não foram resistentes à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina e apresentaram baixo teor de lectina. A digestibilidade in vitro da globulina foi semelhante à da caseína padrão. Hidrólises enzimáticas da globulina e glutelina não aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,05, com o aquecimento. Treonina e lisina são os aminoácidos mais limitantes, respectivamente, das duas principais frações de proteínas da amêndoa da bocaiúva, a

  11. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  12. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp y Enterobacter aglomerans en Pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en el Departamento de Cesar (Colombia / Inoculation with Azospirillum spp and Enterobacter aglomerans in Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in the Cesar

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    Diana María Cárdenas Caro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de los aislados SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 de Azospirillum spp. en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania en la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, del municipio Agustín Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. Se realizó inoculación por imbibición de las semillas, y en el momento de la siembra, en las macetas en condiciones de casa malla. Se utilizó inoculación simple de los aislados de Azospirillum sp y co-inoculación con una cepa fosfato solubilizadora de Enterobacter aglomerans (UV1, aislada de suelos cultivados con algodón en el departamento de Cesar. Lasvariables estudiadas en las plantas fueron: germinación, peso foliar fresco y seco, peso radical fresco y seco, fósforo y proteína foliar. Los resultados mostraron que la inoculación simple y combinada promovió la germinación de semillas del pasto guinea (P≤0,05 con respecto al tratamiento sin inoculación (testigo absoluto; y aunque no se presentaron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las demásvariables estudiadas, se encontraron aumentos de hasta 26,80% en proteína cruda, y 45,67% en materia seca foliar comparada con las plantas tratadas con 100% de fertilización nitrogenada. Se observó que el aislado de Azospirillum SRGM2 co-inoculado con Enterobacter aglomerans UV1 registró los mayores valores en el crecimiento vegetal del pasto guinea, por lo que se consideró como una rizobacteria promisoria para la biofertilización de esta gramínea utilizada en la alimentación bovina en la costa caribe colombiana. / Abstract. The effect of the isolates SRGM2, SRGM3 and SRGM of Azospirillum spp. on the growth and development of Guinea grass plants (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania was evaluated in the Experimental Station Motilonia of Corpoica, municipality Agustin Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. The inoculation was performed by imbibition of seeds and at planting time in pots under

  13. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Nutritive value of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 grazed at different heights

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    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, de fósforo (P, de potássio (K, de cálcio (Ca e de magnésio (Mg e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS nas frações lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas de dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo foi o de lotação contínua, com taxa de lotação variável, e os animais utilizados foram novilhos da raça Nelore, com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições, sendo realizadas cinco avaliações no período (112 dias. O aumento na altura do dossel promoveu redução nas concentrações de PB, Ca, P, Mg e DIVMS e elevação nas concentrações de FDN, FDA e K para as frações lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha. As lâminas foliares apresentaram melhor composição química que colmos + bainhas em todas as alturas de dossel e em todos os períodos de avaliação. A altura de dossel de 40 a 50 cm propiciou boa composição química e DIVMS.Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD contents were assessed in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fractions of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four sward heights (20, 40, 50 and 65 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking and variable stocking rate, and used Nelore steers with an average weight of 340 kg. The completely randomized experimental design was used with two replications, and five evaluations were performed during a period of 112 days. The CP, IVDMD, Ca, P and Mg contents decreased while NDF, ADF and K concentrations increased in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fraction in response to grazing

  14. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; García Marisol Cudris; Quintero Barrera Lorena

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  15. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae

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    PATRICIA M. AGUILERA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  16. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus. PMID:26959315

  17. 辣椒叶片总RNA快速提取%Rapid Extraction of Total RNA from Capsicum annuum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 肖仲久; 宋培勇; 周逊; 谢语

    2011-01-01

    Trizol extraction method was modified to extract total RNA from Capsicum annuum leaves. The result of agar gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet ray photometer and RT-PCR showed that the total RNA obtained by modified Trizol method was of high quality, and suitable for downstream applications.%采用改良的Trizol法对辣椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片的总RNA进行了提取,利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度法、RT-PCR进行RNA纯度、完整性检测.结果表明,Trizol法提取可获得较高质量的辣椒叶片总RNA,能满足后续的研究需要.

  18. Response of cotyledon explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv. kujawianka to chosen plant growth regulators in in vitro culture

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    Alicja Fraś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds originated directly on cotyledon explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv. Kujawianka, when Linsmaier and Skoog medium was enriched with BAP (2 mg/l. Kinetin (2 mg/l or kinetin with IAA (1 mg/l + 1 mg/l induced indirect shoot buds regeneration from callus. Rooting was obtained with explants cultivated on a medium containing NAA (0,5 mg/l. Occurrence of the early stages of differentiation was proved at the histological level.

  19. COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR FRUIT YIELD AND QUALITY IN MANZANO HOT PEPPER (Capsicum pubescens R & P) LANDRACES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez-Grajales; V. A. González-Hernández; A. Peña-Lomelí; J. Sahagún-Castellanos

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization as a method for plant breeding may create improved varieties with higher fruit yield and quality by taking advantage of the combining ability and heterosis between the crossed parents. Six landrace varieties (five collected in Mexico and one in Peru) of manzano hot pepper (Capsicum pubescens R P) and all their possible direct single crosses were evaluated, for heterosis and general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for fruit yield and quality. Plants were grown un...

  20. Genomic and biological characterization of chiltepin yellow mosaic virus, a new tymovirus infecting Capsicum annuum var. aviculare in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagán Muñoz, Jesús Israel; Betancourt Vásquez, Mónica; Miguel, Jacinto de; Piñero, Daniel; Fraile Pérez, Aurora; Garcia-Arenal Rodriguez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of viruses infecting wild plants is a key step towards understanding the ecology of plant viruses. In this work, the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of a new tymovirus species infecting chiltepin, the wild ancestor of Capsicum annuum pepper crops, in Mexico was determined, and its host range has been explored. The genome of 6,517 nucleotides has the three open reading frames described for tymoviruses, putatively encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a movement pr...

  1. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

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    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, physicochemical characteristics of the seed and seed oil of corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., a wild palm from Central and South America , were evaluated. Seeds obtained from mature fruits from “El Chaparro” town, Anzoategui state, Venezuela, harvested in March 2003, were decorticated; the endospermus was transformed to meal by means of grinding and then using a sieve (425 µm, and its oil was extracted with n-hexane. The whole seed showed an average weight of 9.67 ± 0.32 (PEl objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunas características físicas y químicas de la semilla y del aceite crudo extraído de la semilla del fruto de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., una palmera silvestre distribuida en Centroamérica y Sudamérica. A un lote se semillas obtenidas de frutos maduros procedentes de la población de “El Chaparro”, estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, cosechados en Marzo 2003, se le separó el pericarpio y el endospermo. El endospermo fue transformado en harina, mediante molienda y tamizado (apertura 425 μm, y a ésta se le extrajo el aceite con n-hexano. A la semilla entera se le determinó la masa promedio (9,67 ± 0,32; P<0,05 y la proporción de pericarpio (75,39 % y endospermo (24,61 %. A la harina del endospermo de le determinó la composición proximal, presentando niveles importantes de grasa (53,13 %, proteína (13,75 % y fibra cruda (25,82 %. El aceite crudo de corozo presentó baja acidez libre (0,40 %, expresada como ácido oleico y alta resistencia a la oxidación (no se detectó peróxidos y el índice de estabilidad OSI fue de 100 h; sus índices de yodo y saponificación fueron 29,87 cg I/g y 205 mg KOH/g, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos, determinada mediante cromatografía de gas, mostró mayor proporción de ácidos saturados (79,6 %, siendo el ácido láurico el de mayor concentración. La semilla de corozo es un recurso oleaginoso que puede ser útil

  2. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

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    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  3. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  4. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  5. 希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)花粉发育时期快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琳; 匡延凤; 廖景平

    2014-01-01

    茜草科希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)的花粉用DAPI(4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)直接染色不能观察到花粉核,本研究探索出适宜在DAPI染色前处理希茉莉花粉壁的水浴加热-氧化方法,使得希茉莉花粉核能在荧光显微镜下清晰地显示出来,从而快速检测花粉所处的发育阶段。结果表明:(1)单核花粉和二核花粉最适宜的水浴加热温度和时间分别为65℃、20~50 min和55℃、20~40 min;(2)花粉发育阶段与花朵、花药长度的对应关系为:花朵0.90~1.00 cm、花药0.50~0.60 cm时对应花粉的四分体时期,花朵1.10~1.60 cm、花药0.60~0.85 cm时对应单核花粉时期,花朵1.80~2.70 cm(花冠裂片张开前)、花药0.91~1.01 cm时对应二核花粉时期。

  6. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported. PMID:24893588

  7. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  8. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO4, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P2O2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  9. 月季花抗氧化活性成分研究%Studies of Chemical Constituents from Rosa chinensis Jacq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 符玲; 敬林林; 阿有梅; 贾陆

    2012-01-01

    In order to separate and purify the chemical constituents from Rosa chinensis Jacq. , which have DPPH· scavenging capacity, dried Rosa chinensis flowers were extracted three times with 95% ethanol under reflux. This extract was then fractionated by column chromatography over silica gel, MCI gel, Sephadex LH-20, etc. A new compound[ quercetin 3-O-(2",6"-digalloyl)-β-D-glucoside, 1] and nine known compounds (2—10) were isolated from Rosa chinensis Jacq. and identified using spectroscopic methods. Their antioxidant activity was assayed using DPPH · experiments. The results indicated that compounds 1,2,4 and 9 had good antioxidant activity.%以活性追踪为指导分离和纯化了月季花中具有1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(DPPH)自由基清除活性的成分.从月季花中分离得到了10个黄酮类化合物,采用光谱法对其结构进行了表征,并对它们的自由基清除活性进行了评价.结果表明,化合物1为新化合物,化合物1,2,4和9具有较强的清除DPPH自由基的活性.

  10. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando relacionar a reação de Capsicum spp. resistentes e suscetíveis à Oidiopsis haplophylli com o padrão dos respectivos complexos estomáticos, foram analisados em dois ensaios, 5 e 15 genótipos de Capsicum spp. em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Avaliou-se a abertura do ostíolo, a morfometria do estômato (comprimento, largura e área, o número de estômatos.mm-2 e a freqüência de estômatos (unidades de estômatos por células da epiderme nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial da epiderme foliar de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. A variável abertura ostiolar não explicou a reação dos genótipos ao oídio, nem na face adaxial (R²=0,16 nem na abaxial (R²=0,13. Entretanto, o número de estômatos.mm-2 explicou a reação ao oídio em 84 % (face adaxial ou 74 % (face abaxial. Para a freqüência de estômatos, o modelo ajustou-se melhor na face adaxial (R² = 0,76, do que na face abaxial (R²=0,48. Maiores números e freqüências de estômatos em ambas as faces foliares ocorreram em pimentão 'Magali' (altamente suscetível, com valores significativamente maiores do que em 'HV-12' (altamente resistente. Sugere-se que a suscetibilidade de genótipos de Capsicum a O. haplophylli está parcialmente relacionada a mecanismos de defesa estruturais pré-formados, como o número e freqüência de estômatos, os quais se relacionam com o número de sítios de infecção. Por outro lado, para alguns genótipos, esta relação não foi significativa, indicando que outros mecanismos de resistência também estejam envolvidos.This work reports the reaction of Capsicum genotypes to the powdery mildew pathogen with variables of the stomatal complex, from samples of five to 15 Capsicum genotypes in a complete randomized experiments. Ostiolum size, stomatal morphometry (length, width and surface area, the number of stomata.mm-2, and the frequency of stomata (stomatal units per unit of epidermal cells were evaluated on both leaf

  11. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos Efeitos citotóxicos in vitro de extratos e frações de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a linhagens celulares tumorais humanos In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, against human tumor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.A atividade citotóxica de extratos frações e subfrações obtidas das folhas e cascas de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, foram preliminarmente avaliados pelo método MTT frente a linhagens celulares tumorais CSC-1595 e Colo 205. Os resultados mostraram que a subfração diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5, obtidos a partir da fração acetato de etila do extrato em éter de petróleo das folhas, como sendo a que apresenta substâncias bioativas com forte atividade citotóxica, taxa de viabilidade de 3% e de 15,3% na concentração de 30 µg/mL em linhagens de células tumorais humanas Colo 205 e CSC-1595, respectivamente.To the extracts, fractions and subfractions obtained from leaves, flowers and bark of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, its preliminary cytotoxic activity against to the cellular lines CSC-1595 and Colo 205 were evaluated, following the MTT method. The results showed that dichloromethane-methanol (9.5:0.5 subfraction obtained of ethyl acetate part from petroleum extract of leaves, like to display the bioactives substances with a strong cytotoxic activity, showing viability percentage of 3% and 15,3% to the concentration 30 µg/mL in human tumor cellular

  12. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  13. 红花檵木夏季扦插育苗技术研究%Cutting Seedlings Technology of Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润生

    2012-01-01

    于2011年夏季进行红花檵木不同基质(林地表土+0.5%钙镁磷肥、火烧土、细潮沙)、不同生根剂(ABT1号生根粉、NAA(萘乙酸)20%粉剂、清水对照处理)的扦插对比试验。结果表明:林地表土+0.5%钙镁磷肥和火烧土的扦插生根率均较高,分别达92.7%和93.3%,扦插的生根率、抽梢长度、≥5 cmⅠ级侧根数显著高于细潮沙;ABT1号生根粉和NAA(萘乙酸)20%粉剂处理插穗的扦插生根率均较高,分别达93.7%和93.0%,生根率、抽梢长度、≥5 cmⅠ级侧根数比清水处理均有显著提高。%The contrast test of cutting experimental of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum with different matrix(forest land surface soil + 0.5% Ca,Mg,P fertilizer,fired-soil and fine sand) and different rooting agent [ABT1 number rooting power,20% powder of NAA(naphthalene acid),control processing with clear water] was made in the summer of 2011.Results showed that the cutting rooting rate of forest land surface soil + 0.5% Ca,Mg,P fertilizer and fired-soil were 92.7% and 93.3%,respectively,significantly higher than the fine sand,and as well as quartile length and levelⅠlateral root number that ≥5 cm;The cutting rooting rate of ABT1 number rooting power and 20% powder of NAA(naphthalene acid) processing was 93.7% and 93.0%,respectively,significantly higher than control processing with clear water,and also the quartile length and levelⅠlateral root number that ≥5 cm were higher than control processing with clear water.

  14. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  15. NÍVEIS DE CALAGEM E FONTES DE FÓSFORO NA PRODUÇÃO DO CAPIM TANZÂNIA (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia) EFFECTS OF LIMING LEVELS AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCES ON TANZANIA GRASS YIELDS (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Augusto Fonseca Magalhães; Rossana Serrato Mendonça Silva; Rogério de Araújo Almeida; Jorge Luiz do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    A deficiência de fósforo nos solos brasileiros, aliada à acidez natural dos solos de cerrado, contribuem para os baixos índices produtivos da pecuária nacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da calagem e de diferentes fontes e dosagens de fósforo na produção de matéria seca do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia). O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos, G1 e G2. No grupo G1 avaliar...

  16. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1) to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello; Carlos Guilherme Silveira Pedreira

    2004-01-01

    Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha). Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebro...

  17. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1) manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1), at different heights in grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Marcos Weber do Canto; Ulysses Cecato; Fabíola Cristiane de Almeida Rêgo; Sandra Galbeiro; Josmar Almeida Junior

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm) do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1) (Poaceae). Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT) aumentou com o avan...

  18. Forage accumulation and tillering in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) pasture after deferment Acúmulo de forragem e perfilhamento em capim Tanzânia, Panicum maximum Jacq., diferido após pastejo em diferentes alturas

    OpenAIRE

    André Ricardo Hoeschl; Christian Roberto de Carvalho Castro; Ulysses Cecato; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Marcos Weber do Canto; Sandra Galbeiro; Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian; Rodrigo Soria Martos Peres; Heden Luís Marques Moreira

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of deferment on dry matter accumulation and tillering, in a Tanzania grass pasture, (Panicum maximum Jacq. c.v. Tanzania-1) (Poaceae), maintained at different sward height, under grazing, in the northwest region of Paraná state - Brazil, during the period of December 19th, 1998 to May 13th, 1999. The treatments (sward height) were: 20, 40, 60 and 80,0cm. After deferment, the parameters were evaluated for the period from May 14th to July 2...

  19. GCMS Analysis and Anti-microbial Activity of Essential Oil of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. from Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert Region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. has been done for the first time from Trilokinath (3020m of Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert region of North Indian higher altitude Himalayas in the month of July, 2007. Essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation from the aerial parts of the plants collected from the wild sources. The extraction yield for the essential oil of A. minor Jacq. ex Bess. was 0.40%. The oil was analyzed by GCMS; the components of the essential oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The essential oil analysis led to the identification of 18 out of 22 constituents representing 65.37% of the composition of oil. The major constituents of the oil were: 1, 8- cineole (22.30%, camphor (12.64%, davanone (12.33%, ascaridole (11.11% and á-phellandrene (5.23%. The presence of artedouglasia oxide-C in A. minor has not been reported earlier in the same species and therefore acts as a new chemotype from this study area. The present study describes the phytochemical profile and anti-microbial activity of essential oil of A. minor. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains. These results permitted the conclusion to be made that, it is the first report of the GCMS analysis and anti-microbial activity on a new chemotype of A. minor Jacq

  20. 干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响%Drought Effects on Growth and Physiological Traits of Loropetalum chinense Var·rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 周兰英

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究土壤干旱胁迫对红花檵木生长及生理特性的影响。【方法】采用盆栽控水法,设置4个水分处理,测定在各水分处理下红花檵木的生长和生理指标,分析其差异。【结果】随胁迫程度的加深和时间的延长旱害表现越严重,营养生长和生殖生长受抑,RWC 下降,相对电导率值和 MDA 含量增加,Pro、SS、SP 不断积累,SOD、POD、CAT 活性总体上升。【结论】红花檵木对干旱胁迫较为敏感,轻度胁迫即可引起各项生理指标显著变化,但植株表观形态变化不明显;随胁迫程度的加深,各项指标变幅加剧,形态变化明显。红花檵木具有一定的抗旱性,能在中度干旱胁迫下继续存活,并能忍受连续60d 不供水的重度干旱胁迫。%Objective]The aim of the study was to study effects of soil drought on growth and physiological traits of L.chinense .[Method]Tn this study,there were four different water treat-ments.The growth and physiological indicators were measured and differences among treatments were analyzed.[Results]The damage magnitude was increased with increasing drought stress and time.RWC,nutrition and reproduction growth and was inhibited.However,relative conductivi-ty,MDA,SOD,POD and CAT were increased.Pro,SS and SP were accumulated.[Conclusion]L.chinense was sensitive to drought stress.Slight drooght treatments can cause significant chan-ges in various physiological indexes but the apparent features were not clear.The physiological and morphological indexes were affected substantially with increasing drought stress.Overall,L. chinense had strong resistance to drought.It could survive in moderate drought stress and endure severe drought stress that without water supplying for 60 days.

  1. GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil from Bupleurum chinense%烟台柴胡挥发油的GC-MS分析及抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽坤; 陈海霞; 李兵兵; 孙佳欣; 张伶俐

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究烟台柴胡地上部分的挥发油成分及其抑菌活性.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取烟台柴胡地上部分挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,分析、鉴定挥发油的化学成分.采用滤纸片固相扩散法进行抗菌活性试验并采用平板连续稀释法测定其最小抑菌浓度(MIC).结果:首次提取了烟台柴胡地上部分挥发油,成功鉴定出30种化合物,并对其抑菌作用进行了研究,发现其具有广谱抗菌性.结论:烟台柴胡地上部分挥发油主要成分为萜类化合物和低分子脂肪烃类化合物,其对供试菌的抑菌强度由大到小为金黄葡萄球菌>桔青霉>大肠埃希菌>白色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>黑曲霉>黄曲霉.%Objective; In order to make clear the components of the essential oil from the aerial part of Bupleurum chinense DC. F. Vanheurckii ( Muell. -Arg. ) Shan et Y. Li and the antimicrobial activities. Method; Distillation in water vapor was applied to extract the essentialoil from B. Chinense and meanwhile GO-MS was used to analyze the components of this plant. Its antimicrobial activities were investigated by plate diffuse and the minimuminhibitory concentration ( MIC) was investigated by plate spread. Result; The essential oil was extracted successfully and 30 compounds were identified. Meanwhile the antimicrobial activities were tested and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was found. Conclusion; Main components of the essential oil from B. Chinense areterpenes and low molecular aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. And the antimicrobial intensity to the tested strains is: Staphylococus aureus > Penicillium citrinum > Escherichia coil > Staphylococcus albus > Bacillus subtilis > Aspergillus niger > Aspergillus flavus.

  2. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

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    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  3. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO, TOXICOLÓGICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO DAS FOLHAS DE Costus spicatus Jacq.

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    Antônio Paulo Ribeiro Bitencourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Costus spicatus Jacq. (cana-do-brejo, espécie pertencente à família Zingiberaceae, é utilizada na medicina popular, principalmente na região amazônica como depurativa e diurética, aliviando infecções urinárias e auxiliando na eliminação de pedras renais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o estudo fitoquímico em busca das principais classes de metabólitos secundários, atividade microbiológica e citotóxica frente a Artemia salina do extrato bruto etanóico das folhas de Costus spicatus. O teste fitoquímico foi realizado por métodos químicos, visando determinar os seguintes metabólitos: alcalóides, fenóis e taninos, flavonóides, antraquinonas, saponinas, triterpenos, açucares redutores, polissacarídeos, ácidos orgânicos e esteróides. Quanto ao bioensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado o teste com Artemia salina, onde se considerou a morte ou vida dos metanáuplios. O teste microbiológico foi utilizado a prática de difusão em disco com linhagens bacterianas padronizadas em concentrações de 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL e 100μg/mL do extrato bruto etanólico. Nessa perspectiva, foi possível observar a presença de alcaloides, e também, fenóis e taninos. O extrato bruto apresentou alto grau de toxicidade nas concentrações A. salina. Para avaliar a presença da atividade antimicrobiana foram medidos os halos de inibição do extrato, verificando que após 24h de incubação não houve formação significativa dos halos, onde foi possível determinar que não há efeito inibidor do extrato frente às linhagens bacterianas e nas concentrações utilizadas. Palavras-chave: Costus spicatus, screening fitoquímico, bioensaio de toxicidade, Artemia salina, ensaio microbiológico. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p75-79

  4. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  5. The effect of oleoresin capsicum "pepper" spray inhalation on respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Theodore C; Vilke, Gary M; Clausen, Jack; Clark, Richard F; Schmidt, Paul; Snowden, Thomas; Neuman, Tom

    2002-03-01

    We performed a randomized, cross-over controlled trial to assess the effect of Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray inhalation on respiratory function by itself and combined with restraint. Thirty-five subjects were exposed to OC or placebo spray, followed by 10 min of sitting or prone maximal restraint position (PMRP). Spirometry, oximetry, and end-tidal CO2 levels were collected at baseline and throughout the 10 min. Data were compared between groups (ANOVA) and with predefined normal values. In the sitting position, OC did not result in any significant changes in mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (%predFVC), percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%predFEV1), oxygen, or CO2 levels. In PMRP, mean %predFVC and %predFEV1 fell 14.4 and 16.5% for placebo and 16.2 and 19.1% for OC, but were not significantly different by exposure. There was no evidence of hypoxemia or hypercapnia in either groups. OC exposure did not result in abnormal spirometry, hypoxemia, or hypoventilation when compared to placebo in either sitting or PMRP. PMID:11908598

  6. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

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    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, A. P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 {mu}m were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T{sub M}-T{sub STOP} method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  8. SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE Capsicum sp EN EL CONTEXTO URBANO

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    María de los A. Pino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La selección participativa de variedades da opciones a los agricultores en condiciones ambientales específicas, promueve los enfoques participativos para sus pruebas, así como permite escoger y difundir la variedad preferida. Con ese objetivo se realizó una feria de variedades, donde se aplicó la metodología de selección participativa en especies del género Capsicum sp, presentándose 14 variedades entre picantes y dulces, de las cuales los agricultores podían seleccionar seis para probar en sus condiciones específicas, teniendo en cuenta sus criterios de selección. Los resultados mostraron el mayor interés por cuatro variedades de pimiento y una de ají, predominando como criterios el número de frutos/planta, la altura de las plantas, el vigor y su aceptación en el mercado; se observó la diferencia entre los criterios de selección de los agricultores de Ciudad de La Habana y provincia de La Habana.

  9. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  10. Protective Effect of Capsicum Frutescens on Contractile Reactivity of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    F. Roghani-Dehkordi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Considering the higher incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes mellitus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral one-month administration of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens on the contractile reactivity of isolated aorta in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods : For this purpose, male Wistar rats(n=32 were randomly divided into control, pepper-treated control, diabetic, and pepper-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60 mg/Kg. Pepper-treated groups received pepper mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1/15. After one month, contractile reactivity of aortic rings to KCl and noreadrenaline was determined using isolated tissue setup. Results : Serum glucose level showed a significant increase in diabetic group at 2nd and 4th weeks (P<0.001, while this increase was less marked in pepper-treated diabetic group at the 2nd week (P<0.05. In addition, the latter group showed a lower contraction to KCl (P<0.05 and noreadrenaline (P<0.05 as compared to diabetic group. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between control and pepper-treated control groups regarding contractile reactivity. Conclusion : It can be concluded that oral administration of pepper for one month could attenuate the contractile responsiveness of the vascular system and may prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats.

  11. Pathway for Phloem-Dependent Movement of Pepper Mottle Potyvirus in the Stem of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianifahanana, M; Lovins, K; Dute, R; Sikora, E; Murphy, J F

    1997-09-01

    ABSTRACT Phloem-dependent movement of pepper mottle potyvirus (PepMoV) through Capsicum annuum occurs in a defined pattern through the stem and into uninoculated leaves. The route of movement of PepMoV through the stem of C. annuum 'Early Calwonder' was tracked using immunotissue blot analysis and immunomicroscopy. Virus was shown to move from the inoculated leaf down the stem toward the roots via the external phloem. At some location between the cotyledonary node and the roots, PepMoV entered the internal phloem through which it rapidly spread upward the length of the stem to the young tissues. Translocation of PepMoV through the stem occurred in an asymmetric fashion, i.e., virus remained on the side of the stem to which the inoculated leaf was attached as it translocated the length of the stem. Spread and accumulation of PepMoV into uninoculated leaves appeared to occur in a source-to-sink pattern similar to that described for the flow of photoassimilates and similar to other virus and viroid-host systems. PMID:18945059

  12. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  13. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. PMID:27416068

  14. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits

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    Tossou Jacques Dougnon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to evaluate zootechnic parameters and blood sugar in rabbits submitted to diets containing different levels of pepper (Capsicum frutescens. Materials and Methods: To this end, 30 rabbits weighing on average 1252±35 g at the beginning of the experiment were subjected to five rations with three repetitions for 56 days: The food R0 (or control which is floury provender contains 0% of C. frutescens; R5, R10, R15, and R20 provender containing, respectively, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of C. frutescens fruits’ powder. Rabbits consumed on average from 75.47 to 80.97 g dry matter. Results: Digestibility ranged from 52.39% to 61.01%. The average daily gain and feed consumption index were similar for all diets. Blood glucose was amended by the various servings is 0.98 g/L and 0.88 g/L, respectively, for doses. Conclusion: It appears from this study that rabbits consumed well diets containing C. frutescens. However, C. frutescens’ effect on the growth performances of rabbits is not noticeable. Furthers experiments will be useful to evaluate C. frutescens’ mechanism of action on blood sugar.

  16. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  17. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

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    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  18. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens

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    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water containing 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 g L-1 NaCl. Results: Results showed that different salinity stress levels had significant effect on germination percentage and germination time. In pot experiment, increasing NaCl concentration, for all cv, induced a significant decrease on plant height, root length, leaves number, leaf area and chlorophyll amount. The fresh and dry weights are also affected. In addition, salinity increased Na+ and Cl– levels but decreased K+ level in roots and shoots. Conclusions: Awlad Haffouz cv had the highest K+/Na+ ratio compared to cv Korba and Tebourba and it has showed the best response under salt stress during germination and growth stage which lets it to be the most tolerant cv.

  19. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  20. An improved plant regeneration and Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, B; Chakraborty, S

    2012-10-01

    Capsicum annuum (red pepper) is an important spice cum vegetable crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Here, we report an effective and reproducible auxin free regeneration method for six different red pepper cultivars (ACA-10, Kashi Anmol, LCA-235, PBC-535, Pusa Jwala and Supper) using hypocotyl explants and an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol. The explants (hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves and leaf discs) collected from axenic seedlings of six red pepper cultivars were cultured on either hormone free MS medium or MS medium supplemented with BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Inclusion of IAA in the regeneration medium resulted in callus formation at the cut ends of explants, formation of rosette leaves and ill defined shoot buds. Regeneration of shoot buds could be achieved from hypocotyls grown in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP unlike other explants which failed to respond. Incorporation of GA3 in shoot elongation medium at 0.5 mg/l concentration enhanced the elongation in two cultivars, LCA-235 and Supper, while other cultivars showed no significant response. Chilli cultivar, Pusa Jwala was transformed with βC1 ORF of satellite DNA β molecule associated with Chilli leaf curl Joydebpur virus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene integration in putative transformants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.

  1. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

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    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  2. Rapd Analysis of the Seven Cultivated Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant MR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD is a novel procedure for the identification of polymorphism in plants based on PCR. It does not require prior knowledge of a DNA sequence. RAPD markers are based on the amplification of unknown DNA sequences using single, short, random oligonucleotide primers. Many of the technical limitations of RFLPs have been overcome by RAPD. In the present study seven varieties of C. annuum L. were analysed for RAPD polymorphism using 5 random primers. The study shows that the varieties show remarkable genetic variation. RAPD primers showed different DNA fingerprints for different varieties of Capsicum L. studied. Variation was observed at varietal level in C. annuum L. with respect to the morphological traits, phytoconstituents estimated ( capsaicin, sugar and vitamin C and karyotype analysis also. Thus all the seven can be distinguished at varietal level. Therefore they can be used as a suitable source material for future breeding, genetic and other experiments. The use of other molecular markers like SSRs, AFLP, etc. would provide more precise estimates of genetic variability in the varieties.

  3. Combining ability for yield and fruit quality in the pepper Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, N F F; do Rêgo, E R; Nascimento, M F; Bruckner, C H; Finger, F L; do Rêgo, M M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA, respectively) of 15 characteristics and to evaluate the most promising crosses and the reciprocal effect between the hybrids of six parents of the Capsicum annuum species. Six parents, belonging to the Horticultural Germplasm Bank of Centro de Ciências Agrárias of Universidade Federal da Paraíba, were crossed in complete diallel manner. The 30 hybrids generated and the parents were then analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The data were submitted to analysis of variance at 1% probability, and the means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test at 1% probability. The diallel analysis was performed according to the Griffing method, model I and fixed model. Both additive and non-additive effects influenced the hybrids' performance, as indicated by the GCA/SCA ratio. The non-additive effects, epistasis and/or dominance, played a more important role than the additive effects in pedicel length, pericarp thickness, fresh matter, dry matter content, seed yield per fruit, fruit yield per plant, days to fructification, and total soluble solids. The GCA effects were more important than the SCA effects in the fruit weight, fruit length and diameter, placenta length, yield, vitamin C, and titratable acidity characteristics. The results found here clearly show that ornamental pepper varieties can be developed through hybridization in breeding programs with C. annuum. PMID:24841656

  4. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  5. Efecto del Color de Trampa en la Captura de Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae) en Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) Effect of Trap Color on Catches of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: thripidae) in Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S; Francisco Varela U; Carlos Quiroz E.; Fernando Graña S

    2006-01-01

    Se realizaron experimentos para determinar la preferencia de color de trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) en cultivos de pimiento (Capsicum annum L.), en las localidades de Cerrillos de Tamaya (30° lat. S.; 71°16’ long. O) y Pan de Azúcar (29°55’ lat. S; 71°14’ long, O) de la IV Región de Chile. En diseño de bloques completos al azar, se compararon trampas de pegamento azul, blanco, blanco-azul y amarillo.Los resultados mostraron que F. occidentalis fue la especie predominante en el c...

  6. Presencia de Diferentes Virus de Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) en Especies de Malezas Asociadas al Cultivo Presence of Different Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Viruses on Associated Weed Species

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ormeño N.; Paulina Sepúlveda R

    2005-01-01

    En prospecciones de malezas realizadas durante dos temporadas agrícolas, 30 especies anuales y 13 perennes fueron determinadas en cultivos de pimientos (Capsicum annuum L.) de los Valles de Elqui y Limarí, Región de Coquimbo (29° a 30º lat. Sur). Los muestreos fueron aleatorios dentro y fuera de los potreros, con y sin cultivo presente, en invierno y primavera. Se recolectaron 676 plantas de malezas, analizándose un total de 379 muestras. Utilizando la prueba DAS-ELISA se determinó Virus del ...

  7. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae): um estudo de caso = Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae): a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Darci de Oliveira Cruz; Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos

    2007-01-01

    A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas...

  8. Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; Quintero Barrera Lorena; García Marisol Cudris

    2005-01-01

    Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi) se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST), peroxidasa (PRX), 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH), aspartato amino transferasa (GOT) y enzima málica (ME). Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma) con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y...

  9. Morphological and chemical characterization of fruits of Capsicum spp. accessions Caracterização morfológica e química de frutos de acessos do gênero Capsicum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizanilda R do Rêgo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate 69 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Roraima, for some fruit quality traits. The experiment was performed in a completely random design, with 69 treatments and 3 replications. The 69 accessions were evaluated for fourteen quantitative and two qualitative traits of ripe fruits. Quantitative fruits data were subjected to an analysis of variance, and the means were grouped by Scott-Knott test (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 69 acessos do gênero Capsicum, pertencentes ao Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Roraima, quanto a 16 descritores relacionados à qualidade de frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. Quatorze descritores quantitativos e dois qualitativos foram utilizados na caracterização e para obtenção de caracteres morfológicos de qualidade. Obteve-se a média de dez frutos por repetição, aleatoriamente dentro de cada acesso, quando os frutos atingiram a maturidade. Os dados quantitativos foram submetidos à análise de variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias pelo teste Scott-Knott. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,01 entre os 69 acessos tanto para caracteres morfológicos quanto químicos dos frutos, podendo essa diversidade ser utilizada em programa de melhoramento de Capsicum. Se o programa de melhoramento visar à obtenção de maior rendimento de pó, indica-se o uso dos acessos 33, 44 e 41, cujos valores de teor de matéria seca e sólidos solúveis totais foram mais elevados. Entretanto, se o objetivo for o comércio de frutos in natura, recomenda-se o acesso 48 que apresentou maiores valores de matéria fresca, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto. O acesso 33, Capsicum frutescens, apresentou o maior teor de vitamina C.

  10. Corrigendum to "Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 123 (2015) 231-246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2016-09-01

    When this paper was first published online, the authors mistyped the species name Capsicum chinense (a chili pepper species) in two of the four instances where it was mentioned in the above article. This typographic error does not change the results of the reported study. However, due to the potential implications of the findings on Capsicum spp., the correct paragraphs are printed below:

  11. Effects of Copper Stress on Seedling Growth of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino%铜胁迫对小白菜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志平; 张海霞; 赵智灵; 杜清洁

    2015-01-01

    以北京新一号四季小白菜为材料,研究了 CuSO4胁迫对基质栽培小白菜幼苗生长、光合色素含量和膜脂过氧化的影响。试验结果表明,较低浓度 CuSO4使株高、叶片数、最大叶长、最大叶宽、根长及地上部、根系鲜质量和干质量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则显著抑制了各形态指标和生物量积累;20μmol/L CuSO4使叶绿素 a、叶绿素 b 和类胡萝卜素含量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则使各光合色素含量显著降低;随 CuSO4浓度提高,叶片质膜透性显著增加,抗坏血酸含量则呈先升高后降低的趋势。说明低浓度 CuSO4处理对小白菜生长有一定的促进作用,高浓度CuSO4胁迫则使光合能力降低,膜脂过氧化程度加剧,最终造成小白菜生长受到显著抑制。%Taking Beijing New No.1 as material, the experiment studied the effects of CuSO4 stress on the growth, photosynthetic pigment contents and membrane lipid peroxidation of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino cultivated in mixed substrate. The results showed that, the plant height, leaf number, maximum leaf length, maximum leaf width, root length and shoot and root fresh weight and dry weight of B. campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino were significantly increased under lower CuSO4 concentration treatments, while all morphological indicators and biomass accumulation were significantly inhibited under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents were significantly increased when the CuSO4 concentration was 20 μmol/L, while all photosynthetic pigment contents were significantly reduced under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. with CuSO4 concentration increased, membrane permeability of leaves was significantly increased, and ascorbic acid content was increased firstly and then decreased. The results indicated that lower CuSO4 concentrations could promote the growth of campestris ssp

  12. 辣椒炭疽病抗性资源筛选%Screening on the Resistance Resources of Capsicum anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆丽; 秦刚

    2013-01-01

    调查了46份辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)材料对辣椒炭疽病(Collectotrichum sp.)的田间抗性表现.结果表明,19份材料对辣椒炭疽病有较强的抗性.以成都及近郊县的主要致病菌胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)为接种菌源,采用针刺接种法对绿色成熟果(青熟果)和红色成熟果(红熟果)的23份辣椒资源进行辣椒炭疽病抗性筛选.结果表明,9份材料表现为抗病,6份材料表现为耐病,8份材料表现为感病.室内抗性筛选结果与田间抗性表现基本一致.%Field resistance performance of 46 pepper materials on Capsicum anthracnose was investigated.It showed that 19 materials had a C.resistance to Capsicum anthracnose.For further acquiring resistance resources of C.anthracnose,23 pepper materials were inoculated the primary pathogen(C.gloeosporioides) of Chengdu and suburbancounty by green and red mature fruit acupuncture inoculation method.The results indicated that 9 materials showed resistant,6 materials had tolerance of the disease,8 materials were susceptible to the disease.The results of interior resistance screening were basically consistent with the field resistance performance.

  13. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  14. 太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程%Meiosis process of pollen mother cells in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling)Shih and Crossostephium chinense(L.)Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2009-01-01

    对太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了研究.结果表明:太行菊和芙蓉菊减数分裂过程基本正常,为同时型胞质分裂.减数分裂中期Ⅰ染色体基本构型为9个二价体,其中太行菊和芙蓉菊每个花粉母细胞(PMC)平均染色体配对构型分别为005Ⅰ+892Ⅱ+003Ⅳ和004Ⅰ+861Ⅱ+002Ⅲ+017Ⅳ;部分花粉母细胞后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ及末期Ⅰ和末期Ⅱ发现有染色体桥、落后染色体、微核及不同步分裂等减数分裂异常现象.%Meiosis behaviors in the Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino were investigated for the first time. The results showed that meiosis of pollen mother cell ( PMC) was overall normal and simultaneous cytokinesis. The chromosome pairing configurations at meiotic metaphase Ⅰ per PMC in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino, with the commonest configurations of 9 bivalents (9Ⅱ ), were 0. 05 Ⅰ +8. 92 Ⅱ +0. 03Ⅳ and 0. 04Ⅰ +8. 61 Ⅱ +0. 02Ⅲ+0. 17Ⅳ , respectively. A few of chromosome bridges and laggard chromosomes were found in some PMCs at anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ ; moreover, micronucleus and nonsynchronous division were also observed in several cells at telophase land Ⅱ.

  15. Análisis del crecimiento y calidad de semillas de tres tipos de chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Villegas, Misael Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El chile es una de las hortalizas más importante a nivel mundial. México es de los países con mayor producción y al ser centro de origen y domesticación de la especie Capsicum annuum L. tiene una amplia diversidad de materiales agrupados en tipos. Los estudios referentes al crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta y semilla de chile, son escasos y no son recientes. Aquí, se comparó el crecimiento de la planta de los tipos de árbol, ancho y guajillo y se evaluó la calidad de semillas durante su d...

  16. Modelos matemáticos para estimar el crecimiento del fruto de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P)

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Rojas-Lara; M. Pérez-Grajales; M. T. B. Colinas-León; J. Sahagún-Castellanos; E. Avitia-García

    2008-01-01

    El híbrido intervarietal de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P) Puebla x Zongolica es de alto rendimiento por su volumen, grosor de pericarpio y peso de fruto. El rendimiento se explica principalmente por el tamaño del fruto, siendo recomendable conocer la dinámica del crecimiento del mismo. Normalmente su análisis se realiza por medio de muestreos destructivos, lo que hace imposible utilizar el mismo fruto durante el ciclo de cultivo, además la competencia entre los órganos de la planta...

  17. Effect of Cold on Protein, Proline, Phenolic Compounds and Chlorophyll Content of Two Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, A. Sülün; Esra KOÇ; İŞLEK, Cemil

    2010-01-01

    In this study, quantitative changes of total soluble protein in leaf and stem, apoplastic protein, total phenolic compounds, proline and chlorophyll content were determined in a the cold-susceptible KM-121 (Kahramanmaras- hot) and cold-resistant hybrid pepper Mert (Capsicum annuum L.). The plants were raised in a growth room under a controlled environment of 25± 2 oC and 16 h light / 8 h dark photoperiod. Then, plants exposed to 4oC cold stress for three days and control groups were ke...

  18. 新类型北柴胡的生长与光合特性研究%Study on growing and photosynthetic characteristics of new varieties of Bupleurum chinenseDC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永刚; 韩梅; 韩忠明; 杨利民

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 To provide basis for breeding fine variety of B.chinense,researches into growing and photosynthetic characteristics of new and traditional types of B.chinense are conducted.【Method】 It is tested to find out leaf photosynthesis index and relative environmental factors of broad leaf type(KY) and medium leaf type(ZY) B.chinense dominated in primitive groups during their seeding and flowering and fruiting stages by TPS-1 photosynthesis system.Meanwhile,sampling measurements are conducted in their ground morphological index and biomass to work out index differences of the two types of B.chinense.【Result】 ①The height,stem diameter,leaf length(except the flowering and fruiting stages),leaf width and total leaf area of KY are all significantly higher than those of ZY(P0.05),and leaf length/leaf width of ZY is evidently higher than KY(P0.05)during their seeding and flowering and fruiting stages.②Diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate(Pn),transpiration rate(Tr),stomatal conductance(Gs) in two varieties of B.chinense in seeding stage showed unimodal curve and Pn of ZY is evidently higher than KY(P0.05)while they all showed bimodal curve in flowering and fruiting stage and Pn of KY is evidently higher than ZY(P0.05).③It is inferred that KY's photosynthetic "midday depression" phenomenon of flowering and fruiting stage is mainly confined by stoma according to the alteration direction of Pn,Ci,Ls while ZY is mainly confined by factors of non-stoma.④Environmental factor that influences Pn of B.chinense is Ta chiefly in seeding stage,RH and Ca chiefly in flowering and fruiting stage.⑤The root,stem,leaf,flower and fruit and total biomass of KY are significantly higher than those of ZY(P0.05).And the distribution ratio of root,stem,and leaf biomass of ZY is basically higher than those of KY while flower and fruit biomass of ZY is evidently lower than that of KY(P0.05)during their seeding

  19. La utilización de la borra del café como substrato de base para el cultivo de Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kummer

    OpenAIRE

    Job, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Use of coffee spent industry residues forproduction of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kummerin solid state fermentation Studies were carried out to screen the industrial strain HK35 of Pleurotus ostreatus for its ability to develop fruiting bodies in solid state cultivation using several substrates containing 17.8 to 55% of coffee spent ground. Our results showed that only 55% of coffee spent ground was used in the substrate without detecting changes in fruiting body or on its biological eff...

  20. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO32, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred which accumulated calcium oxalate crystals in the form of crystalline sand. Anisocytic stomata were found with a much greater density in the abaxial epidermis. They were characterized by very well-developed outer cuticular ledges. It was found that in the leaves of the plants sprayed with the nutrient supplements with increased Ca content there was a much smaller number of epidermal cells per 1 mm2 than in the control plants. These cells were distinguished by an increased size. In the case of the application of the nutrient supplements Librel Ca and Wapnowit, the number of stomata also decreased. However, the application of the calcium supplements resulted in an increase in the value of the stomatal index compared to the control, which is attributable to a significant reduction in the number of epidermal cells not belonging to the stomata. The plants additionally supplied with Ca were marked by a larger number of colenchyma layers and an increased volume of leaf parenchyma cells. In the case of pepper leaves, the thin cuticle and the outer cell wall are not a major barrier to the Ca-containing preparations applied for spray treatment. Nevertheless, the decrease in the number of stomata may restrict the possibility of Ca uptake by this way, which compensates the increase in surface area of particular epidermal cells that will be the main way of Ca penetration into the internal leaf tissues.

  1. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  2. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Bosland, Paul; Bebeli, Penelope J; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2013-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of postharvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. To shed light on the chemical-compositional diversity of cuticles in pepper, the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world collection were screened for both wax and cutin monomer amount and composition. These same genotypes were also screened for fruit water loss rate and this was tested for associations with cuticle composition. Our results revealed an unexpectedly large amount of variation for the fruit cuticle lipids, with a more than 14-fold range for total wax amounts and a more than 16-fold range for cutin monomer amounts between the most extreme accessions. Within the major wax constituents fatty acids varied from 1 to 46%, primary alcohols from 2 to 19%, n-alkanes from 13 to 74% and triterpenoids and sterols from 10 to 77%. Within the cutin monomers, total hexadecanoic acids ranged from 54 to 87%, total octadecanoic acids ranged from 10 to 38% and coumaric acids ranged from 0.2 to 8% of the total. We also observed considerable differences in water loss among the accessions, and unique correlations between water loss and cuticle constituents. The resources described here will be valuable for future studies of the physiological function of fruit cuticle, for the identification of genes and QTLs associated with fruit cuticle synthesis in pepper fruit, and as a starting point for breeding improved fruit quality in pepper.

  3. Microarray Analysis of the Transcriptome for Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun HWANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum causes one of the most common soil-borne vascular diseases of diverse plant species, including many solanaceous crops such as tomato and pepper. The resulting disease, bacterial wilt (BW, is devastating and difficult to control using conventional approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes in pepper root systems in response to infection by R. solanacearum. DNA microarray (Capsicum annuum 135K Microarray v3.0 Gene Expression platform analyses were performed using a susceptible genotype, ‘Chilbok’, and a resistant genotype, ‘KC350’, at 3 time points (1, 3, and 6 days post inoculation. It has been identified 115 resistance-specific genes (R-response genes and 109 susceptibility-specific genes (S-response gene, which were up-regulated in 1 genotype, but down-regulated in the other genotype. Gene Ontology (GO analysis for functional categorization indicated that many R-response genes were related to genes that function in xyloglucan biosynthesis and cell wall organization, while S-response genes were involved in the response to stress and cell death. The expression of genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH and β-galactosidase were verified by real-time RT-PCR at an early time point of R. solanacearum infection. The results supported the idea that rapidly induced XTH expression in ‘KC350’ may play an important role in the restructuring and reinforcement of the cell wall and restrict bacterial movement in xylem vessels. In addition, induced expression of β-galactosidase in R. solanacearum-infected ‘Chilbok’ implied that degradation of the cell wall structure in vascular tissues by β-galactosidase might be an important factor facilitating R. solanacearum invasion of and movement in susceptible host plants.

  4. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eul-Won Hwang; Kyung-A Kim; Soo-Chul Park; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Myung-Ok Byun; Hawk-Bin Kwon

    2005-12-01

    In an attempt to determine a cold defense mechanism in plants, we have attempted to characterize changes occurring in the expression of cold-regulated transcript levels in the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), using cDNA microarray analysis, combined with Northern blot analysis. After analysing a 3.1 K hot pepper cDNA microarray, we isolated a total of 317 cold inducible genes. We selected 42 genes which were up-regulated and three genes which were down-regulated due to cold treatment, for further analysis. Among the 45 genes which appeared to be up-regulated by cold, 19 genes appeared to be simultaneously regulated by salt stress. Among the up-regulated cold-stress genes, we identified a variety of transcription factors, including: a family of 4 ethylene-responsive element binding protein (EREBP, designated CaEREBP-C1 to C4) genes, a bZIP protein (CaBZ1), RVA1, Ring domain protein, HSF1, and the WRKY (CaWRKY1) protein. As mentioned earlier, several genes appeared to be induced not only by cold stress, but also simultaneously by salt stress. These genes included: CaEREBP-C3, CaBZ1, putative trans-activator factor, NtPRp27, malate dehydrogenase, putative auxin-repressed protein, protein phosphatase (CaTPP1), SAR8.2 protein precursor, late-embryogenesis abundant protein 5 (LEA5), DNAJ protein homologue, xyloglucanendo-1,4--D-gucanase precursor, PR10, and the putative non-specific lipid transfer protein StnsLTP.

  5. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  6. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  7. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  8. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes we

  9. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting tow

  10. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem ...

  11. BIOATIVIDADE DE Solanum melongena L. E Capsicum annuum L. SOBRE Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciene Ferreira Freire

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO uso contínuo e indiscriminado de produtos químicos na agricultura pode trazer sérios prejuízos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma opção é o emprego de plantas com ação inseticida. Diante do exposto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do pó de folhas de Solanum melongena L. e Capsicum annuum L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram tratados com os pós nas concentrações 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 % [100*(massa do pó/massa de grãos] e realizados testes de sobrevivência e repelência contra C. maculatus. Os dados da sobrevivência foram analisados utilizando o teste de Log-rank (p ≤ 0,05, pelo método de D-collet e para a repelência utilizou-se o teste do Qui-Quadrado (p ≤ 0,05. Todos os pós e concentrações avaliadas foram repelentes contra C. maculatus, com exceção do pó de C. annuum na concentração de 2,5 %. No que se refere à sobrevivência, ambas as espécies vegetais causaram elevada mortalidade em C. maculatus, com morte total dos insetos em até 120 h.ABSTRACTThe continuous and indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture can bring serious problems to human health and the environment. One option is the use of plants with insecticidal action. Given the above, the aim of this work was to evaluate the insecticide activity powder of leaves of Solanum melongena L. and Capsicum annuum L. against Callosobruchus maculatus in three concentrations. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil. The grains of cowpea were treated with the powders in concentrations 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % [100*(mass of powder/ mass of grains] and performed tests of survival and repellency against C. maculatus. Survival data were analyzed using

  12. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher (2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L. AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3 was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide

  14. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  15. AISLADOS BACTERIANOS CON POTENCIAL BIOFERTILIZANTE PARA PLÁNTULAS DE TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Noh Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aislaron rizobacterias en diversos medios de cultivo y se resembraron en medios selectivos para estudiar su capacidad de solubilización de fosfato y de producción de ácido indolacético (AIA, con el fin de probarlas como promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de tomate. Se obtuvieron 83 aislados bacterianos del rizoplano de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq., maíz (Zea mays y calabaza (Cucurbita pepo, de los cuales 15 sintetizaron AIA con un rango de concentración de 0.17 a 12.51 µg L-1 y 33 solubilizaron fosfato inorgánico. El uso de los aislados KCH3 y TSACH2 inoculados a las semillas de tomate, y que solubilizaron fosfato in vitro, incrementaron significativamente la biomasa de la parte aérea de las plántulas de tomate (42 y 32% respectivamente, permitiendo obtener plántulas más vigorosas que las plántulas sin inoculación de rizobacterias. Ambos aislados mostraron potencial para ser utilizados como biofertilizantes en la producción de plántulas de tomate.

  16. Utilización de marcadores moleculares para el genotipado de materiales útiles en la mejora de la resistencia a nematodos en pimiento: genotipos de Capsicum annuum L. y Capsicum frutescens L., híbridos interespecíficos C. annuum x C. frutescens y plantas de pimiento regeneradas en cultivo de anteras.

    OpenAIRE

    CRESPO IBOR, ANDRÉS ELCIAS

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se han utilizado distintos marcadores moleculares para genotipar materiales de interés en la mejora de la resistencia a nematodos en pimiento. En concreto los objetivos de este trabajo han sido: determinar la presencia de genes de interés en cultivares de Capsicum annuum y Capsicum frutescens; comprobar el carácter híbrido de plantas resultantes de cruces interespecíficos C. annuum x C. frutescens y determinar el caracter haploide o doble-haploide en plantas de pim...

  17. Efecto de los péptidos antimicrobianos y tionina de Capsicum chinense y Thi2.1 de arabidopsis thaliana producidos por células endoteliales bovinas sobre patógenos intracelulares: Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus y candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Loeza Ángeles, Heber

    2011-01-01

    Los péptidos antimicrobianos (PA) están ampliamente distribuidos en los cinco reinos, su función es proteger a los seres vivos contra organismos patógenos. El desarrolo de la Biotecnología ha permitido explorar el efecto de los PA sobre microorganismos patógenos de animales empleando sistemas alternativos heterólogos para su expresión.

  18. Viabilité et développement végétatif des plantules de piment (Capsicum annuum L.) suivant différents matériels de conditionnement des semences

    OpenAIRE

    E. Youmbi; Amougou Akoa; Segnou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Germination and Seedling Development from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds following Storage in Different Packaging Materials. A study on the germination and seedling development from pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds following storage in different packaging materials was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Njombe Multipurpose Research Station in Cameroon. Germination tests were conducted at 30 days intervals during 24 weeks of seed conservation in t...

  19. Genetic structure of the INRA Capsicum spp. collection using SSR loci: refining the wild origin of cultivated C. annuum and impact of human selection on the structuration of genetic diversity in cultivar types

    OpenAIRE

    Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Nicolaï, Maryse; Cantet, Melissa; Lefebvre, Véronique; Palloix, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Germplasm collections of cultivated plants constitute the source for further genetic progress and gained interest with approaches for tracking allelic variants associated to phenotypic variations within core collections. ln order to explore the structure of genetic variation in pepper (Capsicum spp.) and to select core-collections maximizing the genetic and the phenotypic diversity, a pepper collection including 1352 non redundant accessions from Il Capsicum species from 89 different countrie...

  20. SRAP Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Riparian Plant Distylium chinense in Hubei Province%湖北河岸带植物中华蚊母树遗传多样性的SRAP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春花; 李晓玲; 栾春艳; 杨进; 陈发菊; 李争艳

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and the genetic structure of four in situ populations and one ex situ conservation population of riparian plant Distylium chinense in Hubei province was investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular marker technique. A high level of genetic diversity at the species level was observed with the selected 7 SRAP primer combinations generating 46 discernible DNA fragments, of which 37 (80. 43% ) were polymorphic. The observed number of alleles (A), the mean effective number of alleles (Ae) , Nei's gene diversity index (Hp) and Shannon' s information index (/) was 2.00, 1. 34, 0.215 9 and 0. 3509, respectively. Within populations, the genetic variation was found to be mainly caused by the variation within populations, accounting for 88. 39% of the total genetic variation and only 11. 61% among the populations. The gene flow of D. chinense between populations was 3. 807 2, which was a relative high gene flow and could efficiently prevent gene drift and maintain current genetic structure. Based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis (PCA) diagram, the five populations studied may be divided into two groups. Most accessions along riversides in Hubei province including Letianxi, Xiangxi and Gaojiayan populations were found in one group, which was further divided into two sub groups that corresponded to the their geographic distance. Yanduhe and Three Gorges Botanical Garden populations were clustered into another group, showing that the accessions of ex situ conservation population had relatively high relatedness with those from Yanduhe population. The mean genetic diversity in ex situ conservation population was higher than those in situ populations. Hence, the ex situ conservation program of Three Gorges Botanical Garden was considered to be successful in preserving genetic diversity of D. chinense. Moreover, combining the analysis of the genetic

  1. Dynamic Change of Stomata in Cotyledon and Lower Hypocotyl of Capsicum annuum L.%气孔在辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)子叶和下胚轴上的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董慧峰; 王永飞

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic changes of stomatal density and epidermal cell density in adaxial and abaxial surface of cotyledon and upper and lower of lower hypocotyl during the development of Capsicum annuum L. were investigated. The results showed that: ( 1 ) The guard cells of stomata of Capsicum annuum L. were kidney-shape, without subsidiary cells. Epidermal cells in cotyledon were usually irregular in shape, but epidermal cells in hypocotyl were retangle or ellipse. (2)Stomatal density and epidermal cell density in the adaxial and abaxial surface of cotyledon were the highest at 6 th day and 3 th day after germination, respectively, then decreased gradually. Furthermore, the stomatal density and epidermal cell density in the abaxial epidermis was distinctly higher than that of the adaxial epidermis. (3) Stomatal density in I cm of upper and lower of lower hypocotyl did not change perspicuously, while epidermal cell density decreased gradually. The stomata density and epidermal cell density in the upper of lower hypocotyl was distinctly higher than that of the lower.%以辣椒幼苗(Capsicum annuum L.)为材料,研究了辣椒生长发育过程中子叶的上、下表皮和下胚轴上、下端1cm处的气孔密度及表皮细胞密度的动态变化.结果表明:(1)辣椒的气孔由肾形保卫细胞组成,无副卫细胞;子叶的表皮细胞呈无规则形,下胚轴的表皮细胞呈长方形或椭圆形;(2)辣椒子叶上、下表皮的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度分别在辣椒种子出芽后第6天和第3天达到最大,之后随子叶的生长逐渐减小,下表皮的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度明显大于上表皮的;(3)辣椒下胚轴上、下端1cm处的气孔密度随下胚轴的生长变化不明显,但是表皮细胞密度随下胚轴的生长逐渐减小,下胚轴上端的气孔密度和表皮细胞密度明显的大于下胚轴下端的.

  2. Variabilidade em população base de pimenteiras ornamentais (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José da Silva Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar progênies de uma população base de pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas 54 plantas de uma geração F2 de pimenteiras ornamentais, para se avaliarem os seguintes caracteres morfoagronômicos: altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DDC, altura da primeira bifurcação (APB, diâmetro do caule (DCL, comprimento da folha (CFL, largura da folha (LFL, comprimento da corola (CDC, comprimento de antera (CANT, comprimento do estilete (CES e largura da pétala (LAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias para o teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,01. Com exceção do CANT, verificaram-se diferenças significativas para os demais descritores, pelo Teste F. O DCL foi o descritor com maior herdabilidade (99,49%, seguido de DDC (96,14% e APB (94,05%. O caractere DCL apresentou maior variabilidade entre as plantas, formando 13 classes, seguido de DDC, com oito e APB, com seis classes. Quando se utilizaram as técnicas multivariadas, foi possível agrupar as 54 plantas em oito grupos, sendo o grupo 1 o que reuniu maior número de plantas (35. A característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência genética foi o diâmetro do caule (68,97%, seguida pelo diâmetro da copa (9,22%, altura da primeira bifurcação (6,76% e altura da planta (4,58%. Já as características de flor foram as que menos contribuíram para a variabilidade (10,47%. Houve variabilidade entre as plantas estudadas, sendo possível praticar seleção dentro dessa família, dando continuidade ao Programa de Melhoramento de Pimenteiras.

  3. Action Mechanisms of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phosphorus Uptake by Capsicum annuum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. SHARIF; N. CLAASSEN

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the action mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in phosphorus (P) uptake of Capsicum annuum L.in a sterilized fossil Oxisol. Three P levels of 0,10 and 200 mg kg-1 soil (P0,P10 and P200,respectively) without and with AM fungal inoculation were applied as Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O.Shoot dry matter yields and shoot P uptake increased significantly (P > 0.05) by the inoculation of AM fungi at P0 and P10.Root length and P concentration in soil solution increased with the inoculation of AM fungi but the root:shoot ratio decreased or remained constant.Around 50% roots of inoculated plants were infected by AM and the external hyphae amounted to 20 m g-1 soil at P10 and P200.The hyphae surface area of the infected root cylinder amounted to 11 and 2 cm2 cm-2 root at P0 and P10,respectively.The increased P uptake of inoculated plants was mainly because of an up to 5 times higher P influx of the infected root.Model calculations showed that the root alone could not have achieved the measured P influx in both infected and non-infected roots.But the P influx for hyphae calculated by the model was even much higher than the measured one.The P uptake capacity of hyphae introduced in the model was too high.Model calculations further showed that the depletion zone around roots or hyphae was very narrow.In the case of the root only 7% of the soil volume would contribute P to the plant,while in the case of hyphae it would be 100%.The results together with the model calculations showed that the increased P uptake of AM inoculated plants could be explained partly by the increased P concentration in the soil solution and by the increased P absorbing surface area coming from the external hyphae.

  4. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

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    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio; Domicio do Nascimento Junior; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Roberto Giolo de Almeida; Manuel Cláudio Motta Macedo; Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1) cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2) cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3) cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4) cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de di...

  5. Avaliação de Três Cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob Pastejo: Composição Química e Digestibilidade da Forragem Evaluation of Three Cultivars of Panicum Maximum Jacq. under Grazing: Chemical Composition and in Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility

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    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio; Domicio do Nascimento Junior; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Adair José Regazzi; Roberto Giolo de Almeida; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de estimar o valor nutritivo da MS de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidas ao pastejo rotativo, através dos teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, lignina, celulose, sílica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica em amostras de folhas e colmos. Estudou-se, também, no cultivar Tanzânia, a adubação nitrogenada no final do período chuvoso, adicional à de manutenção comum às demais cultivares. As...

  6. Características morfológicas e índice de área foliar do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Morphological characteristics and leaf area index of tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1), managed in different sward heights, under grazing

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    Fabíola Cristine de Almeida Rêgo; Ulysses Cecato; Marcos Weber do Canto; Elias Nunes Martins; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Clovenilson Perissato Cano; Maurício Peternelli

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24, 26, 43, 45, 52, 62, 73 e 78 cm) do pasto e diferentes períodos de coleta (28, 56, 84 dias), sobre a densidade de perfilhos aéreos e basais, peso e diâmetro de perfilhos basais, índice de área foliar (IAF), altura do meristema apical, número de nós e comprimento de entrenós em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1). Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore em regime de pastejo com carga animal v...

  7. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

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    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  8. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

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    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  9. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments

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    SUTARNO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili and Fantastic (curly chili. The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java in September 2006 to March 2007. The study used a complete block design with two factorial of chili varieties and fertilizer treatment. Fertilization treatments includes no fertilizer (control (P1; manure 2 kg/plant (P2, manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (ZA, SP-36, KCl = 2: 1: 1 + NPK (P3; and manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1:1 + liquid organic fertilizer (P4. Chlorophyll content was measured refers to Harborne (1987, whereas leaf nitrogen concentration was measured with Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by DMRT. The results showed that on the Fantastic chili fertilizer treatment affected the biomass and chlorophyll a, but gave no effect on chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen. On the curly chili fertilizer treatment effected plant fresh weight, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, but gave no effect on dry weight, fresh fruit weight, chlorophyll b and leaf nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended to use the formulation of manure + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1: 1 + liquid organic fertilizer in the cultivation of chili.Key words: biomass, chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, chili, Capsicum annum, fertilizing.Abstrak. Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomassa, kandungan klorofil dan nitrogen daun dua varietas cabai (Capsicum annum pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai perlakuan pemupukan terhadap biomassa

  10. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  11. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiological and biochemical properties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Alpas, Hami

    2015-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology, which also has several successful applications in different areas besides food processing. In this study, Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) seeds are subjected to 50, 100, 200 and 300 MPa pressure for 5 min at 25°C and the seedlings of HHP processed seeds are used to compare percentage of seed germination and biochemical properties such as chlorophyll a, b and a/b, proline content, total protein, carotenoid, malondialdehyde, glucose, fructose and phenolic compounds concentrations. As a result of the study, it was observed that there are remarkable changes in terms of biochemical properties especially for seedlings, whose seeds were pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa. More detailed studies are needed to put forward the mechanism behind the changes in biochemical properties.

  12. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

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    Xue Lin B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development.

  13. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P turmeric oleoresin altered (P turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) < 0.05] the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE < 0.05) the cell cycle pathway. Feeding each of the 3 plant extracts enhanced (EASE < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa health and stimulating the immune system.

  14. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. provenientes de Camerún

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    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm Elaeis guineesis Jacq. is of great importance because of the oil extracted from its fruits, whose refined derivatives are commercially valuable as biodiesel, among others uses. This study sought to determine the structure and genetic diversity of 311 oil palm samples from the Republic of Cameroon with 10 microsatellite markers. The results showed values for the average number of alleles per locus of Na= 8.433 and effective number of alleles per locus of Ne= 4.756; from the differences between these values, it can be inferred that the 106 alleles found for these populations could be considered rare alleles. Additionally the value of genetic diversity was high (mean value of He= 0.781 compared to reports of several authors. The obtained molecular variance showed that the highest percentage (80 % was found within the individuals. The analysis did not show any defined population structure, which allowed us to infer a high gene flow among the geographic zones, corroborated it by the high genetic diversity values obtained. The 311 genotypes were defined as a heterogeneous heterozygous natural population suitable to increase the genetic base of oil palm cultivated populations.

  15. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

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    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  16. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. PMID:27302128

  17. Proteomic responses to lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) roots: identification of key biomarkers related to glutathione metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) treated with different lead (Pb) concentrations for 7 days has been investigated to understand the mechanisms of ascorbate-glutathione metabolisms in response to Pb-induced oxidative stress. Proteomic study was performed for control and 1.25 mM Pb-treated plants to examine the root protein dynamics in the presence of Pb. Results of our analysis showed that Pb treatment caused a decrease in non-protein thiols, reduced glutathione (GSH), total ascorbate, total glutathione, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and activities of glutathione reductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Conversely, cysteine and GSSG contents and glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased after Pb treatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed our metabolic and proteomic studies and showed that amino, phenolic, and carboxylic acids as well as alcoholic, amide, and ester-containing biomolecules had key roles in detoxification of Pb/Pb-induced toxic metabolites. Proteomic analysis revealed an increase in relative abundance of 20 major proteins and 3 new proteins (appeared only in 1.25 mM Pb). Abundant proteins during 1.25 mM Pb stress conditions have given a very clear indication about their involvement in root architecture, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, cell signaling, primary and secondary metabolisms, and molecular transport systems. Relative accumulation patterns of both common and newly identified proteins are highly correlated with our other morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters. PMID:24705950

  18. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  19. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency.

  20. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Watcharasuda Hualkasin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4 genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq, named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLEA4 (II, I, III, IV and V and each had a close identity to similar LEA4 patterns of soybean (64%.Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the genomic DNA demonstrated that the EgLEA4 gene is composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. The 52 untranslated region shows a putative promoter sequence involved in the transcription process, drought stress and hormone responsive elements. RT-PCR analysis showed that the EgLEA4 gene was only expressed in mesocarp, during the late stages of fruit development. It also had a higher expression in induced drought conditions indicating that the EgLEA4 protein may be involved in plant adaptation and stress (drought responsive pathway.

  2. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.

  3. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. PMID:26322853

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of EgTCTP, encoding a calcium binding protein, enhances the growth of callus in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP has now been identified in evolutionarily diverse organisms and isthought to play an important role in cell growth and cell division. We have identified an EgTCTP gene from Elaeis guineensisJacq. It is a putative protein of 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19.2 kDa. EgTCTP has a high homology(84% - 91% identity at the amino acid level to other plant TCTPs from Hevea brasiliensis, Arachis hypogaea and Glycinemax. The recombinant EgTCTP protein is a calcium binding protein. Transgenic embryonic calli overexpressing EgTCTP havea faster growth rate than non-transformed and empty vector transformed calli. The results show that the enhancement ofEgTCTP gene expression in oil palm embryogenic calli may result in faster multiplication of the embryogenic calli. EgTCTPacts as another Ca2+-modulated protein that is involved in the cell cycle progression.

  5. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. 'Montgomery' fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2008-12-15

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues. PMID:21709744

  6. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. ‘Montgomery’ fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M.; Lewis, Betty A.; Brown, Dan L.; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L.

    2008-01-01

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues. PMID:21709744

  7. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions. PMID:15149120

  8. CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND CHEMICAL TESTS OF THE EXTRACTS OF Citrus limonium (LEMON and Capsicum frutescens L. (CHILLI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Cristina Carlos Freire

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural medicine has been used by man since time immemorial, and this use has grown considerably in recent times. Thus, this study aims to make a comparator analysis regarding the phytochemical test, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extracts of the leaves in ethanol and their respective fractions of Citrus limonium (lemon and Capsicum frutescens L. (chilli pepper. To compare them was observed that ethanol extract of both plants showed the better antioxidant activity, Capsicum frutescens L. with 204.60 ppm and 99.07 ppm with Citrus limonium. With regard to the phenolic content of the hexane extract and lemon extract in ethanol pepper were those that showed a higher content. Overall, it was noted that Citrus limonium excelled both in relation to their antioxidant activity and the phenolic content.

  9. 辣椒红色素提取方法的研究进展%Research progress on extraction of capsicum red pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春瑞; 远辉; 李静

    2012-01-01

    综述了辣椒红色素提取方法的研究进展,主要介绍了溶剂法、超声波提取法、微波辅助提取法、超临界流体萃取法、酶法、分子蒸馏法以及硅胶柱层析法的提取技术,为辣椒红色素的进一步研究和开发提供参考依据。%exaction, traction, ploitation This article reviewed advances in extraction techniques for capsicum red pigment, which include solvent ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, enzyme exmolecular distillation and colunm chromatography. It can provide reference for the further research and ex- of capsicum red pigment's resource.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Floral Characters in Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.)%辣椒花器性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵芳; 莫云容; 赵凯; 马仲飞; 吴仕仙; 邓明华

    2016-01-01

    应用数量遗传学原理,以父本SJ-05-46(Capsicum frutescens L.)、母本为荷兰尖椒(Capsicum annuum L.)及F1、F2为供试材料,估算辣椒花器性状的遗传力.结果表明,在6个花器性状中,各花器性状的广义遗传力从大到小依次为:柱头长>柱头宽>花药长>花长>花药宽>花宽.遗传参数估算表明,6个花器性状遗传有较大的差异,柱头长、柱头宽和花药长遗传力较大.

  11. Efektifitas pemberian Abu Masak Garam dan Kascing Terhadap Karakteristik Inceptisol Asal Kec. Sama Dua Kab. Aceh selatan Pada Pertanaman Cabai (Capsicum annuum. L).

    OpenAIRE

    Nury, Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Inceptisol at Sama Dua subdistrict has high potensial for agriculture if we could manage correctly good management technique, although it has low organic matter and nutrients. Based on carer, this research is aimed to know how input of casting as organic fertilizer ang salt ash to increase aggregation could enhance red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growth at this land. This research was conducted at green house and Chemical and Soil Fertility Laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture,...

  12. Purification of capsicum red pigments by saponification and silica gel column chromatography%皂化-硅胶柱层析法纯化辣椒红色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞敏; 王洪新; 殷飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to purify the natural capsicum red pigments,alkaline ethanol saponification was taken to remove the fatty acid from the capsicum oleoresin and silica gel column chromatography was used to separate the capsaicin from capsicum red pigments. The results showed that the optimal saponification conditions were as follows;the concentration of NaOH solution was 0.8mol/L,solid-liquid ratio was 1:15(g/mL),ethanol concentration(V/V) was 70%,the holding temperature was 50℃ and the saponification time was 2h. The optimum separation was achieved with sample volume at 1:40,diameter-length ratio at 1:10 and eluant flow rate at 1BV/h. The color value of purified capsicum red pigments was 672.%探讨了辣椒红色素的纯化工艺,首先采用碱性乙醇皂化法去除辣椒油树脂中的脂肪酸,然后经过硅胶柱层析脱除辣椒红色素中的辣椒碱.实验结果表明,最佳的皂化条件为:NaOH溶液浓度0.8mol/L,固液比1∶15(g/mL),皂化温度50℃,皂化时间2h,乙醇浓度70%(V/V),最佳的硅胶柱层析条件为:上样量1∶40(m样品∶m硅胶),径高比1∶10,洗脱流速1BV/h,得到的辣椒红色素的色价为672.

  13. Uji Antagonis Trichoderma spp. Terhadap Penyakit Layu (Fusarium oxysforum f.sp.capsici) Pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum L) Di Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Martuani

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conduct on Tandem Hilir, Hamparan Perak Distric, Tiga Kota Datar Village and Plant Disease Laboratory, agriculture faculty, University Of North Sumatra, Medan. From Oktober to March 2005. This experiment is to see the effectiveness of Trichoderma koningi, Thricoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici wilt disease on chili (Capsicum annum L.) on field It use randomize block design nonfactorial which 4 treatment and 6 repetition...

  14. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and Humic Acid on the Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plant and Root Rot Disease Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANPAY, Burcu; Semra DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of singular and double combinations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid (HA) were investigated on the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and rot root disease caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian which has been known as an important problem of pepper cultivation and leading yield losses. Under controlled conditions, four F1 pepper cultivars (Ergenekon, Bafra, Sirena and Yıldız) were inoculated with three different AMF strains (Glomus intraradice...

  15. Evaluation of new resistance-genes deployment strategies in the pepper Capsicum annuum for the durable management of root-knot nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Risso, S.; Lanza, R.; Taussig, C.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.

    2013-01-01

    The current restrictions on the use of chemical nematicides have contributed to increase rootknot nematode problems in horticultural crops. ln this context, plant resistance appears as the most effective method of control, but the possible occurrence of virulent nematodes able to reproduce on R-plants may constitute a severe threat to this control strategy. ln Capsicum annuum, resistance to RKN is controlled by several dominant genes - the N and Me genes. To implement a rational management of...

  16. 369 辣椒属Capsicum annuum L.var.angulosum的化学成分和抗幽门螺杆菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗砚彬(摘译)

    2005-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L.var.angulosumo 为辣椒属的一种植物。本研究对该植物的茎、胎座、种子、花梗和果皮等部位进行提取分离,从其果实和茎中分离得到1个新化合物和47个已知化合物。

  17. Daños por frío en zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore and Stearn). II. cambios en fenoles totales y actividad enzimática

    OpenAIRE

    Irán Alia Tejacal; María Teresa Colinas León; María Teresa Martínez Damián; Ramón Marcos Soto Hernández

    2005-01-01

    En frutos de zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore and Stearn) se estudió la maduración a temperatura ambiente (20 °C; 50-60 % HR) y el comportamiento de este proceso durante y después del almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas (5, 10 y 15 °C; 80-85 % HR). Durante el cambio de madurez fisiológica a madurez de consumo en los frutos de zapote mamey almacenados a 20 °C por 12 d los fenoles totales disminuyeron de 1653 a 646 mg kg-1 y la actividad de polifenol oxidasa (PFO) se incrementó...

  18. Estudio de las variables de proceso mediante superficie de respuesta para la optimización de la producción de biodiesel utilizando aceite de palma africana (Elaeis guineenis Jacq) como materia prima.

    OpenAIRE

    Anguebes Franseschi, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    El aceite de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) representa una opción atractiva para emplearse como materia prima en la fabricación de biodiesel. El Objetivo de este trabajo fue maximizar el rendimiento de biodiesel sintetizado a partir de oleína cruda de palma africana en el laboratorio. La síntesis de biodiesel se realizó en dos etapas: a) una esterificación ácida realizada con ácido sulfúrico y b) una transesterificación alcalina empleando hidróxido de sodio. Para hallar las condicion...

  19. Estandarización de la técnica molecular de aflp en palma de aceite tipo dura (elaeis guineensis jacq.) y estudio preliminar de caracterización

    OpenAIRE

    Galeano, Carlos Hernando

    2012-01-01

    La palma de aceite (Elaeis guinnensis Jacq.) desempeña un importante papel en la econo­mía de algunos países tropicales; Colombia ocupa el primer puesto en producción en América Latina y el quinto lugar a nivel mundial. En esta especie el mejo­ramiento genético busca generar materiales con alta producción de aceite y adaptados a las características edafoclimáticas de las diferentes zonas palmeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estandarizar la téc­nica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment-Length...

  20. 咪鲜胺对糙皮侧耳(平菇)污染菌绿色木霉的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Prochloraz on Trichoderma viride Contaminated Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: ex Fr.) Quèl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苇; 李宝聚; 石延霞; 金丹

    2012-01-01

    采用菌丝生长速率法测定咪鲜胺对绿色木霉(Trichoderma viride)和5个不同品种糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreatus)(平菇)的菌丝生长抑制活性;采用滤纸片抑菌圈法测定了其对绿色木霉分生孢子萌发的影响.结果表明:咪鲜胺能够极显著地抑制绿色木霉菌丝生长和孢子萌发,EC50值分别为2.536 mg·L-1和5.482 mg·L-1.同时咪鲜胺对平菇的菌丝生长也有一定的抑制作用,在咪鲜胺有效浓度为8.333 mg·L-1以下时抑制作用不显著;生料栽培试验也获得了相似的结果.%Prochloraz's activities on inhibiting the mycelium growth of Trichoderma viride and 5 different varieties of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr.) Quel. were tested by the mycelium growth rate method and its effect on conidiophore germination of Trichoderma viride was tested by inhibition zone method. The results indicated that prochloraz could remarkably inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride mycelium and spore germination. The EC50values were 2.536 mg o L-1 and 5.482 mg o L-1, respectively. Additionally, prochloraz could also inhibit the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr. ) Quel. mycelium. There are less significant differences of inhibition to Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr.) Quel. when the effective concentration of prochloraz was below 8.333 mg o L-1, its inhibitory effect on the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr. ) Quel. mycelium was not remarkable.

  1. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    OpenAIRE

    Carmenza Montoya; Benoit Cochard; Albert Flori; David Cros; Ricardo Lopes; Teresa Cuellar; Sandra Espeout; Indra Syaputra; Pierre Villeneuve; Michel Pina; Enrique Ritter; Thierry Leroy; Norbert Billotte

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect repre...

  2. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. PMID:25446579

  3. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe.

  4. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis of Inorganic Elements in Allium chinense from Different Areas Based on ICP-MS%基于ICP-MS对不同产地蓖头无机元素的主成分分析和聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦阳; 尹海波; 张乐; 刘爽; 关颖; 董双双

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the distribution character of inorganic elements content of Allium chinense and to provide valuable experimental evidence for the quality evaluation and control of Chinese herbal medicinesAllii macrostemi bulbus. Method; The content of 14 inorganic elements in ten samples of A. Chinense was determined by the means of ICP-MS with the result that fingerprints of inorganic elements were established and the characteristic elements were evaluated by SPSS cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Result; Four principal components were extracted from the original data. The principal component analysis results show that Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Se and Cr may be the characteristic elements in A. Chinense; the results of cluster analysis showed that ten samples could be clustered reasonably into two groups, and there were some differences between red bulb and white bulb of A. Chinense. And the content of inorganic elements of A. Chinense is related to the ecological environment in some degree. Conclusion; The overall quantitative similarity method could be used for the determination of the inorganic elements in A. Chinense; The principal component analysis and cluster analysis could be perfectly applied in data processing in inorganic elements.%目的:研究蕌头中无机元素的含量分布特征,为中药材薤白的品质评价和质量控制提供实验依据.方法:采用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法,对10个蕌头样品中14个无机元素的含量进行定量分析,建立其无机元素指纹谱,并采用SPSS聚类分析和主成分分析对其特征元素进行评价.结果:主成分分析选出4个主因子,得出蕌头的特征元素为Mn,Cu,Zn,Fe,Ni,Se,Cr;聚类分析将10个蕌头样品聚为2大类,赤、白蕌头在品质上存在一定的差异性,不同采集地的蕌头体内无机元素的含量与其生长环境存在着一定的关系.结论:定量分析法可用于蕌头无机元素的含量测定;主成分分析

  5. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: um estudo de caso = Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci de Oliveira Cruz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas, polinização cruzada manual, polinização aberta, polinização aberta emasculada e autopolinização espontânea. O padrão de crescimento dos tubos polínicos mostrou-se semelhante em todos os tratamentos. Os tubos atingiram o ovário cerca de 24 horas após a polinização. Apesar de C. frutescens ser considerada autógama, essa cultura beneficia-se da polinização realizada por A. mellifera,produzindo significativamente maior quantidade de frutos, quando comparada com a autopolinização espontânea.The anthesis, anther dehiscence, pistil receptivity, pollen tubegrowth and fruit set of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae were studied in São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. C. frutescens flowers are perfect, protogynous and receive visits from many bee species, mainly Apis mellifera L., which collect pollen and nectar. Treatments of pollination by bees, hand cross pollination, open pollination, emasculated open pollination and spontaneous self pollination were performed. Pollen tube growth pattern did not differ among treatments. Pollen tubes were observed in the ovary within 24 hours after pollination. Despite C. frutescens being considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by A. mellifera, producing better fruit set than by using spontaneous self-pollination.

  6. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  7. Caracterização biométrica, física e química de frutos da palmeira bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq Lodd

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    Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de palmeira bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., coletados em Dourados (MS e Presidente Epitácio (SP, foram analisados quanto ao aspecto biométrico, a composição química e as características físicas, visando a avaliar seu potencial alimentício. Os frutos de bocaiuva das regiões de procedência não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si nas características biométricas. O rendimento médio da polpa foi de 42% em relação ao fruto inteiro, sendo superior ao encontrado na literatura para outros frutos de palmeiras. As determinações físicas e químicas da polpa dos frutos das regiões de Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo caracterizam a polpa como sendo pouco ácida (pH 5,70 a 6,29. As amostras de Dourados - MS, foram consideradas mais doces (14,53% de açúcares redutores totais e com maior teor de vitamina C (34,57 mg.100 g-1 em relação às amostras de Presidente Epitácio-SP (11,46 mg.100 g-1. Porém, a intensidade da cor amarelo-laranja foi maior na polpa dos frutos de Presidente Epitácio (SP, sugerindo maior conteúdo de carotenoides.

  8. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  9. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  10. Intérêts des semences commerciales améliorées de palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq.

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    Cochard Benoît

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Le palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq. est originaire d’Afrique où il est encore exploité de façon traditionnelle. L’intensification de sa culture a commencé au début du xxe siècle, en Asie du Sud-Est. Ce n’est qu’entre les deux guerres mondiales que cette intensification s’est manifestée en Afrique. En Amérique latine, cette culture ne s’est développée que depuis la fin des années 60. En 2000, la production d’huile s’élève à 21,7 millions de tonnes. Par ailleurs, les extensions et renouvellements de plantations demeurent très vifs. Ainsi, les surfaces plantées sont de 6 562 000 hectares dans le monde en 2000 [1]. Dans ces conditions, le marché mondial des semences est estimé à plus de 150 millions de graines par an. Autant les agro-industriels se fournissent le plus souvent auprès des obtenteurs, autant les planteurs villageois, en particulier en Afrique, ne s’adressent pas systématiquement à eux, et sont confrontés à des désagréments ultérieurs, lors de la mise en récolte de leur plantation. Les semences commerciales de qualité prennent en compte des contraintes liées à la biologie florale de cette plante ainsi qu’aux caractéristiques morphologiques de la graine. Elles sont fabriquées en respectant un cahier des charges rigoureux permettant d’éviter aux exploitants de très mauvaises désillusions.

  11. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortes.

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    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  12. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  13. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation. PMID:22699852

  14. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

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    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  15. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  16. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

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    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  17. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.

  18. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  19. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  20. Construction and Analysis of an Interspecific Linkage Map of Capsicum annuum × C.frutescens%辣椒种间(Capsicum annuum×C.frutescens)遗传图谱的构建与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤华; 陈学军; 方荣; 陈丽珍; 宗洪霞; 缪南生

    2013-01-01

    以一年生辣椒(Capsicum annuum)B9431为母本(P1),中国野生灌木辣椒(C.frutescens)H108为父本(P2)进行种间杂交,得到包含180个单株的F2作图群体,利用SRAP、SSR、ISSR标记和形态标记构建辣椒遗传图谱.该图谱共包含14个连锁群,涉及264个SRAP标记、32个SSR标记和2个ISSR标记,控制软肉落果性状的S基因定位于LG8.图谱总长1 023.45 cM,标记间平均图距3.42 cM.每个连锁群的标记数在2~44个之间,连锁群的长度在13.84~129.93 cM范围内,平均图距在2.38~ 12.90cM之间.以SSR标记为锚定标记,将该图谱与Minamiyama等构建的图谱进行了初步对应.

  1. 杂交鹅掌楸应力木解剖特征及光谱分析%Anatomical feature and spectroscopy of reaction wood in Liriodendron chinense×L. tulipifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石江涛; 王丰; 骆嘉言

    2015-01-01

    The properties of reaction wood from bending and inclination stem in Liriodendron chinense× L. tulipifera was investigated by microscopic, FTIR and XRD. The results showed that in tension zone the gelatinous fiber ratio was the lowest and the number and mean diameter of vessel and tissue proportion was significant difference comparing with that in opposite and transition zone in bending stem. The IR characteristics in tension zone were similar to the opposite and tran⁃sition zone. The relatively ratio of I1 505/I1 739 was higher in tension zone than other two zones and indicated that it has higher lignin content. The cellulose crystallinity in tension and transition zone was observably lower than that in opposite. On the contrary, in tension zone the gelatinous fiber ratio was higher ( 26. 1%) and the number and mean diameter of vessel was decreased comparing to that in transition zone of inclination stem. The peaks intensity at 1 739 cm-1 and 1 505 cm-1 were decreased in tension zone than that in other two zones. This indicated that the hemicellulose and lignin content was lower in tension zone. The cellulose crystallinity in tension and transition zone was higher dramatically than that in opposite. All of these suggested that the properties of tension wood were affected by stem growth morphology in Lirioden⁃dron chinense×L. tulipifera.%通过显微观察及傅里叶红外光谱和X-射线衍射光谱分析,对杂交鹅掌楸弯曲树干和倾斜树干的应力木特征进行了研究。结果表明:在弯曲树干中,应拉区的胶质木纤维含量极少,导管数、导管平均直径及组织比量与对应区和过渡区有明显差异;应拉区木材红外光谱特征与对应区和过渡区相似;应拉区中吸收强度比值( I1505/I1739)大于对应区和过渡区,说明其木质素含量较高;应拉区和过渡区纤维素结晶度显著低于对应区。倾斜树干中表现出相反规律,应

  2. 过表达枸杞LmPSY基因提高洋桔梗抗逆性的研究%Overexpression of Lycium chinense Miller Phytoene Sythase (LmPSY)Gene to Enhance the Resistance of Eustoma grandiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静; 曹海燕; 王罡; 柳洁; 李招娣; 武卫党

    2015-01-01

    类胡萝卜素与植物的光保护及耐盐有很大关系,八氢番茄红素合成酶(PSY)是类胡罗素合成重要酶.将来自枸杞(Lycium chinenseMiller)的八氢番茄红素合成酶(LmPSY)基因在洋桔梗中过表达,旨在提高其抗逆性.RT-qPCR 结果发现 LmPSY 基因在转基因洋桔梗中有组织差异表达.高效液相色谱结果说明转基因洋桔梗叶片总类胡萝卜素提高1.3倍,玉米黄质和叶黄素含量提高1.1倍.强光胁迫条件下,转基因洋桔梗鲜重和干重较非转基因植株有显著提高.200,mmol/L 氯化钠胁迫条件下,转基因洋桔梗过氧化物酶(POD)和超氧化物酶(SOD)含量有显著提高,转基因植株的荧光参数(Fv/Fm)提高8.0%~9.3%.强光和盐胁迫条件下对转基因植株生理生化指标的测定证明洋桔梗的耐强光性及耐盐性有显著提高.%Carotenoids play an important role in plant tolerance to salt and high light,and phytoene synthase(PSY)is a key enzyme in carotenoids biosynthesis.Lycium chinenseMiller phytoene sythase(LmPSY) gene was transferred to Eustoma grandiflorum to enhance the resistance of transgenicEustoma grandiflorum. RT-qPCR results show that LmPSY expression had tissue specificity. High performance liquid chromatography results exhibit that the total carote-noid content of the transgenic plants was enhanced(1.3 fold) and zeaxanthin and lutein were produced in larger quantities(up to 1.1 fold). Under high light stress,fresh mass and dry mass of transgenic eustoma increased significantly compared with those of wide type(WT). Under 200 mmol/L NaCl stress, the amount of peoxidase(POD) and superoxide dismutase(SOD)in transgenic plants has increased significantly compared with those in WT. The pho-tochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm)of transgenic plants increased by 8.0%—9.3%. These physiological and biochemical indices measured under light and salt stress conditions prove that overexpression ofLmPSY gene could enhance the salt

  3. Nutrient element contents of cutting seedlings of hybrid species (Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera)%杂种鹅掌楸扦插苗营养元素含量的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓平; 方炎明; 丁雨龙

    2003-01-01

    The cutting seedlings of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were treated with the different concentrations of auxin (treatment1: IBA of 50 g@kg-1 + NAA of 300 g@kg-1; treatment2: IBA of 100 g@kg-1 + NAA of 300 g@kg-1). The biomass and the nutrient element contents for different organs (root, stem, leaf) of cutting seedling of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were measured by the dry method, Kjeldahl method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The result showed that the biomass of root, stem, and leaf of the cutting seedling treated with auxin was all remarkably increased. The contents of element C in root, stem and leaf had no significant difference between the control and auxin treatments, while the contents of N, P, K and Ca in stem were much lower than that in leaf and root. Variance analysis showed that for the same organ with different concentration treatment of auxin, the four nutrient elements (N, P, K, and Ca) had no significant difference in contents, while there existed significant or very significant difference in contents of the four nutrient elements in different organs with the same concentration auxin treatment. The N, P, K and Ca contents were very low in cutting seedlings; as a result, additional fertilizer should be applied to the seedlings when they were planted in the field.%本文利用不同浓度的外源激素处理杂种鹅掌楸的扦插繁殖幼苗,并通过烘干法、凯氏法、原子吸收等方法,对扦插繁殖幼苗的根、茎、叶3个器官生物量及其营养元素进行测定.结果表明:不同浓度的外源激素(处理1:IBA 50 g-kg-1 + NAA 300 g-kg-1; 处理2 : IBA 50 g-kg-1 + NAA 300 g-kg-1)处理插穗后,根、茎、叶的生物量均有一定程度的提高.在所有的扦插苗中,其根、茎、叶内的含C量差异不大,但茎内的N、P、K、Ca含量较根、叶的少.方差分析结果表明:不同浓度外源激素处理的同一器官后,其C/N及P、K、Ca的含量没有明显的差异;而同一

  4. Induction and cultivation of haploid callus of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum%红花檵木花粉单倍体愈伤组织的诱导与培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎林; 于晓英; 熊兴耀; 陈己任; 朱杰辉

    2011-01-01

    For obtaining the complete genome sequence of Loropetalum chinense var. Rubrum, haploid callus was induced and cultivated based on previous data of meiosis and microspore development of Loropetalum chinense var. Rubrum 'xiyemeihong'. The outer characteristics of the flower bud corresponding to specific development stages were primarily determined and monocaryotic phase of 'xiyemeihong' was selected for induction of haploid callus. SNGM medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine and sucrose concentration 30 g/L turned out to be the optimum callus-induction medium. And B5 medium with supplements the same to the induction medium was the optimum medium for semi-solid-state cultivation of pollen callus and for liquid cultivation of anther callus under the rotation speed of 110 r/minand the temperature of 25 °C. Flow cytometry showed that the absorption peak of the pollen callus was about half of that of the leave callus (the control). Chromosome counting indicated haploids of pollen callus possessed 12 chromosomes while diploids 24 and haploids were detected in 63.1% of pollen callus cells.%为通过红花檵木单倍体愈伤组织获得红花檵木全基因组序列,在红花檵木‘细叶玫红’减数分裂和小孢子发育进程研究的基础上,初步明确了与小孢子不同发育时期相对应的花蕾外部特征,筛选出‘细叶玫红’单核靠边期花粉进行花药愈伤组织培养.诱导培养基以SNGM为基本培养基,添加2.5 mg/L NAA +0.5 mg/L 6-BA+30g/L蔗糖;花粉愈伤组织培养的最优培养基为B5培养基,添加物同诱导培养基;花药愈伤组织悬浮培养体系为B5液体培养基,添加物同诱导培养基,转速为110 r/min,培养温度为25℃.经流式细胞仪检测,红花檵木花粉愈伤组织最大吸收峰值约为叶片愈伤组织的50%;用染色体压片计数法观察到叶片愈伤组织细胞染色体数为24条,花粉愈伤组织为12条,单倍体细胞占63.1%,表明

  5. EVALUACIÓN In Situ DE LA VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA REGIÓN FRAILESCA DEL ESTADO DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de hacer la evaluación in situ de la variabilidad genética de los chiles silvestres en la región Frailesca del estado de Chiapas. La muestra experimental se constituyó con el 10 % de las comunidades y productores de cada municipio. La unidad de muestreo fue el sitio donde se encontraron las plantas. La evaluación in situ se basó en las características cuantitativas y cualitativas contenidas en el descriptor de Capsicum. La variabilidad se midió utilizando los índices de diversidad de Margalef, Simpson y Sorensen. Los caracteres cuantitativos con mayor valor discriminante fueron: número de flores por axila, longitud del filamento, diámetro, longitud y peso de los frutos, longitud de la placenta, número y peso de 1000 semillas. Como resultado del análisis discriminante, se formaron tres grupos: el grupo 1, donde predominan los Capsicum annuum, con seis accesiones que poseen características de C. frutescens; el grupo 2, integrado por las accesiones de Capsicum frutescens, y el grupo 3, con los C. annuum cultivados. Se evidenció la existencia de altos niveles de variabilidad en las muestras de chile evaluadas, las cuales integraron tres grupos con características que identifican las especies: Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum annuum L. y 12 accesiones cultivadas de Capsicum annuum. La mayor variabilidad se encontró en los municipios La Concordia y Villaflores, existiendo condiciones para la conservación de la variabilidad in situ.

  6. 鹅绒藤三种单体化合物体外抗肿瘤活性的研究%Antitumor Activity of Three Monomer Compounds from Cynanchum Chinense in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 王琦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen the antitumor activity in vitro of the monomer compounds extracted from the aerial parts of Cynanchum Chinense that is n-octatriacontane (MC-Ⅱ),kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnose glycoside (MC-Ⅴ) and 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnose glycoside (MC-Ⅵ).Methods Three monomer compounds from Cynanchum Chinense Ethyl acetate extraction of purified flavonoid glycosides MC-Ⅴ,alkane MC-Ⅱ and n-butanol extraction of purified flavonoid glycosides MC-Ⅵ acted respectively on human cervical cancer Hela cells,mouse lymphoma cells YAC-1 and human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell line.After 24h,48h,72h,96h,effects of three monomer compounds on tumor cell proliferation activity were observed by CCK-8 method.Results Hela cells were treated with MC-Ⅱ and the values of OD in different dose groups showed variety from 48h to 72h.The proliferation of YAC-1 cells could be increased by MC-Ⅱ at 24h,48h,and 72h while inhibited at 96h.Hela cells and YAC-1 cells were treated with MC-Ⅴ and MC-Ⅵ at the concentration of 50,100,and 200μg · mL-1 respectively,as a result,the values of OD were lower in the experimental groups than those in control groups(P < 0.05) and it showed dose-dependent.Similarly,24h,48h,72h,and 96h after MGC-803 cells were treated with different dose of MC-Ⅴ,the values of OD were lower in the experimental groups than those in control groups(P < 0.05),however,the inhibition effect of MC-Ⅵ on MGC-803 cells could be observed only at 24h after treated.Conclsion The growth of tumor cells could be inhibited by the extracts of Cynanchum Chinense flavonoid glycoside MC-Ⅴ and MC-Ⅵ.%目的 对从鹅绒藤地上部分提取分离得到的单体化合物正三十八烷(MC-Ⅱ)、山奈酚-7-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(MC-Ⅴ)和7-O-α-L-鼠李吡喃糖基-山奈酚-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(MC-Ⅵ)进行体外抗肿瘤活性的筛选.方法 鹅绒藤的乙酸乙酯萃取部分分离提取的黄酮苷类MC-Ⅴ、烷烃类MC-Ⅱ和正丁醇

  7. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2∼50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014]. PMID:26831933

  9. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Jongguk; Kang, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400-700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB), which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400-700 nm) yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600-700 nm) yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  10. Autophagy, a Conserved Mechanism for Protein Degradation, Responds to Heat, and Other Abiotic Stresses in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yufei; Guo, Meng; Wang, Hu; Lu, Jinping; Liu, Jinhong; Zhang, Chong; Gong, Zhenhui; Lu, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses negatively affect plants growth and development by inducing protein denaturation, and autophagy degrades the damaged proteins to alleviate their toxicity, however, little is known about the involvement of autophagy in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) tolerances to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified autophagy-related gene (ATG) members in the whole genome of pepper by HMM method and analyzed their expression profiles in response to heat and other abiotic stresses by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the CaATG contained 15 core ATG members including 29 ATG proteins with their respective conserved functional domains, involving the whole process of autophagy. Under normal environmental condition, the expression of CaATG genes showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific patterns, while under abiotic stresses of salt, drought, heat, cold and carbohydrate starvation, the accumulation of autophagosome punctate increased and the expression level of CaATG genes changed with stress type-dependent pattern, which indicates the linkage of autophagy in pepper response to abiotic stresses. After treated with heat stress, both the number of up-regulated CaATG genes and the increment of autophagosome punctate were higher in pepper thermotolerant line R9 than those in thermosensitive line B6, implying an association of autophagy with heat tolerance. In addition, CaATG6 was predicted to interact with CaHSP90 family members. Our study suggests that autophagy is connected to pepper tolerances to heat and other abiotic stresses. PMID:26904087

  11. Autophagy, a conserved mechanism for protein degradation, responds to heat and other abiotic stresses in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei eZhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses negatively affect plants growth and development by inducing protein denaturation, and autophagy degrades the damaged proteins to alleviate their toxicity, however, little is known about the involvement of autophagy in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. tolerances to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified autophagy-related gene (ATG members in the whole genome of pepper by HMM method and analyzed their expression profiles in response to heat and other abiotic stresses by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the CaATG contained 15 core ATG members including 29 ATG proteins with their respective conserved functional domains, involving the whole process of autophagy. Under normal environmental condition, the expression of CaATG genes showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific patterns, while under abiotic stresses of salt, drought, heat, cold and carbohydrate starvation, the accumulation of autophagosome punctate increased and the expression level of CaATG genes changed with stress type-dependent pattern, which indicates the linkage of autophagy in pepper response to abiotic stresses. After treated with heat stress, both the number of up-regulated CaATG genes and the increment of autophagosome punctate were higher in pepper thermotolerant line R9 than those in thermosensitive line B6, implying an association of autophagy with heat tolerance. In addition, CaATG6 was predicted to interact with CaHSP90 family members. Our study suggests that autophagy is connected to pepper tolerances to heat and other abiotic stresses.

  12. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  13. Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seed (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China

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    Yu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g, followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g. The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g. Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.

  14. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  15. Development of a SNP array and its application to genetic mapping and diversity assessment in pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Tang, Xin; Zhou, Huangkai; Hu, Yafei; Zhao, Zicheng; Cui, Junjie; Li, Bo; Wu, Zhiming; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is in its infancy for pepper. Here, a set of 15,000 SNPs were chosen from the resequencing data to develop an array for pepper with 12,720 loci being ultimately synthesized. Of these, 8,199 (~64.46%) SNPs were found to be scorable and covered ~81.18% of the whole genome. With this array, a high-density interspecific genetic map with 5,569 SNPs was constructed using 297 F2 individuals, and genetic diversity of a panel of 399 pepper elite/landrace lines was successfully characterized. Based on the genetic map, one major QTL, named Up12.1, was detected for the fruit orientation trait. A total of 65 protein-coding genes were predicted within this QTL region based on the current annotation of the Zunla-1 genome. In summary, the thousands of well-validated SNP markers, high-density genetic map and genetic diversity information will be useful for molecular genetics and innovative breeding in pepper. Furthermore, the mapping results lay foundation for isolating the genes underlying variation in fruit orientation of Capsicum. PMID:27623541

  16. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  17. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  18. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture. PMID:27075312

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014].

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies. PMID:23349661

  1. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqun Liu

    Full Text Available The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.. We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT, which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.

  3. Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadilova, Eva; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Acetone extracts from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peels both belonging to the Solanaceae plant family were characterized with respect to their anthocyanin profiles, colour qualities and antioxidant capacities. According to HPLC-DAD-MS3 analyses the major anthocyanin in eggplant was delphinidin-3-rutinoside, while the predominant pigment in violet pepper was assigned to delphinidin-3-trans-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. Since virtually all anthocyanins were delphinidin-based, the effect of acylation and glycosylation patterns on colour stability and antioxidant capacity could be assessed. Application of two in vitro-assays for antioxidant capacity assessment revealed that eggplant generally exhibited higher values compared to violet pepper which was ascribed to 3,5-diglycosylated structures predominating in the latter. The higher extent of acylation in violet pepper was reflected by a more purplish colour shade of the extracts, but did not translate into a higher stability against fading which again was attributed to additional glycosyl substitution at C5. These findings support the relevance of structure-related activities of anthocyanins both for understanding food colour and their particular nutritional value. PMID:16989312

  4. EFEITO DE REGULADORES DE CRESCIMENTO E TIPO DE EXPLANTES NA MORFOGÊNESE in vitro DE Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Explantes apicais, cotiledonares, hipocotiledonares e brotações regeneradas in vitro de Capsicum annuum cv. Agronômico 10 foram cultivados em meio (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962-MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações e combinações de BAP, adenina e tidiazuron. De acordo com o tipo de explante e reguladores de crescimento, foram obtidas diferentes respostas morfogenéticas. De modo geral, meios contendo concentrações mais elevadas de BAP e tidiazuron, promoveram a indução e produção de calos nos explantes provenientes de "seedlings", enquanto que a rizogênese foi favorecida em meios com baixas concentrações de BAP. Múltiplos brotos axilares foram formados somente quando utilizou-se como explante, brotações regeneradas in vitro. Os níveis de 26,64 e 39,96 µM de BAP possiblitaram a maximização da proliferação em aproximadamente 2,08 e 2,17 novas brotações por explante, respectivamente.

  5. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Back, Myung Hwa; Lee, Hae Youn; Lee, Young Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2{approx}50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group.

  6. Comparative Study on New Capsicum annuum Varieties%辣椒新品种比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈在新; 李晓明; 潘娟; 李勤; 孙绪刚

    2009-01-01

    为筛选适宜在荆州地区种植的优质高产、抗逆性强并受市场欢迎的辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)新品种,对尖椒、泡椒两个类型共15个辣椒品种进行了栽培比较试验,并应用模糊数学评价法从物候期、熟性、抗病性、果实品质与产量等主要性状上进行了综合评价.结果表明,中优6号、大椒1号、中优4号和正邦4号的熟性早、抗病性强、果实商品性状优良、丰产性好,综合评判指数高,优于当前荆州市栽培面积较大的辣椒品种,具有推广应用价值.

  7. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture.

  8. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán; José Luis Chávez-Servia; José Cruz Carrillo-Rodríguez; López, Mercedes G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes) of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant d...

  10. 生物菌肥对辣椒幼苗质量的影响%Effects of Microorganism Fertilizer on Seedling Quality of Capsicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童辉; 袁祖华; 黄建

    2013-01-01

    以不同配比的猪粪土、谷壳灰、草炭为基质,添加不同量的生物菌肥,采用72孔和128孔穴盘育苗,研究生物菌肥对辣椒幼苗质量的影响。结果表明:添加一定量的生物菌肥有利于辣椒幼苗的生长,而过量的生物菌肥则抑制辣椒幼苗的生长。无论是72孔还是128孔穴盘,生物菌肥添加量为2%时辣椒幼苗壮苗指数最高,根系活力最强,秧苗质量最好。%In order to study effects of microorganism fertilizer on seedling quality of capsicum, different ratios of pig manure soil, rice husk ash and turf were taken as substrate and different amounts of microorganism fertilizer were added to it, and then 72 holes and 128 holes of trays were adopted to raise seedlings. The results showed that adding certain amount of microorganism fertilizer is beneficial to the growth of capsicum seedlings, but over dosage of microorganism will inhibit it. Either of the two kinds of tray, the strong seedling indexes of capsicum seedlings were the highest when adding 2%microorganism fertilizer to the substrate, such as the activity of roots was the strongest and the quality of seedlings was the best.

  11. Capsaicin from chili (Capsicum spp. inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4yk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation is implied in cardiovascular disease and significantly contributes to vessel lumen reduction following surgical interventions such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery. Therefore, identification and characterization of compounds and mechanisms able to counteract VSMC proliferation is of potential therapeutic relevance. This work reveals the anti-proliferative effect of the natural product capsaicin from Capsicum spp. by quantification of metabolic activity and DNA synthesis in activated VSMC. The observed in vitro activity profile of capsaicin warrants further research on its mechanism of action and potential for therapeutic application.

  12. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices. PMID:22888725

  13. Cuantificación de capsaicinoides en Capsicum chacoense A.T. Hunziker (Solanaceae) y en especialidades farmacéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sein, Gustavo O.; Gardinali, Claudia A.; Mandrile, Eloy L.; Cafferata, Lázaro F.R.

    1998-01-01

    Se ha efectuado la cuantificación de capsaicinoides en la oleorresina de cápsico utilizando técnicas relativas como espectrofotometría UV y HPLC, realizándose un análisis crítico de la metodología analítica aplicada. Las determinaciones se efectuaron sobre la oleorresina obtenida directamente de una especie autóctona, Capsicum chacoense A.T. Hunziker, así como sobre oleorresinas ya incorporadas en formas farmacéuticas. Las técnicas empleadas resultan accesibles a cualquier laboratorio convenc...

  14. Analysis of numerical simulation of flow field of fried capsicum sauce%油辣椒制品流场数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to research the even filling technology of fried capsicum sauce products,taking uni-formly stirring of fried capsicum sauce products as the research content,solid -liquid mixture of fried capsicum sauce as the research object,the stirring effect was analyzed with the flat blade angle as 0°, 30°,45°and 60°.Fluent software was calculation platform and the results of calculation was analyzed, which was that the ideal stirring effect was when the blade angle was 30°.But there were still dead angle on the bottom of the groove.After reducing the distance between the blade and the bottom and renew the model,the calculated results shown that the mixture flow situation was further improved,the solid phase was well -distributed in the mixture,which was consistent with the expected effect.The method can be a numerical calculation method to study the automatic filling technology of fried capsicum sauce.%为研究油辣椒制品的均匀灌装技术,以油辣椒制品的均匀搅拌为研究内容,以油辣椒固液二相流混合物为对象,分析平直桨叶倾角分别为0°、30°、45°、60°时的搅拌效果。以 Fluent 软件为计算平台,对运算结果进行分析得到,桨叶倾角30°时搅拌效果较理想,但底部仍存在局部搅拌死角。减小桨叶与搅拌槽底部距离后重建模型,结果表明,混合物流动情况进一步改善,固相在混合物中分布均匀,与预期效果相符。可将此方法作为油辣椒制品自动化灌装技术的研究数值计算方法。

  15. Antifungal Activity of Sophora flavescens extracts against Capsicum Blight ( Fusarium oxysporum )%苦参对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨苦参对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性.[方法]采用生长速率法和悬滴法测试不同溶剂、浓度苦参提取物对辣椒枯萎病菌的抑制作用.[结果]乙酸乙酯与丙酮提取苦参所得粗提物的抑菌率显著高于乙醇.随着苦参乙酸乙酯粗提液浓度的增大,其对枯萎病痛菌菌丝生长及孢子萌发抑制作用均显著增强;在质量浓度为40g/L时,其对辣椒枯萎菌菌丝生长、孢子萌发抑制率分别达到94.48%、89.01%.[结论]苦参根中所含活性物质对辣椒枯萎病的抑菌活性较强,具有进一步研究开发的价值.%[ Objective ] The paper was to explore the antifungal activity of Sophora flavescens extracts against capsicum blight. [ Method ] Growth rate method and suspend-drop method were used to measure different solvents and concentrations of S. Flavescens extracts against capsicum blight. [ Result]The inhibition rate of crude extracts of S.flavescens extracted from ethyl acetate and acetone was significantly higher than ethanol. With the increasing concentration of ethyl acetate crude extracts of S. Flavescens,its inhibition effect against mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum significantly increased. When the mass concentration was 40 g/L,its inhibition rates against mycelial growth and spore germination of capsicum blight were 94.48% and 89.01% .respectively. [ Conclusion]The active substance contained in S. Flavescens roots had strong inhibition activity against capsicum blight,which had the potential value for further research and development.

  16. Acidos húmicos y fúlvicos en la producción hidropónica de Chile Manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P) en invernadero.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Antelma

    2011-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto de substancias húmicas (SH) en el crecimiento del chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P), en invernadero, se evaluaron tres niveles de presión osmótica de solución nutritiva Steiner (0.54, 0.72 y 0.90 atm) y tres concentraciones de aplicación foliar de substancias húmicas (0.5, 1, 1.5 ml.L-1 de agua de las SH). Las variables medidas fueron: diámetro ecuatorial (DE), diámetro polar (DP), volumen (VOL), grosor de pericarpio (GP), numero de frutos comerciales (NFRC), ...

  17. Fertilización orgánica Vs mineral en el rendimiento y contenido de capsaicina en chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.).

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marcelo, Rufina

    2012-01-01

    El chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.) es originario de Perú y Bolivia, fue introducido a México a principios del siglo XX. Este tipo de chile se produce a altitudes de 1700 a 2500 m. En La Sierra Norte de Puebla la producción de este cultivo se hace a nivel de traspatio, con manejo insuficiente de fertilización y control de plagas. Como parte de una propuesta para mejorar el manejo de este cultivo, y hacer uso de los recursos disponibles en la región, que también se dedica a la ganade...

  18. Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Barrera, Lorena; García, Marisol Cudris; Giraldo, Martha Cecilia; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2007-01-01

    Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi) se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST), peroxidasa (PRX), 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH), aspartato amino transferasa (GOT) y enzima málica (ME). Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma) con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y...

  19. Species within, Origins of the Capsicum Species and Its Spread to the World%辣椒的种类、起源和传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文明; 安志信; 井立军; 黄国青

    2005-01-01

    本文阐述当前辣椒的5个主要栽培种的分类学特征和当前生产上最为广泛的Capsicum annuum L变种的不同的分类方式.并对南美洲辣椒考古成果和哥伦布将之带回欧洲后,在欧、亚、非洲大陆的传播和发展亦加以描述.

  20. On-farm Testing of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos for Control of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Pepper (Capsicum annuum in Tillaberi (Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haougui Adamou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effectiveness of Savanem 20 EC (Ethoprophos, 200g/l, a newly introduced nematicide on the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, the second most important vegetable crop after the onions in Niger. This product was compared with Furadan 5G (Carbofuran. The results show that Savanem 20 EC at the rate of 50 L/ha is more effective than Furadan at the rate of 40 kg/ha in suppressing population of Meloidogyne spp. and reducing the root gall index. Despite its higher effectiveness against root-knot nematodes, Savanem did not significantly out yield Furadan.