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Sample records for capsaicin reduces obesity-induced

  1. The addition of GTN to capsaicin cream reduces the discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone. A volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleane, G J; McLaughlin, M

    1998-11-01

    In a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 40 volunteers, the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin cream (0.025%) was compared to placebo, GTN cream (1.33%) and to the combination of capsaicin cream (0.025%) plus GTN cream 1.33%. Median VAS for burning pain were 0 for the placebo, GTN and GTN + capsaicin groups and 3 for the capsaicin group after single application of each cream at daily intervals. This study demonstrates that after single application the addition of GTN to capsaicin significantly reduces the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone.

  2. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 with Hemin Reduces Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation via Adipose Macrophage Phenotype Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Hien Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose macrophages with the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype protect against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, which elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, modulates macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the HO-1 inducer, hemin, protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation by inducing macrophages to switch to the M2 phenotype. HO-1 induction by hemin reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 from cocultured adipocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling molecules (JNK and NF-κB in both cell types. Hemin enhanced transcript levels of M2 macrophage marker genes (IL-4, Mrc1, and Clec10a in the cocultures, while reducing transcripts of M1 macrophage markers (CD274 and TNF-α. The protective effects of hemin on adipose inflammation and macrophage phenotype switching were confirmed in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these were associated with PPARγ upregulation and STAT6 activation. These findings suggest that induction of HO-1 with hemin protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation through M2 macrophage phenotype switching, which is induced by the PPARγ and STAT6 pathway. HO-1 inducers such as hemin may be useful for preventing obesity-induced adipose inflammation.

  3. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 with hemin reduces obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation via adipose macrophage phenotype switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Thai Hien; Joe, Yeonsoo; Choi, Hye-Seon; Chung, Hun Taeg; Yu, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Adipose macrophages with the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype protect against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, modulates macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the HO-1 inducer, hemin, protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation by inducing macrophages to switch to the M2 phenotype. HO-1 induction by hemin reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) from cocultured adipocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling molecules (JNK and NF-κB) in both cell types. Hemin enhanced transcript levels of M2 macrophage marker genes (IL-4, Mrc1, and Clec10a) in the cocultures, while reducing transcripts of M1 macrophage markers (CD274 and TNF-α). The protective effects of hemin on adipose inflammation and macrophage phenotype switching were confirmed in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these were associated with PPARγ upregulation and STAT6 activation. These findings suggest that induction of HO-1 with hemin protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation through M2 macrophage phenotype switching, which is induced by the PPARγ and STAT6 pathway. HO-1 inducers such as hemin may be useful for preventing obesity-induced adipose inflammation.

  4. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products. PMID:27170269

  5. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  6. Antioxidant and iron-binding properties of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine reduce oxidative stress in rat brain homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairam, Amichand; Fogel, Ronen; Daya, Santy; Limson, Janice L

    2008-05-14

    Research demonstrates that antioxidants and metal chelators may be of beneficial use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the antioxidant and metal-binding properties of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine, which are major components found in commonly used dietary spice ingredients turmeric, chilli, and garlic, respectively. The DPPH assay demonstrates that these compounds readily scavenge free radicals. These compounds significantly curtail iron- (Fe2+) and quinolinic acid (QA)-induced lipid peroxidation and potently scavenge the superoxide anion generated by 1 mM cyanide in rat brain homogenate. The ferrozine assay was used to measure the extent of Fe2+ chelation, and electrochemistry was employed to measure the Fe3+ binding activity of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine. Both assays demonstrate that these compounds bind Fe2+ and Fe3+ and prevent the redox cycling of iron, suggesting that this may be an additional method through which these agents reduce Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates the antioxidant and metal-binding properties of these spice ingredients, and it is hereby postulate that these compounds have important implications in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  7. Capsaicin for Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens, Wytske; Hellings, Peter; Segboer, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Rhinitis is a multifactorial disease characterized by symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and nasal congestion. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by rhinitis symptoms without systemic sensitization of infectious etiology. Based on endotypes, we can categorize non-allergic rhinitis into an inflammatory endotype with usually eosinophilic inflammation encompassing at least NARES and LAR and part of the drug induced rhinitis (e.g., aspirin intolerance) and a neurogenic endotype encompassing idiopathic rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, and rhinitis of the elderly. Patients with idiopathic rhinitis have a higher baseline TRPV1 expression in the nasal mucosa than healthy controls. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, plants of the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is unique among naturally occurring irritant compounds because the initial neuronal excitation evoked by it is followed by a long-lasting refractory period, during which the previously excited neurons are no longer responsive to a broad range of stimuli. Patients with idiopathic rhinitis benefit from intranasal treatment with capsaicin. Expression of TRPV1 is reduced in patients with idiopathic rhinitis after capsaicin treatment. Recently, in a Cochrane review, the effectiveness of capsaicin in the management of idiopathic rhinitis was evaluated and the authors concluded that given that many other options do not work well in non-allergic rhinitis, capsaicin is a reasonable option to try under physician supervision. Capsaicin has not been shown to be effective in allergic rhinitis nor in other forms of non-allergic rhinitis like the inflammatory endotypes or other neurogenic endotypes like rhinitis of the elderly or smoking induced rhinitis. PMID:27485456

  8. Inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves reduces pulmonary remodeling in guinea pigs with chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Prado; G.Z. da Rocha; E.A. Leick-Maldonado; C.M. Starling; V.L. Capelozzi; M. A. Martins; I.F.L.C. Tibério

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary remodeling is an important feature of asthma physiopathology that can contribute to irreversible changes in lung function. Although neurokinins influence lung inflammation, their exact role in the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling remains to be determined. Our objective was to investigate whether inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves modulates pulmonary ECM remodeling in animals with chronic lung inflammation. After 14 days of capsaicin (50 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle administrat...

  9. Small-fibre neuropathy in female Fabry patients: reduced allodynia and skin blood flow after topical capsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Åse K.;

    2006-01-01

    . The response to capsaicin was evaluated by laser Doppler imaging. We found that the female Fabry patients had a significantly smaller increase in blood flow (p = 0.0003) after capsaicin application. The area of static mechanical allodynia and dynamic mechanical hyperalgesia was also significantly smaller (p...... = 0.006) in female Fabry patients. This indicates that female Fabry patients have a significant loss of small-fibre function and demonstrates that it is possible to evaluate this by a non-invasive method....

  10. Positive allosteric modulation of GABA-A receptors reduces capsaicin-induced primary and secondary hypersensitivity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Erichsen, Helle K; Brown, David T;

    2012-01-01

    GABA-A receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain, in part via enhancing injury-induced loss of GABA-A-α2 and -α3 receptor function within the spinal cord. As yet, a lack of clinically suitable tool compounds has prevented this...... concept being tested in humans. Prior to assessing the efficacy of GABA-A receptor PAMs in a human volunteer pain model we have compared compounds capable of variously modulating GABA-A receptor function in comparable rat models of capsaicin-induced acute nocifensive flinching behaviour and secondary...

  11. Capsaicin induced cough in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, M.; Mister, R; Pearson, M.; Calverley, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cough is a common and troublesome symptom in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) but the mechanisms responsible are not known. The cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where lung volumes are increased, but the relationship between cough response and symptom intensity has not been studied in CFA where lung volumes are reduced.
METHODS—Capsaicin challenge tests were performed on 15 subject...

  12. In Vitro and Sensory Evaluation of Capsaicin-Loaded Nanoformulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Kaiser; Benedikt Kirsch; Hannah Hauser; Désirée Schneider; Ingrid Seuß-Baum; Francisco M Goycoolea

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known health beneficial and therapeutic properties. It is also able to enhance the permeability of drugs across epithelial tissues. Unfortunately, due to its pungency the oral administration of capsaicin is limited. To this end, we assessed the effect of nanoencapsulation of capsaicin, under the hypothesis that this would reduce its pungency. Core-shell nanocapsules with an oily core and stabilized with phospholipids were used. This system was used with or without chitosan coati...

  13. In Vitro and Sensory Evaluation of Capsaicin-Loaded Nanoformulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, M.; Kirsch, B.; Hauser, H; Schneider, D; Seuß-Baum, I. (Ingrid); Goycoolea, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin has known health beneficial and therapeutic properties. It is also able to enhance the permeability of drugs across epithelial tissues. Unfortunately, due to its pungency the oral administration of capsaicin is limited. To this end, we assessed the effect of nanoencapsulation of capsaicin, under the hypothesis that this would reduce its pungency. Core-shell nanocapsules with an oily core and stabilized with phospholipids were used. This system was used with or without chitosan coati...

  14. Similar itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by punctate cutaneous application of capsaicin, histamine and cowhage

    OpenAIRE

    Sikand, Parul; Shimada, Steven G.; Green, Barry G.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Itch evoked by cowhage or histamine is reduced or blocked by capsaicin desensitization, suggesting that pruriceptive neurons are capsaicin-sensitive. Topical capsaicin can evoke both nociceptive sensations and itch, whereas intradermal injection of capsaicin evokes only burning pain. To dissociate the pruritic and nociceptive sensory effects caused by the chemical activation of sensory neurons, chemicals were applied in a punctiform manner to the skin of the forearm using individual, heat-ina...

  15. Capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Shanna; Mesquita, Fernanda; Basso, Bruno; Schmid, Júlia; Ferreira, Gabriela; Rizzo, Lucas; Bauer, Moises; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo Adrianus; Oliveira, Jarbas

    2014-03-01

    Capsaicin, the active component of chili pepper, has been reported to have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on a variety of cell lines. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin during HSC activation and maintenance. Activated and freshly isolated HSCs were treated with capsaicin. Proliferation was measured by incorporation of EdU. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The migratory response to chemotactic stimuli was evaluated by a modified Boyden chamber assay. Activation markers and inflammatory cytokines were determined by qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Our results show that capsaicin reduces HSC proliferation, migration, and expression of profibrogenic markers of activated and primary mouse HSCs. In conclusion, the present study shows that capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of HSC in vitro. PMID:23955514

  16. Capsaicin, Nociception and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Frias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chili pepper, is known to act on the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is involved in somatic and visceral peripheral inflammation, in the modulation of nociceptive inputs to spinal cord and brain stem centers, as well as the integration of diverse painful stimuli. In this review, we first describe the chemical and pharmacological properties of capsaicin and its derivatives in relation to their analgesic properties. We then consider the biochemical and functional characteristics of TRPV1, focusing on its distribution and biological effects within the somatosensory and viscerosensory nociceptive systems. Finally, we discuss the use of capsaicin as an agonist of TRPV1 to model acute inflammation in slices and other ex vivo preparations.

  17. Capsaicin, Nociception and Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Bárbara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chili pepper, is known to act on the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is involved in somatic and visceral peripheral inflammation, in the modulation of nociceptive inputs to spinal cord and brain stem centers, as well as the integration of diverse painful stimuli. In this review, we first describe the chemical and pharmacological properties of capsaicin and its derivatives in relation to their analgesic properties. We then consider the biochemical and functional characteristics of TRPV1, focusing on its distribution and biological effects within the somatosensory and viscerosensory nociceptive systems. Finally, we discuss the use of capsaicin as an agonist of TRPV1 to model acute inflammation in slices and other ex vivo preparations. PMID:27322240

  18. Obesity-induced Upper Extremity Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Arin K. Greene, MD, MMSc; Reid A. Maclellan, MD, MMSc

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Obesity increases the risk of upper extremity lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer and can cause lower extremity lymphatic dysfunction in extremely obese individuals. We report the first patient with obesity-induced upper extremity lymphedema. A 62-year-old man with a previous body mass index (BMI) of 105.6, presented with a BMI 60.3 following weight loss. He complained of lymphedema of all 4 extremities, which was confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy. Because the upper limbs ...

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  20. Obesity-Induced Hypertension: Brain Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Taolin; Aberdein, Nicola; de Lara Rodriguez, Cecilia E P; Hall, John E

    2016-07-01

    Obesity greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases and is one of the most significant and preventable causes of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of central nervous system (CNS) signaling pathways that contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension. We discuss the role of excess adiposity and activation of the brain leptin-melanocortin system in causing increased sympathetic activity in obesity. In addition, we highlight other potential brain mechanisms by which increased weight gain modulates metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Unraveling the CNS mechanisms responsible for increased sympathetic activation and hypertension and how circulating hormones activate brain signaling pathways to control BP offer potentially important therapeutic targets for obesity and hypertension. PMID:27262997

  1. Capsaicin-induced cell death in a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ching Lo; Yuan-Chen Yang; I-Chieh Wu; Fu-Chen Kuo; Chi-Ming Liu; Hao-Wei Wang; Chao-Hung Kuo; Jeng-Yi Wu; Deng-Chyang Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient found in red pepper,has long been used in spices, food additives, and drugs.Cell death induced by the binding of capsaicin was examined in a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS cells).METHODS: By using XTT-based cytotoxicityassay, flow cytometry using the TUNEL method, and quantitation of DNA fragmentation, both cell death and DNA fragmentation were detected in AGS cells treated with capsaicin. By using Western blotting methods, capsaicin reduced the expression of Bcl-2, the antiapoptotic protein, in AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner.RESULTS: After incubation of AGS cells with capsaicin for 24 h, cell viability decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. After incubation of AGS cells with capsaicin for 24 h, apoptotic bodies also significantly increased, and were again correlated with the dose of capsaicin. When the concentration of capsaicin was 1 mmol/L, the amount of DNA fragments also increased. Similar results werealso in the lower traces.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that capsaicininduced cell death might be via a Bcl-2 sensitive apoptotic pathway. Therefore, capsaicin might induce protection from gastric cancer.

  2. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  3. Obesity-induced Lymphedema Nonreversible following Massive Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Arin K.; Grant, Frederick D; Maclellan, Reid A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema is the progressive enlargement of tissue due to inadequate lymphatic function. Obesity-induced lymphedema of the lower extremities can occur once a patient’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds 50. We report our first patient with obesity-induced lower extremity lymphedema who was followed prospectively before and after weight loss. A 46-year-old woman with a BMI of 80 presented to our Lymphedema Program complaining of bilateral lower extremity swelling. Lymphoscintigraphy showe...

  4. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  5. Capsaicin- resistant arterial baroreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresen Michael C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic baroreceptors (BRs comprise a class of cranial afferents arising from major arteries closest to the heart whose axons form the aortic depressor nerve. BRs are mechanoreceptors that are largely devoted to cardiovascular autonomic reflexes. Such cranial afferents have either lightly myelinated (A-type or non-myelinated (C-type axons and share remarkable cellular similarities to spinal primary afferent neurons. Our goal was to test whether vanilloid receptor (TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin (CAP and resiniferatoxin (RTX, altered the pressure-discharge properties of peripheral aortic BRs. Results Periaxonal application of 1 μM CAP decreased the amplitude of the C-wave in the compound action potential conducting at 0.50 but completely inhibited discharge of an irregularly discharging BR (C-type. CAP at high concentrations (10–100 μM depressed BR sensitivity in regularly discharging BRs, an effect attributed to non-specific actions. RTX (≤ 10 μM did not affect the discharge properties of regularly discharging BRs (n = 7, p > 0.18. A CAP-sensitive BR had significantly lower discharge regularity expressed as the coefficient of variation than the CAP-resistant fibers (p Conclusion We conclude that functional TRPV1 channels are present in C-type but not A-type (A-δ myelinated aortic arch BRs. CAP has nonspecific inhibitory actions that are unlikely to be related to TRV1 binding since such effects were absent with the highly specific TRPV1 agonist RTX. Thus, CAP must be used with caution at very high concentrations.

  6. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Møller, P.; Smeets, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  7. Peripheral lidocaine, but not ketamine inhibit capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Bach, Flemming Winther; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of the subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine, lidocaine and saline before injury on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in two separate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover experiments. In experiment 1, 100...... micrograms capsaicin was injected intradermally in one volar forearm 10 min after the skin had been pretreated with lidocaine 20.0 mg in 2.0 ml or 0.9% saline 2.0 ml at the capsaicin injection site. In experiment 2, a similar capsaicin test was given 10 min after the skin had been pretreated with ketamine 5...... and brush stimuli, and areas of brush-evoked and punctate-evoked hyperalgesia. Lidocaine reduced all measures compared with placebo (P ketamine failed to change any measures. Pain scores and areas of hyperalgesia were not affected when the contralateral site was infiltrated with ketamine...

  8. Persistent Respiratory Symptoms following Prolonged Capsaicin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nugent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin causes direct irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. It is used in self-defense, in crowd control, and as a less lethal weapon in police work. Controlled trials suggest that capsaicin has minimal serious acute effects. Herein, we report a woman who had a 20-minute exposure to capsaicin during a jail riot. She subsequently developed episodic dyspnea and cough, and increased sensitivity to scents, perfumes, and cigarette smoke. She has not had wheezes on physical examination or abnormal pulmonary function tests. Her response to inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-agonists has been incomplete. She appears to have developed airway sensory hyperreactivity syndrome after the inhalation of capsaicin, which likely injured sensory nerves and/or caused persistent neurogenic inflammation.

  9. The role of capsaicin in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Katherine; Shea, Sofia M; Patterson, James W

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pain and pruritus are the common chief complaints at dermatology office visits. Unfortunately, they are also notoriously difficult conditions to treat. Topical capsaicin used as a single therapy or as an adjuvant offers a low-risk option for patients who do not achieve control on other therapies. This chapter presents the evidence behind topical capsaicin use in dermatologic conditions characterized by neurogenic pain or pruritus, including postherpetic neuralgia, notalgia paresthetica, brachioradial pruritus, lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, pruritus ani, pruritus of hemodialysis, aquagenic pruritus, apocrine chromhidrosis, lipodermatosclerosis, alopecia areata, and psoriasis. It presents the most common capsaicin formulations, dosages, and durations of treatment for each condition. Additionally, the chapter addresses various adverse effects and limitations in the use of topical capsaicin in dermatology. PMID:24941674

  10. Capsaicin in Idiopathic Rhinitis A Hot Topic

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijswijk, J B

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter I the currently known causes for nonallergic noninfectious rhinitis and possible treatments are summarised. Also possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying idiopathic rhinitis (IR) are discussed. In chapter II the aims of the studies are presented. This thesis comprises studies aimed at the therapeutic potential and safety of intranasal capsaicin in IR patients, developing a patient and physician friendly, effective intranasal capsaicin treatment regimen for IR a...

  11. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Xiong, Shiqiang; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction. PMID:27120617

  12. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction.

  13. IL-37 protects against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Diepen, van J.A.; Moschen, A.R.; Jansen, H.; Hijmans, A.; Groenhof, G.J.; Leenders, F.; Bufler, P.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines of the IL-1 family are important modulators of obesity-induced inflammation and the development of systemic insulin resistance. Here we show that IL-1 family member ¿IL-37, recently characterized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resista

  14. Perinatal programming of metabolic dysfunction and obesity-induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Hellgren, Lars; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    The number of obese women in the childbearing age is drastically increasing globally. As a consequence, more children are born by obese mothers. Unfortunately, maternal obesity and/ or high fat intake during pregnancy increase the risk of developing obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease...... associated with chronic low grade inflammation. Nobody have yet investigated the role of this inflammatory phenotype, but here we demonst rate that obesity induced inflammation is reversed during pregnancy in mice, and is therefore less likely to affect the fetal programming of metabolic dysfunction. Instead...... and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the children, which passes obesity and metabolic dysfunction on from generation to generation. Several studies try to elucidate causative effects of maternal metabolic markers on the metabolic imprinting in the children; however diet induced obesity is also...

  15. Recent Advances in Obesity-induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanshiro eTateya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated in rodents and humans that chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration occurs mainly in adipose tissue or liver during obesity, in which activation of immune cells is closely associated with insulin sensitivity. Macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1 macrophages that support microbicidal activity or alternatively activated (M2 macrophages that support allergic and antiparasitic responses. In the context of insulin action, M2 macrophages sustain insulin sensitivity by secreting IL-4 and IL-10, while M1 macrophages induce insulin resistance through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα. Polarization of M1/M2 is controlled by various dynamic functions of other immune cells. It has been demonstrated that, in a lean state, TH2 cells, Treg cells, natural killer T cells, or eosinophils contribute to the M2 activation of macrophages by secreting IL-4 or IL10. In contrast, obesity causes alteration of the constituent immune cells, in which TH1 cells, B cells, neutrophils, or mast cells induce M1 activation of macrophages by the elevated secretion of TNFα and IFNγ. Increased secretion of TNFα and free fatty acids from hypertrophied adipocytes also contributes to the M1 activation of macrophages. Since obesity-induced insulin resistance is established by macrophage infiltration and the activation of immune cells inside tissues, identification of the factors that regulate accumulation and the intracellular signaling cascades that define polarization of M1/M2 would be indispensable. Regulation of these factors would lead to the pharmacological inhibition of obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this review, we introduce molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology and review the most recent studies of clinical applications targeting chronic inflammation.

  16. Recent advances in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateya, Sanshiro; Kim, Francis; Tamori, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in rodents and humans that chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration occurs mainly in adipose tissue or liver during obesity, in which activation of immune cells is closely associated with insulin sensitivity. Macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1) macrophages that support microbicidal activity or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages that support allergic and antiparasitic responses. In the context of insulin action, M2 macrophages sustain insulin sensitivity by secreting IL-4 and IL-10, while M1 macrophages induce insulin resistance through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα. Polarization of M1/M2 is controlled by various dynamic functions of other immune cells. It has been demonstrated that, in a lean state, TH2 cells, Treg cells, natural killer T cells, or eosinophils contribute to the M2 activation of macrophages by secreting IL-4 or IL-10. In contrast, obesity causes alteration of the constituent immune cells, in which TH1 cells, B cells, neutrophils, or mast cells induce M1 activation of macrophages by the elevated secretion of TNFα and IFNγ. Increased secretion of TNFα and free fatty acids from hypertrophied adipocytes also contributes to the M1 activation of macrophages. Since obesity-induced insulin resistance is established by macrophage infiltration and the activation of immune cells inside tissues, identification of the factors that regulate accumulation and the intracellular signaling cascades that define polarization of M1/M2 would be indispensable. Regulation of these factors would lead to the pharmacological inhibition of obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this review, we introduce molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology and review the most recent studies of clinical applications targeting chronic inflammation. PMID:23964268

  17. Role of Autophagy in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis in U251 Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ping; Dong, Fu-Xing; Chai, Xiang; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Bao-Le; Gao, Dian-Shuai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the role of capsaicin in cancer prevention and treatment has gained people's attention. However, the mechanism of anti-glioma cells by capsaicin has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the mechanism of capsaicin in U251 cells. Cell viability was detected by MTT and extracellular LDH measurements, while immunofluorescence was performed to measure changes of LC3 in U251 cells. The expressions of LC3II, Puma-α, Beclin1, P62, Procaspase-3, and P53 were observed by immunoblotting. The cell viability decreased and the punctate patterns of LC3 in U251 cells were observed after Capsaicin treatment. Meanwhile, the expressions of Beclin1, P62, and Puma-α increased. After using 3-MA, the expressions of Beclin1 and Procaspase-3 were reduced while those of P53 and Puma-α increased. The expression of LC3II was increased after Pifithrin-α treatment. Therefore, we believed that capsaicin could induce apoptosis in U251 cells, and the inhibition of autophagy could contribute to apoptosis. PMID:26351174

  18. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  19. Improvement of symptoms of non-allergic chronic rhinitis by local treatment with capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, J S; Buvelot, J M; Polla, B S; Lundberg, J M

    1991-09-01

    Sixteen adult patients suffering from severe chronic non-allergic rhinitis with nasal vasoconstrictor abuse for more than a year, received, under local anaesthesia, an intranasal spray of capsaicin (3.3 x 10(-3) mol), the pungent agent in hot pepper, once weekly for 5 weeks. The subjective intensity of their nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea and sneezing frequency were evaluated throughout the study and the vascular effects of capsaicin on the nasal mucosa were recorded by anterior rhinomanometry and laser Doppler flowmetry. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilator agent present in sensory nerves and may play a major role in the vascular component of neurogenic inflammation. Therefore, the nasal mucosa content of CGRP-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) was determined by radioimmunoassay in biopsies obtained before and after the capsaicin treatment. Intra-nasal capsaicin application evoked a larger vascular response in patients with rhinitis than in controls (P less than 0.05). Both nasal vascular responses and subjective discomfort following capsaicin were markedly reduced after the fifth application (P less than 0.01). In parallel, a 50% reduction of the CGRP-LI content in the nasal biopsies was observed. All symptoms were significantly improved throughout a 6 month follow-up period. No significant side-effects occurred and weaning from nasal vasoconstrictor agents was possible. Both the subjective symptom score and objective measurements of vascular reactivity suggest that repeated intra-nasal capsaicin application could be beneficial for patients with chronic rhinitis, possibly by reducing hyperreactive nasal reflexes. PMID:1742652

  20. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  1. Improved oral bioavailability of capsaicin via liposomal nanoformulation: preparation, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Wang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Wei; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Deng, Wenwen; Wang, Qilong; Wang, Shicheng; Shi, Feng; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-04-01

    This study innovatively prepared an effective capsaicin-loaded liposome, a nanoformulation with fewer irritants, for oral administration. The in vitro and in vivo properties of the liposomal encapsulation were investigated and the potential possibility of oral administration evaluated. The liposomal agent composed of phospholipid, cholesterol, sodium cholate and isopropyl myristate was prepared using film-dispersion method. A level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established for the first time, which demonstrated an excellent IVIVC of both formulated and free capsaicin in oral administration. Physicochemical characterizations including mean particle size, zeta (ζ) potential and average encapsulation efficiency of capsaicin-loaded liposome were found to be 52.2 ± 1.3 nm, -41.5 ± 2.71 mv and 81.9 ± 2.43 %, respectively. In vivo, liposomal encapsulation allowed a 3.34-fold increase in relative bioavailability compared to free capsaicin. The gastric mucosa irritation studies indicated that the liposomal system was a safe carrier for oral administration. These results support the fact that capsaicin, an effective drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain, could be encapsulated in liposome for improved oral bioavailability. The excellent IVIVC of capsaicin-loaded liposome could also be a promising tool in liposomal formulation development with an added advantage of reduced animal testing. PMID:25231341

  2. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Zschenderlein

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 channel is a well recognized polymodal signal detector that is activated by painful stimuli such as capsaicin. Here, we show that TRPV1 is expressed in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. Despite the fact that the central amygdala displays the highest neuronal density, the highest density of TRPV1 labeled neurons was found within the nuclei of the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Capsaicin specifically changed the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP in the LA in brain slices of mice depending on the anesthetic (ether, isoflurane used before euthanasia. After ether anesthesia, capsaicin had a suppressive effect on LA-LTP both in patch clamp and in extracellular recordings. The capsaicin-induced reduction of LTP was completely blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME and was absent in neuronal NOS as well as in TRPV1 deficient mice. The specific antagonist of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1, AM 251, was also able to reduce the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on LA-LTP, suggesting that stimulation of TRPV1 provokes the generation of anandamide in the brain which seems to inhibit NO synthesis. After isoflurane anesthesia before euthanasia capsaicin caused a TRPV1-mediated increase in the magnitude of LA-LTP. Therefore, our results also indicate that the appropriate choice of the anesthetics used is an important consideration when brain plasticity and the action of endovanilloids will be evaluated. In summary, our results demonstrate that TRPV1 may be involved in the amygdala control of learning mechanisms.

  3. New developments in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Nilsson, Peter; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Redon, Josep; Luft, Frank; Schmieder, Roland; Engeli, Stefan; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Pall, Denes; Schlaich, Markus; Jordan, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a disorder that develops from the interaction between genotype and environment involving social, behavioral, cultural, and physiological factors. Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, musculoskeletal disorders, chronic kidney and pulmonary disease. Although obesity is clearly associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension, many obese individuals may not develop hypertension. Protecting factors may exist and it is important to understand why obesity is not always related to hypertension. The aim of this review is to highlight the knowledge gap for the association between obesity, hypertension, and potential genetic and racial differences or environmental factors that may protect obese patients against the development of hypertension and other co-morbidities. Specific mutations in the leptin and the melaninocortin receptor genes in animal models of obesity without hypertension, the actions of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and SNS activity in obesity-related hypertension may promote recognition of protective and promoting factors for hypertension in obesity. Furthermore, gene-environment interactions may have the potential to modify gene expression and epigenetic mechanisms could also contribute to the heritability of obesity-induced hypertension. Finally, differences in nutrition, gut microbiota, exposure to sun light and exercise may play an important role in the presence or absence of hypertension in obesity. PMID:26103132

  4. New developments in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Nilsson, Peter; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Redon, Josep; Luft, Frank; Schmieder, Roland; Engeli, Stefan; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Pall, Denes; Schlaich, Markus; Jordan, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a disorder that develops from the interaction between genotype and environment involving social, behavioral, cultural, and physiological factors. Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, musculoskeletal disorders, chronic kidney and pulmonary disease. Although obesity is clearly associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension, many obese individuals may not develop hypertension. Protecting factors may exist and it is important to understand why obesity is not always related to hypertension. The aim of this review is to highlight the knowledge gap for the association between obesity, hypertension, and potential genetic and racial differences or environmental factors that may protect obese patients against the development of hypertension and other co-morbidities. Specific mutations in the leptin and the melaninocortin receptor genes in animal models of obesity without hypertension, the actions of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and SNS activity in obesity-related hypertension may promote recognition of protective and promoting factors for hypertension in obesity. Furthermore, gene-environment interactions may have the potential to modify gene expression and epigenetic mechanisms could also contribute to the heritability of obesity-induced hypertension. Finally, differences in nutrition, gut microbiota, exposure to sun light and exercise may play an important role in the presence or absence of hypertension in obesity.

  5. Bioavailability of capsaicin and its implications for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollyson, William D; Stover, Cody A; Brown, Kathleen C; Perry, Haley E; Stevenson, Cathryn D; McNees, Christopher A; Ball, John G; Valentovic, Monica A; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-12-28

    The dietary compound capsaicin is responsible for the "hot and spicy" taste of chili peppers and pepper extracts. It is a valuable pharmacological agent with several therapeutic applications in controlling pain and inflammation. Emerging studies show that it displays potent anti-tumor activity in several human cancers. On a more basic research level, capsaicin has been used as a ligand to activate several types of ion-channel receptors. The pharmacological activity of capsaicin-like compounds is dependent on several factors like the dose, the route of administration and most importantly on its concentration at target tissues. The present review describes the current knowledge involving the metabolism and bioavailability of capsaicinoids in rodents and humans. Novel drug delivery strategies used to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic index of capsaicin are discussed in detail. The generation of novel capsaicin-mimetics and improved drug delivery methods will foster the hope of innovative applications of capsaicin in human disease. PMID:25307998

  6. An Overview about Versatile Molecule Capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is a pungent highly domesticated fat soluble alkaloid having its origin from Bolvia and Brazil. It is biosynthesized via phenylpropanoid pathway and branched chain fatty acid pathway. Mostly found in trans isomeric form. Its pungent analogues are synthesized using amidation reactions catalyzed by lipases and non-pungent analogues using acyl chain lengths and different substituent in aromatic ring. It acts by binding TRPV1 and shows wide applications in relief from pain, breast and prostate cancer, obesity, heart diseases and hair loses. Its increased intake may cause lesions of liver and kidney along with gastric cancer. A review is made of capsaicin research focusing mainly on its origin, biosynthesis, chemistry and pharmacology, including its toxicological aspects.

  7. Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Type 1 and Capsaicin Receptors May Contribute to the Complexity of Their Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Varga, Angelika; Selvarajah, Srikumaran; Jenes, Agnes; Dienes, Beatrix; Sousa-Valente, Joao; Kulik, Akos; Veress, Gabor; Brain, Susan D.; Baker, David; Urban, Laszlo; Mackie, Ken; Nagy, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibit co-expression and complex, but largely unknown, functional interactions in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons (PSN). We report that PSN co-expressing CB1 receptor and TRPV1 form two distinct sub-populations based on their pharmacological properties, which could be due to the distribution pattern of the two receptors. Pharmacologically, neurons respond either only to capsaicin (COR neurons) or to both capsaicin and the endogenous TRPV1 and CB1 receptor ligand anandamide (ACR neurons). Blocking or deleting the CB1 receptor only reduces both anandamide- and capsaicin-evoked responses in ACR neurons. Deleting the CB1 receptor also reduces the proportion of ACR neurons without any effect on the overall number of capsaicin-responding cells. Regarding the distribution pattern of the two receptors, neurons express CB1 and TRPV1 receptors either isolated in low densities or in close proximity with medium/high densities. We suggest that spatial distribution of the CB1 receptor and TRPV1 contributes to the complexity of their functional interaction. PMID:27653550

  8. [Capsaicin in treatment of neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchatnov, P R; Evzelman, M A; Abusueva, B A; Volkov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) is a serious medical problem. Antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants, used to relief pain, act on the central pain mechanisms and cause several side-effects, thus substantially restricting possibilities of their clinical application.At the same time, NP often has a peripheral component. Ligand-associated channels, including vanilloid receptors TRPV1, play a key role in the development of regional NP syndromes. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper and several other plants, is a highly selective ligand of TRPV1 receptors and has long been used in treatment of pain syndromes. However, its using is limited by short-term action and relatively low efficacy. Recently it has been shown that the local use of single high doses of capsaicin during 30-60 min causes a marked stable(> 12 weeks) effect. The decrease in NP (>50%) is seen in about half of patients. Current studies will allow to single out groups of patients with the maximal treatment effect of capsaicin. PMID:25629137

  9. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long T; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, attributed to diverse and interactive genetic and environmental factors. The associated health consequences of obesity are pleiotropic, with individuals being more susceptible to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and lipotoxicity-related chronic diseases. The contribution of maternal obesity to the offspring's predisposition to both obesity and its complications is increasingly recognized. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these "transmissible" effects is critical to develop therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk for "programmed" obesity. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1 and SIRT3, are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate metabolic balance and stress responses in both central and peripheral tissues, of which dysregulation is a well-established mediator for the development and effects of obesity. Nevertheless, their implication in the transmissible effects of maternal obesity across generations remains largely elusive. In this review, we examine multiple pathways and systems that are likely to mediate such effects, with particular emphasis on the role of SIRTs.-Nguyen, L. T., Chen, H., Pollock, C. A., Saad, S. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

  10. The effects of pregabalin and the glial attenuator minocycline on the response to intradermal capsaicin in patients with unilateral sciatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Sumracki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with unilateral sciatica have heightened responses to intradermal capsaicin compared to pain-free volunteers. No studies have investigated whether this pain model can screen for novel anti-neuropathic agents in patients with pre-existing neuropathic pain syndromes. AIM: This study compared the effects of pregabalin (300 mg and the tetracycline antibiotic and glial attenuator minocycline (400 mg on capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia in patients with unilateral sciatica on both their affected and unaffected leg. METHODS/RESULTS: Eighteen patients with unilateral sciatica completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Participants received a 10 µg dose of capsaicin into the middle section of their calf on both their affected and unaffected leg, separated by an interval of 75 min. Capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were recorded pre-injection and at 5, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Minocycline tended to reduce pre-capsaicin injection values of hyperalgesia in the affected leg by 28% (95% CI 0% to 56%. The area under the effect time curves for capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were not affected by either treatment compared to placebo. Significant limb differences were observed for flare (AUC (-38% in affected leg, 95% CI for difference -19% to -52%. Both hand dominance and sex were significant covariates of response to capsaicin. CONCLUSIONS: It cannot be concluded that minocycline is unsuitable for further evaluation as an anti-neuropathic pain drug as pregabalin, our positive control, failed to reduce capsaicin-induced neuropathic pain. However, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of minocycline observed pre-capsaicin injection is promising pilot information to support ongoing research into glial-mediated treatments for neuropathic pain. The differences in flare response between

  11. Late sensory function after intraoperative capsaicin wound instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Hansen, J B; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intense capsaicin-induced C-fiber stimulation results in reversible lysis of the nerve soma, thereby making capsaicin wound instillation of potential interest for the treatment of post-operative pain. Clinical histological and short-term sensory studies suggest that the C-fiber function...

  12. Integrating TRPV1 Receptor Function with Capsaicin Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Smutzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is a naturally occurring vanilloid that causes a hot, pungent sensation in the human oral cavity. This trigeminal stimulus activates TRPV1 receptors and stimulates an influx of cations into sensory cells. TRPV1 receptors function as homotetramers that also respond to heat, proinflammatory substances, lipoxygenase products, resiniferatoxin, endocannabinoids, protons, and peptide toxins. Kinase-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 leads to increased sensitivity to both chemical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, desensitization occurs via a calcium-dependent mechanism that results in receptor dephosphorylation. Human psychophysical studies have shown that capsaicin is detected at nanomole amounts and causes desensitization in the oral cavity. Psychophysical studies further indicate that desensitization can be temporarily reversed in the oral cavity if stimulation with capsaicin is resumed at short interstimulus intervals. Pretreatment of lingual epithelium with capsaicin modulates the perception of several primary taste qualities. Also, sweet taste stimuli may decrease the intensity of capsaicin perception in the oral cavity. In addition, capsaicin perception and hedonic responses may be modified by diet. Psychophysical studies with capsaicin are consistent with recent findings that have identified TRPV1 channel modulation by phosphorylation and interactions with membrane inositol phospholipids. Future studies will further clarify the importance of capsaicin and its receptor in human health and nutrition.

  13. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in pig skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars J; Herskin, Mette S

    2014-01-01

    Topical capsaicin is a well-established model of experimental hyperalgesia. Its application to the study of animals has been limited to few species. The effect of topical capsaicin on hyperalgesia in porcine skin was evaluated as part of a study of inflammatory pain in the pig. Two experiments we...

  14. Gastroprotection induced by capsaicin in healthy human subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyula Mózsik; János Szolcsányi; István Rácz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the gastro-protective effect of capsaicin against the ethanol- and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage in healthy human subjects.METHODS: The effects of small doses (1-8 μg/mL,100 mL) of capsaicin on the gastric acid secretion basal acid output (BAO) and its electrolyte concentration,gastric transmucosal potential difference (GTPD),ethanol- (5 mL 300 mL/L i.g.) and IND- (3x25 mg/d)induced gastric mucosal damage were tested in a randomized, prospective study of 84 healthy human subjects. The possible role of desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferents was tested by repeated exposures and during a prolonged treatment.RESULTS: Intragastric application of capsaicin decreased the BAO and enhanced "non-parietal" component, GTPD in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease of GTPD evoked by ethanol was inhibited by the capsaicin application,which was reproducible. Gastric microbleeding induced by IND was inhibited by co-administration with capsaicin,but was not influenced by two weeks pretreatment with a daily capsaicin dose of 3x400 μg i.g.CONCLUSION: Capsaicin in low concentration range protects against gastric injuries induced by ethanol or IND, which is attributed to stimulation of the sensory nerve endings.

  15. Capsaicin: From Plants to a Cancer-Suppressing Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Oliver, Angela M; Mejía-Teniente, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are plant secondary metabolites, capsaicin being the principal responsible for the pungency of chili peppers. It is biosynthesized through two pathways involved in phenylpropanoid and fatty acid metabolism. Plant capsaicin concentration is mainly affected by genetic, environmental and crop management factors. However, its synthesis can be enhanced by the use of elicitors. Capsaicin is employed as food additive and in pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, it has been found that capsaicin can act as a cancer preventive agent and shows wide applications against various types of cancer. This review is an approach in contextualizing the use of controlled stress on the plant to increase the content of capsaicin, highlighting its synthesis and its potential use as anticancer agent. PMID:27472308

  16. Capsaicin failed in suppressing cortical processing of CO2 laser pain in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Losito, Luciana; Difruscolo, Olimpia; Sardaro, Michele; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the nociceptive system in eight migraine without aura patients in the pain-free phase with 10 healthy controls, by evaluating the topography and the source of the CO2 laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) obtained by the right supraorbital skin, during and after capsaicin topical application. In healthy subjects the acute cutaneous pain induced by capsaicin reduced the amplitude of the vertex LEPs and induced a posterior shifting of the P2 wave dipolar source within the anterior cingulate cortex. These functional changes seemed significantly reduced in migraine patients, for a disturbed pattern of pain modulation at the cortical level, which may subtend the onset and persistence of migraine.

  17. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of capsaicine microemulsions

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIAN DIMA; GIGI COMAN; MIHAELA COTÂRLEŢ; PETRU ALEXE; ŞTEFAN DIMA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare capsaicin microemulsions and to assess their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Pseudoternare phase diagrams were made and were highlighted O/W/S/CoS weight ratios corresponding to microemulsion states. The oil phase (O) was soybean oil and for the aqueous phase (W) was used a mixture of water and glycerol in a ratio of 4:1 (wt/wt). As a surfactant (S) was used Tween 40 and cosurfactant (CoS) was ethanol in the mass ratio S:CoS = 2:1. Viscosimetr...

  18. Treatment of notalgia paresthetica with capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibsohn, E

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-four patients with notalgia paresthetica were treated with topical capsaicin (Zostrix) in a concentration of 0.025 percent for four months. In approximately 70 percent of the patients who remained in the study, relief of pruritus was achieved up to the 90 percent level. In the majority of these patients pruritus returned when use of the medication was stopped. The history, causes, and prevalence of the condition are reviewed. This treatment is the first described that is relatively effective. PMID:1521492

  19. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Sheng, Chu; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim; Dong Heui, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper ...

  20. Capsaicin treatment differentially affects feeding suppression by bombesin-like peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Ladenheim, Ellen E; Knipp, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral administration of bombesin (BN) and the related mammalian peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB), suppress food intake in rats. To examine whether all BN-like peptides utilize the same neural pathways to reduce feeding, rats were treated on postnatal day 2 with the injection vehicle or capsaicin, a neurotoxin that damages a subset of visceral afferent fibers. When rats reached adulthood, we compared the ability of a dose range of systemically administered ...

  1. Obesity Induces Tissue-Specific Changes in Lipid Peroxidation Defense Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation is thought to be a component of obesity-induced pathology. However, the tissue-dependent changes in lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and LOOH defense mechanisms in response to obesity are unclear. In this work, we utilized 14-week old male, obese Zucker rats and their control, lean litte...

  2. [Aural Stimulation with Capsaicin Ointment Improved the Swallowing Function in Patients with Dysphagia: Evaluation by the SMRC Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Ohnishi, Hiroki; Kawata, Ikuji; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    Cough and swallowing reflexes are important airway-protective mechanisms against aspiration. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, one of the side effects of which is cough, have been reported to reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in hypertensive patients with stroke. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to improve the swallowing function in post-stroke patients. On the other hand, stimulation of the Arnold nerve, the auricular branch of the vagus, triggers the cough reflex (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Capsaicin, an agonist of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), has been shown to activate the peripheral sensory C-fibers. Stimulation of the sensory branches of the vagus in the laryngotracheal mucosa with capsaicin induces the cough reflex and has been reported to improve the swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. In our previous study, we showed that aural stimulation of the Arnold nerve with 0.025% capsaicin ointment improved the swallowing function, as evaluated by the endoscopic swallowing score, in 26 patients with dysphagia. In the present study, the video images of swallowing recorded in the previous study were re-evaluated using the SMRC scale by an independent otolaryngologist who was blinded to the information about the patients and the endoscopic swallowing score. The SMRC scale is used to evaluate four aspects of the swallowing function: 1) Sensory: the initiation of the swallowing reflex as assessed by the white-out timing; 2) Motion: the ability to hold blue-dyed water in the oral cavity and induce laryngeal elevation; 3) Reflex: glottal closure and the cough reflex induced by touching the epiglottis or arytenoid with the endoscope; 4) Clearance: pharyngeal clearance of the blue-dyed water after swallowing. Accordingly, we demonstrated that a single application of capsaicin ointment to the external auditory canal of patients with dysphagia significantly improved the R, but not the S, M or C scores, and this

  3. Characterization of capsaicin induced responses in mice vas deferens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheykhzade, Majid; Gupta, Saurabh; Sørensen, Tinne;

    2011-01-01

    isolated preparations. The present study sets out to study and characterize the capsaicin as well as CGRP-induced responses in isolated mouse vas deferens. The effects of capsaicin and CGRP family of peptides were studied on electrically-induced twitch responses in the absence or presence of transient...... receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist and CGRP receptor antagonists. Twitch responses were attenuated by capsaicin (1nM-30nM) and CGRP family of peptides. The potency order was CGRP>intermedin-long (IMDL)~[Cys(Et)(2,7)]aCGRP~adrenomedullin (AM)>[Cys(ACM)(2,7)]a...

  4. The Therapeutic Effects of Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang Mixture in 50 Psychotic Patients with Obesity Induced by the Psychoactive Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁国安; 余国汉; 张教东; 梁绍材; 刘丽勤; 黄鹏; 陈惠娟; 肖爱祥; 李小芳; 蔡颖莲

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to observe the therapeutic effects of Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang Mixture (芩桂术甘汤) on obesity induced by psychoactive drugs, 100 psychotics with obesity induced by psychoactive drugs were randomly divided into a treatment group (50 cases)and a control group (50 cases) for a 8-week treatment.The changes were determined by means of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) with the body weight recorded before and after treatment. The results showed that the total effective rate was 72% in the treatment group, and 14% in the control group,with the former obviously superior to the latter (P<0.01). The BPRS scores were 33.02t7.34 in the treatment group and 32.39± 3.51 in the control group before treatment; and 20.38±5.10 in the treatment group and 20.82± 1.75 in the control group after treatment. The BPRS scores were obviously reduced after treatment in the two groups (both P<0.01), but with no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). This indicates that the Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang Mixture does not influence the curative effect of the psychoactive drugs while showing the body weight-reducing effect. Therefore, the Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang Mixture can be used for those psychotic patients with obesity induced by the psychoactive drugs (the incidence is 10-25%) in their continuous course of treatment with the latter drugs.

  5. Neonatal capsaicin causes compensatory adjustments to energy homeostasis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, E. H. E. M.; Wielinga, P. Y.; Strubbe, J. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Several mechanisms involved in ingestive behavior and neuroendocrine activity rely on vagal afferent neuronal signaling. Seemingly contradictory to this idea are observations that vagal afferent neuronal ablation by neonatal capsaicin (CAP) treatment has relatively small effects on glucose homeostas

  6. EFFECT OF CAPSAICIN ON SUBSTANCE P IN PSORIASIS VULGARIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万卷; 谭升顺

    2003-01-01

    Objective To the investigate the mechanism of capsaicin in psoriasis vulgaris. Methods Substance P(SP) in psoriatic lesions before and 6 weeks after the treatment with capsaicin was detedted by radioimmunoassary. Results After 3 weeks and 6 weeks treatment with capsaicin, SP in psoriatic lesions was decreased (P<0.05), while it in the self-control group was not decreased; Overall the efficient incidence in therapeutic group was 78.8% , while it in the control group was 36.8%. There was significant difference between them (χ2=16.30, P<0.001). Conclusion Capsaicin inhibits dermal inflammatory responses and proliferation of keratinocytes by decreasing the expression of SP in psoriasis vulgaris.

  7. Capsaicin facilitates carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZHANG; Yi-xianLIU; Yu-mingWU; Ze-minWANG; Rui-rongHE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of capsaicin on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity (CBA). METHODS: The functional curve of carotid baroreceptor (FCCB) was constructed and the functional parameters of carotid sinus baroreceptor were measured by recording sinus nerve afferent discharge in anesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. RESULTS: Low-concentration of capsaicin (0.2μmol/L) had no significant effect on CBA, while perfusion of the isolated carotid sinus with middle-concentration of capsaicin (1μmol/L) could shift FCCB to the left and upward,with peak slope (PS) increased from (2.47%±0.14%)/mmHg to (2.88%±0.10%)/mmHg (P<0.05) and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve discharge (PIV) enhanced from 211%±5% to 238%±6% (P<0.01). The threshold pressure (TP) and saturation pressure (SP) were significantly decreased from 68.0±1.1 to 62.7±1.0mmHg (P<0.01) and from 171.0±1.6 to 165.0±0.6 mmHg (P<0.01). By perfusing with high-concentration of capsaicin (5μmol/L), FCCB was shifted to the left and upward further and the changes of the functional parameters such as PS, TP, and SP were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with ruthenium red (100μmol/L), an antagonist of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), blocked the effect of capsaicin on CBA. Preperfusion with glibenclamide(20μmol/L), a KATP channel blocker, could eliminate the effect of capsaicin on CBA. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin exerts a facilitatory role on the isolated carotid baroreceptor in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory action of capsaicin may be attributed to the opening of KATP channels mediated by VR1.

  8. Capsaicin facilitates carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHANG; Yi-xian LIU; Yu-ming WU; Ze-min WANG; Rui-rong HE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of capsaicin on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity (CBA). METHODS: The functional curve of carotid baroreceptor (FCCB) was constructed and the functional parameters of carotid sinus baroreceptor were measured by recording sinus nerve afferent discharge in anesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus.RESULTS: Low-concentration of capsaicin (0.2 μmol/L) had no significant effect on CBA, while perfusion of the isolated carotid sinus with middle-concentration of capsaicin (1 μmol/L) could shift FCCB to the left and upward,with peak slope (PS) increased from (2.47 %±0.14 %)/mmHg to (2.88 %±0.10 %)/mmHg (P<0.05) and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve discharge (PIV) enhanced from 211%±5 % to 238 %±6 % (P<0.01). The threshold pressure (TP) and saturation pressure (SP) were significantly decreased from 68.0±1.1 to 62.7±1.0mmHg (P<0.01) and from 171.0±1.6 to 165.0±0.6 mmHg (P<0.01). By perfusing with high-concentration of capsaicin (5 μmol/L), FCCB was shifted to the left and upward further and the changes of the functional parameters such as PS, TP, and SP were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with ruthenium red (100 μmol/L), an antagonist of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), blocked the effect of capsaicin on CBA. Preperfusion with glibenclamide(20 μmol/L), a KATp channel blocker, could eliminate the effect of capsaicin on CBA. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin exerts a facilitatory role on the isolated carotid baroreceptor in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory action of capsaicin may be attributed to the opening of KATP channels mediated by VR1.

  9. The selective target of capsaicin on FASN expression and de novo fatty acid synthesis mediated through ROS generation triggers apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaichanok Impheng

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new insight into its possible application as a selective anti-cancer therapy. The present findings showed that capsaicin promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The onset of apoptosis was correlated with a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Apoptotic induction by capsaicin was mediated by inhibition of FASN protein expression which was accompanied by decreasing its activity on the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The expression of FASN was higher in HepG2 cells than in normal hepatocytes that were resistant to undergoing apoptosis following capsaicin administration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on FASN expression and activity was found to be mediated by an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin failed to alter ACC and ACLY protein expression, suggesting ACC and ACLY might not be the specific targets of capsaicin to induce apoptosis. An accumulation of malonyl-CoA level following FASN inhibition represented a major cause of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction instead of deprivation of fatty acid per se. Here, we also obtained similar results with C75 that exhibited apoptosis induction by reducing the levels of fatty acid without any change in the abundance of FASN expression along with increasing ROS production. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that capsaicin exhibits a potent anti-cancer property by targeting

  10. Obesity-induced DNA hypermethylation of the adiponectin gene mediates insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, A Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Pan, Xuebo; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Kwak, Soo-Heon; Bassas, Abdulelah F.; Sallam, Reem M.; Park, Kyong Soo; Assim A. Alfadda; Xu, Aimin; Kim, Jae Bum

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular region of the adiponectin promoter suppresses adiponectin expression through epigenetic control and, in turn, exacerbates metabolic diseases ...

  11. A comprehensive review of the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Keith; Boorman, Gary; Mohammad, Bashir; McKenzie, Donald; Babbar, Sunita

    2012-08-01

    Human exposure to capsaicin, the most abundant pungent chili pepper component, is ubiquitous. Evaluation of capsaicin's carcinogenic potential has produced variable results in in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. The capsaicin tested in older studies was often from pepper plant extracts and included other capsaicinoids and diverse impurities. Recent studies utilizing high-purity capsaicin and standardized protocols provide evidence that the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of capsaicin is quite low and that the purity of capsaicin is important. Several small epidemiological studies suggest a link between capsaicin consumption and stomach or gall bladder cancer, but contamination of capsaicin-containing foods with known carcinogens renders their interpretation problematic. The postulated ability of capsaicin metabolites to damage DNA and promote carcinogenesis remains unsupported. Anticancer activities of capsaicin have been widely reported, as it inhibits the activity of carcinogens and induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cell lines in vitro and explanted into rodents. Diverse mechanisms have been postulated for capsaicin's anticancer properties. One hypothesis is that inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes-particularly CYP2E1-retards carcinogen activation but is contradicted by the low potency of capsaicin for CYP inhibition. The potential for dietary capsaicin to act as a chemopreventative is now widely postulated. PMID:22563012

  12. Putrescine facilitated enhancement of capsaicin production in cell suspension cultures of Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Govindaswamy; Ravishankar, Gokare A

    2003-04-01

    Putrescine treatment (0.1 mmol/L) influenced enhancement of growth and capsaicin production in the cell suspension cultures of C. frutescens. The administration of polyamine inhibitor DFMA (alpha-DL-difluoromethylarginine) resulted in a reduction of the growth, capsaicin content and the endogenous titres of polyamines (PAs). The capsaicin synthase activity was also higher in the putrescine (Put) treated cultures. Ethylene levels were lower in the cultures treated with putrescine. This study suggested that Put facilitates growth and capsaicin production.

  13. Use of Capsaicin to Treat Pain: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Kyo Chung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is the pungent ingredient of chili peppers and is approved as a topical treatment of neuropathic pain. The analgesia lasts for several months after a single treatment. Capsaicin selectively activates TRPV1, a Ca2+-permeable cationic ion channel that is enriched in the terminals of certain nociceptors. Activation is followed by a prolonged decreased response to noxious stimuli. Interest also exists in the use of injectable capsaicin as a treatment for focal pain conditions, such as arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions. Recently injection of capsaicin showed therapeutic efficacy in patients with Morton’s neuroma, a painful foot condition associated with compression of one of the digital nerves. The relief of pain was associated with no change in tactile sensibility. Though injection evokes short term pain, the brief systemic exposure and potential to establish long term analgesia without other sensory changes creates an attractive clinical profile. Short-term and long-term effects arise from both functional and structural changes in nociceptive terminals. In this review, we discuss how local administration of capsaicin may induce ablation of nociceptive terminals and the clinical implications.

  14. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  15. Atorvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in mice with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ning; Huan, Yi; Huang, Hui; Song, Guang-ming; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of atorvastatin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods: Mice with insulin resistance and obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) were used. Atorvastatin (80 mg·kg−1·d−1) or vehicle control treatment was given orally once a day for 30 days. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and free fatty acids were monitored. Serum insulin an...

  16. Roles of TRPV1 and neuropeptidergic receptors in dorsal root reflex-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Xiaoju

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute cutaneous neurogenic inflammation initiated by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 receptors following intradermal injection of capsaicin is mediated mainly by dorsal root reflexes (DRRs. Inflammatory neuropeptides are suggested to be released from primary afferent nociceptors participating in inflammation. However, no direct evidence demonstrates that the release of inflammatory substances is due to the triggering of DRRs and how activation of TRPV1 receptors initiates neurogenic inflammation via triggering DRRs. Results Here we used pharmacological manipulations to analyze the roles of TRPV1 and neuropeptidergic receptors in the DRR-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin. The degree of cutaneous inflammation in the hindpaw that followed capsaicin injection was assessed by measurements of local blood flow (vasodilation and paw-thickness (edema of the foot skin in anesthetized rats. Local injection of capsaicin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP or substance P (SP resulted in cutaneous vasodilation and edema. Removal of DRRs by either spinal dorsal rhizotomy or intrathecal administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, reduced dramatically the capsaicin-induced vasodilation and edema. In contrast, CGRP- or SP-induced inflammation was not significantly affected after DRR removal. Dose-response analysis of the antagonistic effect of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist, capsazepine administered peripherally, shows that the capsaicin-evoked inflammation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and nearly completely abolished by capsazepine at doses between 30–150 μg. In contrast, pretreatment of the periphery with different doses of CGRP8–37 (a CGRP receptor antagonist or spantide I (a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist only reduced the inflammation. If both CGRP and NK1 receptors were blocked by co-administration of CGRP8–37 and spantide I

  17. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation. PMID:26220361

  18. Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin underlies obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyako; Ikeda, Kenji; Suganami, Takayoshi; Komiya, Chikara; Ochi, Kozue; Shirakawa, Ibuki; Hamaguchi, Miho; Nishimura, Satoshi; Manabe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Kimura, Kumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yutaka; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yamasaki, Sho; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-19

    In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation.

  19. Phα1β toxin prevents capsaicin-induced nociceptive behavior and mechanical hypersensitivity without acting on TRPV1 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Junior, Celio J; Milano, Julie; Souza, Alessandra H; Silva, Juliana F; Rigo, Flávia K; Dalmolin, Geruza; Cordeiro, Marta N; Richardson, Michael; Barros, Alexandre G A; Gomez, Renato S; Silva, Marco A R; Kushmerick, Christopher; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-08-01

    Phα1β toxin is a peptide purified from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer, with markedly antinociceptive action in models of acute and persistent pain in rats. Similarly to ziconotide, its analgesic action is related to inhibition of high voltage activated calcium channels with more selectivity for N-type. In this study we evaluated the effect of Phα1β when injected peripherally or intrathecally in a rat model of spontaneous pain induced by capsaicin. We also investigated the effect of Phα1β on Ca²⁺ transients in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and HEK293 cells expressing the TRPV1 receptor. Intraplantar or intrathecal administered Phα1β reduced both nocifensive behavior and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by capsaicin similarly to that observed with SB366791, a specific TRPV1 antagonist. Peripheral nifedipine and mibefradil did also decrease nociceptive behavior induced by intraplantar capsaicin. In contrast, ω-conotoxin MVIIA (a selective N-type Ca²⁺ channel blocker) was effective only when administered intrathecally. Phα1β, MVIIA and SB366791 inhibited, with similar potency, the capsaicin-induced Ca²⁺ transients in DRG neurons. The simultaneous administration of Phα1β and SB366791 inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca²⁺ transients that were additive suggesting that they act through different targets. Moreover, Phα1β did not inhibit capsaicin-activated currents in patch-clamp recordings of HEK293 cells that expressed TRPV1 receptors. Our results show that Phα1β may be effective as a therapeutic strategy for pain and this effect is not related to the inhibition of TRPV1 receptors. PMID:23597507

  20. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  1. Binding of Capsaicin to the TRPV1 Ion Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darré, Leonardo; Domene, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels constitute a notable family of cation channels involved in the ability of an organisms to detect noxious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli that give rise to the perception of pain, taste, and changes in temperature. One of the most experimentally studied agonist of TRP channels is capsaicin, which is responsible for the burning sensation produced when chili pepper is in contact with organic tissues. Thus, understanding how this molecule interacts and regulates TRP channels is essential to high impact pharmacological applications, particularly those related to pain treatment. The recent publication of a three-dimensional structure of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the absence and presence of capsaicin from single particle electron cryomicroscopy experiments provides the opportunity to explore these questions at the atomic level. In the present work, molecular docking and unbiased and biased molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate a structural model of the capsaicin-channel complex. In addition, the standard free energy of binding was estimated using alchemical transformations coupled with conformational, translational, and orientational restraints on the ligand. Key binding modes consistent with previous experimental data are identified, and subtle but essential dynamical features of the binding site are characterized. These observations shed some light into how TRPV1 interacts with capsaicin, and may help to refine design parameters for new TRPV1 antagonists, and potentially guide further developments of TRP channel modulators. PMID:26502196

  2. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  3. Attenuation of natural killer cell functions by capsaicin through a direct and TRPV1-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun Sik; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Gye Eun; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Davies, Alexander J; Oh, Seog Bae; Lee, Heuiran; Cho, Young Keol; Joo, Chul Hyun; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Sun Chang; Kim, Yoo Kyum

    2014-07-01

    The assessment of the biological activity of capsaicin, the compound responsible for the spicy flavor of chili pepper, produced controversial results, showing either carcinogenicity or cancer prevention. The innate immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer pathology and prevention; yet, the effect of capsaicin on natural killer (NK) cells, which function in cancer surveillance, is unclear. This study found that capsaicin inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production (interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α). Capsaicin impaired the cytotoxicity of NK cells, thereby inhibiting lysis of standard target cells and gastric cancer cells by modulating calcium mobilization in NK cells. Capsaicin also induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, but that effect required higher concentrations and longer exposure times than those required to trigger NK cell dysfunction. Furthermore, capsaicin inhibited the cytotoxicity of isolated NK cells and of an NK cell line, suggesting a direct effect on NK cells. Antagonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), a cognate capsaicin receptor, or deficiency in TRPV1 expression failed to prevent the defects induced by capsaicin in NK cells expressing functional TRPV1. Thus, the mechanism of action of capsaicin on NK cells is largely independent of TRPV1. Taken together, capsaicin may have chemotherapeutic potential but may impair NK cell function, which plays a central role in tumor surveillance. PMID:24743513

  4. Trigeminal ganglion neurons of mice show intracellular chloride accumulation and chloride-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schöbel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Cl(- concentrations ([Cl(-](i of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, Cl(- is accumulated by the Na(+-K(+-2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, resulting in a [Cl(-](i above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl(- efflux upon Cl(- channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl(-](i and function of Cl(- in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG of wild type (WT and NKCC1(-/- mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl(-](i of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl(- accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl(-](i as well as Ca(2+ transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca(2+ transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs. Ca(2+ responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1 were diminished in NKCC1(-/- TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl(-](o suggesting a Cl(--dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS, we found expression of different Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channels (CaCCs in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca(2+ imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1(-/- mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca(2+-activated Cl(--dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl(- accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs.

  5. Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice (Agt(aP2)). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24-hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agt(fl/fl) compared with Agt(aP2) mice (124 ± 3 versus 128 ± 3 mm Hg, respectively). In Agt(fl/fl) mice, high-fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hours; 134 ± 2 mm Hg; Pobesity hypertension.

  6. Combined B- and T-cell deficiency does not protect against obesity-induced glucose intolerance and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Stienstra, R.; Hijmans, A.G.M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation is associated with insulin resistance and morphologically characterized by macrophage influx into the adipose tissue. Recently, various other immune cells, including B- and T-cells, have been shown to participate in modulating adipose tissue inflammation during the devel

  7. Obesity induces upregulation of genes involved in myocardial Ca2+ handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima-Leopoldo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex multifactorial disorder that is often associated with cardiovascular diseases. Research on experimental models has suggested that cardiac dysfunction in obesity might be related to alterations in myocardial intracellular calcium (Ca2+ handling. However, information about the expression of Ca2+-related genes that lead to this abnormality is scarce. We evaluated the effects of obesity induced by a high-fat diet in the expression of Ca2+-related genes, focusing the L-type Ca2+ channel (Cacna1c, sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a, ryanodine receptor (RyR2, and phospholamban (PLB mRNA in rat myocardium. Male 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control or high-fat diet (obese for 15 weeks. Obesity was defined as increased percent of body fat in carcass. The mRNA expression of Ca2+-related genes in the left ventricle was measured by RT-PCR. Compared with control rats, the obese rats had increased percent of body fat, area under the curve for glucose, and leptin and insulin plasma concentrations. Obesity also caused an increase in the levels of SERCA2a, RyR2 and PLB mRNA (P < 0.05 but did not modify the mRNA levels of Cacna1c and NCX. These findings show that obesity induced by high-fat diet causes cardiac upregulation of Ca2+ transport_related genes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  8. Intramuscular and intradermal injection of capsaicin: a comparison of local and referred pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Svensson, Peter; Gottrup, Hanne;

    2000-01-01

    ), and one intradermal injection (i.d.): capsaicin 100 microg/20 microl. Local and referred pain intensities and areas were assessed from 0 to 60 min after injection. Intradermal capsaicin produced more intense local pain than i.m. capsaicin in the first min (skin: 68+/-6, muscle: 51+/-6 mm VASxmin, P...The present study compared capsaicin-induced muscle and skin pain in humans. Twelve healthy subjects received, in a randomised, balanced order, 3 intramuscular (i.m.) injections into the brachioradial muscle: capsaicin 100 microg/1 ml, capsaicin 100 microg/20 microl or 1 ml solvent (Tween 80....... The model with identical noxious stimulation of muscle and skin may be suitable for the study of differences in deep and superficial pain as seen in the clinic....

  9. Cellular and molecular players in adipose tissue inflammation in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jongsoon

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that inflammation is an important pathogenic mediator of the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. It is now generally accepted that tissue-resident immune cells play a major role in the regulation of this obesity-induced inflammation. The roles that adipose tissue (AT)-resident immune cells play have been particularly extensively studied. AT contains most types of immune cells and obesity increases their numbers and activation levels, particularly in AT macrophages (ATMs). Other pro-inflammatory cells found in AT include neutrophils, Th1 CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, DCs, and mast cells. However, AT also contains anti-inflammatory cells that counter the pro-inflammatory immune cells that are responsible for the obesity-induced inflammation in this tissue. These anti-inflammatory cells include regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs), Th2 CD4 T cells, and eosinophils. Hence, AT inflammation is shaped by the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cell homeostasis, and obesity skews this balance towards a more pro-inflammatory status. Recent genetic studies revealed several molecules that participate in the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review, the cellular and molecular players that participate in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance are discussed, with particular attention being placed on the roles of the cellular players in these pathogeneses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease. PMID:23707515

  10. Cellular and molecular players in adipose tissue inflammation in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jongsoon

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that inflammation is an important pathogenic mediator of the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. It is now generally accepted that tissue-resident immune cells play a major role in the regulation of this obesity-induced inflammation. The roles that adipose tissue (AT)-resident immune cells play have been particularly extensively studied. AT contains most types of immune cells and obesity increases their numbers and activation levels, particularly in AT macrophages (ATMs). Other pro-inflammatory cells found in AT include neutrophils, Th1 CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, DCs, and mast cells. However, AT also contains anti-inflammatory cells that counter the pro-inflammatory immune cells that are responsible for the obesity-induced inflammation in this tissue. These anti-inflammatory cells include regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs), Th2 CD4 T cells, and eosinophils. Hence, AT inflammation is shaped by the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cell homeostasis, and obesity skews this balance towards a more pro-inflammatory status. Recent genetic studies revealed several molecules that participate in the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review, the cellular and molecular players that participate in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance are discussed, with particular attention being placed on the roles of the cellular players in these pathogeneses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  11. Augmented Endothelial-Specific L-Arginine Transport Blunts the Contribution of the Sympathetic Nervous System to Obesity Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Karim, Florian; Evans, Roger G; Kaye, David M; Head, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Augmenting endothelial specific transport of the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine via cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT1) can prevent obesity related hypertension. We tested the hypotheses that CAT1 overexpression prevents obesity-induced hypertension by buffering the influence of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on the maintenance of arterial pressure and by buffering pressor responses to stress. Wild type (WT; n=13) and CAT1 overexpressing mice (CAT+; n=13) were fed a normal or a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Mice fed a high fat diet were returned to the control diet before experiments commenced. Baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) and effects of restraint-, shaker- and almond feeding-stress and ganglionic blockade (pentolinium; 5 mg/kg; i.p.) on MAP were determined in conscious mice. Fat feeding increased body weight to a similar extent in WT and CAT+ but MAP was greater only in WT compared to appropriate controls (by 29%). The depressor response to pentolinium was 65% greater in obese WT than lean WT (P obese and lean CAT+ (P = 0.65). In lean WT and CAT+, pressor responses to shaker and feeding stress, but not restraint stress, were less in the latter genotype compared to the former (P ≤ 0.001). Pressor responses to shaker and feeding stress were less in obese WT than lean WT (P ≤ 0.001), but similar in obese and lean CAT+. The increase in MAP in response to restraint stress was less in obese WT (22 ± 2%), but greater in obese CAT+ (37 ± 2%), when compared to respective lean WT (31 ± 3%) and lean CAT+ controls (27 ± 2%; P ≤ 0.02). We conclude that CAT1 overexpression prevents obesity-induced hypertension by reducing the influence of the SNS on the maintenance of arterial pressure but not by buffering pressor responses to stress.

  12. Involvement of a CCK-dependent capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathway in the inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on the colonic motor response to eating in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioramonti, J; Christen, M O; Dupre, I; Bueno, L

    1997-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide on the stimulation of colonic motility induced by meal and cholecystokinin (CCK) were investigated in rats chronically fitted with intraparietal electrodes on the proximal colon and previously treated or not by capsaicin. Pinaverium bromide inhibited in a dose-related manner (2-50 mg/kg, per os) the increase in colonic spike burst frequency induced by a 3 g meal or CCK-8 (2 micrograms/kg, i.v.). The CCK-A and CCK-B antagonists, devazepide and L 365260 (100 micrograms/kg, i.p.), respectively, inhibited the postprandial colonic motor response while only L 365260 reduced the CCK-induced stimulation. The effects of pinaverium bromide and CCK antagonists were not observed in capsaicin-treated animals. Moreover, CCK-8 (2 micrograms/kg, i.v.) did not stimulate colonic motility after capsaicin treatment. The inhibition of postprandial colonic motility by pinaverium bromide, given orally at therapeutic doses, involves a CCK-dependent pathway which requires the integrity of capsaicin-sensitive afferents. PMID:9243254

  13. Study on Vip protein expression in psoriatic epidermis with the topical treatment of capsaicin ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of capsaicin in treating active psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: VIP protein in active psoriatic lesions before and 30 days after the treatment of capsaicin ointment was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results:There was positive expression of VIP in all layers of psoriatic lesions epidermis (95.5 % ), but after the treatment of capsaicin ointment,there was nearly no expression of VIP protein in epidermis(22.2% ). Conclusion: Capsaicin inhibits proliferation and induces the differentiation of keratinocytes through down-regulating the expression of VIP in psoriatic epidermis.

  14. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Capsaicin and Its Analogues in Pain and Other Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, Shaherin; Cui, Minghua; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin is the most predominant and naturally occurring alkamide found in Capsicum fruits. Since its discovery in the 19th century, the therapeutic roles of capsaicin have been well characterized. The potential applications of capsaicin range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Indeed, capsaicin and few of its analogues have featured in clinical research covered by more than a thousand patents. Previous records suggest pleiotropic pharmacological activities of capsaicin such as an analgesic, anti-obesity, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and neuro-protective functions. Moreover, emerging data indicate its clinical significance in treating vascular-related diseases, metabolic syndrome, and gastro-protective effects. The dearth of potent drugs for management of such disorders necessitates the urge for further research into the pharmacological aspects of capsaicin. This review summarizes the historical background, source, structure and analogues of capsaicin, and capsaicin-triggered TRPV1 signaling and desensitization processes. In particular, we will focus on the therapeutic roles of capsaicin and its analogues in both normal and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27455231

  15. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Capsaicin and Its Analogues in Pain and Other Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaherin Basith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is the most predominant and naturally occurring alkamide found in Capsicum fruits. Since its discovery in the 19th century, the therapeutic roles of capsaicin have been well characterized. The potential applications of capsaicin range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Indeed, capsaicin and few of its analogues have featured in clinical research covered by more than a thousand patents. Previous records suggest pleiotropic pharmacological activities of capsaicin such as an analgesic, anti-obesity, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and neuro-protective functions. Moreover, emerging data indicate its clinical significance in treating vascular-related diseases, metabolic syndrome, and gastro-protective effects. The dearth of potent drugs for management of such disorders necessitates the urge for further research into the pharmacological aspects of capsaicin. This review summarizes the historical background, source, structure and analogues of capsaicin, and capsaicin-triggered TRPV1 signaling and desensitization processes. In particular, we will focus on the therapeutic roles of capsaicin and its analogues in both normal and pathophysiological conditions.

  16. Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbing; Shi, Ting; Yang, Xiaoling; Han, Wenya; Zhou, Yunrui

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98 mg L(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114 mg L(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mg L(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5) mg L(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.

  17. Some like it hot: The emerging role of spicy food (capsaicin) in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaxiong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Haijing; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Qianjin; Israeli, Eitan; Dahan, Shani; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases refer to a spectrum of diseases characterized by an active immune response against the host, which frequently involves increased autoantibody production. The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is multifactorial and the exploitation of novel effective treatment is urgent. Capsaicin is a nutritional factor, the active component of chili peppers, which is responsible for the pungent component of chili pepper. As a stimuli, capsaicin selectively activate transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1(TRPV1) and exert various biological effects. This review discusses the effect of capsaicin through its receptor on the development and modulation of autoimmune diseases, which may shed light upon potential therapies in capsaicin-targeted approaches. PMID:26812350

  18. Human responses to inhaled capsaicin are not inhibited by granisetron.

    OpenAIRE

    Choudry, N B; McEwan, J. R.; Lavender, E A; Williams, A J; Fuller, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Cough is a common respiratory symptom, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. In this study the role of 5-HT3 receptors was investigated. Capsaicin-induced cough and increase in airways resistance were measured in six male volunteers before and after infusion with granisetron 160 micrograms kg-1 or placebo. Neither cough nor the increase in respiratory resistance was altered by the active treatment. These results suggest that 5-HT3 receptors are not involved in these two respiratory res...

  19. Adlea (ALGRX-4975), an injectable capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) formulation for longlasting pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remadevi, Radhika; Szallisi, Arpad

    2008-02-01

    Anesiva Inc is developing Adlea (ALRGX-4975) - an injectable preparation of capsaicin, a TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1) receptor agonist - for the potential management of pain associated with osteoarthritis, tendonitiand postsurgical conditions, as well as for neuropathic pain occurring secondary to nerve injury. Adlea functions by desensitizing those neurons that conduct a long-lasting, throbbing form of pain. In phase II clinical trials, a single injection of Adlea significantly reduced pain levels in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or bunionectomy, and reduced pain in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or Morton's neuroma. Phase II trials are ongoing to test Adlea in patients who are undergoing total hip arthroplasty or arthroscopic shoulder surgery and in patients with knee OA. Phase III clinical trials for the compound have been slated to begin in 2008 in patients following TKA or bunionectomy. Adlea appears to exhibit promise as a new medication in the treatment of conditions of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:18240098

  20. Capsaicin: A Potent Inhibitor of Carbonic Anhydrase Isoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Arabaci

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1 is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 and water (H2O into a proton (H+ and bicarbonate (HCO3– ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II.

  1. Effects of aural stimulation with capsaicin ointment on swallowing function in elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo E

    2014-10-01

    food intake.Conclusion: These findings suggest that stimulation of the external auditory canal with ointment containing capsaicin improves swallowing function in elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. By the same mechanism used by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to induce cough reflex, which has been shown to prevent aspiration pneumonia, aural stimulation with capsaicin may reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in dysphagia patients via Arnold’s ear-cough reflex stimulation. Keywords: swallowing reflex, Arnold’s ear-cough reflex, external auditory canal, oral food intake

  2. Combined treatment with capsaicin and resveratrol enhances neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in mouse cerebral cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.G.; Yon, J.M.; Lin, C.; Jung, A.Y.; Jung, K.Y.; Nam, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Capsaicin and resveratrol as natural products have a variety of beneficial effects. However, capsaicin is also a neurotoxic agent, rendering its effect on the nervous system confusing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether capsaicin and/or resveratrol have a protective effect against glut

  3. CCK enhances response to gastric distension by acting on capsaicin-insensitive vagal afferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, EHEM; Duffy, P; Ritter, RC

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin treatment destroys vagal afferent C fibers and markedly attenuates reduction of food intake and induction of hindbrain Fos expression by CCK. However, both anatomical and electrophysiological data indicate that some gastric vagal afferents are not destroyed by capsaicin. Because CCK enhanc

  4. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in C57Bl6J mice, a novel risk factor in the progression of renal AA amyloidosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, R.A.; Sheedfar, F.; Bijzet, J.; Hazenberg, B.P.; Koonen, D.P.; Heeringa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compelling evidence links obesity induced systemic inflammation to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systemic inflammation may result from exacerbated adipose inflammation. Besides the known detrimental effects of typical pro-inflammatory factors secreted by the adipo

  5. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  6. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  7. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in C57Bl6J mice, a novel risk factor in the progression of renal AA amyloidosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, R.A. van der; Sheedfar, F.; Bijzet, J; Hazenberg, B P; Koonen, D.P.; Heeringa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compelling evidence links obesity induced systemic inflammation to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systemic inflammation may result from exacerbated adipose inflammation. Besides the known detrimental effects of typical pro-inflammatory factors secreted by the adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6) on the kidney, we hypothesize the enhanced obesity-induced secretion of serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute inflammatory protein, to play a key role in aggravating obe...

  8. Differential effects of systemically administered ketamine and lidocaine on dynamic and static hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Hansen, Peter Orm; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    the area of punctate-evoked hyperalgesia significantly. It tended to reduce VAS scores of spontaneous pain but had no effect on evoked pain. The differential effects of ketamine and lidocaine on static and dynamic hyperalgesia suggest that the two types of hyperalgesia are mediated by separate mechanisms......We have examined the effect of systemic administration of ketamine and lidocaine on brush-evoked (dynamic) pain and punctate-evoked (static) hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we studied 12 volunteers in three experiments...

  9. Extraction of capsaicins in aerosol defense sprays from fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Oliver; Almirall, José R

    2005-08-15

    The use of aerosol defense sprays has increased as a means of self-defense and as a weapon in the commission of a crime. The residue of these sprays is often left behind as physical evidence on a victim's clothing or personal belongings. As the popularity of self-defense weaponry increases, so does the likelihood that it will be encountered in forensic casework. The extraction, recovery from fabrics, and identification of residue from defense sprays is described. The commonly used extraction method of liquid-liquid extraction is compared to solid phase microextraction (SPME) to recover capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from cotton swabs. The use of SPME resulted in lower limits of detection and greater recovery efficiency when compared to solvent extraction. SPME also provided more consistent recovery and less variability when compared to solvent extraction. The effect of use of various types of evidence packages on the preservation of this type of evidence is also reported. The collection and analysis of hand swabs after normal discharge of pepper spray canisters was studied indicating the low persistence of these compounds on the hands of the person conducting the spraying. Finally, the results of a real case whereby solvent-solvent extraction did not provide the necessary sensitivity for extracting the capsaicin compounds on the garments of a victim of an alleged spraying and the SPME extraction provided the recovery and identification of the compounds is also presented. PMID:18970178

  10. Capsaicin receptor immunoreactivity in the human trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Mingyan; Uddman, Rolf; Tajti, Janos;

    2002-01-01

    ) in the human trigeminal ganglion (TG). In addition, RT-PCR confirmed the presence of VR1 mRNA in the human TG. It has been hypothesized that TG neuronal cell bodies are the source of capsaicin-stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and hence co-localization experiments were performed....... Around 10% of the VR1 receptor-ir is expressed on neurons that contain CGRP-ir (ten among 74) in the human TG, indicating that capsaicin may act through the VR1 receptor to modulate the release of CGRP and in turn to modulate pain. We observed that 8% of the VR1 receptor-ir neuronal cell bodies contain...... and protons, and therefore it is suggested as a molecular integrator of chemical and physical stimuli that elicit pain. In the present study, indirect immunofluorescence detected a small number of neurons that are VR1 receptor immunoreactive (ir) (171 versus 1038 or 16% of all neuronal cell bodies...

  11. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin, main pungent ingredient of hot chilli peppers, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic effect on various cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of capsaicin on human pancreatic cancer cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems, as well as the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro, treatment of both the pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and SW1990 with capsaicin resulted in cells growth inhibition, G0/G1 phase arrest, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, a marker of the endoplasmic-reticulum-stress- (ERS- mediated apoptosis pathway, by specific siRNA attenuated capsaicin-induced apoptosis both in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Moreover, in vivo studies capsaicin effectively inhibited the growth and metabolism of pancreatic cancer and prolonged the survival time of pancreatic cancer xenograft tumor-induced mice. Furthermore, capsaicin increased the expression of some key ERS markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, phosphoprotein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (phosphoPERK, and phosphoeukaryotic initiation factor-2α (phospho-eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 and GADD153 in tumor tissues. In conclusion, we for the first time provide important evidence to support the involvement of ERS in the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by capsaicin.

  12. The effects of chronic low-dose capsaicin treatment on substance P levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Nuray; Zik, Berrin; Sarigül, Münevver; Tütüncü, Serife

    2009-02-25

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper, is consumed in varying amounts by many ethnic groups. It serves both therapeutically and as a specific tool to investigate sensory neurons. Although effects of high capsaicin doses are well-established, systemic effects of chronic low-dose capsaicin exposure are unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats (21-day old) were injected with capsaicin (0.5 mg/kg, ip) for 6 and 19 days. Changes in Substance P (SP) levels of lung and skin were measured. Two-step sequential acetic acid extraction was used to estimate neuronal and non-neuronal SP. Six-day, but not 19-day capsaicin treatment decreased SP levels in first as well as second extractions of both tissues. Because the cumulative dose used here was much lower than the neurotoxic doses of capsaicin, initial decrease of SP levels must be due to continuous release of SP from nerve endings as well as non-neuronal tissues. The fact that SP levels returned to control values at the end of 19-day treatment demonstrates that reactive increases in SP synthesis occurred. These findings suggest that systemic exposure to low-dose capsaicin enhances sensory nerve function and also increases SP in non-neuronal tissues. In addition, significantly decreased SP levels of both tissues were observed in 40-day, compared to 27-day old rats.

  13. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24853712

  14. Capsaicin: A novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Oyagbemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide is the a principal pungent ingredient of hot red and chili peppers that belong to the plant genus Capsicum (Solanaceae. Capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent. It blocks the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB, activator protein 1 (AP-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 signaling pathway that are required for carcinogenesis. The anti-inflammatory potential of capsaicin is attributed to its inhibitory effect on inducible COX-2 mRNA expression. Cytochrome P4502E1 mediates the activation of xenobiotics such as vinyl carbamate and dimethyl nitrosamine to their toxic metabolites. This metabolic activation of xenobiotics by Cytochrome P4502E1 has been shown to be inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin also generates reactive oxygen species in cells with resultant induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which is beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Therefore, the use of capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent is of immense benefit for cancer chemoprevention. The search strategy included printed journals, pubmed, and medline, using the terms ′capsaicin′ and ′anticancer′ citations, relevant to anticancer properties of capsaicin.

  15. Capsaicin inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by down-regulating PP2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Seok; Yoon, Gang-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Sun-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Xenopus embryo serves as an ideal model for teratogenesis assays to examine the effects of any substances on the cellular processes critical for early development and adult tissue homeostasis. In our chemical library screening with frog embryo, capsaicin was found to repress the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Depending on the stages at which embryos became exposed to capsaicin, it could disrupt formation of dorsal or posterior body axis of embryo, which is associated with inhibition of maternal or zygotic Wnt signal in early development. In agreement with these phenotypes, capsaicin suppressed the expression of Wnt target genes such as Siamois and Chordin in the organizer region of embryo and in Wnt signals-stimulated tissue explants. In addition, the cellular level of β-catenin, a key component of Wnt pathway, was down-regulated in capsaicin-treated embryonic cells. Unlike wild-type β-catenin, its non-phosphorylatable mutant in which serine and threonine residues phosphorylated by GSK3 are substituted with alanine was not destabilized by capsaicin, indicative of the effect of this chemical on the phosphorylation status of β-catenin. In support of this, capsaicin up-regulated the level of GSK3- or CK1-phosphorylated β-catenin, concomitantly lowering that of its de-phosphorylated version. Notably, capsaicin augmented the phosphorylation of a phosphatase, PP2A at tyrosine 307, suggesting its repression of the enzymatic activity of the phosphatase. Furthermore, capsaicin still enhanced β-catenin phosphorylation in cells treated with a GSK3 inhibitor, LiCl but not in those treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. Together, these results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the patterning of the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior body axes of embryo by repressing PP2A and thereby down-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27318088

  16. IgG receptor FcγRIIB plays a key role in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Chambliss, Ken L; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-02-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB(+/+) mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet-fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals.

  17. Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Katiucha KHR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.

  18. Role of Muscle c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 1 in Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Kennedy, Norman J.; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Ong, Helena; Barrett, Tamera; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J

    2009-01-01

    Obesity caused by feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with an increased activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activated JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Significantly, Jnk1−/− mice are protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that an ablation of the Jnk1 gene in skeletal muscle does not influence HFD-induced obesity. However, muscle-s...

  19. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the skin in patients with symptoms induced by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, Holger;

    2011-01-01

    Intradermal injection of capsaicin induces the axonal release of neuropeptides, vasodilatation and flare, e.g. neurogenic inflammation. The spatial profile of neurogenic inflammation in the skin has been studied in various experimental models. Polarization spectroscopy imaging introduced recently...

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia of intracranial capsaicin sensitive afferents in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, RHA; Spoelstra, MB; Meijler, WJ; Ter Horst, GJ

    1998-01-01

    Migraineous and non-migraineous headache is reported to be at highest intensity after an infection. This study investigated whether activation of the immune system can induce hyperalgesia in intracranial capsaicin sensitive afferents. The effects of intraperitoneal injected lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

  1. 75 FR 22788 - Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    .... Capsaicin is a naturally occurring polymer that comprises the principal active element of chili peppers..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING CODE 6560-50-S...

  2. Quantitative determination of capsaicin, a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 agonist, by liquid chromatography quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry: evaluation of in vitro metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2009-02-01

    Capsaicin is the most abundant pungent molecule present in red peppers and it is widely used for food flavoring, in pepper spray in self-defense devices and more recently in ointments for the relief of neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is a selective agonist of transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1. A selective and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of capsaicin by LC-ESI/MS/MS was developed. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(18) Waters Symmetry column combined with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 220 microL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in full-scan MS/MS mode using two-segment analysis. An analytical range of 10-5000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve constructed in rat plasma. The interbatch precision and accuracy observed were 6.5, 6.7, 5.3 and 101.2, 102.7, 103.5% at 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL, respectively. An in vitro metabolic stability study was performed in rat, dog and mouse liver microsomes and the novel analytical method was adapted and used to determine intrinsic clearance of capsaicin. Results suggest very rapid degradation with T(1/2) ranging from 2.3 to 4.1 min and high clearance values suggesting that drug bioavailability will be considerably reduced, consequently affecting drug response and efficacy. PMID:18816461

  3. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%–90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%–95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin, indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. The effect of codeine on the Urge-to-Cough response to inhaled capsaicin

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, P.W.; Bolser, D. C.; Vickroy, T.; Berry, R.B.; Martin, A. D.; Hey, John A; Danzig, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously in normal subjects that a sensory measure, the Urge-to-Cough rating, increases at concentrations of inhaled capsaicin that are lower than those necessary to elicit reflex cough. This finding suggests that the Urge-to-Cough may represent an index of the cough response. Research on cough in the human has most often employed challenge with inhaled capsaicin to induce reflex cough. Current measures of cough sensitivity in the human provide no information regarding the int...

  5. Increased capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, Holger;

    2011-01-01

    in experimental pain models to provoke peripheral and central sensitization. In patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia and temporal summation were assessed as markers for abnormal central nociceptive processing together with neurogenic inflammation (flare).......the underlying cause of pathophysiological mechanisms triggering multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) remains disputed.Recently, alterations in the central nervous system, for example,central sensitization, similar to various chronic pain disorders, have been suggested. Capsaicin is used...

  6. The Effects of Exercise Training on Obesity-Induced Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT.

  7. Differences in the chemesthetic subqualities of capsaicin, ibuprofen, and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samantha M; Hayes, John E

    2012-06-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  8. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  9. Study on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 gene translation in psoriatic epidermis with the topical treatment of capsaicin ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of capsaicin in treating active psoriasis vulgaris.Methods A total of 42 patients with active psoriasis vulgaris diagnosed by histology and clinical features were given either placebo or 0.025% capsaicin ointment four times daily for 30 days randomly by double-blind method.Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1(VIPR1)gene translation in active psoriatic lesions before and after treatment with capsaicin ointment was detected by in situ hybridization.Results There ...

  10. Comparison of in vitro metabolism and cytotoxicity of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Mia; Pesonen, Maija; Salo, Heta; Söderström, Martin; Pasanen, Markku; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Vanninen, Paula

    2016-01-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are the major active components in pepper spray products, which are widely used for law enforcement and self-protection. The use of pepper sprays, due to their irreversible and other health effects has been under a strong debate. In this study, we compared metabolism and cytotoxicity of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin using human and pig liver cell fractions and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) in vitro. Metabolites were screened and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using liver cell fractions, a novel aliphatic hydroxylated metabolite (m/z 322) was detected to dihydrocapsaicin but no structure was found corresponding to capsaicin. Instead, a novel phase I metabolite of capsaicin, corresponding to the structure of aliphatic demethylation and dehydrogenation (m/z 294) was identified. In addition, two novel conjugates, glycine conjugates (m/z 363 and m/z 365) and bi-glutathione (GSH) conjugates (m/z 902 and m/z 904), were identified for both capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The medium of the exposed A549 cells contained ω-hydroxylated (m/z 322) and alkyl dehydrogenated (m/z 304) forms, as well as a glycine conjugate of capsaicin. As to dihydrocapsaicin, an alkyl dehydrogenated (m/z 306) form, a novel alkyl hydroxylated form, and a novel glycine conjugate were found. In A549 cells, dihydrocapsaicin evoked vacuolization and decreased cell viability more efficiently than capsaicin. Furthermore, both compounds induced p53 protein and G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Usefulness of the found metabolites as biomarkers for capsaicinoid exposures will need further investigations with additional toxicity endpoints. PMID:26688344

  11. Characterization of cubosomes as a targeted and sustained transdermal delivery system for capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xinsheng Peng,1* Yanfang Zhou,1* Ke Han,2,3 Lingzhen Qin,3 Linghui Dian,1 Ge Li,4 Xin Pan,3 Chuanbin Wu3 1Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, 2The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 4Guangzhou Neworld Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Phytantriol- and glycerol monooleate-based cubosomes were produced and characterized as a targeted and sustained transdermal delivery system for capsaicin. The cubosomes were prepared by emulsification and homogenization of phytantriol (F1, glycerol monooleate (F2, and poloxamer dispersions, characterized for morphology and particle size distribution by transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Their Im3m crystallographic space group was confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. An in vitro release study showed that the cubosomes provided a sustained release system for capsaicin. An in vitro diffusion study conducted using Franz diffusion cells indicated that the skin retention of capsaicin from cubosomes in the stratum corneum was much higher (2.75±0.22 µg versus 4.32±0.13 µg, respectively than that of capsaicin cream (0.72±0.13 µg. The stress testing showed that the cubosome formulations were stable under strong light and high temperature for up to 10 days. After multiapplications on mouse skin, the irritation of capsaicin cubosomes and cream was light with the least amount of side effects. Overall, the present study demonstrated that cubosomes may be a suitable skin-targeted and sustained delivery system for the transdermal administration of capsaicin. Keywords: cubosomes, skin-targeted delivery, capsaicin

  12. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Roel A.; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complicat

  13. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) Affects Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation without Systemic Effects in Humans and in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Essen, P. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Jansen, H.J.; Hijmans, A.G.; Matsuguchi, T.; Sparrer, H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose ti

  14. Inhibition of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) by capsaicin in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Han; Li, Haonan; Zhang, Wanying; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Liao, Jie; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Capsaicin is a major biologically active ingredient of chili peppers. Extensive studies indicate that capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent via blocking the activities of several signal transduction pathways including nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, there is little study on the effect of capsaicin on pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the present study, the effect of capsaicin on pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepitheli...

  15. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects between hot pepper extract and capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Min Gang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin. Methods : In vitro, antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity(TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochonria and total phenolic contents. Results : 1. DPPH free radical scavenging actiivities at the concentrations of both 1 and 10㎎/㎖ were 1.2 to 1.9 times higher in capsaicin than in hot pepper extract. The concentration of capsaicin required for 50% radical scavenging was lower than that of hot pepper extract(3.9 vs 5.9㎎/㎖, indicating that capsaicin had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 2. Total antioxidant capacities of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1mg/ml(13.8 and 41.3 nmol Trolox equivalent were not significantly different from those at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖(11.4 and 41.2nmol Trolox equivalent, indicating that capsaicin showed 10 times higher ABTS radical scavenging activity compared to hot pepper extract. 3. ORAC of capsaicin at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/ml were 0.04, 0.17, 0.29 and 1.74nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100㎍/㎖ were 0.15, 0.44, 0.75 and 2.49nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1 and 10mg/㎖ were 12.2 and 61.4%, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by capsaicin at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖l were 64.0 and 96.8%, respectively. Thus capsaicin showed 10 times stronger effect in inhibiton of lipid peroxidation than hot pepper extract. 5. Total phenolic contents of hot pepper extract at the

  16. Obesity-induced changes in kidney mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the presence or absence of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Shankar; do Carmo, Jussara M; Hosler, Jonathan P; Hall, John E

    2015-10-15

    We investigated obesity-induced changes in kidney lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the absence of hypertension, and the potential role of leptin in modulating these changes. We compared two normotensive genetic mouse models of obesity, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and hyperleptinemic melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient mice (LoxTB MC4R-/-), with their respective lean controls. Compared with controls, ob/ob and LoxTB MC4R-/- mice exhibit significant albuminuria, increased creatinine clearance, and high renal triglyceride content. Renal ATP levels were decreased in both obesity models, and mitochondria isolated from both models showed alterations that would lower mitochondrial ATP production. Mitochondria from hyperleptinemic LoxTB MC4R-/- mice kidneys respired NADH-generating substrates (including palmitate) at lower rates due to an apparent decrease in complex I activity, and these mitochondria showed oxidative damage. Kidney mitochondria of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice showed normal rates of respiration with no evidence of oxidative damage, but electron transfer was partially uncoupled from ATP synthesis. A fourfold induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression indicated induction of ER stress in kidneys of hyperleptinemic LoxTB MC4R-/- mice. In contrast, ER stress was not induced in kidneys of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Our findings show that obesity, in the absence of hypertension, is associated with renal dysfunction in mice but not with major renal injury. Alterations to mitochondria that lower cellular ATP levels may be involved in obesity-induced renal injury. The type and severity of mitochondrial and ER dysfunction differs depending upon the presence or absence of leptin.

  17. Obesity-induced changes in kidney mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the presence or absence of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Shankar; do Carmo, Jussara M; Hosler, Jonathan P; Hall, John E

    2015-10-15

    We investigated obesity-induced changes in kidney lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the absence of hypertension, and the potential role of leptin in modulating these changes. We compared two normotensive genetic mouse models of obesity, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and hyperleptinemic melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient mice (LoxTB MC4R-/-), with their respective lean controls. Compared with controls, ob/ob and LoxTB MC4R-/- mice exhibit significant albuminuria, increased creatinine clearance, and high renal triglyceride content. Renal ATP levels were decreased in both obesity models, and mitochondria isolated from both models showed alterations that would lower mitochondrial ATP production. Mitochondria from hyperleptinemic LoxTB MC4R-/- mice kidneys respired NADH-generating substrates (including palmitate) at lower rates due to an apparent decrease in complex I activity, and these mitochondria showed oxidative damage. Kidney mitochondria of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice showed normal rates of respiration with no evidence of oxidative damage, but electron transfer was partially uncoupled from ATP synthesis. A fourfold induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression indicated induction of ER stress in kidneys of hyperleptinemic LoxTB MC4R-/- mice. In contrast, ER stress was not induced in kidneys of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Our findings show that obesity, in the absence of hypertension, is associated with renal dysfunction in mice but not with major renal injury. Alterations to mitochondria that lower cellular ATP levels may be involved in obesity-induced renal injury. The type and severity of mitochondrial and ER dysfunction differs depending upon the presence or absence of leptin. PMID:26290368

  18. Asthma exacerbation related with inhalation of hot peppers extract (capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we aimed to prospectively investigate,asthma provoking factors and among thesefactors the place of Hot pepper (Isot during August-Septembermonths which are time period for processing isot.Methods: In this study, 73 female patients with exacerbationof asthma who applied to Chest Diseases OutpatientClinic and emergency department in the period of August-September (2010 were evaluated prospectively.Results: Seventy-three asthmatic female patients, meansage 34.7±6.1 (22-43 years were included. Patients withexacerbation of asthma provoking factors are; inhalationof isot pepper 28.8%, infections 23.3%, irregular use ofdrugs 16.4%, exposure to biomass and cigarette smoke13.7%, allergens 9.6%, emotional factors 5%, and gastroesophagealreflux 2.7%, physical exercise 1.4%.Conclusion: We observed that the most important asthmaprovoking factor was the inhalation of isot extract inasthmatic female patients in August-September (2010period in Sanliurfa. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 331-334Key words: Asthma, hot pepper, Isot, capsaicin, Sanliurfa

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin and capsaicin in induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-12-01

    Health beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of dietary spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin alone and in combination included in the diet for 8 weeks were evaluated in induced hypercholesterolemic rats, in order to verify if there is any additive or synergistic effect of these two bioactive compounds. Dietary curcumin (0.2%), capsaicin (0.015%) or their combination significantly countered the hypercholesterolemia brought about by high cholesterol feeding. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary spice principles only in normal rats. Liver triglyceride levels were lowered in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rats by capsaicin. Curcumin and capsaicin lowered hepatic and blood lipid peroxides in hypercholesterolemic rats, while the effect in blood was additive with their combination. Hepatic ascorbic acid was enhanced by dietary spice principles in normal rats; glutathione was enhanced by their combination only in hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of serum glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and catalase and hepatic glutathione reductase in normal rats and serum glutathione peroxidase in hypercholesterolemic rats were enhanced by dietary spice principles. While dietary curcumin and capsaicin normalized the changes in the levels of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes to a significant extent, this effect was not generally additive when given in combination, and was higher than the individual effects only in a few instances.

  20. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  1. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  2. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  3. Gender differences in pain and secondary hyperalgesia after heat/capsaicin sensitization in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Petersen, Karin Lottrup

    2006-01-01

    , but not total pain, during prolonged noxious thermal stimulation was higher in women. There was no gender difference in pain ratings during capsaicin sensitization or in heat pain detection thresholds. The results provided only limited support to the hypothesis that gender differences in clinical pain syndromes....../capsaicin sensitization, and heat pain detection thresholds. There was a trend toward smaller areas of secondary hyperalgesia in women. After adjusting for estimated gender differences in forearm surface area, areas to brush but not von Frey hair stimulation after capsaicin sensitization were larger in women. Peak pain...... can be explained by enhanced central sensitization in women. PERSPECTIVE: Our findings suggest that gender differences in nociceptive transmission and neuronal sensitization are small and provide only limited support to the hypothesis that gender differences in acute and chronic pain syndromes can...

  4. Capsaicin cough sensitivity and the association with clinical parameters in bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-jie Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cough hypersensitivity has been common among respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of capsaicin cough sensitivity and clinical parameters in adults with clinically stable bronchiectasis. METHODS: We recruited 135 consecutive adult bronchiectasis patients and 22 healthy subjects. History inquiry, sputum culture, spirometry, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT, Leicester Cough Questionnaire scoring, Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI assessment and capsaicin inhalation challenge were performed. Cough sensitivity was measured as the capsaicin concentration eliciting at least 2 (C2 and 5 coughs (C5. RESULTS: Despite significant overlap between healthy subjects and bronchiectasis patients, both C2 and C5 were significantly lower in the latter group (all P<0.01. Lower levels of C5 were associated with a longer duration of bronchiectasis symptoms, worse HRCT score, higher 24-hour sputum volume, BSI and sputum purulence score, and sputum culture positive for P. aeruginosa. Determinants associated with increased capsaicin cough sensitivity, defined as C5 being 62.5 µmol/L or less, encompassed female gender (OR: 3.25, 95%CI: 1.35-7.83, P<0.01, HRCT total score between 7-12 (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.07-6.173, P = 0.04, BSI between 5-8 (OR: 4.05, 95%CI: 1.48-11.06, P<0.01 and 9 or greater (OR: 4.38, 95%CI: 1.48-12.93, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin cough sensitivity is heightened in a subgroup of bronchiectasis patients and associated with the disease severity. Gender and disease severity, but not sputum purulence, are independent determinants of heightened capsaicin cough sensitivity. Current testing for cough sensitivity diagnosis may be limited because of overlap with healthy subjects but might provide an objective index for assessment of cough in future clinical trials.

  5. Activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and prevents hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dachun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao;

    2010-01-01

    Some plant-based diets lower the cardiometabolic risks and prevalence of hypertension. New evidence implies a role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about impact of chronic TRPV1 activation on the...... regulation of vascular function and blood pressure. Here we report that chronic TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increases the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and eNOS and thus production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, which is calcium dependent. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin...

  6. Reaction to topical capsaicin in spinal cord injury patients with and without central pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Pedersen, Louise H.; Terkelsen, Astrid J.;

    2007-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain is a debilitating and frequent complication to spinal cord injury (SCI). Excitatory input from hyperexcitable cells around the injured grey matter zone is suggested to play a role for central neuropathic pain felt below the level of a spinal cord injury. Direct evidence...... of a spinal cord injury which already is hyperexcitable, would cause enhanced responses in patients with central pain at the level of injury compared to patients without neuropathic pain and healthy controls. Touch, punctuate stimuli, cold stimuli and topical capsaicin was applied above, at, and below injury...... at the level of injury. Keywords: Spinal cord injury; Neuropathic pain; Capsaicin; Neuronal hyperexcitability; Hyperalgesia; Blood flow...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Effects of Capsaicin and Menthol on Intraoral Somatosensory Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shengyi; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Zhang, Zhenting;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the spatial and temporal sensory effects of the topical application of capsaicin and menthol on the gingiva of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Capsaicin, menthol, and saline (control) were applied topically on the gingiva in the maxillary premolar area of healthy volunteers for 15...... minutes. Pain intensity was rated on a 0 to 10 visual analog scale (VAS). Before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after application, three mechanical stimuli were applied at 15 gingival sites: fixed-intensity stimuli were applied by 32 mN and 512 mN von Frey filaments, and stimuli of increasing...

  8. Inhibition of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin derivatives towards histone deacetylase and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakit Kumboonma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural products, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, were modified at double-bond and phenolic moieties to provide twelve capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin derivatives. The natural products and synthesized compounds were evaluated as histone deacetylase inhibitors via in vitro fluorometric assay at 500 mM concentrations. The results revealed that a methyl ester derivative and a silyl-protected dihydrocapsaicin were the best histone deacetylase inhibitors among the tested compounds with 87% and 85% inhibitions, respectively. Molecular docking experiments were conducted on the obtained compounds with the human HDAC8 enzyme. These data show a new method for providing putative histone deacetylase inhibitors from common natural products.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane: modification by capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet-radiation has been reported to cause lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. In the present study, treatment with capsaicin, (8-methyl-n-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), the pungent principle of red hot pepper, was shown to modify UV-induced lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. Treatment with low doses of capsaicin (less than 0.1 μg/mL of phosphatidyl choline liposome) produced a significant increase in UV-induced lipid peroxidation, while high doses (0.1-0.5 μg/mL of PC liposome) caused a significant decrease of UV-induced peroxidation

  10. Capsaicin and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) decrease tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Xóchitl; Ortiz-Mesina, Mónica; Uribe, Tannia; Castro, Elena; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Urzúa, Zorayda; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Huerta, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vanilloid receptor (VR1) mRNA is expressed in muscle fibers. In this study, we evaluated the functional effects of VR1 activation. We measured caffeine-induced contractions in bundles of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of Rana pipiens. Isometric tension measurements showed that two VR1 agonists, capsaicin (CAP) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA), reduced muscle peak tension to 57 ± 4 % and 71 ± 3% of control, respectively. The effect of CAP was partially blocked by a VR1 blocker, capsazepine (CPZ), but the effect of NADA was not changed by CPZ. Because NADA is able to act on cannabinoid receptors, which are also present in muscle fibers, we tested the cannabinoid antagonist AM281. We found that AM281 antagonized both CAP and NADA effects. AM281 alone reduced peak tension to 80 ± 6 % of control. With both antagonists, the CAP effect was completely blocked, and the NADA effect was partially blocked. These results provide pharmacological evidence of the functional presence of the VR1 receptor in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog and suggest that capsaicin and NADA reduce tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.

  11. Capsaicin protects endothelial cells and macrophage against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced injury by direct antioxidant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Lin, Chin-Yin; Lee, Yi-Hsun; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2015-02-25

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, leukocyte activation, and the production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Capsaicin, a biologically active compound of the red pepper and chili pepper, has several anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hypolipidemic biological effects. However, its protective effects on foam cell formation and endothelial injury induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of capsaicin, and determined the mechanism by which capsaicin rescues human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from oxLDL-mediated dysfunction. The anti-oxidative activity of capsaicin was defined by Apo B fragmentation and conjugated diene production of the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Capsaicin repressed ROS generation, as well as subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c expression, chromosome condensation, and caspase-3 activation induced by oxLDL in HUVECs. Capsaicin also protected foam cell formation in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggest that capsaicin may prevent oxLDL-induced cellular dysfunction and protect RAW 264.7 cells from LDL oxidation. PMID:25603234

  12. Development, Characterization and Skin Interaction of Capsaicin-Loaded Microemulsion-Based Nonionic Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjit, Sureewan; Chairat, Wisuta; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwannee; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel microemulsions (MEs) for the transdermal delivery of capsaicin. Microemulsion-based nonionic surfactants consisting of isopropyl myristate as the oil phase, various nonionic surfactants as the surfactant (S), various glycols or alcohol as the co-surfactant (CoS), and reverse osmosis water as the aqueous phase were formulated. Based on the optimal ME obtained from Design Expert, MEs containing a fixed concentration of oil, water or surfactant were prepared while varying the amounts of the other two fractions. The results indicated that the skin permeation flux of low dose capsaicin (0.15% (w/w)) was significantly higher for the selected ME than the commercial product and capsaicin in ethanol (control) by approximately two- and four-fold, respectively. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the transdermal delivery of capsaicin-loaded ME using a low concentration of nonionic surfactant and ethanol. Moreover, the optimization using computer program helped to simplify the development of a pharmaceutical product. PMID:27040633

  13. Comparison of the effects of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin on human vanilloid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-07-01

    Pelargonic acid vanillylamide is like capsaicin a natural capsaicinoid from chili peppers and commonly used in food additives to create a hot sensation, even in self-defense pepper sprays and as an alternative to capsaicin in medical products for topical treatment of pain. Although the chemical structures of both compounds are similar, preclinical data suggest that capsaicin is the more potent compound. We therefore performed voltage-clamp recordings using cells transfected with the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 in order to assess the responses of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin at the receptor level. We provide evidence that at the molecular target TRPV1, the concentration-response curves, kinetics of current activation, as well as inhibition by the competitive antagonist capsazepine were not significantly different between the two capsaicinoids. We suggest that the different effects of the two capsaicinoids observed in previous studies may rather be due to different physicochemical or pharmacokinetic properties than to different pharmacological profiles at the receptor level. PMID:22961689

  14. Resiniferatoxin and its analogs provide novel insights into the pharmacology of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent constituent of chili peppers, represents the paradigm for the capsaicinoids or vanilloids, a family of compounds shown to stimulate and then desensitize specific subpopulations of sensory receptors, including C-polymodal nociceptors, A-delta mechanoheat nociceptors and warm receptors of the skin, as well as enteroceptors of thin afferent fibers. An exciting recent advance in the field has been the finding that resiniferatoxin (RTX), a naturally occurring diterpene containing a homovanillic acid ester, a key structural motif of capsaicin, functions as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog. For most of the responses characteristic of capsaicin, RTX is 100-10,000 fold more potent. Structure/activity analysis indicates, however, that RTX and related homovanillyl-diterpene esters display distinct spectra of activity. Specific ({sup 3}H)RTX binding provides the first direct proof for the existence of vanilloid receptors. We expect that the RTX class of vanilloids will promote rapid progress in understanding of vanilloid structure/activity requirements and mechanism.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of substance P and capsaicin microinjected into the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, L.; Jong, Wybren de; Wied, D. de

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the effect of substance P (SP) and capsaicin on blood pressure and heart rate after administration into different sites of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Microinjection of SP at 6 different coordinates throughout the NTS showed 3 sites where

  16. Adrenomedullin 2 Improves Early Obesity-Induced Adipose Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting the Class II MHC in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Yang; Lv, Ying; Zhang, Heng; Gao, Song; Wang, Ting; Feng, Juan; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Wang, Xian; Jiang, Changtao

    2016-08-01

    MHC class II (MHCII) antigen presentation in adipocytes was reported to trigger early adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the benefits of MHCII inhibition in adipocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that human plasma polypeptide adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) levels were negatively correlated with HOMA of insulin resistance in obese human. Adipose-specific human ADM2 transgenic (aADM2-tg) mice were generated. The aADM2-tg mice displayed improvements in high-fat diet-induced early adipose insulin resistance. This was associated with increased insulin signaling and decreased systemic inflammation. ADM2 dose-dependently inhibited CIITA-induced MHCII expression by increasing Blimp1 expression in a CRLR/RAMP1-cAMP-dependent manner in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, ADM2 treatment restored the high-fat diet-induced early insulin resistance in adipose tissue, mainly via inhibition of adipocyte MHCII antigen presentation and CD4(+) T-cell activation. This study demonstrates that ADM2 is a promising candidate for the treatment of early obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID:27207558

  17. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) ameliorate obesity-induced hepatic lipogenesis, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ann, Ji-Young; Eo, Hyeyoon; LIM, YUNSOOK

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases such as fatty liver, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and severe metabolic syndrome. Obesity causes metabolic impairment including excessive lipid accumulation and fibrosis in the hepatic tissue as well as the increase in oxidative stress. In order to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract (MLE) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, lipogenesis, and fibrosis in liver, MLE has been gavaged for 12 weeks in high-fat diet...

  18. Comparison between Chemical Senses Thresholds for Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Aqueous Solutions and Identification of the Area of Burning Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the pungency detection thresholds for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in aqueous solutions containing an emulsifier (polysorbate 80 were determined and compared. Thresholds were measured for 21 students (12 chili “users” and 9 “non users” using a 3-Alternative Forced Choice sensory test with ascending concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (0.025, 0.045, 0.090, 0.180 and 0.360 ppm, respectively. In addition, the panelists were asked where the irritation occurred (throat, tongue or both. The group Best Estimate Thresholds were 0.080 and 0.049 ppm for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively and differed significantly. Chili “users” and “non users” did not differ significantly in their perception of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, suggesting that no desensitization effects occur. In accordance with previous studies, in most cases the first irritation was experienced in the throat.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy templates for the preparation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuli; Ji, Wenhua; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, dummy molecularly imprinted polymers with high selectivity and affinity to capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are designed using N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template. The performance of dummy molecularly imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers was evaluated using adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and selective recognition capacity. Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers were found to exhibit good site accessibility, taking just 20 min to achieve adsorption equilibrium; they were also highly selective toward capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. We successfully used dummy molecularly imprinted polymers as a specific sorbent for selectively enriching capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili pepper samples. In a scaled-up experiment, the selective recovery of capsaicinoids was calculated to be 77.8% using solid-phase extraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template in molecularly imprinted polymers to simultaneously enrich capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. PMID:25348490

  20. Reproducibility of the capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow response as assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Schueren, B J; Hoon, J.N.; Vanmolkot, F H; van Hecken, A; Depre, M; Kane, S.A.; De Lepeleire, I; Sinclair, S R

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subjectCapsaicin rapidly produces local neurogenic inflammation (characterized by oedema and erythema) when locally administered to the human skin by binding to the TRPV1 receptor present on dermal sensory nerve endings.In nonhuman primates, a pharmacodynamic assay has been described and validated using capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilation measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging to assess calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist activity.Laser Doppler p...

  1. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified. In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated. This study is designed to determine the influence of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A on the central nociceptive amplification process, which is induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A (okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system. The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer. Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in

  2. Intraluminal capsaicin does not affect fluid and electrolyte absorption in the human jejunum but does cause pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, J.; Hammer, H; Eherer, A; Petritsch, W; Holzer, P.; Krejs, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—Stimulation of sensory nerves with capsaicin regulates ion transport in the small intestine in animal experiments. 
Aim—To investigate whether sensory nerves that are stimulated by capsaicin administration influence fluid and electrolyte absorption in the human jejunum in vivo. 
Method—Intestinal perfusion studies were performed in 12 healthy subjects using a four lumen tube with a proximal occlusion balloon and a plasma-like electrolyte solution. After an init...

  3. Behavioral characterization of a model of differential susceptibility to obesity induced by standard and personalized cafeteria diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, L; Kanaly, V; Ramirez, V; Teske, J A; Pinto, M P; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increase in obesity prevalence over the last decades, humans show large inter-individual variability for susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Understanding the biological basis of this susceptibility could identify new therapeutic alternatives against obesity. We characterized behavioral changes associated with propensity to obesity induced by cafeteria (CAF) diet consumption in mice. We show that Balb/c mice fed a CAF diet display a large inter-individual variability in susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, such that based on changes in adiposity we can classify mice as obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR). Both OP and OR were hyperphagic relative to control-fed mice but caloric intake was similar between OP and OR mice. In contrast, OR had a larger increase in locomotor activity following CAF diet compared to OP mice. Obesity resistant and prone mice showed similar intake of sweet snacks, but OR ate more savory snacks than OP mice. Two bottle sucrose preference tests showed that OP decreased their sucrose preference compared to OR mice after CAF diet feeding. Finally, to test the robustness of the OR phenotype in response to further increases in caloric intake, we fed OR mice with a personalized CAF (CAF-P) diet based on individual snack preferences. When fed a CAF-P diet, OR increased their calorie intake compared to OP mice fed the standard CAF diet, but did not reach adiposity levels observed in OP mice. Together, our data show the contribution of hedonic intake, individual snack preference and physical activity to individual susceptibility to obesity in Balb/c mice fed a standard and personalized cafeteria-style diet.

  4. Leptin modulates human Sertoli cells acetate production and glycolytic profile: a novel mechanism of obesity-induced male infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Sá, Rosália; Monteiro, Mariana P; Sousa, Mário; Carvalho, Rui A; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

    2015-09-01

    Human feeding behavior and lifestyle are gradually being altered, favoring the development of metabolic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes and obesity. Leptin is produced by the adipose tissue acting as a satiety signal. Its levels have been positively correlated with fat mass and hyperleptinemia has been proposed to negatively affect male reproductive function. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which this hormone affects male fertility remain unknown. Herein, we hypothesize that leptin acts on human Sertoli cells (hSCs), the "nurse cells" of spermatogenesis, altering their metabolism. To test our hypothesis, hSCs were cultured without or with leptin (5, 25 and 50ng/mL). Leptin receptor was identified by qPCR and Western blot. Protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) were determined by Western Blot. LDH activity was assessed and metabolite production/consumption determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Oxidative damage was evaluated by assessing lipid peroxidation, protein carbonilation and nitration. Our data shows that leptin receptor is expressed in hSCs. The concentration of leptin found in lean, healthy patients, upregulated GLUT2 protein levels and concentrations of leptin found in lean and obese patients increased LDH activity. Of note, all leptin concentrations decreased hSCs acetate production illustrating a novel mechanism for this hormone action. Moreover, our data shows that leptin does not induce or protect hSCs from oxidative damage. We report that this hormone modulates the nutritional support of spermatogenesis, illustrating a novel mechanism that may be linked to obesity-induced male infertility. PMID:26071642

  5. Similar degrees of obesity induced by diet or aging cause strikingly different immunologic and metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Kanthi B; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Dedousis, Nikolaos; Sipula, Ian; O'Doherty, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) and liver are infiltrated with Th-1 polarized immune cells, which are proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. Aging is also associated with increased adiposity, but the effects of this increase on inflammation and associated metabolic dysfunction are poorly understood. To address this issue, we assessed insulin resistance (IR) andATand liver immunophenotype in aged, lean (AL) and aged, obese (AO) mice, all of whom were maintained on a standard chow diet (11% fat diet) throughout their lives. For comparison, these variables were also assessed in young, lean (YL) and young diet-induced obese mice (41% fat diet,YO). Despite similar body weight and fat accumulation,YOmice were substantially moreIRand had greater liver steatosis compared toAOmice.YOalso had elevated infiltration of macrophages/dendritic cells inATand liver, but these increases were absent inAO Furthermore, liver immune cells ofYOwere more Th-1 polarized thenAO Notably, aging was associated with accumulation of T cells, but this occurred independent of obesity. Together, the data suggest that reduced inflammation inAOunderlies the improved insulin sensitivity and lowered steatosis compared toYO.

  6. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals.

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of pantothenic acid derivatives in mice with hypothalamic obesity induced by aurothioglucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruta, E; Buko, V

    2001-10-01

    The hypolipidemic effects of pantothenic acid derivatives (phosphopantothenate, panthenol and pantethine) were studied in mice with hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity in mice was induced by single injection of aurothioglucose (300 mg/kg body wt, i.p.). All the tested substances were administered during the last 10 days before decapitation (i.m., of dosage equivalent to 150 mg/kg body wt of phosphopantothenate). The studied substances inhibited the weight gain of the animals with hypothalamic obesity over the last 10 days of the experiment. The treatment with aurothioglucose increased food intake and mean body weight, blood glucose level; insulin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, the sum of LDL + VLDL and LDL-cholesterol concentration; triglyceride and cholesterol fractions in the liver; triglyceride and FFA content as well as lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue of experimental mice. The administration of the assay compounds lowered food intake and mean body weight, insulin and glucose levels and decreased the content of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol esters in serum and adipose tissue as well as raised the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue and serum lipolytic activity in obese mice. Among the compounds studied the reverse effect of panthenol was especially pronounced. The mechanism of hypolipidemic effects of pantothenic acid derivatives can be related to the reduced resistance to insulin and activation of lipolysis in serum and adipose tissue. PMID:11817109

  8. Identification of capsaicin-sensitive rectal mechanoreceptors activated by rectal distension in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, N J; Kerrin, A; Singer, C A; Hennig, G W; Gerthoffer, W T; McDonnell, O

    2008-05-01

    Rodents detect visceral pain in response to noxious levels of rectal distension. However, the mechanoreceptors that innervate the rectum and respond to noxious levels of rectal distension have not been identified. Here, we have identified the mechanoreceptors of capsaicin-sensitive rectal afferents and characterized their properties in response to circumferential stretch of the rectal wall. We have also used the lethal spotted (ls/ls) mouse to determine whether rectal mechanoreceptors that respond to capsaicin and stretch may also develop in an aganglionic rectum that is congenitally devoid of enteric ganglia. In wild type (C57BL/6) mice, graded increases in circumferential stretch applied to isolated rectal segments activated a graded increase in firing of slowly-adapting rectal mechanoreceptors. Identical stimuli applied to the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice also activated similar graded increases in firing of stretch-sensitive rectal afferents. In both wild type and aganglionic rectal preparations, focal compression of the serosal surface using von Frey hairs identified mechanosensitive "hot spots," that were associated with brief bursts of action potentials. Spritzing capsaicin (10 microM) selectively onto each identified mechanosensitive hot spot activated an all or none discharge of action potentials in 32 of 56 identified hot spots in wild type mice and 24 of 62 mechanosensitive hot spots in the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice. Each single unit activated by both capsaicin and circumferential stretch responded to low mechanical thresholds (1-2 g stretch). No high threshold rectal afferents were ever recorded in response to circumferential stretch. Anterograde labeling from recorded rectal afferents revealed two populations of capsaicin-sensitive mechanoreceptor that responded to stretch: one population terminated within myenteric ganglia, the other within the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. In the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice, only the

  9. Intravesical capsaicin in patients with detrusor hyper-reflexia--a placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T; Nielsen, J B; Schrøder, H D

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether intravesical treatment with capsaicin could block detrusor hyper-reflexia (DH) and alter the substance P content, nerve fibres and mucosa of the bladder. Twelve patients with spinal cord disease with DH and urinary incontinence resistant to anticholi......The aim of this study was to determine whether intravesical treatment with capsaicin could block detrusor hyper-reflexia (DH) and alter the substance P content, nerve fibres and mucosa of the bladder. Twelve patients with spinal cord disease with DH and urinary incontinence resistant...... to anticholinergic treatment underwent intravesical administration of 50 ml 2% lignocaine. followed by either 100 ml 1 mmol/l capsaicin or 100 ml physiological saline for 30 min. Cross-over to the alternative treatment took place after 4 weeks. Varying degrees of burning sensation were experienced by all but one...... patient during the capsaicin treatment and precluded the possibility of conducting studies of this type in a blind manner. No preference for capsaicin treatment was found, and micturition and VAS scores were unchanged after treatment with capsaicin. The mean volume of the contents of the bladder at which...

  10. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells. PMID:24141419

  11. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells.

  12. Transient activation of specific neurons in mice by selective expression of the capsaicin receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ali D.; Rainwater, Aundrea; Parker, Jones G.; Jones, Graham L.; Argilli, Emanuela; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Ehlers, Michael D.; Bonci, Antonello; Zweifel, Larry s.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the electrical activity of a neuronal subtype is a valuable tool in deciphering the role of discreet cell populations in complex neural circuits. Recent techniques that allow remote control of neurons are either labor intensive and invasive or indirectly coupled to neural electrical potential with low temporal resolution. Here we show the rapid, reversible and direct activation of genetically identified neuronal subpopulations by generating two inducible transgenic mouse models. Confined expression of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, allows cell-specific activation after peripheral or oral delivery of ligand in freely moving mice. Capsaicin-induced activation of dopaminergic or serotonergic neurons reversibly alters both physiological and behavioural responses within minutes, and lasts ~10 min. These models showcase a robust and remotely controllable genetic tool that modulates a distinct cell population without the need for invasive and labour-intensive approaches. PMID:22434189

  13. A capsaicin (8%) patch in the treatment of severe persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Joakim M; Ringsted, Thomas K; Petersen, Marian;

    2014-01-01

    patch application, but the pain reduction was not significant (NRS, mean difference [95% CI]: 5.0 [0.09 to 9.9]; P = 0.046). No differences in SPID between treatments were observed at 2 and 3 months after patch application. Changes in IENFD on the pain side, from baseline to 1 month after patch...... application, did not differ between capsaicin and placebo treatment: 1.9 [-0.1 to 3.9] and 0.6 [-1.2 to 2.5] fibers/mm, respectively (P = 0.32). No significant changes in sensory function, sleep quality or psychological factors were associated with capsaicin patch treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study did...

  14. Prostaglandin I2 enhances cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin in the asthmatic airway

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Fujimura, Masaki; Nobata, Kouichi; Oribe, Yoshitaka; Abo, Miki; Myou, Shigeharu

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, but the role of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) remains obscure. This study was designed to investigate the role of PGI2 in cough reflex sensitivity of the asthmatic airway, which is characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The effect of beraprost, a chemically and biologically stable analogue of PGI2, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin was examined in 21 patients with stable asthma in a randomized, ...

  15. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of substance P and capsaicin microinjected into the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukovic, L.; Jong, Wybren de; Wied, D. de

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the effect of substance P (SP) and capsaicin on blood pressure and heart rate after administration into different sites of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Microinjection of SP at 6 different coordinates throughout the NTS showed 3 sites where SP administration evoked changes in blood pressure and heart rate. The most sensitive sites where application of SP into the NTS evoked dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia were at the level...

  17. Cough sensitivity and extrathoracic airway responsiveness to inhaled capsaicin in chronic cough patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced cough response has been frequently observed in chronic cough. Recently, extrathoracic airway constriction to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in some chronic cough patients. However, relation between extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness (EAHR) and cough sensitivity determined by capsaicin inhalation is unclear in each etiological entity of chronic cough. Seventy-seven patients, with dry cough persisting for 3 or more weeks, normal spirometry and chest radiography, and 15 contro...

  18. A Bivalent Tarantula Toxin Activates the Capsaicin Receptor, TRPV1, by Targeting the Outer Pore Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Priel, Avi; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Siemens, Jan; Julius, David

    2010-01-01

    Toxins have evolved to target regions of membrane ion channels that underlie ligand binding, gating, or ion permeation, and have thus served as invaluable tools for probing channel structure and function. Here we describe a peptide toxin from the Earth Tiger tarantula that selectively and irreversibly activates the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive channel, TRPV1. This high avidity interaction derives from a unique tandem repeat structure of the toxin that endows it with an antibody-like bivalenc...

  19. Effects of action of ultrasound with capsaicin in the treatment of post traumatic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan OSWALD

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous methods of administering drugs to the body,both passive and active. A recent review of the literature on phonophoresis reports that 75 % of the studies reviewed reported positive effects, ultrasound energy with drugs like gel or cream can travel through body tissue. Capsaicin was the active ingredient in hot chilli peppers has selection actions on unmyelinated C fibres and thinly myelinated A primary sensory neurones.

  20. Antiobese effects of capsaicin-chitosan microsphere (CCMS) in obese rats induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sirong; Gao, Bing; Tao, Yi; Guo, Jiao; Su, Zheng-quan

    2014-02-26

    Chitosan (CTS) and capsaicin (CAP) are two kinds of effective ingredients for antiobesity, which are extracted from crab shells and Capsicum annuum. However, the strong taste of CAP makes it difficult to consume, and the antiobesity ability of CTS is limited. In this study, we prepared capsaicin-chitosan microspheres (CCMSs) by ion-cross-linking and spray drying and examined the antiobesity ability of CCMSs in obese rats. The effects of CCMSs on body weight, Lee's index, body fat, and serum lipids were investigated. The mRNA expression of PPARα, PPARγ, leptin, UCP2, GPR120, FTO, and adiponectin in the liver was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein expression of adiponectin, leptin, PPARα, UCP2, and hepatic lipase in serum was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CCMSs were prepared with 85.17% entrapment efficiency and 8.87% mean drug loading. Compared with chitosan microspheres, CAP, and Orlistat, the CCMSs showed better ability to control body weight, body mass index, organ index, body fat, proportion of fat to body weight, and serum lipids. The CCMSs upregulated the expressions of PPARα, PPARγ, UCP2, and adiponectin and downregulated the expression of leptin. CCMSs may thus be considered novel, safe, effective, and natural weight loss substances, and there is an additive effect between CTMS and capsaicin.

  1. Resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldershaw, T P; Colquhoun, E Q; Bennett, K L; Dora, K A; Clark, M G

    1994-01-01

    The naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (RTX, Euphorbia spp.) and piperine (Piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (VO2) in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microM glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure responses to both RTX and piperine, indicating a close relationship between changes in VO2 and the vasoconstriction. Concentrations greater than those required for maximal VO2 resulted in an inhibition of VO2, although perfusion pressure continued to increase. Time course studies showed that both RTX and piperine at high doses resulted in a tri-phasic response. An initial phase of transient VO2 stimulation was followed by a second phase of inhibition. A third phase involving an often larger but transient stimulation of VO2 followed removal of the agents and continued after the pressure returned to basal. The actions of RTX and piperine were similar to those of other active capsaicin-like molecules tested previously in this system, including capsaicinoids (Capsicum spp.), gingerols (Zingiber officinale), and shogoals (Zingiber officinale). RTX was the most potent, and piperine the least potent of this series. Although receptor involvement has yet to be unequivocally established, the data are consistent with the presence of a functional capsaicin-like (vanilloid) receptor in the vasculature of the rat hindlimb that mediates vasoconstriction and oxygen uptake. These findings may have implications for the future development of thermogenic agents. PMID:8035653

  2. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  3. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  4. Ablation of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Re-patterns Energy Balance and Protects Mice from Obesity Induced by a Western Diet*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiwen; Guo, Shuang; Liu, Yu; Chu, Hao; Hakimi, Parvin; Berger, Nathan A.; Hanson, Richard W.; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein is a well known tumor suppressor, but its role in metabolism is largely unknown. Mice with a deletion in the gene for PML (KO mice) exhibit altered gene expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, an accelerated rate of fatty acid metabolism, abnormal glucose metabolism, constitutive AMP-activating kinase (AMPK) activation, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Last, an increased rate of energy expenditure protects PML KO mice from the effects of obesity induced by a Western diet. Collectively, our study uncovers a previously unappreciated role of PML in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance in mice. PMID:23986437

  5. Costs and benefits of capsaicin-mediated control of gut retention in dispersers of wild chilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Levey, Douglas J; Huizinga, Meribeth; Haak, David C; Traveset, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental way in which animal-dispersed plants can influence the viability and distribution of dispersed seeds is through control of retention time in the guts of dispersers. Using two species of wild chilies and their dispersers, we examined how chemical and physical properties of fruits and seeds mediate this interaction. Capsicum chacoense is polymorphic for pungency, occurs in Bolivia, and is dispersed mostly by elaenias. Capsicum annuum is not polymorphic, occurs in Arizona (USA), and is dispersed mostly by thrashers. We first tested whether capsaicin, the substance responsible for the pungency of chilies, affects gut retention time of seeds in primary dispersers. Capsaicin slowed gut passage of seeds but did so in a manner that differed greatly between bird species because the constipative effects of capsaicin occurred only after an 80-minute time lag. Elaenias in Bolivia held only 6% of C. chacoense seeds for > 80 minutes, whereas thrashers in Arizona held 78% of C. annuum seeds for > 80 minutes. Next we examined the effects of retention time on seed viability and germination. Increased retention resulted in a greater proportion of seeds germinating in C. annuum, had no effects on non-pungent C. chacoense, and had negative effects on pungent C. chacoense. These divergent effects are explained by differences in seed coat morphology: seed coats of pungent C. chacoense are 10-12% thinner than those of the other two types of seeds. Thus, longer retention times damaged seeds with the thinnest seed coats. In C. annuum, seed viability remained high regardless of retention time, but germination increased with retention, suggesting a role for scarification. Thus, in C. annuum, fruit chemistry appears well matched with seed morphology and disperser physiology: capsaicin extends gut retention for most seeds, resulting in greater seed scarification and higher germination rates. Increased retention of pungent C. chacoense seeds is detrimental, but because the primary

  6. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Roel A; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C; Yakala, Gopala K; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Tietge, Uwe J F; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-11-13

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complications in mice in conjunction with the development of renal and systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI). C57BL/6J mice susceptible to develop age-dependent sclerotic pathologies with amyloid features in the kidney, were fed low (10% lard) or high-fat diets (45% lard) for 24, 40 and 52 weeks. HFD-feeding induced overt adiposity, altered lipid and insulin homeostasis, increased systemic LGI and adipokine release. HFD-feeding also caused renal upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, infiltrating macrophages, collagen I protein, increased urinary albumin and NGAL levels. HFD-feeding severely aggravated age-dependent structural changes in the kidney. Remarkably, enhanced amyloid deposition rather than sclerosis was observed. The degree of amyloidosis correlated significantly with body weight. Amyloid deposits stained positive for serum amyloid A (SAA) whose plasma levels were chronically elevated in HFD mice. Our data indicate obesity-induced chronic inflammation as a risk factor for the acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis and functional impairment in mice, and suggest that obesity-enhanced chronic secretion of SAA may be the driving factor behind this process.

  7. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil. PMID:26739369

  8. Discovery of putative capsaicin biosynthetic genes by RNA-Seq and digital gene expression analysis of pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Xin; Zhao, Shu-Niu; Liu, Gao-Feng; Huang, Zu-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Mu; Cheng, Shan-Han; Lin, Shi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The Indian pepper ‘Guijiangwang’ (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world’s hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper’s expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. More than 19 million clean reads were obtained from each library, and greater than 50% of the reads were assignable to reference genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed at five fruit developmental stages and resulted in the identification of 135 genes of known function; their expression patterns were compared to the capsaicin accumulation pattern. Ten genes of known function were identified as most likely to be involved in regulating capsaicin synthesis. Additionally, 20 new candidate genes were identified related to capsaicin synthesis. We use a combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analyses to contribute to the understanding of the biosynthetic regulatory mechanism(s) of secondary metabolites in a nonmodel plant and to identify candidate enzyme-encoding genes. PMID:27756914

  9. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Dong-Oh [Department of Biology Education, Daegu University, Gyungsan, Gyeongbuk 712–714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University, Busan 614–054 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree [School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young, E-mail: immunkim@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  10. Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin 8% patch (QutenzaTM in diabetic neuropathic pain patients: detection of distinct response groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Martini1,*, Ashraf Yassen2,*, Erik Olofsen1, Paul Passier2, Malcom Stoker3, Albert Dahan1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 2Global Clinical Pharmacology and Exploratory Development, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands; 3Global Medical Sciences, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatment of chronic pain is associated with high variability in the response to pharmacological interventions. A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to quantify the magnitude and onset/offset times of effect of a single capsaicin 8% patch application in the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 91 patients. In addition, a mixture model was applied to objectively match patterns in pain-associated behavior. The model identified four distinct subgroups that responded differently to treatment: 3.3% of patients (subgroup 1 showed worsening of pain; 31% (subgroup 2 showed no change; 32% (subgroup 3 showed a quick reduction in pain that reached a nadir in week 3, followed by a slow return towards baseline (16% ± 6% pain reduction in week 12; 34% (subgroup 4 showed a quick reduction in pain that persisted (70% ± 5% reduction in week 12. The estimate of the response-onset rate constant, obtained for subgroups 1, 3, and 4, was 0.76 ± 0.12 week-1 (median ± SE, indicating that every 0.91 weeks the pain score reduces or increases by 50% relative to the score of the previous week (= t½. The response-offset rate constant could be determined for subgroup 3 only and was 0.09 ± 0.04 week-1 (t½ 7.8 weeks. The analysis allowed separation of a heterogeneous neuropathic pain population into four homogenous subgroups with distinct behaviors in response to treatment with capsaicin. It is argued that this model-based approach may have added value in analyzing

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of injected capsaicin for pain in Morton's neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Diamond, Eric; Schmidt, William K; Kelly, Margaret; Allen, Robert; Houghton, William; Brady, Kerrie L; Campbell, James N

    2016-06-01

    Intermetatarsal neuroma or Morton's neuroma is a painful condition of the foot resulting from an entrapment of the common digital nerve typically in the third intermetatarsal space. The pain can be severe and especially problematic with walking. Treatment options are limited and surgery may lead to permanent numbness in the toes. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot peppers, produces analgesia by inducing retraction of nociceptive afferents from the area of innervation and is effective in treating certain neuropathic pain disorders. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to test the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a single 0.1 mg dose of capsaicin vs placebo injected into the region of the neuroma. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with Morton's neuroma with foot pain ≥4 (0-10 numerical pain rating scale) were injected with 2 mL of lidocaine into the intermetatarsal space proximal to the neuroma to provide local anesthesia. After 5 minutes, 0.1 mg capsaicin or placebo was injected into the intermetatarsal space containing the painful neuroma. Average foot pain was rated for 2 weeks before through 4 weeks after injection. At weeks 1 and 4, the decrease in pain was significantly greater in the subjects treated with capsaicin (P = 0.021 and P = 0.019, respectively). A trend toward significance was noted at weeks 2 and 3. Improvements in functional interference scores and reductions in oral analgesic use were also seen in the capsaicin-treated group. These findings suggest that injection of capsaicin is an efficacious treatment option for patients with painful intermetatarsal neuroma. PMID:26963851

  12. Capsaicin effects on blinking Efectos de la capsaicina en el parpadeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blinking is a normal human phenomenom involving trigeminal and facial patways. To gain understanding on the neurobiology of blinking, five normal subjects were investigated before and after application of transdermal capsaicin at the forehead for two weeks. No effects of topical capsaicin were detected in eye blink rates. However, when capsaicin was applied to a female subject with blepharospasm, she showed a dramatic restoration of her vision subsequent to blinking modification. Deactivation of abnormal A-to-C fibers cross talks at the trigeminal-facial pathways seems to be the most likely mechanism of such improvement.El parpadeo es un fenómeno normal en los humanos que involucra las vías trigéminas faciales. Con el fin de conocer un poco más la neurobiología de este fenómeno estudiamos cinco individuos normales antes y después de aplicar capsaicina trasdérmica en la frente de cada uno de ellos, por dos semanas. La frecuencia de parpadeo no se alteró con la aplicación de capsaicina tópica. Sin embargo, cuando la misma sustancia se aplicó a una paciente con blefaroespasmo hubo dramática restauración de su visión, la cual fue secundaria a la modificación de la actividad muscular palpebral. La desactivación del cruce patológico de información que pasa de las fibras A a las fibras C, pertenecientes a las vías trigémino-faciales, parece ser el mecanismo de acción relacionado con la aplicación de capsaicina, el que estaría directamente relacionado con la recuperación clínica observada en la paciente con blefaroespasmo.

  13. The Effect of Capsaicin-Containing Food on the Swallowing Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Satoko; Shutoh, Nobumichi; Tonai, Miho; Ogata, Naoko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of regular ingestion of capsaicin-containing food that is easily available in everyday life on the latency of the swallowing response (LSR). Pickled Napa cabbage was selected as the food for the present study. One portion (10 g) of pickled Napa cabbage provides 1.5 µg of capsaicin. Participants ingested pickled Napa cabbage (10 g) before every meal for 20 days (days 1-20). LSR was measured pre-intervention (day 0) and post-intervention (day 21). The participants then followed their regular diet, without foods containing red pepper, from day 21 to day 27, and LSR was measured on day 28 (follow-up LSR). Sixteen elderly participants (two male, 14 female; age 81.6 ± 9.39 years) and 10 young participants (all female; age 21.6 ± 0.52 years) participated in the study. The pre-intervention LSR was 2.04 ± 1.60 s in elderly participants and 1.27 ± 0.27 s in young participants. In the elderly group, the post-intervention LSR (day 21) was 1.47 ± 1.05  the follow-up LSR (day 28) was 1.99 ± 1.80 s (p = 0.044 and 0.502, respectively, compared to pre-intervention). In the young group, the post-intervention and follow-up LSR values were 1.07 ± 0.20 s and 1.04 ± 0.10 s, respectively (p = 0.016 and 0.038, respectively, compared to pre-intervention). Swallowing function was improved by pickled Napa cabbage containing capsaicin, but capsaicin supplementation may need to be maintained to have an ongoing effect.

  14. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilou L H R Janssens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of capsaicin (CAPS to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. AIM: We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. METHODS: Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU with every meal. RESULTS: An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and resting energy expenditure (REE at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04. Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03, while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04 than at 75%Control (p = 0.05 when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. CONCLUSION: In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  15. Infringement of the barriers of cancer via dietary phytoconstituents capsaicin through novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Maity, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the major cause of fatality and the number of new cases is increasing incessantly. Conventional therapies and existing anticancer agents cause serious side effects and expand the patient's lifespan by a few years. There is the need to exploit alternative anticancer agents and novel drug delivery system to deliver these agents to the tumor site for the prevention of cancer. Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used for the management of cancer have been the heart of interest. Capsaicin is a major pungent agent present in the chili peppers that is heavily consumed in the world. Capsaicin has demonstrated effectiveness as an anticancer agent, but a restraining factor is its pungency, extremely low aqueous solubility, and poor oral bioavailability which impede its use as an anticancer agent. Many technologies have been developed and applied to conquer this drawback. We bring to light the benefits of this phytoconstituent for treating different types of cancer. We also discussed some of the delivery approaches that have already made an impact by either delivering a drug to target tissue or increasing its bioavailability by many folds. PMID:26036845

  16. The Preparation of Capsaicin-Chitosan Microspheres (CCMS Enteric Coated Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to research the preparation and content determination of capsaicin-chitosan microspheres (CCMS enteric coated tablets. The core tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation. Nine formulae were designed to determine the optimal formula of the core tablet. Eudragit L100 was used to prepare the CCMS enteric-coated tablets. The effect of enteric coated formulation variables such as content of talc (10%, 25% and 40%, plasticisers (TEC and DBS, dosage of plasticiser (10%, 20% and 30% and coating weight (2%, 3% and 5% were evaluated for drug release characteristics. The in vitro release was studied using 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Enteric coated tablets without ruptures or swelling behaviour over 2 h in 0.1 N HCl indicated that these tablets showed acid resistance. The accumulated release rate in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 revealed that the prepared tablets were able to sustain drug release into the intestine and a first-order release was obtained for capsaicin. This research is the first report of the preparation and content determination of CCMS enteric coated tablets. The sustained release behavior of enteric coated formulations in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer demonstrated that it would be a potential drug delivery platform for sustained delivery of gastric irritant drugs.

  17. Acid potentiation of the capsaicin receptor determined by a key extracellular site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, S E; Tominaga, M; Julius, D

    2000-07-01

    The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor, VR1, is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. The response of VR1 to capsaicin or noxious heat is dynamically potentiated by extracellular protons within a pH range encountered during tissue acidosis, such as that associated with arthritis, infarction, tumor growth, and other forms of injury. A molecular determinant for this important physiological activity was localized to an extracellular Glu residue (E600) in the region linking the fifth transmembrane domain with the putative pore-forming region of the channel. We suggest that this residue serves as a key regulatory site of the receptor by setting sensitivity to other noxious stimuli in response to changes in extracellular proton concentration. We also demonstrate that protons, vanilloids, and heat promote channel opening through distinct pathways, because mutations at a second site (E648) selectively abrogate proton-evoked channel activation without diminishing responses to other noxious stimuli. Our findings provide molecular evidence for stimulus-specific steps in VR1 activation and offer strategies for the development of novel analgesic agents. PMID:10859346

  18. The capsaicin receptor participates in artificial sweetener aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; Damak, Sami; le Coutre, Johannes

    2008-11-28

    Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and cyclamate produce at high concentrations an unpleasant after-taste that is generally attributed to bitter and metallic taste sensations. To identify receptors involved with the complex perception of the above compounds, preference tests were performed in wild-type mice and mice lacking the TRPV1 channel or the T1R3 receptor, the latter being necessary for the perception of sweet taste. The sweeteners, including cyclamate, displayed a biphasic response profile, with the T1R3 mediated component implicated in preference. At high concentrations imparting off-taste, omission of TRPV1 reduced aversion. In a heterologous expression system the Y511A point mutation in the vanilloid pocket of TRPV1 did not affect saccharin and aspartame responses but abolished cyclamate and acesulfame-K activities. The results rationalize artificial sweetener tastes and off-tastes by showing that at low concentrations, these molecules stimulate the gustatory system through the hedonically positive T1R3 pathway, and at higher concentrations, their aversion is partly mediated by TRPV1. PMID:18804451

  19. [Surfactant and water balance of lung in intracerebral hemorrhage at conditions of capsaicin blockade of vagus nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakova, M A; Bryndina, I G

    2015-03-01

    It is known that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is accompanied by the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema and insufficiency of surfactant function. The present study was undertaken for evaluation of the role of vagal afferents in the mechanisms of ICH effects on pulmonary surfactant and water balance of the lung. We explored the surface activity and biochemical composition of surfactant, as well as blood supply, total, intravascular and extravascular fluid content in lung after ICH, simulated by intraventricular administration of autologous blood against the background of bilateral blockade of capsaicin-sensitive vagal affere its. The blockade was caused by the capsaicin application (50 mcmol) on the cervical part of the nerves. Intracerebralhemorrhage was accompanied by the decrease of surfactant activity which appeared by the enhancement of minimal, maximal and static surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), the reduction of total phospholipids including their main fraction phosphatidylcholine, the increase of lysophosphatidyicholine content and hyperhydration of the lung. The level of total proteins in BAL elevated, confirmed the enhanced permeability of the alveolar-blood barrier. The exhaustion of neuropeptides in capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents led to the partial restoration of surface active properties of lung, normalization of phospholipids and protein contents and water balance parameters. The obtained results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents play a pivotal role in the disturbances of surfactant function and water balance of the lung after ICH. PMID:26016324

  20. Electrochemical sensing platform amplified with a nanobiocomposite of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme for the detection of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabela, Myalowenkosi I; Mpanza, Thabani; Kanchi, Suvardhan; Sharma, Deepali; Bisetty, Krishna

    2016-09-15

    The present study involves the development of a sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the determination of capsaicin extracted from chilli fruits, based on a novel signal amplification strategy using enzyme technology. For the first time, platinum electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes where phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme was immobilized using nafion was characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, transmittance electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis supported by computational methods. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry measurements were performed to better understand the redox mechanism of capsaicin. The performance of the developed electrochemical biosensor was tested using spiked samples with recoveries ranging from 98.9 to 99.6%. The comparison of the results obtained from bare and modified platinum electrodes revealed the sensitivity of the developed biosensor, having a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.1863µgmL(-1) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) of 3.02s(-1). Furthermore, adsorption and ligand-enzyme docking studies were carried out to better understand the redox mechanisms supported by density functional theory calculations. These results revealed that capsaicin forms hydrogen bonds with GLU355, GLU541, GLU586, ARG and other amino acids of the hydrophobic channel of the binding sites thereby facilitating the redox reaction for the detection of capsaicin. PMID:27104584

  1. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  2. Gingerol Reverses the Cancer-Promoting Effect of Capsaicin by Increased TRPV1 Level in a Urethane-Induced Lung Carcinogenic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shengnan; Zheng, Yaqiu; Meng, Mingjing; Guo, Zhenzhen; Cao, Ning; Ma, Xiaofang; Du, Zhenhua; Li, Jiahuan; Duan, Yongjian; Du, Gangjun

    2016-08-10

    Both gingerol and capsaicin are agonists of TRPV1, which can negatively control tumor progression. This study observed the long-term effects of oral administration of 6-gingerol alone or in combination with capsaicin for 20 weeks in a urethane-induced lung carcinogenic model. We showed that lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were 70% and 21.2 ± 3.6, respectively, in the control versus 100% and 35.6 ± 5.2 in the capsaicin group (P chili-pepper-rich diets to decrease the risk of cancer development. PMID:27436516

  3. Is physician supervision of the capsaicin 8% patch administration procedure really necessary? An opinion from health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern KU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Uwe Kern,1 Janice England,2 Andrea Roth-Daniek,3 Till Wagner3 1Institute for Pain Medicine/Pain Practice, Wiesbaden, Germany; 2Pain Medicine and Anaesthesia, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 3Pain Therapy and Palliative Care Department, Medizinisches Zentrum Städteregion Aachen, Aachen, Germany Abstract: Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and can have a severe effect on quality of life. The capsaicin 8% patch is a novel treatment option that directly targets the source of peripheral neuropathic pain. It can provide pain relief for up to 12 weeks in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Treatment with the capsaicin 8% patch follows a clearly defined procedure, and patch application must be carried out by a physician or a health care professional under the supervision of a physician. Nonetheless, in our experience, nurses often take the lead role in capsaicin 8% patch application without the involvement of a physician. We believe that the nurse's key role is of benefit to the patients, as he or she may be better placed, because of time constraints and patient relationships, to support the patient through the application procedure than a physician. Moreover, a number of frequently prescribed drugs, including botulinum toxin and infliximab, can be administered by health care professionals without the requirement for physician supervision. Here we argue that current guidance should be amended to remove the requirement for physician supervision during application of the capsaicin 8% patch. Keywords: capsaicin, neuropathic pain, topical, health care professional, physician, nurse

  4. Perineural capsaicin induces the uptake and transganglionic transport of choleratoxin B subunit by nociceptive C-fiber primary afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszlács, O; Jancsó, G; Kis, G; Dux, M; Sántha, P

    2015-12-17

    The distribution of spinal primary afferent terminals labeled transganglionically with the choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) or its conjugates changes profoundly after perineural treatment with capsaicin. Injection of CTB conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into an intact nerve labels somatotopically related areas in the ipsilateral dorsal horn with the exceptions of the marginal zone and the substantia gelatinosa, whereas injection of this tracer into a capsaicin-pretreated nerve also results in massive labeling of these most superficial layers of the dorsal horn. The present study was initiated to clarify the role of C-fiber primary afferent neurons in this phenomenon. In L5 dorsal root ganglia, analysis of the size frequency distribution of neurons labeled after injection of CTB-HRP into the ipsilateral sciatic nerve treated previously with capsaicin or resiniferatoxin revealed a significant increase in the proportion of small neurons. In the spinal dorsal horn, capsaicin or resiniferatoxin pretreatment resulted in intense CTB-HRP labeling of the marginal zone and the substantia gelatinosa. Electron microscopic histochemistry disclosed a dramatic, ∼10-fold increase in the proportion of CTB-HRP-labeled unmyelinated dorsal root axons following perineural capsaicin or resiniferatoxin. The present results indicate that CTB-HRP labeling of C-fiber dorsal root ganglion neurons and their central terminals after perineural treatment with vanilloid compounds may be explained by their phenotypic switch rather than a sprouting response of thick myelinated spinal afferents which, in an intact nerve, can be labeled selectively with CTB-HRP. The findings also suggest a role for GM1 ganglioside in the modulation of nociceptor function and pain. PMID:26520849

  5. N-[(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl]benzenesulfonamide: an analogue of capsaicin

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    Stella H. Maganhi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H13NO4S, an analogue of capsaicin, differs from the latter by having a 1,3-benzodioxole ring rather than a 2-methoxyphenol moiety, and having a benzenesulfonamide group instead of an aliphatic amide chain. The five-membered ring is in an envelope conformation with the methylene C atom lying 0.221 (6 Å out of the plane formed by the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the 1,3-benzodioxole fused-ring system is 84.65 (4°. In the crystal, molecules aggregate into supramolecular layers in the ac plane through C—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  6. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 as a novel modulator of neural precursor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Kristin; Garthe, Alexander; de Almeida Sassi, Felipe; Glass, Rainer; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The capsaicin receptor (TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) was first discovered in the peripheral nervous system as a detector of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli including the irritant chili pepper. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of TRPV1 expression in the central nervous system. Here, we show that TRPV1 is expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) during postnatal development, but not in the adult. However, expression of TRPV1 is induced in the adult in paradigms linked to an increase in neurogenesis, such as spatial learning in the Morris water maze or voluntary exercise. Loss of TRPV1 expression in knockout mice leads to an increase in NPC proliferation. Functional TRPV1 expression has been confirmed in cultured NPCs. Our results indicate that TRPV1 expression influences both postnatal and activity-induced neurogenesis in adulthood. PMID:25092424

  7. Phenylpyrazolone derivatives inhibit gastric emptying in rats by a capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathway

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    A.M. Vinagre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone (Dp, 4-aminoantipyrine (AA and antipyrine (At administered iv and Dp administered icv delay gastric emptying (GE in rats. The participation of capsaicin (Cps-sensitive afferent fibers in this phenomenon was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pretreated sc with Cps (50 mg/kg or vehicle between the first and second day of life and both groups were submitted to the eye-wiping test. GE was determined in these animals at the age of 8/9 weeks (weight: 200-300 g. Ten minutes before the study, the animals of both groups were treated iv with Dp, AA or At (240 μmol/kg, or saline; or treated icv with Dp (4 μmol/animal or saline. GE was determined 10 min after treatment by measuring % gastric retention (GR of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after orogastric administration. Percent GR (mean ± SEM, N = 8 in animals pretreated with Cps and treated with Dp, AA or At (35.8 ± 3.2, 35.4 ± 2.2, and 35.6 ± 2%, respectively did not differ from the GR of saline-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (36.8 ± 2.8% and was significantly lower than in animals pretreated with vehicle and treated with the drugs (52.1 ± 2.8, 66.2 ± 4, and 55.8 ± 3%, respectively. The effect of icv administration of Dp (N = 6 was not modified by pretreatment with Cps (63.3 ± 5.7% compared to Dp-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (62.3 ± 2.4%. The results suggest the participation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers in the delayed GE induced by iv administration of Dp, AA and At, but not of icv Dp.

  8. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats.

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    Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type vs. knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain. PMID:25745388

  9. Capsaicin causes inactivation and degradation of the androgen receptor by inducing the restoration of miR-449a in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Long; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhenkun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fei; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Capsaicin, a novel antitumor agent extracted from chili peppers, has been proven to induce growth inhibition in various types of cancer including prostate cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms remain largely undiscovered. In the present study, we explored the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) by capsaicin and further researched the mechanisms of their interaction in AR-positive prostate cancer cells. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. Expression levels of cyclin D1, miR-449a, AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis. To further confirm the relationship among miR-449a, AR and prostate cancer proliferation, miR-449a was overexpressed by a lentivirus in prostate cancer cells. We discovered that capsaicin prevented tumor proliferation and cell cycle progression through inactivation and degradation of AR. We also found that restoration of miR-449a induced by capsaicin treatment resulted in the inhibition of AR signaling. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of miR-449a sensitized prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Finally, our experimental results indicated that capsaicin negatively modulates the activity of AR at the mRNA and protein levels by restoring miR-449a profiling in prostate cancer. In addition, increased expression of miR-449a may facilitate the sensitivity of prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Thus, capsaicin may be developed as a novel anti-AR drug for the therapy of prostate cancer.

  10. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

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    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  11. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the ...

  12. Neural proliferation and restoration of neurochemical phenotypes and compromised functions following capsaicin-induced neuronal damage in the nodose ganglion of the adult rat.

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    Zachary Rex Gallaher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that neuronal numbers within adult nodose ganglia (NG were restored to normal levels 60 days following the capsaicin-induced destruction of nearly half of the neuronal population. However, the nature of this neuronal replacement is not known. Therefore, we aimed to characterize neural proliferation, neurochemical phenotypes, and functional recovery within adult rat NG neurons following capsaicin-induced damage. Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of capsaicin or vehicle solution, followed by BrdU injections to reveal cellular proliferation. NG were collected at multiple times post-treatment (up to 300 days and processed for immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, and dispersed cell cultures. Capsaicin-induced cellular proliferation, indicated by BrdU/Ki-67-labeled cells, suggests that lost neurons were replaced through cell division. NG cells expressed the stem cell marker, nestin, indicating that these ganglia have the capacity to generate new neurons. BrdU incorporation within beta-III tubulin-positive neuronal profiles following capsaicin suggests that proliferating cells matured to become neurons. NG neurons displayed decreased NMDAR expression up to 180 days post-capsaicin. However, both NMDAR expression within the NG and synaptophysin expression within the central target of NG neurons, the NTS, were restored to pre-injury levels by 300 days. NG cultures from capsaicin-treated rats contained bipolar neurons, normally found only during development. To test the functional recovery of NG neurons, we injected the satiety molecule, CCK. The effect of CCK on food intake was restored by 300 days post-capsaicin. This restoration may be due to the regeneration of damaged NG neurons or generation of functional neurons that replaced lost connections.

  13. The effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors on the duration of central sensitization of rat dorsal horn neurons following injection of capsaicin

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    Fang Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. To explore the role of protein phosphatase in central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons following peripheral noxious stimulation, using electrophysiological recording techniques, we investigated the role of two inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid (OA, on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Central sensitization was initiated by injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of the left paw. A microdialysis fiber was implanted in the spinal cord dorsal horn for perfusion of ACSF and inhibitors of PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid. We found that in ACSF pretreated animals, the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli following capsaicin injection increased over a period of 15 min after injection and had mostly recovered by 60 min later. However, pre- or post-treatment with the phosphatase inhibitors, fostriecin or OA, significantly enhanced the effects of capsaicin injection by prolonging the responses to more than 3 hours. These results confirm that blockade of protein phosphatase activity may potentiate central sensitization of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord following capsaicin injection and indicate that protein phosphatase type 2A may be involved in determining the duration of capsaicin-induced central sensitization.

  14. Capsaicin-sensitive C- and A-fibre nociceptors control long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans.

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    Henrich, Florian; Magerl, Walter; Klein, Thomas; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Long-term potentiation in the spinal dorsal horn requires peptidergic C-fibre activation in animals. Perceptual correlates of long-term potentiation following high-frequency electrical stimulation in humans include increased sensitivity to electrical stimuli at the high frequency stimulation site (homotopic pain-long-term potentiation) and increased sensitivity to pinprick surrounding the high frequency stimulation site (heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation, equivalent to secondary hyperalgaesia). To characterize the peripheral fibre populations involved in induction of pain-long-term potentiation, we performed two selective nerve block experiments in 30 healthy male volunteers. Functional blockade of TRPV1-positive nociceptors by high-concentration capsaicin (verified by loss of heat pain) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 47% (P pain-long-term potentiation by 71% (P pain-long-term potentiation by 92% (P pain to pinprick) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 37% (P pain-long-term potentiation (-5%). It had a marginal effect on heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-35%, P = 0.059), while the area of secondary hyperalgesia remained unchanged (-2%, P = 0.88). In conclusion, all nociceptor subclasses contribute to high frequency stimulation-induced pain (with a relative contribution of C > Aδ fibres, and an equal contribution of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative fibres). TRPV1-positive C-fibres are the main inducers of both homotopic and heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-positive A-fibres contribute substantially to the induction of heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative C-fibres induce a component of homotopic self-facilitation but not heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative A-fibres are the main afferents mediating pinprick pain and hyperalgesia, however, they do not appear to contribute to the induction of pain-long-term potentiation. These

  15. Self-reported sleep duration associated with distraction analgesia, hyperemia, and secondary hyperalgesia in the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Bounds, Sara C.; Simango, Mpepera B.; Witmer, Kenneth R.; Campbell, James N.; Edwards, Robert R.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep deprivation is known to heighten pain sensitivity, the mechanisms by which sleep modifies nociception are largely unknown. Few studies of sleep-pain interactions have utilized quantitative sensory testing models that implicate specific underlying physiologic mechanisms. One possibility, which is beginning to receive attention, is that differences in sleep may alter the analgesic effects of distraction. We utilized the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model to examine whether self-rep...

  16. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism,and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio; Báez; Yasuo; Tsuchiya; Alfonso; Calvo; Martha; Pruyas; Kazutoshi; Nakamura; Chikako; Kiyohara; Mari; Oyama; Masaharu; Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC).METHODS: A total of 57 patients with GBC, 119 patients with gallstones, and 70 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from their blood or paraffi n block sample using standard commercial kits. The statuses of the genetic variants were assayed using Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays or Custom Taqman SNP Genotypi...

  17. NMDA receptors are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of capsaicin following amphetamine withdrawal in male mice.

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    Amiri, Shayan; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Tirgar, Fatemeh; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Rastegar, Mojgan; Ghaderi, Marzieh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal (AW) is accompanied by diminished pleasure and depression which plays a key role in drug relapse and addictive behaviors. There is no efficient treatment for AW-induced depression and underpinning mechanisms were not well determined. Considering both transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contribute to pathophysiology of mood and addictive disorders, in this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 and NMDA receptors in mediating depressive-like behaviors following AW in male mice. Results revealed that administration of capsaicin, TRPV1 agonist, (100μg/mouse, i.c.v.) and MK-801, NMDA receptor antagonist (0.005mg/kg, i.p.) reversed AW-induced depressive-like behaviors in forced swimming test (FST) and splash test with no effect on animals' locomotion. Co-administration of sub-effective doses of MK-801 (0.001mg/kg, i.p.) and capsaicin (10μg/mouse, i.c.v) exerted antidepressant-like effects in behavioral tests. Capsazepine, TRPV1 antagonist, (100μg/mouse, i.c.v) and NMDA, NMDA receptor agonist (7.5mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the effects of capsaicin and MK-801, respectively. None of aforementioned treatments had any effect on behavior of control animals. Collectively, our findings showed that activation of TRPV1 and blockade of NMDA receptors produced antidepressant-like effects in male mice following AW, and these receptors are involved in AW-induced depressive-like behaviors. Further, we found that rapid antidepressant-like effects of capsaicin in FST and splash test are partly mediated by NMDA receptors. PMID:27167081

  18. Analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Ramírez-Maya, Erika; Alvarado-Suárez, Luís Angel

    2009-04-01

    A simple method for the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. A novel device was designed for direct extraction solid phase microextraction in order to avoid damage to the fiber. The analysis was performed without derivatization for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Selection fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH, were optimized. The method was linear in the range 0.109-1.323 microg/mL for capsaicin and 0.107-1.713 microg/mL for dihydrocapsaicin with correlation coefficient up to r=0.9970 for both capsaicinoids. The precision of the method was less than 10%. The method was applied to the analysis of 11 varieties of peppers and four pepper sauces. A broad range of capsaicin (55.0-25 459 microg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (93-1 130 microg/g) was found in the pepper and pepper sauces samples (4.3-717.3 and 1.0-134.8 microg/g), respectively.

  19. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

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    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c. injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Results: Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat, was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  20. Chronic baroreflex activation restores spontaneous baroreflex control and variability of heart rate in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Radu; Tudorancea, Ionut; Irwin, Eric D; Lohmeier, Thomas E

    2013-10-01

    The sensitivity of baroreflex control of heart rate is depressed in subjects with obesity hypertension, which increases the risk for cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms are not fully known, and there are no therapies to improve this dysfunction. To determine the cardiovascular dynamic effects of progressive increases in body weight leading to obesity and hypertension in dogs fed a high-fat diet, 24-h continuous recordings of spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Furthermore, we investigated whether autonomic mechanisms stimulated by chronic baroreflex activation and renal denervation-current therapies in patients with resistant hypertension, who are commonly obese-restore cardiovascular dynamic control. Increases in body weight to ∼150% of control led to a gradual increase in mean arterial pressure to 17 ± 3 mmHg above control (100 ± 2 mmHg) after 4 wk on the high-fat diet. In contrast to the gradual increase in arterial pressure, tachycardia, attenuated chronotropic baroreflex responses, and reduced heart rate variability were manifest within 1-4 days on high-fat intake, reaching 130 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) (control = 86 ± 3 bpm) and ∼45% and hypertension. However, only baroreflex activation effectively attenuated the tachycardia and restored cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability. These findings suggest that baroreflex activation therapy may reduce the risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias as well as lower arterial pressure.

  1. Maternal Obesity Induces Epigenetic Modifications to Facilitate Zfp423 Expression and Enhance Adipogenic Differentiation in Fetal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Yuan; Liang, Jun-Fang; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and type 2 diabetes despite poorly defined mechanisms. Zfp423 is the key transcription factor committing cells to the adipogenic lineage, with exceptionally dense CpG sites in its promoter. We hypothesized that MO enhances adipogenic differentiation during fetal development through inducing epigenetic changes in the Zfp423 promoter and elevating its expression. Female mice were subjected to a control (Con) or obesogenic (OB) diet for 2 months, mated, and maintained on their diets during pregnancy. Fetal tissue was harvested at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), when the early adipogenic commitment is initiated. The Zfp423 expression was 3.6-fold higher and DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter was lower in OB compared with Con. Correspondingly, repressive histone methylation (H3K27me3) was lower in the Zfp423 promoter of OB fetal tissue, accompanied by reduced binding of enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2). Gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that Zfp423 regulates early adipogenic differentiation in fetal progenitor cells. In summary, MO enhanced Zfp423 expression and adipogenic differentiation during fetal development, at least partially through reducing DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter, which is expected to durably elevate adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in adult tissue, programming adiposity and metabolic dysfunction later in life. PMID:23884886

  2. Naringenin reduces inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Mizokami, Sandra S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid widely consumed by humans that present anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity. Recently, the analgesic effect of naringenin has been demonstrated in neuropathic pain models. Herein, we tested the analgesic effects of naringenin in several models of inflammatory pain. Mice received treatment with naringenin (16.7-150 mg/kg, per oral), or with the controls anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or dipyrone (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prior the inflammatory stimuli injection. For acute pain, we used acetic acid- and PBQ-induced visceral pain (abdominal writhings), and formalin-, capsaicin-, and CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. By using an electronic version of von Frey filaments, we also investigated the effects of naringenin in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan, capsaicin, CFA, or PGE2 intraplantar injection. Naringenin (50 mg/kg) reduced acute pain behaviors induced by all tested stimuli, including both phases of formalin test, suggesting a direct nociceptor modulatory effect of this compound besides its anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, naringenin also inhibited the increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulus induced by carrageenan, capsaicin, and PGE2. Daily treatment with naringenin during 7 days also reduced CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without gastric or hepatic toxicity. The mechanisms of naringenin involve the inhibition of carrageenan-induced oxidative stress, hyperalgesic cytokines (IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activation in the paw skin. Naringenin also activated the analgesic NO-cyclic GMP-PKG-ATP sensitive K(+) channel signaling pathway to inhibit carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and neutrophil recruitment. These results suggest that naringenin inhibits both inflammatory pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26907804

  3. Activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin induces functional Kinin B1 receptor in rat spinal cord microglia

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    Talbot Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxydative stress, which are enhanced by transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 activation. To examine the link between TRPV1 and B1R in inflammatory pain, this study aimed to determine the ability of TRPV1 to regulate microglial B1R expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the underlying mechanism. Methods B1R expression (mRNA, protein and binding sites was measured in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord in response to TRPV1 activation by systemic capsaicin (1-50 mg/kg, s.c in rats pre-treated with TRPV1 antagonists (capsazepine or SB-366791, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, or vehicle. B1R function was assessed using a tail-flick test after intrathecal (i.t. injection of a selective B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK, and its microglial localization was investigated by confocal microscopy with the selective fluorescent B1R agonist, [Nα-bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK. The effect of i.t. capsaicin (1 μg/site was also investigated. Results Capsaicin (10 to 50 mg/kg, s.c. enhanced time-dependently (0-24h B1R mRNA levels in the lumbar spinal cord; this effect was prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg, i.p.; 10 μg/site, i.t. and SB-366791 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; 30 μg/site, i.t.. Increases of B1R mRNA were correlated with IL-1β mRNA levels, and they were significantly less in cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Intrathecal capsaicin (1 μg/site also enhanced B1R mRNA in lumbar spinal cord. NAC (1 g/kg/d × 7 days prevented B1R up-regulation, superoxide anion production and NF-kB activation induced by capsaicin (15 mg/kg. Des-Arg9-BK (9.6 nmol/site, i.t. decreased by 25-30% the nociceptive threshold at 1 min post-injection in capsaicin-treated rats (10-50 mg/kg while it was without effect in control rats. Des-Arg9-BK-induced thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by capsazepine, SB-366791 and by antagonists/inhibitors of B1R (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg, p

  4. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

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    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  5. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  6. Effects of sex and scotorefractory state on obesity induced by photostimulation and serum leptin in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, Sarah E; Place, Ned J

    2012-12-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is associated with an increasing incidence of heart disease, diabetes and other health risks. In addition, severe cases of obesity are associated with an even greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, animal models of morbid obesity are required to better elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our investigations in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) suggest that pronounced obesity can be reliably induced in this species without relying on genetic manipulation or overly fatty and palatable foods. In a prior study on reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters, we incidentally observed marked obesity in a group of hamsters that were exposed to a particular photoperiodic regime. In short day (SD) lengths, Siberian hamsters inhibit their reproductive physiology and reduce food intake and body mass. However, hamsters become refractory to SD after 15-20weeks and revert to the long day (LD) phenotype. In the previous study, refractory animals appeared to be particularly sensitive to photostimulation (transfer to LD), in terms of increasing body mass. To test the hypothesis that refractoriness to SD predisposes hamsters to severe obesity, we photostimulated females and males in different states of SD responsiveness (inhibited or refractory). We determined that photostimulation during the SD-refractory state is particularly effective in inducing pronounced obesity and high serum leptin concentration in female hamsters. We propose that this experimental framework is a useful model to investigate the factors and signals that create a predisposition to excessive food intake and body mass, without having to rely on genetic or dietary manipulations.

  7. Application of Design Expert for the investigation of capsaicin-loaded microemulsions for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjit, Sureewan; Chairat, Wisuta; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-09-01

    Our previous study reported that the Design Expert® Software showed a beneficial role in the development of microemulsions (ME) for transdermal drug delivery. To fully confirm the reproducibility and the reliability of simultaneous optimal ME formulations, the optimal ME formulations predicted by the Design Expert® Software were experimentally formulated and verified for their skin permeability. Ternary phase diagrams were used to predict the optimal ME area, and the ME formulations selected from outside this area were considered as candidate ME systems. Our ME systems were formulated with isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the oil phase, cocamide diethanolamine (DEA) as the surfactant, ethanol as a co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. The droplet size, size distribution, electrical conductivity, pH, drug content and skin permeability of the candidate ME systems were monitored. Our findings indicated that the skin permeability of the optimal ME and all of the candidate ME formulations was significantly greater than that of the commercial capsaicin (CAP) product. Our study succeeded in predicting and developing the ME systems for the transdermal delivery of CAP. The simplex lattice design used in this study is experimentally useful for the development of pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Effects of capsaicin on nitric oxide synthase isoforms in prepubertal rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, B; Altunbas, K; Tutuncu, S; Ozden, O; Ozguden Akkoc, C G; Peker, S; Sevimli, A

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important intra-ovarian regulatory factor. We investigated effects of low dose capsaicin (CAP) treatment on the different NOS isoforms in prepubertal rat ovaries. Fifteen 21-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups. The first group received no treatment, the second group received 0.5 mg/kg/day CAP dissolved in the vehicle, and the third group was treated with the vehicle only. The animals were euthanized by ether inhalation after 15 days and their ovaries were excised. Ovaries were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were processed for standard immunohistochemistry using the labeled streptavidin-biotin technique for expression of nNOS, eNOS and iNOS. We demonstrated that CAP induced expression of NOS isotypes including eNOS, iNOS and nNOS in prepubertal rat ovaries. CAP may lead to release of NO either directly from nerves or indirectly by evoking release from other cells via the action of neuropeptides that are released from afferent terminals and are involved in regulating female reproductive function.

  9. Liposomal topical capsaicin in post-herpetic neuralgia: a safety pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical treatments have gained popularity for general use as an adjunct to systemic drugs in neuropathic pain, but their use produces variable clinical results and local adverse events. Objective To evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of a formulation of liposomal capsaicin (LC (0.025% in patients with post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Method Patients who remained symptomatic after first-and second-line treatment were randomized to receive LC for six weeks in a placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline, in the second, fourth and sixth week of treatment. Results Thirteen patients completed both treatment periods. Visual Analog Scale (VAS was significantly decreased after the end of the study (p = 0.008, however the effect of treatment was not significant (p = 0.076. There was no difference on global impression of change and other pain characteristics. LC was safe and well tolerated. However, at the concentration used, its analgesic effects were marginal and not significant.

  10. Application of Design Expert for the investigation of capsaicin-loaded microemulsions for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjit, Sureewan; Chairat, Wisuta; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-09-01

    Our previous study reported that the Design Expert® Software showed a beneficial role in the development of microemulsions (ME) for transdermal drug delivery. To fully confirm the reproducibility and the reliability of simultaneous optimal ME formulations, the optimal ME formulations predicted by the Design Expert® Software were experimentally formulated and verified for their skin permeability. Ternary phase diagrams were used to predict the optimal ME area, and the ME formulations selected from outside this area were considered as candidate ME systems. Our ME systems were formulated with isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the oil phase, cocamide diethanolamine (DEA) as the surfactant, ethanol as a co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. The droplet size, size distribution, electrical conductivity, pH, drug content and skin permeability of the candidate ME systems were monitored. Our findings indicated that the skin permeability of the optimal ME and all of the candidate ME formulations was significantly greater than that of the commercial capsaicin (CAP) product. Our study succeeded in predicting and developing the ME systems for the transdermal delivery of CAP. The simplex lattice design used in this study is experimentally useful for the development of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25996630

  11. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazu731079@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inoguchi, Toyoshi, E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Batchuluun, Battsetseg, E-mail: battsetseg.batchuluun@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sugiyama, Naonobu, E-mail: nao1@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kunihisa, E-mail: nihisak@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, 1-1-1 Zokumyoin, Chikushino, Fukuoka 818-8502 (Japan); Sonoda, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takayanagi, Ryoichi, E-mail: takayana@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  12. Weight loss reversed obesity-induced HGF/c-Met pathway and basal-like breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha eSundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC. Using the C3(1-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. It is likely that other factors regulated tumor progression, hence we investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor

  13. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent

  14. Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1-/- exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGriebel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of circadian clock enhances the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Circadian clocks rely on a highly regulated network of transcriptional and translational loops that drive clock-controlled gene expression. Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic effects of deletion of several core components of the clock gene machinery have been well characterized, those of selective inactivation of Cry1 or Cry2 genes have not been described. In this study we demonstrate that ablation of Cry1, but not Cry2, prevents high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity in mice. Despite similar caloric intake, Cry1-/- mice on HFD gained markedly less weight (-18 % at the end of the 16-week experiment and displayed reduced fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT littermates (-61 %, suggesting increased energy expenditure. Analysis of serum lipid and glucose profiles showed no difference between Cry1-/- and WT mice. Both Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice are indistinguishable from WT controls in body weight, fat and protein contents, and food consumption when they are allowed unlimited access to a standard rodent diet. We conclude that although CRY signaling may not be essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis under steady-state nutritional conditions, Cry1 may play a role in readjusting energy balance under changing nutritional circumstances. These studies reinforce the important role of circadian clock genes in energy homeostasis and suggest that Cry1 is a plausible target for antiobesity therapy.

  15. The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the spinal cord after intradermal injection of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the spinal cord of rats during central sensitization after intradermal capsaicin injection. CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) were measured by immunoblotting. The level of p-CREB increased by 20 minutes, peaked between 20 and 60 minutes after capsaicin injection, and started to decrease after 150 minutes. CREB itself did not show an obvious change after capsaicin injection. The p-CREB expression on the ipsilateral side of the spinal dorsal horn, but not on the contralateral side, increased significantly after capsaicin injection. The increase in p-CREB induced by capsaicin injection was partially blocked by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor, administered through a microdialysis fiber placed across the spinal cord. D-NAME, an inactive form of L-NAME, had no effect. CREB phosphorylation, not the level of CREB, was induced within 20 minutes by microdialysis administration of SIN-1, an NO donor. These results indicate that CREB phosphorylation in the spinal cord results from both endogenous and exogenous NO release and that p-CREB may play a role in central sensitization or in longer-term changes in gene expression induced by strong peripheral noxious stimulation. PMID:14622772

  16. Effect of capsaicin on the health of gastrointestinal tract%辣椒素对胃肠道健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏昕峰; 文红丽; 刘雄

    2011-01-01

    As an important spice, the hot pepper has the important physiological function for human. The "hot" mainly dues to capsaicin in the hot pepper. Capsaicin has broad pharmacological effects, lots of researches has been made to explore the effects of capsaicin to the health of gastrointestinal. In order to make better use of capsaicin,this paper summarized the effects that made by capsaicin to gastrointestinal and their mechanisms.%辣椒是重要的香辛料,对人体有重要的生理作用.辣椒主要的辛辣成分是辣椒素,辣椒素药理作用广泛,国内外开展了大量关于辣椒素对胃肠道健康作用方面的研究.本文就辣椒素对胃肠道健康的影响及其机制进行了综述,以期为辣椒素的科学利用提供参考.

  17. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  18. Gastro-protective action of lafutidine mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons without interaction with TRPV1 and involvement of endogenous prostaglandins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Fukushima; Yoko Aoi; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Lafutidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist,exhibits gastro-protective action mediated by capsaicinsensitive afferent neurons (CSN). We compared the effect between lafutidine and capsaicin, with respect to the interaction with endogenous prostaglandins (PG), nitric oxide (NO) and the afferent neurons, including transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1).METHODS: Male SD rats and C57BL/6 mice, both wildtype and prostacyclin IP receptor knockout animals, were used after 18 h of fasting. Gastric lesions were induced by the po administration of HCI/ethanol (60% in 150 mmol/L HCI) in a volume of 1 mL for rats or 0.3 mL for mice.RESULTS: Both lafutidine and capsaicin (1-10 mg/kg,po) afforded dose-dependent protection against HCI/ethanol in rats and mice. The effects were attenuated by both the ablation of CSN and pretreatment with NG-nitroL-arginine methyl ester, yet only the effect of capsaicin was mitigated by prior administration of capsazepine, the TRPV1 antagonist, as well as indomethacin. Lafutidine protected the stomach against HCI/ethanol in IP receptor knockout mice, similar to wild-type animals, while capsaicin failed to afford protection in the animals lacking IP receptors. Neither of these agents affected the mucosal PGE2 or 6-keto PGF1α contents in rat stomachs. Capsaicin evoked an increase in [Ca2+]i in rat TRPV1-transfected HEK293 cells while lafutidine did not.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that although both lafutidine and capsaicin exhibit gastro-protective action mediated by CSN, the mode of their effects differs regarding the dependency on endogenous PGs/IP receptors and TRPV1. It is assumed that lafutidine interacts with CSN at yet unidentified sites other than TRPV1.

  19. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  20. Characterization of cardiovascular reflexes evoked by airway stimulation with allylisothiocyanate, capsaicin, and ATP in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J S; Hadley, S H; Morris, K F; Breslin, J W; Dean, J B; Taylor-Clark, T E

    2016-03-15

    Acute inhalation of airborne pollutants alters cardiovascular function and evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. Here, we have investigated the effect of capsaicin [transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist], AITC [TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist], and ATP (P2X2/3 agonist) on bronchopulmonary sensory activity and cardiovascular responses of conscious Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Single fiber recordings show that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and capsaicin selectively activate C fibers, whereas subpopulations of both A and C fibers are activated by stimulation of P2X2/3 receptors. Inhalation of the agonists by conscious rats caused significant bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block, and prolonged PR intervals, although ATP-induced responses were lesser than those evoked by AITC or capsaicin. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the TRP channel blocker ruthenium red and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. AITC inhalation also caused a biphasic blood pressure response: a brief hypertensive phase followed by a hypotensive phase. Atropine accentuated the hypertensive phase, while preventing the hypotension. AITC-evoked bradycardia was not abolished by terazosin, the α1-adrenoceptor inhibitor, which prevented the hypertensive response. Anesthetics had profound effects on AITC-evoked bradycardia and AV block, which was abolished by urethane, ketamine, and isoflurane. Nevertheless, AITC inhalation caused bradycardia and AV block in paralyzed and ventilated rats following precollicular decerebration. In conclusion, we provide evidence that activation of ion channels expressed on nociceptive airway sensory nerves causes significant cardiovascular effects in conscious SD rats via reflex modulation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26718787

  1. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Teraminami, Aki; Lee, Joo-Young; Ohyama, Kana; Funakoshi, Kozue; Kim, Young-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-07-01

    Tiliroside contained in several dietary plants, such as rose hips, strawberry and raspberry, is a glycosidic flavonoid and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities. Recently, it has been reported that the administration of tiliroside significantly inhibited body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in normal mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tiliroside on obesity-induced metabolic disorders in obese-diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In KK-A(y) mice, the administration of tiliroside (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days failed to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. Although tiliroside did not affect oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly decreased in mice treated with tiliroside. In the analysis of metabolic characteristics, it was shown that plasma insulin, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and plasma adiponectin levels were increased in mice administered tiliroside. The messenger RNA expression levels of hepatic adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR2 and skeletal muscular AdipoR1 were up-regulated by tiliroside treatment. Furthermore, it was indicated that tiliroside treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase in both the liver and skeletal muscle and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Finally, tiliroside inhibited obesity-induced hepatic and muscular triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that tiliroside enhances fatty acid oxidation via the enhancement adiponectin signaling associated with the activation of both AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, although it does not suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in obese-diabetic model mice.

  2. Study on Virulence of Capsaicine against Medlar Aphids%辣椒碱对枸杞蚜虫的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学文

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The study aimed to research the insecticidal activity of capsaicine against the medlar aphids. [ Method ] The load poison blade method indoor was used to determine the virulence of capsaicin at 5 concn. series of 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0 and 62.5 mg/L against the medlar aphids in the lab. [Result] Along with the increase of capsaicin concn., the insecticidal activity of the capsaiein was enhanced markedly. When the capsaicin was 12.5 mg/L the mortality of medlar aphids reached to 66.7% , and when capsaicin was 62.5 mg/Lthe medlar aphids were all in death. Virulence regression results showed that the LC5o for capsaicin was 13.21 mg/L, explaining that the capsaicin had the good control action on the medlar aphids, so it could be instead of the current-used organophosphate and pyrethrins chemical pesticides with great toxic and high residue. [ Conclusion] This research provided a theoretical basis for the capsaicin as new green pesticide to control the medlar aphids.%[目的]研究辣椒碱对枸杞蚜虫的杀虫活性.[方法]采用载毒叶片法室内测定辣椒碱12.5、25.0、37.5、50.0、62.5 mg/L 5个浓度系列对枸杞蚜虫的毒力.[结果]随着浓度的增大,辣椒碱的杀虫活性显著增强,在浓度为12.5 mg/L时枸杞蚜虫死亡率达到66.7%,当浓度为62.5 mg/L时,试虫全部死亡毒力回归结果表明,其LC50为13.21 mg/L,说明辣椒碱具有良好的防除枸杞蚜虫的作用,可代替目前所使用的毒性大、残留量高的有机磷、除虫菊醋类化学农药.[结论]该研究为辣椒碱作为新型绿色农药,防治枸杞蚜虫提供了理论依据.

  3. Capsaicin from chili (Capsicum spp. inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4yk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation is implied in cardiovascular disease and significantly contributes to vessel lumen reduction following surgical interventions such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery. Therefore, identification and characterization of compounds and mechanisms able to counteract VSMC proliferation is of potential therapeutic relevance. This work reveals the anti-proliferative effect of the natural product capsaicin from Capsicum spp. by quantification of metabolic activity and DNA synthesis in activated VSMC. The observed in vitro activity profile of capsaicin warrants further research on its mechanism of action and potential for therapeutic application.

  4. Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Ali Asad

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of the adult population suffer from chronic pain that is not adequately treated by current therapies, highlighting a great need for improved treatment options. To develop effective analgesics, experimental human and animal models of pain are critical. Topically/intra-dermally applied capsaicin induces hyperalgesia and allodynia to thermal and tactile stimuli that mimics chronic pain and is a useful translation from preclinical research to clinical investigation. Many behavioral and self-report studies of pain have exploited the use of the capsaicin pain model, but objective biomarker correlates of the capsaicin augmented nociceptive response in nonhuman primates remains to be explored.Here we establish an aversive capsaicin-induced fMRI model using non-noxious heat stimuli in Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8. BOLD fMRI data were collected during thermal challenge (ON:20 s/42°C; OFF:40 s/35°C, 4-cycle at baseline and 30 min post-capsaicin (0.1 mg, topical, forearm application. Tail withdrawal behavioral studies were also conducted in the same animals using 42°C or 48°C water bath pre- and post- capsaicin application (0.1 mg, subcutaneous, tail.Group comparisons between pre- and post-capsaicin application revealed significant BOLD signal increases in brain regions associated with the 'pain matrix', including somatosensory, frontal, and cingulate cortices, as well as the cerebellum (paired t-test, p<0.02, n = 8, while no significant change was found after the vehicle application. The tail withdrawal behavioral study demonstrated a significant main effect of temperature and a trend towards capsaicin induced reduction of latency at both temperatures.These findings provide insights into the specific brain regions involved with aversive, 'pain-like', responses in a nonhuman primate model. Future studies may employ both behavioral and fMRI measures as translational biomarkers to gain deeper understanding of pain processing and evaluate

  5. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lili [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Xue [Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nongke South Road 40, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yuejin, E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  6. The effects of capsaicin and capsaicinoid analogs on metabolic molecular targets in highly energetic tissues and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Nicholas P; Lambalot, Emily L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in dietary chemicals that may provide benefits for pathologies such as diabetes and obesity. Capsaicinoids found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for the "hot" or "spicy" sensation associated with these foods. Capsaicinoid consumption is also associated with enhanced metabolism, making them potentially therapeutic for metabolic disease by promoting weight loss. This review summarizes much of the current experimental evidence (ranging from basic to applied investigations) of the biochemical and molecular metabolic effects of capsaicinoids in metabolically significant cell types. Along with influencing metabolic rate, findings demonstrate capsaicinoids appear to alter molecular metabolic signaling, regulate hunger and satiety, blood metabolites, and catecholamine release. Notably, the majority of the experiments summarized herein utilized isolated supplemental or research grade capsaicinoids rather than natural food sources for experimental interventions. Additional work should be conducted using primary food sources of capsaicin to explore pharmacological, physiological, and metabolic benefits of both chronic and acute capsaicin consumption. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):229-246, 2016. PMID:26945685

  7. Tolerability of the capsaicin 8% patch following pretreatment with lidocaine or tramadol in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain: A multicentre, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, T.S.; Hoye, K.; Fricova, J.; Vanelderen, P.J.L.; Ernault, E.; Siciliano, T.; Marques, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the capsaicin 8% patch is associated with treatment-related discomfort. Consequently, pretreatment for 60 min with anaesthetic cream is recommended; however, this may be uncomfortable and time consuming. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, randomized (1:1), assessor-blind

  8. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Reduces Obesity-Associated Macrophage and Mast Cell Infiltration as well as Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Adipose Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Bao; Yan-Guang Chen; Lei Zhang; Yan Lin Na Xu; Xin Wang; Jian Liu; Wei Qu

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic disease that correlates closely with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-induced chronic adipose tissue inflammation is now considered as a critical contributor to the above complications. Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) is a traditional Chinese food and well known for its function of reducing body weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is unclear whether BM could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation caused by obesity. In this...

  9. The μ opioid agonist morphine modulates potentiation of capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 responses through a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Sarah J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 is critical in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Several receptors including G-protein coupled prostaglandin receptors have been reported to functionally interact with the TRPV1 through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA pathway to potentiate TRPV1-mediated capsaicin responses. Such regulation may have significance in inflammatory pain. However, few functional receptor interactions that inhibit PKA-mediated potentiation of TRPV1 responses have been described. Results In the present studies we investigated the hypothesis that the μ opioid receptor (MOP agonist morphine can modulate forskolin-potentiated capsaicin responses through a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. HEK293 cells were stably transfected with TRPV1 and MOP, and calcium (Ca2+ responses to injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were monitored in Fluo-3-loaded cells. Pre-treatment with morphine did not inhibit unpotentiated capsaicin-induced Ca2+ responses but significantly altered capsaicin responses potentiated by forskolin. TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ responses potentiated by the direct PKA activator 8-Br-cAMP and the PKC activator Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetatewere not modulated by morphine. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that the TRPV1 and MOP are co-expressed on cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion neurones, pointing towards the existence of a functional relationship between the G-protein coupled MOP and nociceptive TRPV1. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the opioid receptor agonist morphine acts via inhibition of adenylate cyclase to inhibit PKA-potentiated TRPV1 responses. Targeting of peripheral opioid receptors may therefore have therapeutic potential as an intervention to prevent potentiation of TRPV1 responses through the PKA pathway in inflammation.

  10. RPF151, a novel capsaicin-like analogue: in vitro studies and in vivo preclinical antitumor evaluation in a breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; Ferreira-Junior, Wilson Alves; Bertin, Ariane Matiello; de-Sá-Junior, Paulo Luiz; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; Figueiredo, Carlos Rogério; Cury, Yara; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff; Parise-Filho, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Capsaicin, the primary pungent component of the chili pepper, has antitumor activity. Herein, we describe the activity of RPF151, an alkyl sulfonamide analogue of capsaicin, against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RPF151 was synthetized, and molecular modeling was used to compare capsaicin and RPF151. Cytotoxicity of RPF151 on MDA-MB-231 was also evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle analysis, by flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis of cycle-related proteins were used to evaluate the antiproliferative mechanisms. Apoptosis was evaluated by phosphatidyl-serine externalization, cleavage of Ac-YVAD-AMC, and Bcl-2 expression. The production of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by flow cytometry. RPF151 in vivo antitumor effects were investigated in murine MDA-MB-231 model. This study shows that RPF151 downregulated p21 and cyclins A, D1, and D3, leading to S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Although RPF151 has induced the activation of TRPV-1 and TRAIL-R1/DR4 and TRAIL-2/DR5 on the surface of MDA-MB-231 cells, its in vivo antitumor activity was TRPV-1-independent, thus suggesting that RPF151 should not have the same pungency-based limitation of capsaicin. In silico analysis corroborated the biological findings, showing that RPF151 has physicochemical improvements over capsaicin. Overall, the activity of RPF151 against MDA-MB-231 and its lower pungency suggest that it may have a relevant role in cancer therapy. PMID:25894379

  11. Role of capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferents in neuropathic pain-induced synaptic potentiation in the nociceptive amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Ayano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in the capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeC, a region also called "nociceptive amygdala," receive nociceptive information from the dorsal horn via afferent pathways relayed from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB. As the central amygdala is known to be involved in the acquisition and expression of emotion, this pathway is thought to play central roles in the generation of affective responses to nociceptive inputs. Excitatory synaptic transmission between afferents arising from the LPB and these CeC neurons is potentiated in arthritic, visceral, neuropathic, inflammatory and muscle pain models. In neuropathic pain models following spinal nerve ligation (SNL, in which we previously showed a robust LPB-CeC potentiation, the principal behavioral symptom is tactile allodynia triggered by non-C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor afferents. Conversely, recent anatomical studies have revealed that most of the spinal neurons projecting to the LPB receive C-fiber afferent inputs. Here, we examined the hypothesis that these C-fiber-mediated inputs are necessary for the full establishment of robust synaptic potentiation of LPB-CeC transmission in the rats with neuropathic pain. Results Postnatal capsaicin treatment, which has been shown to denervate the C-fibers expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1 channels, completely abolished eye-wiping responses to capsaicin eye instillation in rats, but this treatment did not affect mechanical allodynia in the nerve-ligated animals. However, the postnatal capsaicin treatment prevented LPB-CeC synaptic potentiation after SNL, unlike in the vehicle-treated rats, primarily due to the decreased incidence of potentiated transmission by elimination of TRPV1-expressing C-fiber afferents. Conclusions C-fiber-mediated afferents in the nerve-ligated animals may be a required facilitator of the establishment of nerve injury-evoked synaptic

  12. Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "100%Control" and "100%CAPS", and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "75%Control" and "75%CAPS", followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P = 0.01) were measured every waking hour and before and after every meal using visual analogue scales, and were higher in the 100%CAPS versus 100%Control condition. After dinner desire to eat, satiety and fullness did not differ between 75%CAPS and 100%Control, while desire to eat was higher (P < 0.05) and satiety (P = 0.06) and fullness (P = 0.06) tended to be lower in the 75%Control versus 100%Control condition. Furthermore, ad libitum intake (P = 0.07) and overconsumption (P = 0.06) tended to decrease in 100%CAPS versus 100%Control. In energy balance, addition of capsaicin to the diet increases satiety and fullness, and tends to prevent overeating when food intake is ad libitum. After dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat. PMID:24630935

  13. 聚乳酸-辣椒素微胶囊的制备及性能%Preparation and Properties Research on the Microcapsules of PLA Coated Capsaicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦成; 陈思浩; 徐子成; 徐楠; 潘鑫辰

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] The intensively pungent odor of the capsaicin is not only uncomfortable for the operator in the applied process but also its efficiency decreases for its quick release properties in a given environment. The preparation and properties research on the microcapsules of PLA coated capsaicin was carried out. [Methods] The microcapsule of capsaicin was prepared with polylactic acid (PLA) wall and capsaicin core by the solvent evaporation process. [Results] FTIR analysis showed that the capsaicin was covered successfully with the PLA resin. SEM and laser particle size methods revealed that the particle size of the microcapsule was in the range of 3-5 um. Thermal analysis illustrated that the melting point and thermal stability of the microcapsules was improved within a certain range. [Conclusions] Thus, the application field of the microcapsulated capsaicin may be expanded.%[目的]辣椒素具有强烈辛辣味而不利于生产者的操作,另外其持效性较差.微胶囊技术有利于克服这些缺点,对聚乳酸-辣椒素微胶囊的制备及性能进行了研究.[方法]以聚乳酸为囊壁、辣椒素为囊芯,采用溶剂挥发法制备了微胶囊化辣椒素.[结果]红外光谱分析表明聚乳酸已包覆到辣椒素上;扫描电镜和激光法粒径分布证明微胶囊化辣椒素的粒径范围为3~5 μm;差示扫描量热法和热失重法分析表明包覆聚乳酸后的辣椒素的熔融及热稳定性能在一定范围内得到了提高.[结论]经聚乳酸微胶囊化后的辣椒素的应用范围可得到进一步的拓展.

  14. 辣椒素对储粮害虫防治效果研究%Study on the effect of capsaicin in pests preventing for grain storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建勋; 刘营营; 李忠海; 夏延斌; 罗凤莲; 王达能; 伍湘东; 项伟

    2012-01-01

    With 2% capsaicin ethanol solution sprayed on cargo rice e-venly, the effect was studied of capsaicin in Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum preventing for grain storage. The results showed that according to the ratio of capsaicin to cargo rice 4 g/kg and 2 g/kg, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum appeared distinctly refusing feed effect. The damage rate of cargo rice in 30 days caused by Sitophilus zeamais were only 26. 4% and 35. 4% to that of blank controls, similarly Tribolium castaneum caused damage rate only 24. 8% and 30. 6% to that of blank controls. The reproduction number caused by Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum was only 9. 23% and 26. 1 % of blank control, according to 0. 5 g capsaicin per 1 000 g cargo rice. When adding capsaicin 2 g per 1 000 g cargo rice, Sitophilus zeamais lived only 1 and Tribolium castaneum zero survived. The result showed that capsaicin had obvious reproduction effect on tested pests.%以2%辣椒素乙醇溶液均匀喷雾添加于糙米,研究辣椒素对储粮害虫玉米象和赤拟谷盗的拒食和增殖作用.结果表明:辣椒素添加量为4,2 g/kg·糙米时,玉米象和赤拟谷盗表现出明显的拒食现象,30 d内糙米的因虫损失率,玉米象两个浓度处理组仅为空白对照的26.4%和35.4%;赤拟谷盗处理组仅为空白对照的24.8%和30.6%;辣椒素的添加剂量为0.5 g/kg·糙米时,玉米象组、赤拟谷盗组增殖数量分别为空白组的9.23%,26.1%;辣椒素的添加剂量为2 g/kg·糙米时,玉米象组存活数仅1头,赤拟谷盗存活数为0.辣椒素的添加使玉米象和赤拟谷盗的增殖受到了明显抑制.

  15. Determination of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in self-defense weapons by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C A; Crouc, D J; Yost, G S; Fatah, A A

    2001-04-01

    Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods for the analysis of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in pepper spray products have been developed. Chromatographic separation of the capsaicinoid analogues was achieved using a reversed-phase HPLC column and a stepwise gradient of methanol and distilled water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. Identification and quantification of the capsaicinoids was achieved by electrospray ionization single-stage mass spectrometry monitoring the protonated molecules of the internal standard (m/z 280), capsaicin (m/z 306), dihydrocapsaicin (m/z 308), and nonivamide (m/z 294) or by tandem mass spectrometry monitoring the appropriate precursor-to-product-ion transitions. The plot of concentration versus peak area ratio was linear over the range of 10-750 ng/ml using LC-MS and 10-500 ng/ml using LC-MS-MS. However, to accurately quantify the capsaicinoids in the pepper spray products calibration curves between 10 and 1000 ng were constructed and fit using a weighted quadratic equation. Using the quadratic curve, the accuracy of the assay ranged from 91 to 102% for all analytes. The intra-assay precision (RSD) for capsaicin was 2% at 25 ng/ml, 10% at 500 ng/ml, and 3% at 800 ng/ml. The inter-assay precision (RSD) for capsaicin was 6% at 25 ng/ml, 6% at 500 ng/ml, and 9% at 800 ng/ml. Similar values for inter- and intra-assay precision were experimentally obtained for both dihydrocapsaicin and nonivamide. The analysis of selected pepper spray products demonstrated that the capsaicinoid concentration in the products ranged from 0.7 to 40.5 microg/microl. PMID:11330795

  16. Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Spaziano; Livio Luongo; Francesca Guida; Stefania Petrosino; Maria Matteis; Enza Palazzo; Nikol Sullo; Vito de Novellis; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Francesco Rossi; Sabatino Maione; Bruno D’Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin cha...

  17. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Sand, Carsten; Elberling, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch con- dition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in o...

  18. Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Petrosino, Stefania; Matteis, Maria; Palazzo, Enza; Sullo, Nikol; de Novellis, Vito; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin challenge in sensitized or naive rats. Immunohistochemical studies, endocannabinoid, and palmitoylethanolamide quantification in the NTS were also performed. This study provides evidence that allergen sensitization in the NTS induced: (1) increase in the neural firing response to intratracheal capsaicin application, (2) increase of endocannabinoid anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, a reduction of 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in the NTS, (3) glial cell activation, and (4) prevention by a Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of neural firing response to intratracheal application of capsaicin in both naïve and sensitized rats. Therefore, normalization of ovalbumin-induced NTS neural sensitization could open up the prospect of new treatments based on the recovery of specific brain nuclei function and for extensive studies on acute or long-term efficacy of selective mGlu ligand, in models of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  19. Uso del parche de capsaicina 8% para el tratamiento del dolor por infusión de treprostinil subcutáneo Using the 8% capsaicin patch for treatment of pain by subcutaneous infusion of treprostinil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Trinidad

    2012-06-01

    Hypertension is a low-prevalence disease (15 cases per 1 million inhabitants, but is nevertheless a serious process with high mortality. Treprostinil is a new drug for the PH treatment, it is a prostacyclin with a half-life of 2-3 hours, which permits subcutaneous administration with rapid absorption and 100% bioavailability. The issue with treprostini is the high rate of drop-outs due to pain at the injection site. Aims: to reduce the rate of drop-outs due to pain at the injection site with the use of Treprostinil Methods: we searches in PubMed and Tripdatabase, fore terms, "capsaicin", "qutenza", "treprostinil", and "pulmonary hypertension", finding no related publication. The treatment with capsaicin 8% patch, was performed for one hour, according to the protocol, the peri-umbilical abdominal area (injection site was delimited and the patch administered for one hour. Results: erythema at the administration site was subsequently observed, albeit with no further incidents. Good treatment tolerance and discharge. In the control after 1 month, the patient reported changing the injection site to the treated area with a very striking reduction in pain (VAS 2-3 that enabled him to lead a normal life. The patient's satisfaction is very high, and he requires no coadjuvant or rescue treatment. At the 3-month control, the patient continues with the same level of analgesia Conclusions: capsaicin 8% patch could be a valid alternative to be considered in the analgesic control of patients on treatment with subcutaneous treprostinil.

  20. Capsaicin enhances anti-proliferation efficacy of pirarubicin via activating TRPV1 and inhibiting PCNA nuclear translocation in 5637 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Long; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhenkun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fei; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Li, Lei; Zeng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The recurrence of bladder cancer after surgery with or without chemotherapy remains a major challenge in bladder cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) acts as a tumor suppressor through inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. However, whether activation of TRPV1 has any synergistic effects with pirarubicin (THP), one of main drugs used in urinary bladder instillation chemotherapy to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy has remained elusive. The present study verified that TRPV1 was differentially expressed in bladder cancer cell lines. Furthermore, activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin was shown to induce growth inhibition of 5637 cells in which TRPV1 was highly expressed, while the growth of T24 cells, which express TRPV1 at low levels, was not affected. In addition, the present study demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 enhanced the anti‑proliferative effects of pirarubicin using an MTT assay and cell cycle analysis. Finally, immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that activation of TRPV1 prevented the translocation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen to the nucleus. This phenomenon was reversed by pre‑treatment with capsazepine, a specific TRPV1 antagonist. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the anti‑tumor activity of TRPV1 against bladder cancer. Activation of TRPV1 may be applied as a novel strategy to treat bladder cancer or enhance the therapeutic efficacy of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs.

  1. Enhancing antibiofouling performance of Polysulfone (PSf) membrane by photo-grafting of capsaicin derivative and acrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Haijing; Gao, Xueli; Gao, Congjie

    2014-10-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment. Herein, antibiofouling PSf membrane was prepared by UV-assisted graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and a capsaicin derivative, N-(5-methyl-3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy benzyl) acrylamide (MBHBA), on PSf membrane. AA and MBHBA were used as hydrophilic monomer and antibacterial monomer separately. The membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR, contact angle, SEM, AFM, cross-flow filtration unit, antifouling and antibacterial measurements. Verification of MBHBA and AA that photo-chemically grafted onto the PSf membrane surface is confirmed by carbonyl stretching vibration at ∼1655 cm-1 and ∼1730 cm-1, separately. The increasing AA concentration accelerates the graft-polymerization of MBHBA and resulted in a more hydrophilic surface. Consequently, antifouling property of the membranes was improved on a large level. The flux recovery rate can achieve 100% during the cyclic test, which may be attributed to the more hydrophilic and smooth surface, as well as the decreased membrane pore size. Most importantly, the presence of AA in graft co-polymer does not affect the antibacterial activity of MBHBA. That may be induced by the increasing chain length and flexibility of the grafted polymer chains.

  2. Aumento del umbral tusígeno en sujetos sanos con el uso de Levodropropizina INCREASE OF THE COUGH THRESHOLD TO CAPSAICIN IN HEALTHY ADULTS BY ADMINISTERING LEVODROPROPIZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Schönffeldt G.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó un estudio aleatorio prospectivo, doble ciego cruzado contra placebo, para estudiar la reproducibilidad y las modificaciones del umbral tusígeno (UT inducido por capsaicina, luego de administrar placebo y Levodropropizina (un nuevo antitusivo sintético. Se determinó el UT basal (logaritmo de la concentración de capsaicina que induce al menos dos toses consecutivas en 20 voluntarios adultos sanos, no fumadores de ambos sexos con edad promedio de 34,9 años (rango: 18 a 57 años. El promedio del UT basal fue 2,240 µM (± 0,060 ES, sin haber diferencias significativas por sexo o edad (p: ns. En 11 de 18 sujetos el UT aumentó de 2,358 µM (± 0,044 ES con placebo a 2,469 µM (± 0,057 ES con Levodropropizina (p = 0,01. Dos sujetos fueron excluidos por presentar una enfermedad intercurrente no relacionada con el estudio. No hubo efectos adversos significativos. Conclusión: La capsaicina indujo reproduciblemente el reflejo tusígeno en 20 voluntarios sanos, y la Levodropropizina administrada por vía oral aumentó el umbral tusígenoA randomized, prospective, double blind and placebo controlled study was designed to evaluate in 20 non smoker healthy adult volunteers the reproducibility and modification of cough threshold (CT induced by capsaicin after placebo and Levodropropizine (a new synthetic drug. Adult volonteers of both sexes, mean age 34.9 years old (range: 18-57 years, inhaled increasing concentrations of capsaicin to determine the basal CT: log concentration of capsaicin that induced at least two consecutive coughs. The basal CT was 2.240 µM (± 0.060 SE, without differences by sex or age (p: ns, In 11 out of 18 subjects the CT increased from 2.358 (± 0,044 SE on placebo to 2.469 µM (± 0.057 after Levodropropizine (p = 0.01. Two subjects were excluded due to intercurrent disease, not related to the study. No significant adverse reactions were reported during the study. Conclusion: Capsaicin induced reproducible

  3. Considerable variability in the efficacy of 8% capsaicin topical patches in the treatment of chronic pruritus in 3 patients with notalgia paresthetica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Sand, Carsten; Elberling, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three pa- tients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hin- drances to applying this treatment with NP...... as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in cer- tain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and as- sess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome...

  4. The effect of wound instillation of a novel purified capsaicin formulation on postherniotomy pain: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Hansen, J.B.; Malmstrom, J.;

    2008-01-01

    , preclinical, and clinical studies, and may be an effective adjunct to postoperative pain management. METHODS: We performed a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the analgesic efficacy of a single intraoperative wound instillation of 1000 mu g ultrapurified capsaicin (ALGRX...... 4975) after open mesh groin hernia repair in 41 adult male patients. The primary end-point was average daily visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores during the first week after surgery assessed as area under the curve (AUC). Pain was recorded twice daily in a pain diary for 4 wk. Physical examination...

  5. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  6. Failure of intrathecal ketorolac to reduce remifentanil-induced postinfusion hyperalgesia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, James C; Tong, Chuanyao; Curry, Regina S

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, acute exposure to opioids results in transient antinociception followed by longer lasting hypersensitivity to tactile or thermal stimuli, a phenomenon termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia. This hypersensitivity can be blocked or reversed by intrathecally administered cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including ketorolac, suggesting a role for spinal prostaglandins. In surgical patients, the dose of intraoperative opioid, particularly the short-acting drug, remifentanil, is directly related to increased pain and opioid requirements for many hours postoperatively. In addition, experimentally induced tactile hypersensitivity in humans is exaggerated after cessation of remifentanil infusions. The degree of this experimental opioid-induced hyperalgesia is reduced by systemic treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, and investigators have speculated that this reduction reflects the actions in the central nervous system, most likely in the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, we measured cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations during and after remifentanil infusion in 30 volunteers. These volunteers received intrathecal ketorolac or saline in a random, blinded manner during intravenous remifentanil infusion after generation of hypersensitivity by topical capsaicin. Remifentanil reduced pain to noxious heat stimuli and reduced areas of capsaicin-induced hypersensitivity similarly in those receiving intrathecal ketorolac or saline. The primary outcome measure, area of capsaicin-induced hypersensitivity after stopping remifentanil, showed a similar increase in those receiving ketorolac as in those receiving saline. Cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations did not increase during postinfusion hyperalgesia compared with those during infusion, and they were not increased during infusion compared with those in historical controls. These data fail to support the hypothesis that acute opioid-induced hyperalgesia reflects spinal cyclooxygenase activation

  7. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  8. Adipocyte-Specific Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α Deficiency Exacerbates Obesity-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Rubén; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Qin, Nan; Rubín de Celis, María F; Economopoulou, Matina; Ziogas, Athanasios; Gercken, Bettina; Kotlabova, Klara; Phieler, Julia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Bornstein, Stefan R; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Breier, Georg; Blüher, Matthias; Hampe, Jochen; El-Armouche, Ali; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Chung, Kyoung-Jin; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2016-02-01

    Angiogenesis is a central regulator for white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue adaptation in the course of obesity. Here we show that deletion of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) in adipocytes (by using Fabp4-Cre transgenic mice) but not in myeloid or endothelial cells negatively impacted WAT angiogenesis and promoted WAT inflammation, WAT dysfunction, hepatosteatosis, and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Importantly, adipocyte HIF2α regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis of obese BAT as well as its thermogenic function. Consistently, obese adipocyte-specific HIF2α-deficient mice displayed BAT dysregulation, associated with reduced levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a dysfunctional thermogenic response to cold exposure. VEGF administration reversed WAT and BAT inflammation and BAT dysfunction in adipocyte HIF2α-deficient mice. Together, our findings show that adipocyte HIF2α is protective against maladaptation to obesity and metabolic dysregulation by promoting angiogenesis in both WAT and BAT and by counteracting obesity-mediated BAT dysfunction. PMID:26572826

  9. Considerable Variability in the Efficacy of 8% Capsaicin Topical Patches in the Treatment of Chronic Pruritus in 3 Patients with Notalgia Paresthetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Sand, Carsten; Elberling, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a focal neuropathic itch condition manifesting in intense chronic or recurrent episodic itch in a hyperpigmented, macular, uni- or bilateral skin area located below and/or medially to the scapulae. Achieving satisfactory relieve in NP patients is challenging. In this case-series three female NP patients were treated with 8% capsaicin patches following a spatial quantification of their alloknetic area with a von Frey filament. The use of a von Frey filament in order to delimit the precise area of itch sensitization and thus patch application, proved clinically feasible. Although 8% topical capsaicin relieved itch in all three patients, the duration of the effectiveness varied greatly from only 3 days to >2 months. The treatment was well tolerated in the patients and there appear to be no significant hindrances to applying this treatment with NP as an indication, although it may only exhibit satisfactory effectiveness in certain patients. Placebo-controlled double-blinded trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment and assess predictive parameters of the treatment outcome. PMID:26848223

  10. 辣椒素理化性质及体外透皮性能的研究%Physical and Chemical Properties and Percutaneous Permeation of Capsaicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 王承潇; 汤秀珍; 张皓; 韩伟

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the physical and chemical properties and transdermal delivery characteristics of, capsaicin. METHODS Equilibrium solubility method, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, bottle-shaking method, differential scanning caiorimetry ( DSC) and in vitro diffusion cell method were used to determine the apparent solubility, dissociation constant, apparent oil/water partition coefficient, melting point and percutaneous penetration of capsaicin, respectively. And the permeation characteristics were evaluated by lag time method. RESULTS Capsaicin was slightly dissolved in water, and the apparent solubility was ( 22. 85 ± 0. 06 ) mg · L-1. It was a weak base with a dissociation constant of( 10. 25 ±0. 11). The apparent oil/water partition coefficient of capsaicin changed with the pH value, and increased when pH was greater than 8. Its melting point was 60. 20 ℃. The residence time(tlag)was (2. 437 ± 0. 273 ) h, the permeability coefficient (P) (7. 012 ± 0. 341) × 10 -1 cm · h -1 , and the percutaneous penetration rate (Js) (4. 647 ±0. 226) μg · cm-2 · h-1. CONCLUSION Capsaicin possesses appropriate physical and chemical properties for percutaneous penetration and exhibits excellent percutaneous penetration.%目的 研究辣椒素的理化性质及体外透皮性能.方法 采用平衡溶解度法、紫外分光光度法、摇瓶法、差示扫描量热法和体外扩散池法,分别测定辣椒素的表观溶解度、解离常数、表观油/水分配系数、熔点和体外经皮渗透参数,并采用滞留时间法评价其经皮渗透特性.结果 辣椒素极微溶于水,表观溶解度为(22.85±0.06) mg·L-1;为弱碱,解离常数为(10.25±0.11);表观油/水分配系数随pH的增加而变化,当pH >8时lg P增加;熔点为60.20℃.辣椒素的滞留时间(tlag)为(2.437±0.273)h,体外经皮渗透参数(P)为(7.012±0.341)×10-2cm·h-1,渗透速率(Js)为(4.647±0.226) μg·cm-2·h-1.结论 辣椒素具有适宜经皮渗透的理化性质及较好的经皮渗透性能.

  11. 辣椒素/SiO_2微球的制备%Preparation of Capsaicin/SiO_2 microspheres and the optimization of its encapsulation efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚红梅; 马永梅; 孙睿; 李引乾; 陈辉玲; 童德文; 董玲玲; 曹新宇

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was conducted to prepare Capsaicin/SiO2 microspheres,and to optimize their preparation parameters.【Method】 Capsaicin/SiO2 microspheres were prepared by O/W/O multiple emulsion,and the encapsulation efficiency was detected by UV spectrophotometry.The preparation parameters,such as amount of the external oil stabilizer HPC,water phase stabilizer PEG,hydrophilic surfactant Tween 20 and lipophilic surfactant Span 80 were optimized by L9(34)orthogonal method according to the Capsaicin encapsulation efficiency.The morphology and size of the microspheres were characterized by SEM and optical microscopy.【Result】 Spherical hollow Capsaicin/SiO2 microspheres were prepared by O/W/O multiple emulsion.The average diameter of the microsphere was about(4.62±0.12) μm,and the dispersion coefficient(ε)was ca.0.76.If there was no cross-interaction,the optimal process parameters for high encapsulation efficiency should be:HPC and Span 80 contents should be 1.5% and 0.5% respectively of the external oil phase,and PEG and Tween 20 content should be 4.0% and 0.5% respectively of the water phase.【Conclusion】 The process parameters were optimized,by which Capsaicin/SiO2 microspheres with comparatively high encapsulation efficiency can be prepared.%【目的】制备辣椒素/SiO2微球,并对其制备参数进行优化。【方法】以油包水包油(O/W/O)复乳法制备辣椒素/SiO2微球,采用扫描电镜和光学显微镜检测微球形态和粒径,紫外分光光度法测定微球包封率。通过L9(34)正交试验,对外油相稳定剂羟丙基纤维素(HPC)、水相稳定剂聚乙二醇(PEG)、亲水性表面活性剂Tween 20和亲油性表面活性剂Span 80的用量进行优化。【结果】用O/W/O复乳法制得了具有中空结构的辣椒素/SiO2微球,微球平均粒径(4.62±0.12)μm,分散系数ε为0.76。在不考虑交互作用的条件下,优选出较高包封率的微球制备参数组合

  12. Synthesis, characterization, in silico approach and in vitro antiproliferative activity of RPF151, a benzodioxole sulfonamide analogue designed from capsaicin scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Mauricio T.; Pasqualoto, Kerly F. M.; van de Streek, Jacco;

    2015-01-01

    RPF151, an alkylsulfonamide capsaicin analogue, was synthesized by a simple and efficient one-step methodology. The compound was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, elemental analysis, IR and melting point. The crystal structure of RPF151 was determined by X-ray powder diffraction and its experimental...

  13. 微波碱法提取辣椒碱工艺研究%Study on Extraction Technology of Capsaicin by Microwave Alkal i Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容鹄; 窦志浩; 段宙位; 何艾; 谢辉

    2014-01-01

    The extraction technology of capsaicin from Capsicum chinense of Hainan is studied by microwave alkali method. The influence factors of sodium hydroxide solution concentration, extraction time,extraction temperature,extraction power are discussed and analyzed through single factor and orthogonal tests.Taking capsaicin extraction yield as evaluation index,the extraction conditions are optimized.The results show that the optimum extraction conditions are:Capsicum chinense after being dried,grinded and filtered with 30 mesh of sieve,under microwave extraction condition,the concentration of sodium hydroxide is 2%,solid-liquid ratio is 1∶14,extraction time is 15 min,extraction temperature is 50 ℃,power is 300 W,capsaicin compound optimization extraction rate is 1.103%,purity of crude product is 20.7%.%以黄灯笼辣椒粉为原料,研究微波碱法提取辣椒碱的工艺技术。以辣椒碱得率为指标,通过单因素试验和正交试验L9(34)探讨了氢氧化钠溶液的浓度、浸提时间、提取温度、提取功率对辣椒碱提取率的影响,优化了提取条件。结果表明最佳提取条件:黄灯笼辣椒干燥粉碎过30目筛后,在微波辅助下,氢氧化钠的浓度为2%,料液比为1∶14,提取时间为15 min,提取温度为50℃,功率为300 W,优化后提取的辣椒碱化合物得率为1.103%,得到粗品的纯度为20.7%。

  14. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between obesity and hypertension is well established both in children and adults. The mechanisms through which obesity directly causes hypertension are still an area of research. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been considered to have an important function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The arterial-pressure control mechanism of diuresis and natriuresis, according to the principle of infinite feedback gain, seems to be shifted toward higher blood-pressure levels in obese individuals. During the early phases of obesity, primary sodium retention exists as a result of increase in renal tubular reabsorption. Extracellular-fluid volume is expanded and the kidney-fluid apparatus is resetted to a hypertensive level, consistent with a model of hypertension because of volume overload. Plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II and aldosterone values display significant increase during obesity. Insulin resistance and inflammation may promote an altered profile of vascular function and consequently hypertension. Leptin and other neuropeptides are possible links between obesity and the development of hypertension. Obesity should be considered as a chronic medical condition, which is likely to require long-term treatment. Understanding of the mechanisms associated with obesity-related hypertension is essential for successful treatment strategies. PMID:20442753

  15. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; presponse (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  16. Capsaicin mimics mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events: involvement of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Naoki; Ruegg, Urs T; Kudo, Akira; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events are important for subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We previously showed that load-induced activation of the cation channel TRPV1 caused an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca ( 2+) ]i) and that this activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and promoted muscle hypertrophy. However, the link between mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events, and the TRPV1-mediated increases in [Ca ( 2+) ]i are not fully understood. Here we show that administration of the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, induces phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, S6, Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not Akt, AMPK or GSK3β. Furthermore, the TRPV1-induced phosphorylation patterns resembled those induced by mechanical load. Our results continue to highlight the importance of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in load-induced intracellular signaling pathways.

  17. Cafeteria diet inhibits insulin clearance by reduced insulin-degrading enzyme expression and mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimarti, P; Costa-Júnior, J M; Ferreira, S M; Protzek, A O; Santos, G J; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Rezende, L F

    2013-11-01

    Insulin clearance plays a major role in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in physiological and/or pathological conditions, such as obesity-induced type 2 diabetes as well as diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cafeteria diet-induced obesity-induced changes in insulin clearance and to explain the mechanisms underlying these possible changes. Female Swiss mice were fed either a standard chow diet (CTL) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 8 weeks, after which we performed glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, insulin dynamics, and insulin clearance tests. We then isolated pancreatic islets for ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as liver, gastrocnemius, visceral adipose tissue, and hypothalamus for subsequent protein analysis by western blot and determination of mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The cafeteria diet induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased insulin secretion and total insulin content. More importantly, mice that were fed a cafeteria diet demonstrated reduced insulin clearance and decay rate as well as reduced insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) protein and mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle compared with the control animals. Furthermore, the cafeteria diet reduced IDE expression and alternative splicing in the liver and skeletal muscle of mice. In conclusion, a cafeteria diet impairs glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin sensitivity, but it also reduces insulin clearance by reducing IDE expression and alternative splicing in mouse liver; however, whether this mechanism contributes to the glucose intolerance or helps to ameliorate it remains unclear.

  18. The involvement of Smac/DIABLO, p53, NF-kB and MAPK pathways in apoptosis of keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin: protective effects of curcumin and capsaicin

    OpenAIRE

    Becatti, M; F. Prignano; Fiorillo, C>; L. Pescitelli; P. Nassi; T Lotti; N. TADDEI

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested as the initial pathogenetic event in melanocyte degeneration in vitiligo. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. In the present study, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 12 patients suffering from nonsegmental vitiligo. The intracellular pathways involved in keratinocyte damage and apoptosis and the antioxidant protection of curcumin and capsaicin in these cells were investi...

  19. Capsaicina tópica en el tratamiento del dolor neuropático Topical capsaicin for the management of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vidal

    2004-07-01

    sensación de quemazón en la zona de aplicación, que tiende a desaparecer después de la primera semana. Esta sensación de quemazón constituye, junto con la limitada efectividad clínica, la principal limitación de la aplicación tópica de capsaicina. La principal indicación del uso de la capsaicina tópica es la de coadyuvante de los antidepresivos y anticonvulsivantes en el tratamiento de los diversos cuadros de dolor neuropático, ya que como terapia única parece ser insuficiente. Es una opción a tener en cuenta en los pacientes añosos afectos de dolor neuropático, con lo que disminuiremos la incidencia de efectos secundarios sistémicos y de interacciones medicamentosas.Neuropathic pain is one of the most complex painful syndromes and one of the most difficult to treat. It is a symptom resulting from neurological damage (peripheral, central or both affecting the pain nervous transmission system. Several drugs have been used, but none of them has resulted effective enough and their side effects frequently deter the continuation of the treatment. It can show up in different situations, all of which are more frequent in aged patients. A powerful analgesic with as little number ofside effects as possible is needed. This paper is a bibliographic review performed through the Medline data base of the treatment with topical capsaicin in different cases of neuropathic pain: postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain associated to AIDS, trigeminal neuralgia, post-mastectomy painful syndromes and regional complex pain. The topical administration of capsaicin 0.075%, has shown to be effective for the management of dysesthesic pain and hence it is a therapeutic alternative for this type of pain. Its mechanism of action appears to be based on the selective stimulation of the neurons of amyelinic fibers C, causing the release of substance P and perhaps of other neurotransmitters; and finally, a depletion of substance P, which would disturb pain

  20. RPF101, a new capsaicin-like analogue, disrupts the microtubule network accompanied by arrest in the G2/M phase, inducing apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá-Júnior, Paulo Luiz de [Laboratory of Genetics, Butantan Institute, Vital Brasil Avenue 1500, Postal Code: 05503-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita [Biochemistry and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Vital Brasil Avenue 1500, Postal Code: 05503-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Adilson Kleber [Laboratory of Genetics, Butantan Institute, Vital Brasil Avenue 1500, Postal Code: 05503-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Prof. Lineu Prestes Avenue, 580, Postal Code: 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre de [Biochemistry and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Vital Brasil Avenue 1500, Postal Code: 05503-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Diana Aparecida Dias; Pereira, Alexandre; Madeiro de Souza, Dener [Laboratory of Genetics, Butantan Institute, Vital Brasil Avenue 1500, Postal Code: 05503-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Parise Filho, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.parise@usp.br [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Prof. Lineu Prestes Avenue, 580, Postal Code: 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the world's leading cause of death among women. This situation imposes an urgent development of more selective and less toxic agents. The use of natural molecular fingerprints as sources for new bioactive chemical entities has proven to be a quite promising and efficient method. Capsaicin, which is the primary pungent compound in red peppers, was reported to selectively inhibit the growth of a variety tumor cell lines. Here, we report for the first time a novel synthetic capsaicin-like analogue, RPF101, which presents a high antitumor activity on MCF-7 cell line, inducing arrest of the cell cycle at the G2/M phase through a disruption of the microtubule network. Furthermore, it causes cellular morphologic changes characteristic of apoptosis and a decrease of Δψm. Molecular modeling studies corroborated the biological findings and suggested that RPF101, besides being a more reactive molecule towards its target, may also present a better pharmacokinetic profile than capsaicin. All these findings support the fact that RPF101 is a promising anticancer agent. -- Highlights: ► We report for the first time that RPF101 possesses anticancer properties. ► RPF101 induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. ► RPF 101 decreases mitochondrial potential and induces DNA fragmentation.

  1. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, in conjunction with three topical anesthetic formulations for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster1, John F Peppin2, Frederick T Murphy3,4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Lifetree Medical Inc, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Clinical Research Division, The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Duncansville, PA, USA; 4University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground: The objective of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, following pretreatment with three different topical anesthetics in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.Methods: This open-label, multicenter study enrolled 117 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy, or painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients received pretreatment with one of three lidocaine 4%-based topical anesthetics (L.M.X.4® [Ferndale Laboratories Inc, Ferndale, MI], Topicaine® Gel [Estela Basso, Jupiter, FL], or Betacaine Enhanced Gel 4 [Tiberius Inc, Tampa, FL] for 60 minutes followed by a single 60- or 90-minute NGX-4010 application, and were followed for 12 weeks. Tolerability and safety measures included “pain now” Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS scores, dermal assessments, medication use for treatment-related pain, adverse events (AEs, clinical laboratory parameters, physical examinations, and vital signs. The primary efficacy variable was the percentage change in mean NPRS scores for “average pain for the past 24 hours” from baseline to weeks 2 through 12.Results: Treatment with NGX-4010 following pretreatment with any of the three topical anesthetics was generally safe and well tolerated. Nearly all patients completed ≥90% of the planned NGX-4010 application duration. The most common treatment-related AEs, application-site burning and application-site pain, were transient, mostly mild or moderate

  2. Studies on the synthesis, pungency and anti-biofouling performance of capsaicin analogues%辣椒素同系物合成、辣度及海洋生物防污性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭必先; 张孝彬; 王俊莲; 彭争宏; 周圣泽; 王凤奇; 纪永亮; 叶章基; 周祥凤; 林童

    2011-01-01

    Ten capsaicin analogues were synthesized and their pungency degrees were determined through Scoville Organleptic Test. The relationship between the structure and pungency of these capsaicin analogues was discussed. Then four of these ten capsaicin analogues which are relatively more pungent were used as repellent in anti- biofouling paints to study their anti-biofouling performance by shallow sea buoyant raft hung-plate experimentation. The results showed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin exhibited equally good anti-biofouling performance while nordihydrocapsaicin and Iv-vanillylnonanamide were apparently different in the performance. Experomenral results also showed that the paints with only 0.1% capsaicin or dihydrocapsaicin as repellent without any other biocides have already exhibited good anti-biofouling performance, which provided a new idea for developing novel, environment-friendly and Cu2O-free antifouling paints.%合成了十种辣椒碱同系物,用感官评定的方法对其辣度进行了测定,并将它们的结构与辣度进行了对比,探讨了影响辣椒碱同系物辣度的结构因子.选取其中辣度较大的四种辣椒碱同系物作为海洋生物防污涂料的驱赶剂,考察了它们的海洋生物防污性能.结果表明,辣椒碱和二氢辣椒碱都具有良好的防污性能,二者不相上下.降二氢辣椒碱和壬酸香草胺的防污性能与辣椒碱和二氢辣椒碱有明显区别.仅以辣椒碱或二氢辣椒碱为驱赶剂,且其含量仅为0.1%的情况下,漆膜也表现出较好的防污性能,这为研发新型的、环保的、不合氧化亚铜的防污涂料提供了新思路.

  3. 辣椒素对微波辐射所致小鼠血液系统损伤的保护作用%Protective Effects of Capsaicin on Blood System Injured by Microwave Radiation in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瀚; 余智操; 魏卫; 李渊; 陈杨; 贾易臻; 梁向艳; 于军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of capsaicin on the mice' s hematopoietic system injuries induced by microwave radiation.Methods Mice were randomly divided into control,radiation and capsaicin groups.The radiation group was exposed to 2450 MHz and 65 mW/cm2 microwave radiation 8 h per day for 3 consecutive days.The capsaicin group was treated with the same microwave radiation exposure as that of the radiation group,in addition 0.2 mL of 2.5 g/L capsaicin were poured into the stomach of mice twice a day.The count of red blood cells (RBCs),polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus rate,serum superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) and erythropoietin (EPO) of each mouse were analyzed.Results The micronucleus rates increased and SOD and EPO decreased in the modeling group.While,in the capsaicin group,the micronucleus rates decreased to normal,EPO and counting of RBC increased obviously and SOD recovered to normal.Conclusion Capsaicin has a protective effect on the mouse' s blood system injuries caused by microwave radiation.The mechanism may be related to the capsaicin's antioxidalion function and the promotion of EPO secretion.%目的 研究辣椒素对微波辐射所致小鼠血液系统损伤的保护作用.方法 将小鼠随机分为3组:对照组;辐射组,用频率为2450 MHz、功率密度为65 mW/cm2的微波辐射,连续3d,每天8h;辣椒素组,在与辐射组相同的辐射下每天2次辣椒素灌胃,浓度为2.5 g/L,体积为0.2 mL.检测小鼠的红细胞(RBC)计数、嗜多染红细胞微核率、血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)与促红细胞生成素(EPO).结果 辐射组微核率升高,SOD,EPO降低,辣椒素组微核率下降至正常,EPO明显上升,RBC计数也明显上升,同时SOD也回升至正常.结论 辣椒素对微波所致小鼠血液系统损伤有保护作用,其机制可能与辣椒素的抗氧化作用和促进EPO分泌有关.

  4. Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori CagA status and IL1B-31C>T genotypes: a host and environment interaction in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Camargo, M Constanza; Schneider, Barbara G; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Correa, Pelayo; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2012-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) has been associated with a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. In contrast to most countries, available information on GC mortality trends showed a gradual increase in Mexico. Our aim was to explore potential interactions among dietary (chili pepper consumption), infectious (Helicobacter pylori) and genetic factors (IL1B-31 genotypes) on GC risk. The study was performed in three areas of Mexico, with different GC mortality rates. We included 158 GC patients and 317 clinical controls. Consumption of capsaicin (Cap), the pungent active substance of chili peppers, was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. H. pylori CagA status was assessed by ELISA, and IL1B-31 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assays and Pyrosequencing in DNA samples. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate potential interactions. Moderate to high Cap consumption synergistically increased GC risk in genetically susceptible individuals (IL1B-31C allele carriers) infected with the more virulent H. pylori (CagA+) strains. The combined presence of these factors might explain the absence of a decreasing trend for GC in Mexico. However, further research on gene-environment interactions is required to fully understand the factors determining GC patterns in susceptible populations, with the aim of recommending preventive measures for high risk individuals. PMID:22414649

  5. EFFECTS AND MECHANISMS OF REPEATED FASTING/REFEEDING ON OBESITY INDUCED BY HIGH FAT DIET IN RATS%重复性"饥饿/再投喂"对高脂饮食诱导肥胖大鼠的作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘重斌; 吴博; 肖敏; 卢波; 杜友爱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects and mechaniams of obesity induced by fat diet after repeated fasting/refeeding in rats. Method A model of repeating fasting/refeeding rats (repeated cycles of ld fasting and Id refeeding for 6 w fed with common fat diet. RFR) was designed. At the end of 6th week, the RFR rats were switched to high fat diet every day (RFR-CF/HF). Moreover, the control rats were randomly divided into two groups and then fed with high-fat diet (HF) and common fat diet (CF) respectively for 6 w. All rats were killed at the end of 6th and 12th week, the body weight,Lee's index and body fat contents of rats in each group were measured. The serum lipid, growth hormone (GH), thyroxin (T4),leptin, insulin, plasma ACTH levels, and the concentration of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured. The expression levels of NPY and propiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in hypothalamus were detected by reverse transcription chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The Lee's index, body fat contents, serum TC, TG, LDL-C, leptin and insulin levels in RFR-LF/HF group were significantly lower than those in HF group, but significantly higher than those in CF group. The concentration of hypothalamic NPY and the expression level of NPY mRNA in RFR-LF/HF group were significantly higher than those in HF and CF groups, but the expression level of POMC mRNA was significantly lower than that in HF and CF groups. Conclusion The repeated fasting/refeeding pattern can decrease the obese degree induced by high fat diet, and also reduce the leptin and insulin resisitance in peripheral blood, but can cause serious expression disturbance of neuroendocrine peptides in central nervous system. [ACTA NUTRIMENTA SINICA, 2011, 33(1): 24-28]%目的 探究重复性"饥饿/再投喂"饲喂方式处理对高脂饮食诱导肥胖大鼠的作用及其机制.方法 设计"重复性饥饿1 d/再投喂1 d,持续6 w"的方式(基础饲料)饲喂模型动物,6 w末实验组(RFR)大鼠改为每天喂以高脂

  6. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  7. Effect of capsaicin on intestinal permeation of P-glycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123 and fluorescein sodium in rats%辣椒素对P-糖蛋白和细胞旁途经转运透过的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁倩莹; 段炼; 庄志铨; 赵博欣; 刘媛; 王胜奇; 杨富恒; 刘思佳; 李国锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过研究P-糖蛋白(P-gp)底物罗丹明123(R123)在空肠、回肠和结肠转运时辣椒素的作用,探究辣椒素对肠粘膜上P-gp功能的影响。方法使用体外扩散池法技术,分别取SD雄性大鼠的空肠、回肠和结肠肠段标本,计算各肠段中吸收方向(mucosa to serosa, M-S)和分泌方向(serosa to mucosa, S-M)R123的表观渗透速率(Papp)。用荧光分光光度计测定R123和荧光素钠(CF)在接收室中的浓度。结果在辣椒素作用下,R123经空肠粘膜透过时,吸收方向与空白组相比显著增高,分泌方向显著降低,但其在回肠及结肠M-S组及S-M组表观渗透系数Papp与空白组相比均没有显著性差异。CF经空肠粘膜透过时,M-S组及S-M组Papp与空白组相比均显著增高;经回肠和结肠粘膜透过与空白组相比没有显著性差异。结论辣椒素影响P-gp底物R123和细胞旁转运药物CF经肠粘膜透过的作用具有肠段差异性,对R123和CF的影响仅存在于空肠,表明辣椒素是一种较弱的P-gp抑制剂和粘膜通道改善剂。可能与P-gp和紧密连接在肠粘膜上的逐渐变化的分布有关。%Objective To investigate the role of capsaicin in regulating permeation of P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) across the jejunum, ileum and colon membranes of rats. Methods The permeability of R123 or fluorescein sodium (CF) across the jejunum, ileum and colon membranes of male SD rats was evaluated using a Ussing chamber. The concentration of R123 or CF in the receptor was determined using fluorospectrophotometry to calculate the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp). Results Compared with the blank control group, capsaicin increased the permeability of R123 across jejunal membranes in the mucosal-to-serosal (M-S) direction and decreased its permeability in the serosal-to-mucosal (S-M) direction, but produced no obvious effect on R123 transport across the ileum or colon membranes

  8. Analysis and QTLs Identification of Pepper Fruit Capsaicin Content under Different Cultivation Conditions%不同栽培条件下辣椒果实辣椒素含量的分析与QTL定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 张正海; 王立浩; 张宝玺

    2016-01-01

    利用辣味辣椒Perennial(Capsicum annuum)和无辣味辣椒83-58种内重组自交系群体构建的辣椒种内遗传图谱,以温室和露地栽培条件下无辣味辣椒77013A与重组自交系群体各株系杂交F1果实的辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量作为表型性状进行分析。结果表明,温室和露地栽培条件下辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的含量和比值差异明显。对露地和温室栽培条件下辣椒果实辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量、总和及其比值进行了QTL定位,共获得16个关于辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量的QTL位点,分布在辣椒第2、4、12号染色体上,2号染色体上同时控制辣椒素、二氢辣椒素、二者比值和辣椒素总量的主效QTL位点cap2.1、dhp2.1、C/D2.1和(C+D)2.1,均在露地和温室被检测到,其LOD值大于5.0,贡献率为20.2%~76.6%,侧翼标记均为BD76366和Pun1,12号染色体上调控辣椒素总量的微效QTL也在温室和露地同时被检测到,其他QTL位点未在两种环境下同时定位到。%In the present study,we constructed an intraspecific genetic map by using a recombinant inbred lines crossed by pungent pepper ‘Perennial’(Capsicum annuum) and non-pungent pepper ‘83-58’,and analyzed capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents investigated on a test cross progeny by non-pungent pepper ‘77013A ’and RILs (‘83-58’בPerennial’) both in greenhouse and open fields. And the differences in capsaicin content,dihydrocapsaicin content,total capsaicinoids and capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio between greenhouse and open fields were obvious. We did QTL mapping on them and found 16 QTLs located in chromosome 2,4 and 12. The major QTLcap2.1,dhp2.1,C/D2.1and (C+D)2.1 on chromosome 2 that controlling capsaicin content,dihydrocapsaicin content,total capsaicinoids content and capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio, was detected in both greenhouse and open fields. The LOD was above 5.0,accounting for 20.2%-76.6% of the

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to capsaicin and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 2039, 2041, 2042), increase in carbohydrate oxidation (ID 2040), and contribution to normal hair growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to capsaicin and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, increase in carbohydrate oxidation, and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...

  10. Influence of pregnancy and labor on the occurrence of nerve fibers expressing the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in human corpus and cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irestedt Lars

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical ripening is a prerequisite for a normal obstetrical outcome. This process, including labor, is a painful event that shares features with inflammatory reactions where peripheral nociceptive pathways are involved. The capsaicin and heat receptor TRPV1 is a key molecule in sensory nerves involved in peripheral nociception, but little is known regarding its role in the pregnant uterus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor and non-pregnant controls for the presence of TRPV1. Methods We have investigated human uterine corpus and cervix biopsies at term pregnancy and parturition. Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8, in labor (n = 8 and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 8. Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial frozen sections were examined immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to TRPV1 and nerve markers (neurofilaments/peripherin. Results In cervix uteri, TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were scattered throughout the stroma and around blood vessels, and appeared more frequent in the sub-epithelium. Counts of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, few TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were found in nerve fascicles in the non-pregnant corpus, and none in the pregnant corpus. Conclusion In this study, TRPV1 innervation in human uterus during pregnancy and labor is shown for the first time. During pregnancy and labor there was an almost complete disappearance of TRPV1 positive nerve fibers in the corpus. However, cervical innervation remained throughout pregnancy and labor. The difference in TRPV1 innervation between the corpus and the cervix is thus very marked. Our data suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in pain mechanisms associated with

  11. Capsaicin Stimulation on Autonomic Nervous System in Human by Heart Rate Variability Analysis%心率变异性分析评价辣椒素致痛对自主神经活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳; 房泽; 张健; 申岱

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心率变异性分析对辣椒素疼痛模型进行评价的可行性。方法:22~27岁健康志愿者36名,取平静状态20 min ECG信号中较稳定的一段长度5 min信号作为对照;以浸透0.5 mL辣椒素溶液的棉纸片覆盖下唇唇红位置,继续记录20 min心电信号,选取较稳定的一段长度5 min;记录涂抹辣椒素后的VAS评分;用Matlab R2006a编程软件分析所采集到的ECG信号,计算平静状态下(T0)和辣椒素刺激状态下(T1)的心率变异性(HRV)指标,进行统计学分析。结果:视觉模拟评分(VAS)平均(63.36±11.21),可评价为中度疼痛;心率在T1时期较T0时期增加,无统计学意义。HRV时域分析指标NN间期标准差(SDNN)、相邻NN间期差的均方根(RMSSD)在T1期均较T0期明显升高;HRV频域分析指标总功率(TP)、低频功率(LF)、高频功率(HF)以及LF/HF在T1期均较T0期明显升高;散点图分析结果:散点图短轴(SD1)和散点图长轴(SD2)在T1时期较T0时期均明显升高。结论:用辣椒素建立疼痛模型是可行的,且操作简单,易于实施;HRV分析有可能在疼痛的量化评价中具有一定权衡作用。%Objective To verify the feasibility of the capsaicin pain model and to discuss the quantitative analysis of pain by heart rate variability. Methods Approved by the ethics committee, thirty-six healthy vol⁃unteers were selected with the age of 22 to 27 years. The volunteers lied on their back and calmed down for 20 minutes. Then capsaicin solution was daubed on their lips. Observation was taken for another 20 minutes. VAS scores were recorded after capsaicin stimulation. The ECG signals were analyzed by Matlab R2006a. The heart rate variability indicators of volunteers at the T0 (state of calm) and T1 (stimulated by capsaicin) were recorded. The differences between the two groups were compared and the results statistically analyzed. The

  12. Síndrome de boca ardiente: Eficacia de la aplicación tópica de capsaicina. Estudio piloto Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical study about efficacy of topical capsaicin application. Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. León Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de boca ardiente es un cuadro clínico complejo en el que el paciente manifiesta una sensación de escozor o ardor intrabucal sin que aparezcan lesiones clínicas objetivables. Objetivo: Valorar la eficacia mediante la aplicación de un gel de capsaicina a una concentración de 0.025 mg., en pacientes con síndrome de boca ardiente. Pacientes y método: Se estudiaron a un grupo de 29 pacientes a los que se les realiza un protocolo de recogida de datos que incluye anamnesis, historia médica, exploración bucal y pruebas complementarias. A 15 de dichos pacientes se les prescribe un gel de capsaicina y se les realiza un seguimiento durante varias semanas. Resultados: La eficacia de la capsaicina es relativamente baja, solo un 13% de los pacientes refiere una mejoría importante (con una disminución de mas de 3 puntos en las escalas analógico-visuales y un 6% mejoría parcial (disminución menor de 3 puntos con este tratamiento. Discusión: La estomatodinia es un cuadro clínico multifactorial que precisa de una mayor investigación tanto de su etiología como de su manejo terapéutico. Es de suma importancia realizar un correcto diagnóstico y explicar este al paciente para poder mantener unas metas realistas sobre las posibilidades de éxito.Burning mouth syndrome is a complex clinical condition, patients show a sensation of irritation or intraoral heat without objetivable clinical injuries. Objective: to value the effectiveness of a capsaicin 0,025% gel application in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Patients and methods: 29 patients with burning mouth syndrome was examined by means of anamnesis, medical history, oral explortation and complementary tests. 15 of these patients were administered a capsaicin gel and were examined for several weeks. Results: the effectiveness of capsaicin is relatively low, only 13% of patients refer an important improvement ( with a reduction more tha 3 points in the visual alalogical scales and

  13. 4.8%鱼藤酮·辣椒碱悬浮剂对环境生物的毒性%Evaluation of Rotenone·Capsaicin 4.8% SC to Environmental Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲鹏; 倪德浩; 陆丽芳; 吴长兴; 赵学平

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Rotenone was a natural plant toxin which used as a commercial insecticide for centuries by peoples. It is chemically unstable and breaks down rapidly in the environment, yielding watersoluble non-toxic products. Fish are acutely sensitive to rotenone poisoning. In a previous study, research was focus on rotenone. Here, the acute toxicity of the rotenone · capsaicin 4.8% SC was studied and the safety was evaluated. [Results] The LD50 of rotenone · capsaicin 4.8% SC to bee, bird(female/male), zebra fish and silkworm was 271.2, 40.9(35.6), 0.0116 and 3.58 mg/L respectively. [Conclusions] The results demonstrated that the suspension was low toxic to bee. In actually uses rotenone · capsaicin 4.8% SC was low risk to birds. The product was highly toxic to silkworm and fish. When it was used in fields, it was avoid strictly the pesticide liquid neither falling to the mulberry leaves nor pouring into river.%[目的]测定4.8%鱼藤酮·辣椒碱悬浮剂对蜜蜂、鹌鹑、斑马鱼和家蚕4种生物的半数致死量,评价其安全性.[结果]4.8%鱼藤酮·辣椒碱悬浮剂对蜜蜂、雌(雄)鹌鹑、斑马鱼和家蚕LD50值分别为271.2、40.9(35.6)、0.0116、3.58 mg/L.[结论]4.8%鱼藤酮·辣椒碱悬浮剂对蜜蜂低毒,在实际使用过程中对鸟类急性中毒风险较小.对家蚕高毒,对鱼类剧毒,使用时远离桑园,在桑园附近农田使用时注意施药方式和风向,避免药液飘落到桑叶上.要严格避免药液流入水域对鱼类造成危害.

  14. Inhalation injury after capsaicin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James Jason; Skolnick, Judah

    2006-03-01

    Pepper spray is defined as a non-lethal agent used in riot control and personal self-defense. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, commonly referred to as hot peppers or chilies, is the active agent used in many of these defense sprays. Although generally assumed to be safe and effective, the consequences of OC cannot be predicted with certainty. Nationwide there have been numerous reports of pepper spray-related injuries, including officers injured in pepper spray-related training exercises. This report details one officer's experience. PMID:16578994

  15. Determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum annuum by HPLC%HPLC 法测定不同产地辣椒中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹莉; 黄多临

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum ann-uum,and compare the quality of the different areas of Capsicum annuum.Methods The HPLC system consisting of Agilent Eclipse SB C18 (250mm ×4.6mm,5μm) column and a solution system of methanol -water (50 ∶50),The detection UV wavelength was at 280nm,the flow rate was 1.0ml·min -1 ,the column temperature was 25 ℃.Results The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits of Capsicum annuum from different habitats are significantly different.Conclusion The method is simple,rapid and accurate, and can be used for the quality control of Capsicum annuum L.%目的:采用反相高效液相法测定不同产地辣椒中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的含量。方法:采用安捷伦 Eclipse SB C18色谱柱(250mm ×4.6mm;5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(50∶50),流速为1.0ml /min,检测波长280nm,柱温25℃。结果:各产地辣椒中均含有辣椒素和二氢辣椒素,目不同产地的含量差别较大。结论:该方法准确、简便、可行,可作为辣椒药材的含量测定方法。

  16. HPLC法测定辣椒秸秆中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量%HPLC determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in pepper straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫东; 陆相龙; 邵涛; 王亚琴; 姚宏霏; 赵鑫; 郑会超

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测分析超越馨香和福椒六号辣椒品种秸秆不同时期叶片、侧枝、主杆部位的辣椒素与二氢辣椒素含量,为有效利用辣椒秸秆提供依据.方法:辣椒秸秆分成叶片、侧枝、主杆,60℃ 烘干粉碎,与甲醇溶液充分混合,采用HPLC法测定辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量,并用精确度、浓缩、重复性、稳定性和加样回收率试验检验测定方法的可靠性.HPLC色谱条件:采用Agilent C18(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,以甲醇-超纯水(85:15)为流动相,流速l mL·min-1,检测波长280 nm,柱温37℃.结果:辣椒素与二氢辣椒素的标准和浓缩曲线呈显著的线性变化;连续5次进样,RSD分别为0.13%和0.08%;重复性试验,样品辣椒素和二氢辣椒含量的RSD分别为1.7%和2.7%;稳定性试验,12h内供试品溶液中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素浓度的RSD分别为2.3%和1.7%;回收率分别为95.8%和94.3%.除超越馨香,辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量在不同收获时间和部位之间均存在显著差异,并存在时间和部位的交互效应,叶片辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量显著高于侧枝和主杆(P<0.05).结论:本研究采用HPLC法检测辣椒秸秆中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素含量的方法是可行的;辣椒秸秆中含有较高浓度的辣椒素和二氢辣椒素,其含量与品种、部位和采收时间有关.%Objective:To determine contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in pepper straw of Chaoyue Xinx-iang and Fujiao Liuhao according to plant part and harvest time for a basis to expand use of the pepper straw. Meth-odS:The pepper straw was separated into three parts;leaf,branch and trunk,which were dried at 60 ℃ ,and then were smashed and mixed with methanol abundantly. The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were determined by HPLC. The reliability of method was measured with accuracy, concentration, repeatability, stability and recovery tests. The HPLC method was as follows; Agilent C

  17. Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E

    2015-03-13

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include (1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, (2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and (3) increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is likely due, in part, to renal compression, as well as sympathetic nervous system activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but may require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Unless effective antiobesity drugs are developed, the effect of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase. PMID:25767285

  18. OBESITY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION: INTERACTION OF NEUROHUMORAL AND RENAL MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John E.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65–75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include 1) physical compression of the kidneys by fa...

  19. Recent Advances in Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Tateya, Sanshiro; Kim, Francis; Tamori, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in rodents and humans that chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration occurs mainly in adipose tissue or liver during obesity, in which activation of immune cells is closely associated with insulin sensitivity. Macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1) macrophages that support microbicidal activity or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages that support allergic and antiparasitic responses. In the context of insulin action, M2 mac...

  20. Recent Advances in Obesity-induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanshiro eTateya; Francis eKim; Yoshikazu eTamori

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in rodents and humans that chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration occurs mainly in adipose tissue or liver during obesity, in which activation of immune cells is closely associated with insulin sensitivity. Macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1) macrophages that support microbicidal activity or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages that support allergic and antiparasitic responses. In the context of insulin action, M2 mac...

  1. Overweight and Obesity-Induced Oxidative Stress in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU-GEN ZHU; SHU-MEI ZHANG; JI-YUE WANG; WEI-QIANG XIAO; XIN-YU WANG; JUN-FU ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether overweight and obesity might cause oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in overweight and obese children, and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Eighty-five overweight and obese children(OOC), and eighty-five age-matched healthy children (HC) were recruited in this case-control study. The present study analyzed spectrophotometrically vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), and β-carotene (β-CAR) in plasma, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and MDA in the HC group, the average values of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, and CAT in the OOC group were significantly decreased (P<0.001), while the average value of MDA in the OOC group was significantly increased (P<0.001). The regression analysis demonstrated that VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, and CAT were negatively correlated (P<0.05-0.01), and MDA was positively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). Fitting to the model of multiple stepwise regression of BMI on VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT, and MDA in 85 OOC was Y = 27.0041 + 0.2541MDA - 2.1448β-CAR - 0.0090CAT, where F =43.8088, P<0.001, r= 0.7866, r2= 0.6187, adjusted r2= 0.6046. The findings from the reliability analysis for VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT, and MDA used to reflect increased oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the OOC showed that the reliability coefficients (alpha, 6 items) = 0.7231, P<0.0001, and that the standardized item alpha = 0.9207, P<0.0001. Conclusion The present study suggests that there exists an increased oxidative stress in overweight and obese children.

  2. DJ-1 contributes to adipogenesis and obesity-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Min Kim; Hyun-Jun Jang; Soo Youn Choi; Soo-Ah Park; Il Shin Kim; Yong Ryoul Yang; Yong Hwa Lee; Sung Ho Ryu; Pann-Ghill Suh

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, and the development of systemic inflammation in adipose tissue is closely associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, the fine regulation of the inflammatory response caused by obesity has therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the role of DJ-1 (PARK7) in adipogenesis and inflammation related to obesity in vitro and in vivo. Many intracellular functio...

  3. Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E

    2015-03-13

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include (1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, (2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and (3) increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is likely due, in part, to renal compression, as well as sympathetic nervous system activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but may require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Unless effective antiobesity drugs are developed, the effect of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase.

  4. Wounding effects of capsaicin, a new irritant riot control agent: an overview%新型控暴剂辣椒素的致伤效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆媛,; 王永安

    2011-01-01

    新型控暴剂辣椒素作为催泪瓦斯的主要组分,已被广泛装备于军队及警察部门,用于制止暴力犯罪和各种恐怖活动等.辣椒素可引起流泪、喷嚏、咳嗽等强烈不适症状或受累器官的疼痛,导致中毒人员暂时性失能.虽然辣椒素被认为是相对安全的控暴剂,但其诱发的严重并发症甚至死亡等中毒事件,不得不使人们重新认识其安全性.目前国内外对辣椒素的致伤效应研究非常有限,相关医学防护急救措施更是缺乏,本文将就辣椒素的毒理学作用及防护措施研究进展作一综述.%Capsaicin,a new irritant agent as the main component of tear gas or pepper spray,is being widely used by army or police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. When applied in the form of a spray,it quickly produces lacrimation, sneezing,cough,as well as pain in some organ after stimulation,that can cause exposed persons incapacitated. In general,pepper spray appears to be a relatively safe weapon with small risk,but serious complications and even deaths have been reported, and raises questions and concerns regarding its health effects and safety. Not enough is known concerning the toxic effects of this riot control agent thus far,and also lack of medical protective measures. This article will review the toxicological effects of the new irritant agent capsaicin,and the research progress of its medical protective measures.

  5. Determination of equilibrium solubility of capsaicin in various liquid lipids by High performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定辣椒碱在不同液态脂质中的平衡溶解度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭一沙; 陈孝储; 张阳阳; 张莉; 陈莉

    2013-01-01

    目的测定辣椒碱在不同种类液态脂质中平衡溶解度,为进一步研究辣椒碱新剂型提供理论基础。方法建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定辣椒碱在橄榄油、花生油、玉米油、葵花籽油、油酸、亚油酸、油酸乙酯、辛癸酸甘油酯以及肉豆蔻酸异丙酯等油类中的溶解度。结果25℃时,辣椒碱在不同液态脂质中的溶解度顺序为:油酸>油酸乙酯>肉豆蔻酸异丙酯>亚油酸>辛癸酸甘油酯>花生油>葵花籽油>玉米油>橄榄油。结论辣椒碱在单一脂类中的溶解度比在橄榄油、花生油、玉米油、葵花籽油等混合脂肪酸高。%Objective To determine the equilibrium solubility of capsaicin in various liquid lipids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods Capsaicin was solved in olive oil, peanut oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ethyl oleate, ODO, and IPM respectively. The values of equilibrium solubility of capsaicin in different liquid lipids were determined by HPLC. Results The liquid lipids in which capsaicin was solved with different values of equilibrium solubility at 25℃ (μg·mL-1) were arranged in descending order as oleic acid, ethyl oleate, Isopropyl myristate, linoleic acid, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, and olive oil. Conclusion The equilibrium solubility of capsaicin in pure liquid lipids like oleic acid tends to be higher than that in mixed lipids such as olive oil at 25℃.

  6. Intraplantar injection of linalool reduces paclitaxel-induced acute pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Soh; Kuwahata, Hikari; Yagi, Tomomi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Komatsu, Takaaki; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Linalool is the principal component of many essential oils known to possess biological activities. We previously reported that intraplantar injection of linalool reduces the nociceptive response as assayed by the capsaicin test. In this study, we sought to determine whether intraplantar injection of linalool could influence the induction of acute pain (allodynia and hyperalgesia) by paclitaxel in mice. Paclitaxel is widely used in cancer chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors, but it sometimes induces moderate to severe acute pain. Paclitaxel administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg produced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in mice. Paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia began 1 day after administration of paclitaxel and resolved within 7 days. Linalool injected into the hindpaw caused a significant reduction in paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia. Pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, or naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor-preferring antagonist, significantly reversed linalool-induced antiallodynia and antihyperalgesia. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids in antiallodynia and antihyperalgesia induced by linalool. These results suggest that activation of peripheral opioid receptors may play an important role in reducing paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  7. The autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged. (orig.)

  8. 辣椒素抑制胰腺癌裸鼠皮下移植瘤生长的实验研究%Capsaicin enhances the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cell xenograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南; 张兆伟; 孙刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨辣椒素增强吉西他滨对胰腺癌T3M4细胞裸鼠移植瘤化疗作用及其机制.方法 建立耐药胰腺癌T3M4细胞的裸鼠皮下移植瘤动物模型,将荷瘤鼠随机分为:N组(生理盐水组),G组(吉西他滨,125 mg/kg),C组(辣椒素,20 mg/kg),G+C组(联合用药,吉西他滨80 mg/kg,辣椒素20 mg/kg).各组给药均采用腹腔注射的方法,每3d一次,共8次.实验过程中测量肿瘤体积.免疫组织化学法检测细胞增殖因子Ki-67、多药耐药蛋白P-gp和核转录因子NF-κB的表达.采用RT-PCR检测核转录因子NF-κB和多药耐药基因MDR1的表达.结果 末次用药1周后G+C组肿瘤体积和质量明显小于其他各组.免疫组织化学染色结果显示C组和G+C组的NF-κB和P-gp蛋白的表达量明显低于N组和G组.G+C组Ki-67的表达量明显低于其他各组.RT-PCR结果显示C组MDR1和NF-κB的表达水平明显低于N组和G组,G+C组NF-κB和MDR1的表达水平明显低于N组和G组.结论 辣椒素可以通过下调NF-κB的表达,抑制MDR1基因表达,有效地增强吉西他滨对胰腺癌T3M4细胞移植瘤的化疗作用.%Objective To investigate the enhanced effect of gemcitabine by capsaicin on T3M4 cell xenograft on athymic.Meethods The models of T3M4 cell xenograft on athymic mouse were established and randomized to four groups with intraperitoneal (IP)injection of different drugs (group N 0.9% sodium chloride),group G(gemcitabine,125 mg/kg),group C (capsaicin 20 mg/kg) and group G + C (gemcitabine 80 mg/kg and capsaicin 20 mg/kg in combination).The drugs were injected once every 3 days,8 times in all.The mice were sacrificed 1 week after the last injection.The tumor volume and tumor weight were measured during the drug therapy.Immunohistochemistry(IHC) was performed to detect the expression of NF-κB,P-gp and Ki-67,RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of NF-κB and MDR1 mRNA.Results One week after the last administration,the mean tumor volume and tumor

  9. Frutalin reduces acute and neuropathic nociceptive behaviours in rodent models of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Marina B M V; de Melo Júnior, José de Maria A; Santos, Sacha Aubrey A R; Melo, Luana T M; Leite, Laura Hévila I; Vieira-Neto, Antonio E; Moreira, Renato de A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de O; Campos, Adriana R

    2016-08-25

    Orofacial pain is a highly prevalent clinical condition, yet difficult to control effectively with available drugs. Much attention is currently focused on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of lectins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of frutalin (FTL) using rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, glutamate or capsaicin (orofacial model) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with l-NAME and naloxone to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of the lectin domain in the antinociceptive effect of FTL was verified by allowing the lectin to bind to its specific ligand. In another experiment, animals pretreated with FTL or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet another, animals were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of thermal hypersensitivity using acetone. Motor activity was evaluated with the rotarod test. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with FTL significantly reduced nociceptive behaviour associated with acute and neuropathic pain, especially at 0.5 mg/kg. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by l-NAME and d-galactose. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that FTL may interact with TRPV1. Our results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of FTL as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception in acute and chronic pain mediated by TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptor. PMID:27302204

  10. The effect of capsaicin on circulating biomarkers, soluble tumor necrosis factor and soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor-1 and -2 levels in vivo using lipopolysaccharide-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Ijiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF and sTNF-receptor (R 1 and -R2 have known as septic biomarker. The pungent component of capsicum, capsaicin (Cap, has several associated physiological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Cap on circulating sTNF and sTNF-R1 and -R2 in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated mice. LPS (20 mg/kg, ip-treated group was significantly increased circulating sTNF, sTNF-R1, and -R2 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels compared to the vehicle group. Treatment with LPS (20 mg/kg, ip + Cap (4 mg/kg, sc-treated group was significantly decreased both circulating sTNF levels (after 1 h only and TNF-α mRNA expression (after 6 h compared to the LPS-treated group. There is an early increase in circulating sTNF, sTNR-R1, and -R2 observed in the LPS-treated mice. Since Cap inhibits this initial increase as biomarkers, circulating sTNF, it is considered a potent treatment option for TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia. In conclusion, Cap interferes with TNF-α mRNA transcription and exerts an inhibiting effect on TNF-α release from macrophages in the early phase after LPS stimulation. Thus, Cap is considered a potent agent for the treatment of TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia.

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Improves Insulin Resistance With Reduced Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Mira; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Choi, Goun; Kim, Ji-Won; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Je-Won; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays important roles in redox regulation and de novo lipogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that aberrant upregulation of G6PD in obese adipose tissue mediates insulin resistance as a result of imbalanced energy metabolism and oxidative stress. It remains elusive, however, whether inhibition of G6PD in vivo may relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this study we showed that a hematopoietic G6PD defect alleviates insulin resistance in obesity, accompanied by reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermates, G6PD-deficient mutant (G6PD(mut)) mice were glucose tolerant upon high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Intriguingly, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes to produce reactive oxygen species was alleviated, whereas that of antioxidant genes was enhanced in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed G6PD(mut) mice. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the adipose tissue of G6PD(mut) mice decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by downregulated proinflammatory macrophages. Accordingly, macrophages from G6PD(mut) mice greatly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory signaling cascades, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of G6PD(mut) bone marrow to wild-type mice attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in DIO. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of macrophage G6PD would ameliorate insulin resistance in obesity through suppression of proinflammatory responses. PMID:27284106

  12. Thrombospondin1 deficiency reduces obesity-associated inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obese mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance. Advanced studies suggest that obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in inflamed adipose tissue. A recent study suggests a positive correlation of TSP1 with obesity, adipose inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of TSP1 on obesity and insulin resistance is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role of TSP1 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance by using TSP1 knockout mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male TSP1-/- mice and wild type littermate controls were fed a low-fat (LF or a high-fat (HF diet for 16 weeks. Throughout the study, body weight and fat mass increased similarly between the TSP1-/- mice and WT mice under HF feeding conditions, suggesting that TSP1 deficiency does not affect the development of obesity. However, obese TSP1-/- mice had improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity compared to the obese wild type mice. Macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue were reduced in obese TSP1-/- mice. Consistent with the local decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, systemic inflammation was also decreased in the obese TSP1-/- mice. Furthermore, in vitro data demonstrated that TSP1 deficient macrophages had decreased mobility and a reduced inflammatory phenotype. CONCLUSION: TSP1 deficiency did not affect the development of high-fat diet induced obesity. However, TSP1 deficiency reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and protected against obesity related inflammation and insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that TSP1 may play an important role in regulating macrophage function and mediating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin

  13. P物质抑制剂辣椒素和抗碱性成纤维细胞生长因子抗体联合应用对小鼠切口中胶原沉积的影响%Effects of inhibitory substance P, capsaicin and anti-basic fibroblast growth factor antibody on collagen deposition of excision scar formation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽玲; 刘宏伟; 张海伟; 杜彬; 郑佩娥

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察抗碱性成纤维细胞(bFGF)抗体和辣椒素对小鼠切口瘢痕组织中胶原沉积的影响,探讨它们对切口愈合期间瘢痕形成的作用.方法 建立小鼠背部切口愈合模型;应用不同种浓度(每只20、80 μg/0.1 ml)剂量的辣椒素组、抗bFGF抗体组(每只20、80μg/0.1 ml)、辣椒素(每只20μg/0.1 ml)+抗bFGF抗体(每只20 μg/0.1 ml)组作用于其切口瘢痕;于术后14 d切取切口瘢痕组织,采用Mason染色和计算机图像分析结合透射电镜来观察、分析切口瘢痕组织中胶原沉积情况.结果 低剂量的辣椒素(每只20 μg/0.1 ml)或抗bFGF抗体(每只20μg/0.1 ml)单独作用后14 d,切口瘢痕中胶原纤维分布的密度无明显变化;高剂量的辣椒素(每只80 μg/0.1 ml)或抗bFGF抗体(每只80 μg/0.1 ml)单独作用后14 d,切口瘢痕中胶原纤维分布的密度均明显减少;但低剂量的辣椒素(每只20 μg/0.1 ml)和抗bFGF抗体(每只20μg/0.1 ml)联合作用后14 d,切口瘢痕中胶原纤维分布的密度明显减少,显示了协同抑制作用.结论 辣椒素及抗bFGF抗体可抑制小鼠皮肤切口愈合过程中局部胶原的沉积,两者联合用药可协同抑制切口瘢痕的增生.%ObJective To observe the effects of inhibitory substance P (capsaicin) and anti-bas-ic fibroblast growth factor antibody on collagen deposition during excision scar formation and explore their effects on scar formation.Methods The excision injury model on the back of mice skin was developed,and the different final concentrations of capsaicin (20 and 80 μg/0.1 ml), anti-basic fibroblast growth fac-tor antibody (20 and 80 μg/0.1 ml),or capsaicin (20 μg/0.1 ml) in combination with anti-basic fibro-blast growth factor antibody (20 μg/0.1) were used in the excision injury.Results The high dose of capsaicin (80 μg/0.1 ml) or high anti-basic fibroblast growth factor antibody (80 μg/0.1 ml) markedly inhibited collagen deposition in the excision site, but low

  14. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  15. Reducing Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  16. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  17. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  18. Reducible functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shah

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a survey on analytic solutions of functional differential equations (FDE. Some classes of FDE that can be reduced to ordinary differential equations are considered since they often provide an insight into the structure of analytic solutions to equations with more general argument deviations. Reducible FDE also find important applications in the study of stability of differential-difference equations and arise in a number of biological models.

  19. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects and Toxicity of Compound Diclofenac Capsaicin Cataplasms%复方双氯芬酸辣椒凝胶贴膏的抗炎镇痛作用与毒性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹰; 陈湖海; 徐腾; 杜蓉; 李佳芝; 朱晓雯; 朱以良

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To stud) the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and toxicity of compound diclofenac capsaicin cataplasms ( CDCC ). Method: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of CDCC on mice were researched by dimethyl-benzen induced ear oedema model, acetic acid induced writhing model and hot plate method. The acute toxicity of CDCC was studied in rats and the irritation test was observed in rabbits. Result: The ear swelling degree was inhibited significantly by CDCC. The writhing reaction induced by acetic acid was inhibited and the pain threshold induced by hot plate was raised significantly in mice. The dosage with no significant toxicity in rats was 200 mg穔g-1. Irritant symptoms were not significant in the integral skin, while mild irritation was shown in the damaged skin of rabbits. Conclusion: CDCC can be used in the treatment of local pain inflammation and the clinical dosages are safe, while attention should be paid for the use in damaged skin.%目的:研究复方双氯芬酸辣椒凝胶贴膏的抗炎镇痛作用及毒性反应.方法:采用二甲苯致炎法、醋酸扭体法和热板法,观察复方双氯芬酸辣椒凝胶贴膏局部给药对小鼠的抗炎镇痛作用.并考察大鼠的皮肤急性毒性和家兔皮肤刺激性.结果:复方双氯芬酸辣椒凝胶贴膏能显著抑制小鼠耳肿胀度,小鼠醋酸扭体反应和热板舔足反应;大鼠皮肤给药的无明显损害作用剂量为200 mg·kg-1,家兔皮肤给药对完整皮肤组无刺激性,对破损皮肤有轻度刺激性.结论:复方双氯芬酸辣椒凝胶贴膏可用于局部疼痛炎症的治疗,临床剂量下是安全的,但应慎用于破损皮肤.

  1. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  2. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  3. Vasodilating effect of capsaicin on rat mesenteric artery and its mechanism%辣椒素对大鼠肠系膜阻力血管的舒张作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 朱欢欢; 张媛媛; 张媛; 王利宏; 郑良荣

    2013-01-01

    目的:观测辣椒素(capsaicin,CAP)对大鼠肠系膜阻力血管的舒张作用,探讨其可能机制.方法:雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠,取肠系膜动脉三级分支约2 mm长血管环,置于DMT 610M系统,记录张力变化.结果:CAP(10-9~10-5 mol/L)对苯肾上腺素(PE)预收缩的内皮完整血管和去内皮血管产生浓度依赖性的舒张作用,其中内皮完整组的血管舒张作用比去内皮组更明显,两者相比CAP在10-7~1O-5 mol/L时,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).该舒张作用可被一氧化氮合酶抑制剂L-NAME和CGRP竞争性阻滞剂CGRP8-37阻断.CGRP(10-10~3×10-8 mol/L)对PE预收缩的内皮完整血管和去内皮血管产生浓度依赖性的舒张作用,其中内皮完整组的血管舒张作用比去内皮组更明显,两者相比CGRP在3×10-9~3×10-8 mol/L时,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).P物质对PE预收缩的内皮完整血管无舒张作用.结论:CAP对大鼠肠系膜阻力动脉具有部分内皮依赖性舒张作用,该作用机制与其促进内皮一氧化氮合酶(NOS)途径有关;CAP的非内皮依赖性舒张血管效应与CGRP释放有关.%Objective: To investigate the vasodilating effect of capsaicin ( CAP) on rat mesenteric artery and its mechanism. Methods: The third branch of the superior mesenteric artery in male Sprague-Dawley rat(250 -350 g) was excised,the periadventitial fat and connective tissue were removed and the mesenteric artery was dissected into 2 mm rings. Each ring was placed in a 5 ml organ bath of DMT 610M system and the tension was recorded. Results: CAP( 10 -9 - 10 -5 mol/L) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded mesenteric artery pre-constricted by phenylephrine ( 10-5 mol/L ) , and the vasodilation in endothelium-intact mesenteric artery was stronger than that in endothelium-denuded one. Pretreatment with either L-NAME (3×10-4mol/L) , an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase ( NOS), or CGRP8-37(2×10-6 mol/L),an antagonist of calcitonin gene

  4. Effects and mechanisms of capsaicin on gastric motility in water immersion restraint stress rats%辣椒素对浸水-束缚应激大鼠胃动力作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽培; 唐川康; 史孝敏; 彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of capsaicin (CAP) on gastric motility in water immersion restraint stress rats . MethodsForty male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10):normal control group, model group, model+CAP group, and CAP group. The model of water immersion restraint stress was created by injecting capsaicin 1mg/g for 4 consecutive weeks. At the end of the experiment, gastric emptying rate of phenol red was tested and the expression of c-kit and SCF mRNAs were evaluated in the gastric antrum tissues. Results: ① The gastric emptying rate in CAP group was significantly higher than that in the control and model groups ( P<0.05 ), and the gastric emptying rate in the model+CAP and control groups were significantly higher than that in the model group ( P< 0.05 ). ② The expression of c-kit mRNA in model group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the expression of c-kit mRNA in CAP group was significantly higher than that in the model group ( P< 0.05 ). The expression of SCF mRNA in model+CAP and CAP groups was significantly higher than that in the control and model groups (P<0.05), and the expression of SCF mRNA in control group was significantly higher than that in the model group ( P< 0.05 ). ConclusionThe CAP fed for 4 weeks could improve the gastric emptying rate in the normal and WIRS rats. The effect of CAP on gastric motility may come from the altered expression of SCF, but have no obvious relationship with interstitial cells of Cajal and the expression of c-kit.%目的::研究辣椒素(CAP)对浸水束缚应激(模型)导致的大鼠胃动力障碍的作用及其机制。方法:选取雄性SPF级SD大鼠40只随机均分为对照组、模型组、模型组+CAP组和CAP组4组,每组10只。采用浸水束缚应激法建立胃动力障碍大鼠模型,胃管注入CAP 1 mg/g,连续4周。实验末测定大鼠胃酚红排空率,并取胃窦组织用RT-PCR方法检测c-kit m

  5. 辣椒素对大鼠面部皮肤降钙素基因相关肽和一氧化氮合酶阳性神经纤维的影响%Effect of capsaicin on calcitonin gene-related peptide and nitric oxide synthase-positive nerve fiber in rat facial skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁继固; 茹立强

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of external application of capsaicin in the treatment of superficial pain has been recognized, but its effect against trigeminal neuralgia by direct action on the nerve ending or nerves in the hypodermis or deep tissues awaits intensive investigation.OBJECTIVE: To observes the effect of subcutaneous injection of capsaicin on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide synthase(NOS)-positive nerve fibers in rat facial skin.SETTING: Teaching and Research Division of Anatomy, Xianning Medical College, and Department of Neurobiology, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology.MATERIALS: This experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Tongji Medical College, between October and December 2003.Twenty healthy Wistar rats of either sex with body mass of 120-170 g were used.METHODS: The rats received subcutaneous injection of capsaicin for treatment of the suborbital branch of the trigeminal nerve on the right side,with the left side serving as the control side. According to the doses of capsaicin applied, the rats were divided into 4 groups, namely 20, 30, 50and 100 μL capsaicin groups with 5 rats in each group. Twenty-four hours after the injections, samples were obtained and cut into slices for microscopic observation and the expressions of CGRP and NOS were examined immunohistochemically.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: [1] Changes of CGRP and NOS-positive nerve fibers on the experimental side and image analysis of the mean absorbance of CGRP and NOS; [2] changes of characteristic behaviors and body signs of the rats.RESULTS: Totally 20 rats entered the result analysis. [1] Behavioral change: A few minutes after subcutaneous injection of capsaicin, the rats exhibited a series of characteristic behavioral and symptomatic changes,which gradually diminished or even vanished with the increase of the doses. [2] Microscopic changes: On the experimental side, no obvious difference was noted in the

  6. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  7. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-10-01

    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  8. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  9. Coupling Reduces Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John. F.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how coupling nonlinear dynamical systems can reduce the effects of noise. For simplicity we investigate noisy coupled map lattices. Noise from different lattice nodes can diffuse across the lattice and lower the noise level of individual nodes. We develop a theoretical model that explains this observed noise evolution and show how the coupled dynamics can naturally function as an averaging filter. Our numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the model predictions.

  10. Does democracy reduce corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar Kolstad; Arne Wiig

    2011-01-01

    While democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption, there are obvious endogeneity problems in measuring the impact of democracy on corruption. This paper addresses the endogeneity of democracy by exploiting the common observation that democracies seldom go to war against each other. We instrument for democracy using a dummy variable reflecting whether a country has been at war with a democracy in the period 1946-2009, while controlling for the extent to which countries have been at war...

  11. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Devin G.; Price, Joseph; Wolfers, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  12. Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity provides a promising framework for a consistent characterization of the early Universe dynamics. Inspired by BKL conjecture, a flat Universe is described as a collection of Bianchi I homogeneous patches. The resulting quantum dynamics is described by the scalar constraint operator, whose matrix elements can be analytically computed. The effective semiclassical dynamics is discussed, and the differences with Loop Quantum Cosmology are emphasized.

  13. Reducing volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  14. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  15. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  16. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  17. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  18. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  19. Reduced lipolysis response to adipose afferent reflex involved in impaired activation of adrenoceptor-cAMP-PKA-hormone sensitive lipase pathway in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Ren, Xing-Sheng; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) causes adipose afferent reflex (AAR) and sympathetic activation. This study is to investigate the effects of AAR on lipolysis and the mechanisms of attenuated lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity. Obesity was caused by high-fat diet for 12 weeks in rats. AAR was induced by injection of capsaicin into inguinal WAT or electrical stimulation of epididymal WAT afferent nerve. AAR caused sympathetic activation, which was enhanced in obesity rats. AAR increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis in WAT, which were attenuated in obesity rats. PKA activity, cAMP, perilipin and β-adrenoceptor levels were reduced, while HSL was upregulated in adipocytes from obesity rats. In primary adipocytes, isoproterenol increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted HSL and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis, which were attenuated in obesity rats. The attenuated effects of isoproterenol in adipocytes from obesity rats were prevented by a cAMP analogue dbcAMP. The results indicate that reduced lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity is attributed to the impaired activation of β-adrenoceptor-cAMP-PKA-HSL pathway. Increased cAMP level in adipocytes rectifies the attenuated lipolysis in obesity. PMID:27694818

  20. Reducing client waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This first issues of Family Planning (FP) Manager focuses on how to analyze client waiting time and reduce long waits easily and inexpensively. Client flow analysis can be used by managers and staff to identify organizational factors affecting waiting time. Symptoms of long waiting times are overcrowded waiting rooms, clients not returning for services, staff complaints about rushing and waiting, and hurried counseling sessions. Client satisfaction is very important in order to retain FP users. Simple procedures such as routing return visits differently can make a difference in program effectiveness. Assessment of the number of first visits, the number of revisits, and types of methods and services that the clinic provides is a first step. Client flow analysis involves assigning a number to each client on registration, attaching the client flow form to the medical chart, entering the FP method and type of visit, asking staff to note the time at each station, and summarizing data in a master chart. The staff should be involved in plotting data for each client to show waiting versus staff contact time through the use of color coding for each type of staff contact. Bottlenecks become very visible when charted. The amount of time spent at each station can be measured, and gaps in client's contact with staff can be identified. An accurate measure of total waiting time can be obtained. A quick assessment can be made by recording arrival and departure times for each client in one morning or afternoon of a peak day. The procedure is to count the number of clients waiting at 15-minute intervals. The process should be repeated every 3-6 months to observe changes. If waiting times appear long, a more thorough assessment is needed on both a peak and a typical day. An example is given of a completed chart and graph of results with sample data. Managers need to set goals for client flow, streamline client routes, and utilize waiting time wisely by providing educational talks

  1. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.)

  2. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  3. 慢性咳嗽常见病因之间咳嗽敏感性的差异%Difference of Capsaicin Cough Sensitivity in Common Causes of Chronic Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 刘春丽; 罗炜; 赖克方; 钟南山

    2013-01-01

    Diseases between 2005 to 2010.Using a modified diagnostic algorithm of chronic cough,common causes were identified.Capsaicin cough provocation test was also performed in these patients to assess the cough threshold.The relations between cough reflex sensitivity and duration of cough,cough severity,pulmonary function,induced sputum cell counts were then investigated.Results Through the diagnostic algorithm of chronic cough,the current study evaluated 133 adult patients,including 24 cases with upper airway cough syndrome (UACS),26 patients with cough variant asthma (CVA),31 cases with eosinophilic bronchitis (EB),30 patients with atopic cough (AC),22 cases with gastroesophageal reflux induced cough (GERC).There were 30 healthy volunteers recruited as normal control.The cough threshold of LgC5 in AC,CVA,EB,GERC and UACS was 1.70 ± 0.70,2.12 ± 0.67,2.13 ± 0.69,1.69 ± 0.73,2.16 ± 0.66,respectively.The LgC5 of the normal group (2.63 ± 0.39) was higher than those in chronic cough groups (All P < 0.05).The LgC5 of AC and GERC were lower than CVA,EB and UACS (all P < 0.05).Duration and daytime score of cough showed positive correlations with LgC5 (r =-0.280,-0.168,all P < 0.05).Pulmonary function and differential cell count of induced sputum were not associated with LgC5 (all P > 0.05).Conclusions Different cause of chronic cough exhbit high cough reflex sensitivity to different extent.The difference of cough sensitivity may reflect the different pathogenesis among different causes,and may be related to the type of nerve fiber dominating the cough reflex.

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  5. 固相萃取-超高效液相色谱-串联质谱快速检测食用油和地沟油中辣椒素和二氢辣椒素%Fast Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Edible and Illegal Cooking Oils by Combination of Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琴; 胡艺凡; 许静; 冯钰锜

    2014-01-01

    A simple one step solid phase extraction(SPE) method based on hydrogen bond interaction for the separation and purification of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from oils was developed.Several parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including the amount of sorbent,the type and volume of desorption solvent,the amount of oil in the sampling solution and the batch of sorbent material were investigated.Under the optimized conditions,a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in edible and illegal cooking oils was established by coupling with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis.The linear range of the proposed method was 0.01-100 ng/mL with satisfactory correlation coefficients(R2) between 0.9983 and 0.9998.The limits of detection for the target analytes were as low as 4.5 pg/mL.In addition,a satisfying reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the intra-and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 12.2% and 14.1%,respectively.Finally,the established method was successfully applied to the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in a variety of edible and illegal cooking oils.Taken together,the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method developed in current study provides a new option for the identification of illegal cooking oils.%采用基于氢键相互作用原理的固相萃取与超高效液相色谱-串联质谱联用技术,建立了食用油和地沟油中天然辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的快速分析方法.该方法中油脂样品经正己烷稀释后直接进行固相萃取.优化了一系列影响萃取效率的参数,包括固相萃取材料用量、解吸液种类、解吸液体积、上样液中油脂基质的含量等.在优化条件下,以上两种目标物在0.01~100 ng/mL范围内线性关系良好(R2>0.9983),检出限低至4.5 pg/mL,日内、日间相对标准偏差分别小于12.2%和14.1%.该方法已成功应用于多

  6. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  7. Pharmacological administration of the isoflavone daidzein enhances cell proliferation and reduces high fat diet-induced apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivera

    Full Text Available Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60% diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg(-1 for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ, and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3, gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1, food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet.

  8. Sensory nerve desensitization by resiniferatoxin improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin secretion in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and is associated with reduced plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte X; Hansen, Anker J; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2005-01-01

    Sensory nerve desensitization by capsaicin has been shown to improve the diabetic condition in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. However, administration of capsaicin to adult rats is associated with an increased mortality. Therefore, in this experiment, we examined the influence of resiniferatoxin......, a tolerable analogue of capsaicin suitable for in vivo use, on the diabetic condition of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. A single subcutaneous injection of resiniferatoxin (0.01 mg/kg) to these rats was tolerable, with no mortality. When administered to early diabetic rats at 15 weeks of age, the further...... deterioration of glucose homeostasis was prevented by resiniferatoxin. Further, when administered to overtly diabetic rats at 19 weeks of age, resiniferatoxin markedly improved glucose tolerance at two weeks after administration and this was accompanied by an increased insulin response to oral glucose as well...

  9. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  10. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  11. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  12. Obesity-mediated regulation of HGF/c-Met is associated with reduced basal-like breast cancer latency in parous mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sundaram

    Full Text Available It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and

  13. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  14. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, F. [JBI, Inc., Osseo, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  15. Power and reduced temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

  16. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  17. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  18. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  19. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  20. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  1. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  2. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  3. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  4. A reduced-turbulence, reduced-entrainment electrostatic precipitator

    OpenAIRE

    Bahner, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes testing of an electrostatic precipitator that has a portion of the main precipitator flow drawn through a porous (fabric) collecting surface. Tests investigated effects of flow through the collecting surface (side flow) on precipitator turbulence and particulate removal efficiency. Particulate removal tests were conducted at both ambient temperature and boiler slipstream conditions. Side flow was shown to reduce turbulence in the boundary layers of the collecting plat...

  5. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A , RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  6. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  7. Medical waste: reducing its generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, N L

    1993-01-01

    1. Materials that can be recycled have yet to be proven to be a more cost-effective means of reducing medical waste. The literature indicates that the efficacy of reusable textiles is at least equal to that of some disposables--and reusable items reduce the generation of blood-contaminated waste. 2. The perioperative nursing community should consider replacing single-use items with materials intended for multiple uses. 3. "Source reduction" entails the replacement of single-use items with reusable items. Successful source-reduction programs require changes in individual and collective behavior patterns. 4. Recycling of materials renders them suitable for another use in a product similar to that in which they were originally used. On the other hand, reprocessing is an all-descriptive term of what must be done to an item to render it suitable for another identical use.

  8. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  9. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  10. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  11. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  12. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  13. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  14. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  15. The Ubiquitin Ligase Siah2 Regulates Obesity-induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kilroy, Gail; Carter, Lauren E; Newman, Susan; Burk, David H.; Manuel, Justin; Möller, Andreas; Bowtell, David D.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation associated with adipocyte hypertrophy is an important link in the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance. Although ubiquitin ligases regulate inflammatory processes, the role of these enzymes in metabolically driven adipose tissue inflammation is relatively unexplored. Herein, we examined the effect of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 on obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation. Methods Wild-type and Siah2KO mice were fed a lo...

  16. Obesity-induced Hypertension: Role of Sympathetic Nervous System, Leptin, and Melanocortins*

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John E.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Dubinion, John; Hamza, Shereen; Munusamy, Shankar; Smith, Grant; Stec, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Excess weight gain contributes to increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension. Although the mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, increased renal sodium reabsorption and impaired pressure natriuresis play key roles. Several mechanisms contribute to altered kidney function and hypertension in obesity, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which appears to be mediated in part by increased levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone ...

  17. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William L; Brozinick, Joseph T; Wang, Li-Ping; Hawkins, Eric D; Sargent, Katherine M; Liu, Yanqi; Narra, Krishna; Hoehn, Kyle L; Knotts, Trina A; Siesky, Angela; Nelson, Don H; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Fontenot, Greg K; Birnbaum, Morris J; Summers, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis. Second, they identify enzymes required for ceramide synthesis as therapeutic targets for combating insulin resistance caused by nutrient excess or glucocorticoid therapy.

  18. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  19. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Shona L; Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Argenton, Marco; Dhonye, Hannah; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W

    2009-06-11

    Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb) rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH), which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  20. Effects of pregnancy on obesity-induced inflammation in a mouse model of fetal programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Fernandez-Twinn, D.;

    2014-01-01

    of the obese animals, which suggested that monocytes are being recruited from the blood to the liver and adipose tissue in the obese animals. Gestation reversed macrophage infiltration, such that obese dams showed a lower adipose tissue macrophage count at the end of gestation compared to pre-pregnancy obese......ObjectiveMaternal obesity is associated with increased risk of metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. It is not clear whether it is the metabolic changes or chronic low-grade inflammation in the obese state that causes this metabolic programming. We therefore investigated whether low......-grade inflammation was present in obese dams compared to controls dams at gestation day 18.MethodsFemale mice were fed either a standard chow diet or a highly palatable obesogenic diet for 6 weeks prior to conception. Mice were either euthanized before mating (n=12 in each group), or euthanized on gestation day 18...

  1. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  2. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.

  3. Beyond Diabetes: Does Obesity-Induced Oxidative Stress Drive the Aging Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Salmon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous correlative data, a causative role for oxidative stress in mammalian longevity has remained elusive. However, there is strong evidence that increased oxidative stress is associated with exacerbation of many diseases and pathologies that are also strongly related to advanced age. Obesity, or increased fat accumulation, is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide and is associated with not only metabolic dysfunction but also increased levels of oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, obesity is also associated with significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease, neurological decline and cancer among many other diseases as well as a significantly increased risk of mortality. In this review, we investigate the possible interpretation that the increased incidence of these diseases in obesity may be due to chronic oxidative stress mediating segmental acceleration of the aging process. Understanding how obesity can alter cellular physiology beyond that directly related to metabolic function could open new therapeutic areas of approach to extend the period of healthy aging among people of all body composition.

  4. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona L Kirk

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH, which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  5. Implication of inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity-induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François eTANTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the development of a low-grade chronic inflammatory state in different metabolic tissues including adipose tissue and liver. This inflammation develops in response to an excess of nutrient flux and is now recognized as an important link between obesity and insulin resistance. Several dietary factors like saturated fatty acids and glucose as well as changes in gut microbiota have been proposed as triggers of this metabolic inflammation through the activation of pattern-recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, inflammasome and NOD. The consequences are the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T lymphocytes in metabolic tissues. Inflammatory cytokines activate several kinases like IKKbeta, mTOR/S6 kinase and MAP kinases as well as SOCS proteins that interfere with insulin signaling and action in adipocytes and hepatocytes. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that pattern recognition receptors and stress kinases are important integrators of metabolic and inflammatory stress signals in metabolic tissues leading to peripheral and central insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. We discuss recent data obtained with genetically modified mice and pharmacological approaches suggesting that these inflammatory pathways are potential novel pharmacological targets for the management of obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  6. Obesity-induced hypertension: role of sympathetic nervous system, leptin, and melanocortins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara M; Dubinion, John; Hamza, Shereen; Munusamy, Shankar; Smith, Grant; Stec, David E

    2010-06-01

    Excess weight gain contributes to increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension. Although the mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, increased renal sodium reabsorption and impaired pressure natriuresis play key roles. Several mechanisms contribute to altered kidney function and hypertension in obesity, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which appears to be mediated in part by increased levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin neurons, and subsequent activation of central nervous system melanocortin 4 receptors. PMID:20348094

  7. Autophagy deficiency in myeloid cells increases susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes and experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Youn; Kim, Jinyoung; Quan, Wenying; Lee, June-Chul; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Bae, Jin-Woo; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy, which is critical for the proper turnover of organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, affects diverse aspects of metabolism, and its dysregulation has been incriminated in various metabolic disorders. However, the role of autophagy of myeloid cells in adipose tissue inflammation and type 2 diabetes has not been addressed. We produced mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), an essential autophagy gene (Atg7 conditional knockout [cKO] mice). While Atg7 cKO mice were metabolically indistinguishable from control mice, they developed diabetes when bred to ob/w mice (Atg7 cKO-ob/ob mice), accompanied by increases in the crown-like structure, inflammatory cytokine expression and inflammasome activation in adipose tissue. Mφs (macrophages) from Atg7 cKO mice showed significantly higher interleukin 1 β release and inflammasome activation in response to a palmitic acid plus lipopolysaccharide combination. Moreover, a decrease in the NAD(+):NADH ratio and increase in intracellular ROS content after treatment with palmitic acid in combination with lipopolysaccharide were more pronounced in Mφs from Atg7 cKO mice, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction in autophagy-deficient Mφs leads to an increase in lipid-induced inflammasome and metabolic deterioration in Atg7 cKO-ob/ob mice. Atg7 cKO mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, accompanied by increased colonic cytokine expression, T helper 1 skewing and systemic bacterial invasion. These results suggest that autophagy of Mφs is important for the control of inflammasome activation in response to metabolic or extrinsic stress, and autophagy deficiency in Mφs may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome associated with lipid injury and colitis. PMID:27337687

  8. Role of hypoxia in obesity-induced disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jun; Gao, Zhanguo; He, Qing; Zhou, Dequan; Guo, ZengKui; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue hypoxia (ATH) may contribute to endocrine dysfunction in adipose tissue of obese mice. In this study, we examined hypoxia's effects on metabolism in adipocytes. We determined the dynamic relationship of ATH and adiposity in ob/ob mice. The interstitial oxygen pressure (Po2) was monitored in the epididymal fat pads for ATH. During weight gain from 39.5 to 55.5 g, Po2 declined from 34.8 to 20.1 mmHg, which are 40–60% lower than those in the lean mice. ...

  9. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  10. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  11. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  12. Challenging and Reducing Cultural Stereotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸣

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.Each of us hears or makes stereotypical comments every day,and although sometimes it is necessary to make stereotypes in foreign language teaching and learning,we should always be aware of the negative effects of stereotyping people from other cultures when we use them to interpret behavior.This paper defines stereotypes,discusses how they impede communication and then focuses on some ways to challenge and reduce stereotypes in cross-cultural communication.

  13. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  14. FIREhose: Reducing Data from FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Lambrides, Erini; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle L.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects that do not have enough mass to ignite hydrogen fusion in their core. Their mass is between 0.08 solar masses and the mass of our sun. Brown dwarfs are very bright in the near-infrared wavelength band (0.8- 2.5 microns). We reduced data from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) instrument on the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. FIRE is a medium-resolution echelle spectrometer, whose data reduction results in a spectrum of a star. When reducing FIRE data, it is important to account for inconsistencies in the data, such as bad pixels, cosmic rays, and the effects of our atmosphere. Using the FIREhose pipeline, these inconsistencies can be accounted for and corrected using a A0 telluric with a known spectrum. After telluric correcting, the data reduction results in a primed spectrum for an object, which can then be used to determine an object's physical properties, such as atmospheric composition, radial velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity.

  15. Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

  16. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  17. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  18. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  19. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  20. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  1. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... of Internet diffusion. A natural phenomenon causing power disruptions is lightning activity, which makes lightning a viable instrument for Internet diffusion. Using ground-based lightning detection censors as well as global satellite data, we construct lightning density data for the contiguous U.S. states...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  2. Reduced domestic satellite orbit spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. L.

    The demand for services provided by communications satellites in geostationary orbit is growing, and problems arise with respect to the required increase in capacity. One approach for providing such an increase involves the employment of more satellites operating at smaller orbital spacings. The present investigation is concerned with the results of technical studies conducted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine the feasibility of reducing orbital spacings between U.S. 'domestic fixed satellites' (domsats). Attention is given to details regarding the usable orbital arc, an adjacent satellite interference model, antenna sidelobe patterns, a single entry analysis, a 4/6 GHz aggregate analysis, results for the 4/6 GHz bands, results for the 12/14 GHz bands, data services, voice services, video reception, and high power spot beams.

  3. Periocular Recognition Using Reduced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika D R,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is science of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data. Biometric system establishes identity of a person based on unique physical or behavioural characteristic possessed by an individual. Behavioural biometrics measures characteristics which are acquired naturally over time. Physical biometrics measures inherent physical characteristics on a n individual. Over the last few decades enormous attention is drawn towards ocular biometrics. Cues provided by ocular region have led to exploration of newer traits. Feasibility of periocular region as a useful biometric trait has been explored recently. With the promising results of preliminary examination, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Researchers have analyzed various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. The current paper investigates the effect of using Lower Central Periocular Region (LCPR for identification. The results obtained are comparable with those acquired for the entire periocular region with an advantage of reduced periocular area.

  4. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  5. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  6. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  7. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  8. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  9. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  10. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  11. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩

    2000-01-01

    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  13. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  14. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  15. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  16. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  17. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; Korolev, S. P.; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  18. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  19. Parallel Processing of cluster by Map Reduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Vaidya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce is a parallel programming model and an associated implementation introduced by Google. In the programming model, a user specifies the computation by two functions, Map and Reduce. The underlying MapReduce library automatically parallelizes the computation, and handles complicated issues like data distribution, load balancing and fault tolerance. Massive input, spread across many machines, need to parallelize. Moves the data, and provides scheduling, fault tolerance. The original MapReduce implementation by Google, as well as its open-source counterpart, Hadoop, is aimed for parallelizing computing in large clusters of commodity machines. Map Reduce has gained a great popularity as it gracefully and automatically achieves fault tolerance. It automatically handles the gathering of results across the multiple nodes and returns a single result or set. This paper gives an overview of MapReduce programming model and its applications. The author has described here the workflow of MapReduce process. Some important issues, like fault tolerance, arestudied in more detail. Even the illustration of working of Map Reduce is given. The data locality issue in heterogeneous environments can noticeably reduce the Map Reduce performance. In this paper, the author has addressed the illustration of data across nodes in a way that each node has a balanced data processing load stored in a parallel manner. Given a data intensive application running on a Hadoop Map Reduce cluster, the auhor has exemplified how data placement is done in Hadoop architecture and the role of Map Reduce in the Hadoop Architecture. The amount of data stored in each node to achieve improved data-processing performance is explained here.

  20. Interpretation of the reduced density gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Boto, Roberto A.; Contreras-García, Julia; Tierny, Julien; Piquemal, Jean-Philip

    2015-01-01

    An interpretation of the reduced density gradient in terms of the bosonic kinetic energy density is presented. Contrary to other bonding indicators based on the kinetic energy density such as the localised orbital locator (LOL) or the electron localization function (ELF), the reduced density gradient is not only able to identify covalent bondings, but also ionic and non-covalent interactions. This study reveals that the critical points of the reduced density gradient are closely connected wit...

  1. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  2. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana

    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say...... that every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some exotic (nonrealizable) fusion system....

  3. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  4. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana

    2010-01-01

    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say that every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some...

  5. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  6. An intervention to reduce playground equipment hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Roseveare, C.; Brown, J.; McIntosh, J.; Chalmers, D

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—A community intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two methods of reducing playground hazards in schools. The study hypotheses were: (1) a health promotion programme addressing barriers to implementing the New Zealand Playground Safety Standard will reduce playground hazards and (2) the intervention programme will be more successful than providing information alone.

  7. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation tha

  8. Tools to Reduce Waste in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide was produced to help schools and school districts reduce the amount of waste they generate It shows how to start a waste reduction program or expand an existing one. The booklet shows how such programs can benefit schools, communities, and the environment by reducing, reusing, and recycling waste. Each section--schools, school…

  9. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.

    1994-01-01

    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal c

  10. Conformally reducible 1+3 spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Carot, Jaume; Tupper, Brian O J

    2013-01-01

    Spacetimes which are conformally related to reducible 1+3 spacetimes are considered. We classify these spacetimes according to the conformal algebra of the underlying reducible spacetime, giving in each case canonical expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and provide physically meaningful examples.

  11. Conformally reducible 1+3 spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, Jaume [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Keane, Aidan J [87 Carlton Place, Glasgow G5 9TD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tupper, Brian O J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail: jcarot@uib.es, E-mail: aidan@countingthoughts.com, E-mail: bt32@rogers.com

    2008-03-07

    Spacetimes which are conformally related to reducible 1+3 spacetimes are considered. We classify these spacetimes according to the conformal algebra of the underlying reducible spacetime, giving in each case canonical expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and providing physically meaningful examples.

  12. The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This profusely illustrated and informally written booklet describes how people can help solve a growing problem--garbage. The following 12 tips are presented: (1) Reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging; (2) Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity; (3) Consider reusable products; (4) Maintain and repair durable products; (5) Reuse bags,…

  13. Chitosan-supported Borohydride Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new chitosan-supported borohydride reducing reagent (CBER) was prepared by treatment of KBH4 with the resin of chitosan derivative, which was first synthesized fiom the reaction of cross-linked chitosan microsphere with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. CBER could reduce aromatic carbonyl compound to corresponding alcohol.

  14. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  15. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  16. Novel Reduced Parts Online Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Ashrafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design consideration and performance analysis of novel reduced parts online three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS system. The proposed UPS system is based on reduced switch count dual bridge matrix converter. It employs only six power switches and results in reducing the cost of the system compared to conventional online UPS topologies, while achieving excellent performance. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated through simulation in terms of input/output waveforms quality and shows the viability of topology.

  17. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  18. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  19. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP)

  20. REDUCING TOXICITY CHEMICALS PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  1. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  2. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  3. Conformally reducible 2+2 spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, Jaume [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tupper, Brian O J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2002-08-07

    Spacetimes which are conformal to 2+2 reducible spacetimes are considered. We classify them according to their conformal algebra, giving in each case explicit expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and providing physically meaningful examples.

  4. Conformally reducible 2+2 spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Carot, J

    2002-01-01

    Spacetimes which are conformal to 2+2 reducible spacetimes are considered. We classify them according to their conformal algebra, giving in each case explicit expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and providing physically meaningful examples.

  5. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  6. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van der Ploeg

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  7. Reduced sulfur compound oxidation by Thiobacillus caldus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, K. B.; Dopson, M; Lindström, E B

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by using resting cells of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus strain KU. The oxygen consumption rate and total oxygen consumed were determined for the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur, sulfide, and sulfite in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors and uncouplers. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone had no affect on the oxidation of thiosulfate, ...

  8. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  9. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joshua Deckert

    2015-01-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...

  10. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  11. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging.

  12. Reduced span spray – Part 1: Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Massinon, Mathieu; De Cock, Nicolas; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene; Lebeau, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Maximising treatment efficiency for a given target lies mainly on depositing a maximum part of the spray volume within an optimal droplet size range, which has to be as narrow as possible to reduce retention variability and drift issues. The present work focuses on exploring the effect of span factor of the droplet size distribution on the final retention by a 3D target plant using a modelling approach with the final aim of guiding the development of a reduced span nozzle (Redu...

  13. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  14. Laser welding in a reduced gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results on the effects of reduced gravity on laser welding of stainless steel and other materials are reported. Laser welding experiments using a low power (10-18 watts) Nd-YAG laser have been performed on the NASA KC-135, which flies parabolic maneuvers to simulate reduced gravity conditions. Experiments on 0.005-0.010 inch thick stainless steel samples displayed a pronounced change in weld bead width, depth of penetration and surface ripple with changes in gravity level.

  15. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  16. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, N. N.; Barr, L; Ross, G. L.; Evans, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

  17. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  18. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  19. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  1. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    rates will result in maximum effects, 2) that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3) that less than maximum......Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1) that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced...... effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed) is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based...

  2. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  3. Manager's guide to reducing dental hygiene turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, C

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of dental hygiene turnover and provide managers with strategies for preventing and reducing turnover. Employee turnover is a problem which affects dental health care delivery and the health of the public. Employee turnover is costly to work settings and creates a stressful working environment which has an impact on professional-client relationships. To reduce or prevent turnover in a private practice setting, office managers must be informed about the causes and effects of this problem and be able to implement solutions. Some strategies managers can use to reduce turnover are hiring employees who have the same goals as the organization; improving the working climate; rewarding longevity; encouraging the active participation of all staff members in office management; improving office communication; and providing opportunities for self-growth, recognition, and greater responsibilities.

  4. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  5. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  6. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  7. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  8. Reduced Multiplicative Tolerance Ranking and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a reduced multiplicative tolerance - a measure of sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP is presented. By using this new measure a method for ranking the set of efficient extreme solutions is proposed. The idea is to rank these solutions by values of the reduced tolerance. This approach can be applied to many MOLP problems, where sensitivity analysis is important for a decision maker. In the paper, applications of the presented methodology are shown in the market model and the transportation problem.

  9. Comments on the height reducing property

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A complex number alpha is said to satisfy the height reducing property if there is a finite subset F of the ring Z of the rational integers such that Z[alpha]=F[alpha]. This problem of finding F has been considered by several authors, especially in contexts related to self affine tilings, and expansions of real numbers in non-integer bases. We continue, in this note, the description of the numbers satisfying the height reducing property, and we specify a related characterization of the roots of integer polynomials with dominant term.

  10. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido

    2016-01-01

    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of $5$. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations.

  11. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P <.001) in both knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension and...

  12. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Guillermo

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  13. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  14. Device and Method for Reducing Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A noise abatement device that is positioned adjacent to a body. The noise abatement device generally includes tabs or cavities which thicken the shear layer created by fluid flow over, around, or near the body, by creating horseshoe-shaped vortices; this thickening of the shear layer reduces the strength of fluctuations in the flow which produce noise.

  15. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process... businesses and the public. Agencies consider low-cost approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility...-regulatory-system . The Department is committed to maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective...

  16. 77 FR 28518 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process encourages public..., simplify, and harmonize regulations to reduce costs and promote certainty for businesses and the public... culture of retrospective review and analysis. DOE will continually engage in review of its rules...

  17. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  18. Scientist Researches Way to Reduce Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last four years, scientists at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory have been searching for alternative soil and crop management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon and nitrogen sequestration. “If we can redu...

  19. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  20. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction compan

  1. Reducing consumption by way of energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, K.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with the recovery of the consumed energy from waste air. Schematical presentations of the cooling systems at printing machines in connection with the heat flow of machine-air-water-heat pump-heating are shown. There are preconditions of integrated cooling systems and modules for rational energy utilization. Energy costs and ways of reducing operational costs are also touched.

  2. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  3. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  4. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  5. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  6. Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic Equations in Toroidal Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shen-Ming; YU Guo-Yang

    2001-01-01

    By applying a new assumption of density, I.e. R2 p = const, the continuity equation is satisfied to the order ofe2`+with e being the inverse aspect ratio. In the case of large aspect ratio, a set of reduced magnetohydrodynamicequations in toroidal geometry are obtained. The new assumption about the density is supported by experimentalobservation to some extent.

  7. Reducing Dogmatism among Undergraduate Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkay, Forrest W.

    Previous research has emphasized the significant negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and dogmatism, or closemindedness. To reduce levels of dogmatism in counselor trainees, a program was developed and tested at Southwest Texas State University. The new course, "Guidance to Meet the Needs of Multicultural Students," gave counseling…

  8. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  9. Strategies for Reducing Text Book Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the price of college textbooks has become a growing concern for students and others who care about keeping college costs affordable. As policymakers and higher education systems explore the issue further, there are actions that can be taken immediately on college campuses to reduce the cost of textbooks. This brief presents…

  10. Ultrametric fixed points in reduced axiomatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Turinici, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The Brezis-Browder ordering principle [Advances Math., 21 (1976), 355-364] is used to get a proof, in the reduced axiomatic system (ZF-AC+DC), of a fixed point result [in the complete axiomatic system (ZF)] over Cantor complete ultrametric spaces due to Petalas and Vidalis [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 118 (1993), 819-821].

  11. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  12. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  13. Reduced-dimension clustering for vegetation segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Nettleton, D.; Tang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimensionclustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels

  14. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  15. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J;

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...

  16. Ways to reduce contamination of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is one of the most important radionuclides released into the environment. Possibilities of study of reducing the content of radionuclides directly in food have been analysed less. However, a significant reduction of content such as radiocesium we can achieve by leaching, marinating, steeping and cooking to allow in selected foods reach acceptable values. Observation was mainly focused on the mushrooms and meat. (author)

  17. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  18. Reduced local energy surface profiles for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional molecular reduced local energy error surface profiles are reported. The calculations are carried out for the hydrogen molecule using the Hartree-Fock wavefunctions of Coulson, Goodisman and Kolos and Roothaan. These surfaces provide both a complete and a simple way to interpret local errors in these wavefunctions. (author)

  19. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  20. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...