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Sample records for caprolactam production phase

  1. Caprolactam production by direct solar flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, J.; Wong, E.H.S.; Mathur, V.K. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The use of solar energy for the photonitrozation of cyclohexane for the production of cyclohexanone oxime hydrochloride, an intermediate for the manufacture of caprolactam, is discussed. Experimental results show the technical feasibility of such a reaction in the presence of radiation of wavelength 350-550 nm simulating sunlight.

  2. Diseases of the Skin in the Production of Caprolactam,

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the refinement of chemical technology in the production of caprolactam , workers are subjected to the effect of very low concentrations...clinical signs of a skin disease, is evident. In industrial contact with caprolactam and products of its synthesis, the barrier-protective function...in industries for the production of caprolactam include hygiene and preventive medical measures. Preliminary and periodic medical examinations by a physician-dermatologist are required.

  3. Green Production Technology of the Monomer of Nylon-6: Caprolactam

    OpenAIRE

    Baoning Zong; Bin Sun; Shibiao Cheng; Xuhong Mu; Keyong Yang; Junqi Zhao; Xiaoxin Zhang; Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    After two decades’ endeavor, the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP) has successfully developed a green caprolactam (CPL) production technology. This technology is based on the integration of titanium silicate (TS)-1 zeolite with the slurry-bed reactor for the ammoximation of cyclohexanone, the integration of silicalite-1 zeolite with the moving-bed reactor for the gas-phase rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime, and the integration of an amorphous nickel (Ni) catalyst with the m...

  4. Green Production Technology of the Monomer of Nylon-6: Caprolactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoning Zong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After two decades’ endeavor, the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP has successfully developed a green caprolactam (CPL production technology. This technology is based on the integration of titanium silicate (TS-1 zeolite with the slurry-bed reactor for the ammoximation of cyclohexanone, the integration of silicalite-1 zeolite with the moving-bed reactor for the gas-phase rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime, and the integration of an amorphous nickel (Ni catalyst with the magnetically stabilized bed reactor for the purification of caprolactam. The world’s first industrial plant based on this green CPL production technology has been built and possesses a capacity of 200 kt·a−1. Compared with existing technologies, the plant investment is pronouncedly reduced, and the nitrogen (N atom utilization is drastically improved. The waste emission is reduced significantly; for example, no ammonium sulfate byproduct is produced. As a result, the price difference between CPL and benzene drops. In 2015, the capacity of the green CPL production technology reached 3 × 106 t·a−1, making China the world’s largest CPL producer, with a global market share exceeding 50%.

  5. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  6. Using caprolactam waste products in the production of glass articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min' ko, N.I.; Sabitov, S.S.; Belousov, Yu.L.; Chabot' ko, M.B.; Onishchuk, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes the recovery of sodium carbonates from the waste incurred in the production of caprolactam. The process involves the pyrolysis of sodium salts of dicarboxylic acids--primarily adipic acid--and the subsequent purification of the resulting sodium carbonates and their incorporation into the manufacture of glass. The contribution of the carbonates to the glass falls chiefly in the domain of improving the working properties during manufacture and in the production of glassware whose light transmission properties are not a priority.

  7. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation and characterisation of caprolactam-formaldehyde reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Florence C; Goodall, David M; Duckett, Simon B; van Tol, Maurits F H; Nusselder, Jan-Jaap H

    2002-10-01

    Methylolation and condensation products formed in caprolactam-formaldehyde reaction mixtures have been identified using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Previously unreported side-products were also detected. All of the reaction products were separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the separation parameters, such as efficiency and distribution constants, obtained in the two techniques were compared. For quantification, the response factors for the monomers were determined using standard calibration and hydrolysis, whilst those for the condensation products were deduced from the values of the monomers. The accurate determination of the response factors was confirmed by checking the mass balance of a known mixture.

  9. Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, A.; D' Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

    1980-08-01

    Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

  10. BACTERIAL DESTRUCTION OF EPSILON-CAPROLACTAM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three bacterial strains capable of utilizing caprolactam (hexahydro azepin-2-one) as the only source of nitrogen, carbon and energy were isolated...from active silt of aerotanks used to purify waste water from Caprolactam production. They were identified as Pseudomonas dacunnae and Bacterium agile 1...and 2. The P. dacunnae strain is most active with respect to Caprolactam . Bacterial utilization of caprolactam has a marked adaptive character

  11. In situ topography of the (2 0 0) face of ɛ-caprolactam growing from the vapour phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, E. P. G.; Sweegers, A. J. R.; Verheijen, M. A.; van Enckevort, W. J. P.

    1997-09-01

    On the (2 0 0) face of ɛ-caprolactam growing from the vapour phase several growth phenomena were observed in situ by optical microscopy: single spirals, multiple spirals, spirals growing with monomolecular steps, Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and two-dimensional nucleation. From the observations and measured growth rates the relative importance of the volume, surface diffusion and step integration as the rate determining step of the growth process are elaborated.

  12. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  13. Interlaboratory Study on Caprolactam Test for Food-Contact Nylon Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazunari; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Takashi; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Kondo, Takahide; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Sonobe, Hironori; Takasaka, Noriko; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Hikida, Akinori; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese Food Sanitation Law sets a limit on the migration level of caprolactam for food-contacting nylon products. Here, we carried out an interlaboratory study in twenty laboratories to evaluate the performance of the official GC-FID test method and a GC-MS method as an alternative test method to the official method. Each laboratory quantified caprolactam in three test solutions in 20% ethanol as blind duplicates using GC-FID or GC-MS. The official method (GC-FID with absolute calibration) gave trueness, repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDr) values of 96-97%, 3.3-5.4% and 4.0-6.7%, respectively. These values met the target criteria (trueness: 80-110%, RSDr: 10%, RSDr: 25%). The performance of the method was further improved by the introduction of heptalactam as an internal standard. As for GC-MS method, some values of the RSDr exceeded 10% when absolute calibration was used. However, when an internal standard was introduced, the trueness, RSDr and RSDr of GC-MS method were all acceptable at 94-96%, 2.0-4.4% and 7.0-9.4%, respectively. Therefore, GC-MS with an internal standard is available as an alternative test method to the official method.

  14. Purification of caprolactam from recycled nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A method of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture; b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution; c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate; d) removing the precipitate from the solution; and e) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution.

  15. Purification of caprolactam from recycled nylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, L.

    1999-07-06

    A method is disclosed of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: (a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture; (b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution; (c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate; (d) removing the precipitate from the solution; and (e) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution. 3 figs.

  16. Design of a "green" one-step catalytic production of epsilon-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2005-09-27

    The ever-increasing industrial demand for nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) necessitates the development of environmentally benign methods of producing its precursor, epsilon-caprolactam, from cyclohexanone. It is currently manufactured in two popular double-step processes, each of which uses highly aggressive reagents, and each generates substantial quantities of largely unwanted ammonium sulfate as by-product. Here we describe a viable laboratory-scale, single-step, solvent-free process of producing epsilon-caprolactam using a family of designed bifunctional, heterogeneous, nanoporous catalysts containing isolated acidic and redox sites, which smoothly convert cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactam with selectivities in the range 65-78% in air and ammonia at 80 degrees C. The catalysts are microporous (pore diameter 7.3 A) aluminophosphates in which small fractions of the Al(III)O4(5-) and P(V)O4(3-) tetrahedra constituting the 4-connected open framework are replaced by Co(III)PO4(5-) and Si(IV)O4(4-) tetrahedra, which become the loci of the redox and acidic centers, respectively. The catalysts may be further optimized, and already may be so designed as to generate selectivities of approximately 80% for the intermediate oxime, formed from NH2OH, which is produced in situ within the pore system. The advantages of such designed heterogeneous catalysts, and their application to a range of other chemical conversions, are also adumbrated.

  17. Determination of caprolactam and residual vinyl caprolactam monomer in soluplus by mixed mode gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Ashish; Jerfy, Madhuri

    2014-01-01

    Soluplus, a graft copolymer of polyethylene glycol, vinyl caprolactam and vinyl acetate, is designed to solubilize poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients. A straightforward aqueous gel permeation chromatography method that exploits both size exclusion and adsorption modes of separation was used to separate and quantify the related residual vinyl caprolactam monomer and caprolactam impurity present in Soluplus. This methodology offers a single step analysis of caprolactam and the residual vinyl caprolacatam monomer, yielding similar results to reversed-phase chromatography measurements, which are time-consuming and may involve multi-step sample preparation. The results of this study demonstrate that gel permeation chromatography provides a viable option to traditional reversed-phase chromatography in the quantitative analysis of residual caprolactam and vinyl caprolactam monomers and can be extended to other monomer-polymeric systems.

  18. Caprolactam-Based Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caprolactam-based ionic liquids show many advantages, such as the lower toxicity, lower cost, and a simple preparation process. In this work, caprolactam-based ionic liquids were prepared and adopted as catalysts for the transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol. The results demonstrated that the SO3H-functional caprolactam‐based ionic liquids have higher catalytic activity than those of the caprolactam-based ionic liquids without sulfonic group or the SO3H-functional pyridine-based ionic liquids, attributed to their stronger Brønsted acidity. By optimizing the reaction parameter, the biodiesel yield catalyzed by 1-(4-sulfonic group butylcaprolactamium hydrogen sulfate ([HSO3-bCPL][HSO4] could reach above 95% at 140 °C for 3 h. Furthermore, the ionic liquid had a good reusability.

  19. Solar collectors versus lamps - a comparison of the energy demand of industrial photochemical processes as exemplified by the production of {epsilon}-caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funken, K.-H.; Mueller, F.-J.; Ortner, J.; Riffelmann, K.-J.; Sattler, C. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Solare Energietechnik

    1999-08-01

    The energy demand of photochemical synthesis of {epsilon}-caprolactam was compared for two plant concepts. The conventional lamp-driven concept followed the process as realized on an industrial scale by Toray Ltd, Japan and a solar concept was designed at identical yearly output. The aim of the comparison was to determine the savings of fossil fuels that could be achieved if photochemistry could make use of solar radiation instead of artificial light. The use of solar radiation for the photochemical production of {epsilon}-caprolactam has a 4-fold lower demand for electric current and an 8-fold lower demand for cooling energy as compared to an equivalent conventionally operated route. Furthermore, due to avoided conversion of fossil fuel to electric current, a solar process would allow specific emissions of 1.5-2.5 tons of CO{sub 2} per ton {epsilon}-caprolactam to be avoided, depending on the primary energy carrier used. (author)

  20. Reversible flocculation of silica across the phase boundary of poly(vinyl caprolactam) in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Q; Pethica, B A; Somasundaran, P

    2005-12-20

    The colloid stability of silica dispersions in water in the presence of poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PVCAP) has been studied below and above the lower consolute temperature (LCT) of its solutions. The dispersion sediments slowly without PVCAP in the temperature range studied (26-40 degrees C) or with PVCAP below the LCT ( approximately 30 degrees C). In contrast, with PVCAP above the LCT, rapid flocculation occurs at acid pH, with re-dispersal on cooling. Reversible flocculation is also obtained above the LCT by cycling the pH from alkaline to acid and back. The flocculation observed above the LCT may also be regarded as heterocoagulation between the silica particles and the aggregates of the polymer.

  1. Design of a “green” one-step catalytic production of ε-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The ever-increasing industrial demand for nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) necessitates the development of environmentally benign methods of producing its precursor, ε-caprolactam, from cyclohexanone. It is currently manufactured in two popular double-step processes, each of which uses highly aggressive reagents, and each generates substantial quantities of largely unwanted ammonium sulfate as by-product. Here we describe a viable laboratory-scale, single-step, solvent-free process of producing ε-caprolactam using a family of designed bifunctional, heterogeneous, nanoporous catalysts containing isolated acidic and redox sites, which smoothly convert cyclohexanone to ε-caprolactam with selectivities in the range 65–78% in air and ammonia at 80°C. The catalysts are microporous (pore diameter 7.3 Å) aluminophosphates in which small fractions of the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Al}}^{{\\mathrm{III}}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{5-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{P}}^{{\\mathrm{V}}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{3-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} tetrahedra constituting the 4-connected open framework are replaced by \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Co}}^{{\\mathrm{III}}}{\\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{5-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage

  2. Abnormal sperm assay tests on benzoin and caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, M F

    1989-11-01

    Benzoin and caprolactam, two noncarcinogenic chemicals found in association with consumer products, were tested in the mammalian in vivo abnormal spermhead assay. Each chemical was dissolved in a pharmaceutical grade corn oil and administered by gavage. Toxic effects were observed only with caprolactam-treated mice. Neither benzoin nor caprolactam induced a significant increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm as compared to that for animals treated only with the corn oil.

  3. Biochemical oxidation of caprolactam-containing wastewater from the production of synthetic fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedosova, N.F.; Dvoinova, T.V.; Konstantinova, O.B.

    1986-07-01

    Industrial wastewater which is formed in the manfacture of synthetic fibres is principally subjected to biochemical purification. The authors investigate the effect of nitrosomethylurea (NMM) on the biodegradative power of active sludge in cleaning up solutions which contain caprolactam. Induction of mutants was carried out with a 0.07% solution of NMM for 24 h. The sludge which has been treated with the mutagen was grown for a day in a growth medium and introduced into the aeration tank. The basic microbiological studies of sludge before and after treatment were carried out using generally accepted bacteriological methods: morphology, mobility, Gramstaining the presence of spores, and the cultural, saccharolytic, proteolytic, and biochemical properties of the bacteria were studied. The mutation of the microorganisms was stable and was retained on prolonged reseeding.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography-indirect photometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Duan, Zhengkang; Li, Linan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Qiuyun; Peng, Ye

    2013-02-01

    An improved anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid (SCCA) and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam. An strong anion chromatographic column and an ultraviolet (UV) detector were chosen for the assay of SCCA and sulfate anion. Non-chromophore-containing sulfate anion is not directly adaptable to the commonly used ultraviolet detection of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper reports the development and validation of an HPLC assay for SCCA and sulfate anion based on indirect ultraviolet detection. An ultraviolet-absorbing reagent (the probe), phthalic acid (PA), was added to the mobile phase to induce a signal for the compound. The proposed method was qualified based on the performance criteria of repeatability, intermediate precision and linearity. The limits of detection were 1.0 g/L for both the analytes. The linear ranges varied from 0.50 to 40.0 g/L for SCCA and from 0.10 to 10.0 g/L for sulfate anion, with the correlation coefficients of 0. 999 97 and 0.999 14, and the recoveries of 93.33%-97.40% and 98.50%-101.00%, respectively. The established method can be used in practice to determine SCCA and sulfate anion simultaneously with perfect separation selectivity.

  5. Etch pits on caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.; Geertman, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    As an extension of the results on the morphology, we investigated the defect structure of solution-grown caprolactam crystals by means of slight etching in cyclohexane and subsequent microscopic observation of the resulting etch pits on the 200, 110, and faces. In case of the face (which is a cleavage plane), we confirmed that the etch pits are formed around dislocation lines by performing an "etch-and-match" experiment. Information is obtained on morphology and density of etch pits, the presence of grain boundaries, as well as qualitative information on the inclination of the dislocation lines.

  6. Complete genome sequence of the caprolactam-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas mosselii SJ10 isolated from wastewater of a nylon 6 production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gun-Seok; Chu, Ji-Hun; Hong, Sung-Jun; Kwak, Yunyoung; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Ullah, Ihsan; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2014-12-20

    Pseudomonas mosselii strain SJ10 is a caprolactam-degrading bacterium belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria, which was isolated from wastewater of the nylon 6 producing Seongseo industrial complex in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain, providing genetic information for biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

  7. On the morphology of caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertman, R. M.; van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.

    1992-11-01

    The morphology of ɛ-caprolactam has been predicted using a periodic bond chain analysis. Two kinds of building units have been considered: monomers and dimers. The most important forms according to the monomer analysis are {11}; overline1; {110};, {200};, {311}; and 31 overline1. The dimer analysis gives the {200};, 20 overline1, ;11 overline1 and {110}; forms as the most important ones. The results of the analyses are compared with the morphology of caprolactam grown from the melt and from fifteen different solvents.

  8. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the chlorinated polymers is not compromised until a relatively high lactam content in the copolymer is attained. The incorporation of segmental interaction parameters, derived from separate studies involving pol...

  9. Leukemia risk in caprolactam workers exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Scheffers, Theo; de Cock, Johan; Slangen, Jos; Drooge, Hinkelien

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the leukemia risk in a group of benzene exposed workers. We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study on 311 men who worked between January 1, 1951 and December 31, 1968 in a Caprolactam plant in the Netherlands. In the production of Caprolactam (the Nylon 6 monomer) pure benzene is used as an extracting agent and the workers at this plant have been exposed to substantial concentrations of benzene. The cohort was followed for mortality until January 1, 2001. The total mortality was below the expected number, which was mainly caused by a deficit of cardiovascular disease mortality. In the total group, there was one death from leukemia, compared with an expected number of 1.17. Despite the substantial exposures to benzene (on average 159 ppm-years per person) there was no indication for increased leukemia mortality within the cohort. We have applied earlier quantitative risk assessments to our cohort and conclude that some of these assessments overestimate the risk observed in our cohort of Caprolactam workers.

  10. Biodegradability and treatability of caprolactam waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.D.; Patel, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the biodegradability and treatment of wastewaters from a plant manufacturing caprolactam. Two-stage biological treatment, with preliminary aeration followed by an oxidation channel, gave an effluent of the desired quality.

  11. Spectroscopic study on the active site of a SiO2 supported niobia catalyst used for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronna, M M; Kruissink, E C; Parton, R F; Soulimani, F; Weckhuysen, B M; Hoelderich, W F

    2016-08-10

    NbOx/SiO2 with a very high catalytic activity for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam, was investigated by different spectroscopic methods in order to obtain new insights in the formation and nature of the active sites. FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with pyridine adsorption measurements revealed that the catalyst material contains Lewis-acidic sites, most probably related to the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups of isolated tetrahedral NbO4 surface species, whereas no Brønsted-acidic sites were observed. Results from in situ Raman and complementary FT-IR measurements strongly suggest that Brønsted-acidic Nb-OH sites can be generated from Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups by reaction with ethanol. This is in agreement with the observation that ethanol is essential for obtaining a very good catalyst performance. However, the Brønsted-acidic sites can be detected in significant amounts in particular in the presence of a Lewis-base, e.g. pyridine, most probably because the formation and/or the stability of these Brønsted-acidic sites are enhanced by a basic molecule. Assuming that cyclohexanone oxime, being a base, can play a similar role as pyridine, we propose on the basis of the spectroscopic findings obtained in this work and our kinetic results published recently, a reaction scheme for the formation of the active site at the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O group as well as for the recovery of the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O site during the final stage of the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement.

  12. Bioremediation of epsilon-caprolactam from nylon-6 waste water by use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R S; Kanekar, P P

    1998-09-01

    Nylon-6, a man-made polymer that finds its application in the manufacture of car tires, ropes, fabrics, automobile parts etc., is manufactured with epsilon-caprolactam. Waste water generated during production of nylon-6 contains the unreacted monomer. Owing to the polluting and toxic nature of epsilon-caprolactam, its removal from waste streams is necessary. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407 was isolated from activated sludge used to treat waste from a factory producing nylon-6. This organism was able to remove epsilon-caprolactam with simultaneous reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). The degradation of epsilon-caprolactam in waste water was found to be optimal over a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, temperature of 30 degrees C, and under shake or aerated conditions, with an inoculum density of 10(5) cells/ml and with an incubation period of 24 - 48 h. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407 isolated from the activated sludge exposed to epsilon-caprolactam may play an important role in the bioremediation of epsilon-caprolactam from the waste waters of industries manufacturing nylon-6.

  13. Development of homogeneous catalysts for the selective conversion of levulinic acid to caprolactam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce the readers to the importance of bio-based products and their potential applications in chemical industries. Alternative routes to the widely used nylon precursor caprolactam are discussed and compared with the current fossil-based synthesis. Furthermore, the

  14. Impact modification of poly(caprolactam) by copolymerization with a low molecular weight polybutadiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, R.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Caprolactam and a reactive, low molecular weight polybutadiene were polymerized in an autoclave, followed by post-condensation in the solid state. The rubber concentration was varied (0–30 wt%). The morphology of the reaction products was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the materials

  15. Design, synthesis, and development of novel caprolactam anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; Stables, James P; Brown, Milton L

    2003-09-01

    Epilepsy afflicts 1-2% of the world's population and often goes untreated; nearly 70% of those with a form of epilepsy fail to receive proper treatment. Therefore, there is great demand for the design of novel, effective anticonvulsants to combat epilepsy in its numerous forms. Previously, alpha-hydroxy-alpha-phenylcaprolactam was found to have rather potent antiepileptic activity [anti-maximal electroshock (MES) ED(50)=63 mg/kg and anti-subcutaneous Metrazol (scMet) ED(50)=74 mg/kg] when administered intraperitoneally in mice. We focused our attention on the development of this compound through traditional medicinal chemistry techniques-including the Topliss approach, isosteric replacement, methylene insertion, and rigid analogue approach-in the hopes of determining the effect of caprolactam alpha-substitution and other structural modifications on anticonvulsant activity. A number of the desired targets were successfully synthesized and submitted to the Anticonvulsant Screening Program of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Phase I results were quite promising for at least three of the compounds: alpha-ethynyl-alpha-hydroxycaprolactam (10), alpha-benzyl-alpha-hydroxycaprolactam (11), and alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(phenylethynyl)caprolactam (13). Phase II results for 11 strongly suggested it as a new structural class for further development, as it exhibited an anti-MES T.I. in excess of 4.0. Further, the potent activity of 13 in all models also pointed to the substituted alkynylcaprolactams as a new anticonvulsant structural class.

  16. Zr mesoporous molecular sieves as novel solid acid catalysts in synthesizing nitrile and caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedumaran, D; Pandurangan, A

    2014-04-01

    Zr mesoporous materials with different Si/Zr ratio were synthesized by the surfactant-templated method involving cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template and tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as organic source of silicon. The synthesized materials were labeled as SiZrMx (where x is Si/Zr = 10, 20 and 30). The BET analysis showed bimodal distribution of pores in SiZrMx structure. An attempt was made to generate super acidity on SiZrM20 by sulfation using sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate (wt% = 4, 8 and 12). The NH3-TPD results revealed the presence of strong acidity in sulfated Zr-MCM-41. To understand the nature of acidity in Sulfated Zr-MCM-41, the efficiency of the materials is investigated in dehydration of Oximes. The industrially important materials caprolactam and intermediate nitrile were synthesized from their oximes in liquid phase system. Due to strong acidity in sulfated Zr-MCM-41, fast deactivation was observed during the synthesis of caprolactam but, the catalyst showed 96% nitrile selectivity. The strong acidity and medium strong acidity favoured the formation of nitrile and caprolactam respectively. This study revealed the molecular sieves were effective and eco-friendly solid acid catalysts for synthesizing caprolactam and nitrile.

  17. Caprolactam waste liquor degradation by various yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, V; Patel, S J; Patel, K A; Mehta, M H

    1994-09-01

    Waste liquor from caprolactam manufacture contains many mono- and di-carboxylic acids. Of four yeasts tested, Yarrowia lipolytica DS-1 was the best at decreasing Chemical Oxygen Demand values, by up to 60% with 50 and 100 g waste liquor/after 48 h. Caproic, butyric and valeric acids were utilized most easily. Adipic acid was not decreased below 13% (w/v).

  18. Critical examination of prewetting and surface melting on caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.; de Jeu, Wim H.; Böautgels, Gertjan; van den Berg, Erwin P. G.; Bennema, Piet

    1997-01-01

    In a previous study, surface melting on the (001) surface of caprolactam (C6 H11 ON) was reported to proceed in a series of layering transitions, followed by a prewetting transition. We have reproduced the original results and shown that they can be better explained by the wetting of hydrated caprolactam (with H2 O molecules at bridging sites between the caprolactam dimers) on caprolactam, and that such hydration is most likely caused by H2 O microinclusions in the crystals grown from solution. In agreement with this interpretation, we have also shown that the reported effects are absent on 'dry' surfaces.

  19. Intermolecular interactions in poly(vinylidene fluoride) and ε-caprolactam mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zehui; Maréchal, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Mixtures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and caprolactam (CPL) have been investigated as models for possible cross-interactions between vinylidene fluoride and amide structural units, that might account for the very fine phase morphology previously observed in PVDF/polyamide 6 blends. Over the entire composition range, the PVDF/CPL mixtures are monophase above the PVDF melting temperature. From the depression of the PVDF melting point, a negative interaction energy density, B, has been ca...

  20. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, R

    1989-11-01

    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  1. {epsilon}-Caprolactam migration from irradiated PA-6 food packaging: kinetic simulation and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, Juliana; Araujo, Henrique Peres; Monteiro, Magali [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao; Padula, Marisa [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Sao Judas Tadeu (USJT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jmanzoli@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Migration of low molecular mass compounds (LMMC), such as monomers and additives, from plastic packaging into food simulants is a very important issue, concerning public health and chemical contamination of foods. Sterilization of food packaging materials with ionizing radiation is considered an alternative to other sterilization methods, but when polymers are irradiated, LMMC may be formed, as radiolysis products. According to the Brazilian legislation, specific migration tests, such as those of LMMC from packaging into simulants, should be carried out at certain temperature and time, depending on the real conditions of contact. In this work, multilayer flexible films with polyamide 6 (PA-6), used for meat foodstuffs, were studied. The {epsilon}-caprolactam (PA-6 monomer) specific migration into acetic acid 3% simulant at 40 deg C during 10 days and at 100 deg C during 30 minutes was performed. The initial monomer level in the irradiated and non irradiated PA-6 films was quantified by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Radiation doses were 3 and 7 kGy. {epsilon}-caprolactam specific migration was carried out only with non irradiated films. The results showed that radiation causes a significant change in the monomer level, up or down, depending on the multilayer film type. The kinetic of the {epsilon}-caprolactam migration at both temperatures, 40 and 100 deg C was clearly explained by the numerical simulation, combining an Arrhenius equation with the Fick's second law, although this kinetic was not experimentally studied. This simulation allowed to predict diffusion parameters estimates, like diffusion coefficients and activation energies of {epsilon}-caprolactam in the films or simulant. (author)

  2. ε-Caprolactam migration from irradiated PA-6 food packaging: kinetic simulation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite; Felix, Juliana; Araujo, Henrique Peres; Monteiro, Magali

    2007-01-01

    Migration of low molecular mass compounds (LMMC), such as monomers and additives, from plastic packaging into food simulants is a very important issue, concerning public health and chemical contamination of foods. Sterilization of food packaging materials with ionizing radiation is considered an alternative to other sterilization methods, but when polymers are irradiated, LMMC may be formed, as radiolysis products. According to the Brazilian legislation, specific migration tests, such as those of LMMC from packaging into simulants, should be carried out at certain temperature and time, depending on the real conditions of contact. In this work, multilayer flexible films with polyamide 6 (PA-6), used for meat foodstuffs, were studied. The ε-caprolactam (PA-6 monomer) specific migration into acetic acid 3% simulant at 40 deg C during 10 days and at 100 deg C during 30 minutes was performed. The initial monomer level in the irradiated and non irradiated PA-6 films was quantified by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Radiation doses were 3 and 7 kGy. ε-caprolactam specific migration was carried out only with non irradiated films. The results showed that radiation causes a significant change in the monomer level, up or down, depending on the multilayer film type. The kinetic of the ε-caprolactam migration at both temperatures, 40 and 100 deg C was clearly explained by the numerical simulation, combining an Arrhenius equation with the Fick's second law, although this kinetic was not experimentally studied. This simulation allowed to predict diffusion parameters estimates, like diffusion coefficients and activation energies of ε-caprolactam in the films or simulant. (author)

  3. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Caprolactam Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  4. The application of Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy to the determination of conformation in poly(ɛ-caprolactam) chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P.; Hendra, P. J.

    1994-10-01

    The Fourier-transform Raman spectra of various structural forms of poly(ɛ-caprolactam) have been obtained and the Raman bands characterizing planar and nonplanar conformation of the ɛ-caprolactam units have been defined. These bands have been used for the investigation of the conformational composition of ɛ-caprolactam sequences in several ɛ-caprolactam-butadiene block copolymers.

  5. Novel Biocompatible Thermoresponsive Poly(N-vinyl Caprolactam)/Clay Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Macroporous Structure and Improved Mechanical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Chao; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Yi-Min; Deng, Yi; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2017-07-05

    Poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) (PVCL) hydrogels usually suffer from the imporous structure and poor mechanical characteristics as well as the toxicity of cross-linkers, although PVCL itself is biocompatible. In this paper, novel biocompatible thermoresponsive poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)/clay nanocomposite (PVCL-Clay) hydrogels with macroporous structure and improved mechanical characteristics are developed for the first time. The macroporosity in the hydrogel is introduced by using Pickering emulsions as templates, which contain N-vinyl caprolactam (VCL) monomer as dispersed phase and clay sheets as stabilizers at the interface. After polymerization, macropores are formed inside the hydrogels with the residual unreacted VCL droplets as templates. The three-dimensional PVCL polymer networks are cross-linked by the clay nanosheets. Due to the nanocomposite structure, the hydrogel exhibits better mechanical characteristics in comparison to the conventional PVCL hydrogels cross-linked by N,N'-methylene diacrylamide (BIS). The prepared PVCL-Clay hydrogel possesses remarkable temperature-responsive characteristics with a volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) around 35 °C, and provides a feasible platform for cell culture. With macroporous structure and good mechanical characteristics as well as flexible assembly performance, the proposed biocompatible thermoresponsive PVCL-Clay nanocomposite hydrogels are ideal material candidates for biomedical, analytical, and other applications such as entrapment of enzymes, cell culture, tissue engineering, and affinity and displacement chromatography.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, from industrial wastewater by chemostat-enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Sasikumar; Ahn, Jung Oh; Lee, Hong Weon; Jung, Joon Ki

    2013-12-01

    For the isolation of a ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe from wastewaters of a factory producing caprolactam, we applied a chemostat-enrichment technique with a selective medium containing caprolactam as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This allowed for the isolation of a novel caprolactam-degrading microbe, identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The strain had a critical tolerance of 19 g caprolactam l(-1) in minimal medium, which is higher than any previously reported caprolactam-degrading microbe. A. calcoaceticus also decreased the caprolactam content in medium by 65 % within 72 h despite the high caprolactam content (10 g l(-1)). This study highlights the potential use of A. calcoaceticus strain for the bioremediation of recalcitrant synthetic polymers, such as caprolactam.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of nylon-6 to recover caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, Stefan; Elam, Carolyn C.; Evans, Robert J.; Meglen, Robert R.; Moens, Luc; Tatsumoto, Kuniyasu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis has been proposed as a possible process for the recovery of caprolactam from waste nylon-6. Promising process conditions, i.e. catalyst and temperature were identified using a micro-scale reactor/molecular-beam mass-spectrometer system. At 330-360C, in the presence of {alpha}-alumina supported KOH, the reaction proceeded at a high rate and selectivity. Only a few minutes were needed to complete the nylon-6 depolymerization with a caprolactam yield of 85%. These results were confirmed in a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system

  8. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  9. Anionic copolymerization of .epsilon.-caprolactam with .omega.-laurolactam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Budín, J.; Roda, J.; Brožek, J.; Kříž, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-82 ISSN 1022-1360. [International Symposium on Ionic Polymerization. Goa, 23.10.2005-28.10.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : copolymerization * caprolactam * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2005

  10. The Oxidative Mannich Reaction Catalyzed by Dirhodium Caprolactamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catino, Arthur J.; Nichols, Jason M.; Nettles, Brian J.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Dirhodium caprolactamate [Rh2(cap)4] is a highly effective catalyst for the oxidative Mannich reaction. The reaction proceeds via C-H oxidation of a tertiary amine followed by nucleophilic capture. This green transformation is conducted in protic solvent using inexpensive T-HYDRO® (70% t–BuOOH in water). Synthetically valuable γ-aminoalkyl-butenolides are obtained. PMID:16637627

  11. Reusable task-specific ionic liquids for a clean ε-caprolactam synthesis under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Raphaël; Estager, Julien; Draye, Micheline; Ragaini, Vittorio; Bonrath, Werner; Lévêque, Jean-Marc

    2010-12-17

    Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids that bear a sulfonic acid group, known as Forbes acids, show a good catalytic activity for the Beckmann rearrangement, used to prepare ε-caprolactam, which is a precursor of Nylon 6. The activity essentially stems from the acidity of the sulfonic acid group. Although these task specific ionic liquids suffer from a high viscosity, this drawback can be circumvented at higher temperatures. A combination of the hydrogen sulfate anion and the sulfonic acid group of the cation is needed to obtain the rearrangement product rapidly under mild conditions. When using an excess of ionic liquid, we postulate that the internal pressure of the ionic medium, generated by the high viscosity and the high number of hydrogen-bonds, is strong enough to contribute to a decrease of the thermodynamic barrier. In accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry," we have developed a synthesis of ε-caprolactam that requires no additional chemicals except cyclohexanone oxime and the reusable TSIL.

  12. Identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea in polyvinylpyrrolidone powders by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, A

    2014-03-01

    A sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar electrokinetic chromatography (SDS-MEKC) method for the simultaneous separation and identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea deliberately added to polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone) products has been developed. All samples to be analyzed contained paracetamol as an internal marker (IM). The optimized separations were performed in 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 2% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in fused silica capillaries with UV absorption detection at 200nm. The method was validated with respect to repeatability and intermediate precision, selectivity and robustness with satisfactory results. The relative migration times (RMT) were found to be between 0.03% and 0.13% for intra-day precision and between 0.50% and 0.60% for inter-day precision in four days. The detection limits were determined to be 1.3 (11.5μM), 0.4 (3.5μM) and 41μg/ml (0.4mM) for ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  15. Observation of a prewetting transition during surface melting of caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandavarkar, Sumant; Geertman, Rob M.; de Jeu, Wim H.

    1992-10-01

    The surface-induced melting of the closed-packed (100) face of the anisotropic molecular crystal caprolactam has been studied using x-ray reflectivity. A thin-to-thick film prewetting transition is observed at about 13 K below the bulk melting point. Only above this transition does the thickness of the quasiliquid layer increase continuously with temperature. We speculate that initially the surface melting proceeds via layering transitions.

  16. Stimuli Responsive Poly(Vinyl Caprolactam) Gels for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kummara Madhusudana Rao; Kummari Subba Venkata Krishna Rao; Chang-Sik Ha

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PNVCL) is one of the most important thermoresponsive polymers because it is similar to poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide). PNVCL precipitates from aqueous solutions in a physiological temperature range (32–34 °C). The use of PNVCL instead of PNIPAM is considered advantageous because of the assumed lower toxicity of PNVCL. PNVCL copolymer gels are sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature and pH; which gives them a wide range of biomedical applications and consequen...

  17. Impurity distribution behavior in caprolactam extraction with environmentally benign mixed solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Drumm, C.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study a solvent mixture of heptane containing 40 mass % heptanol was selected as an alternative in the industrial extraction of caprolactam to replace benzene, toluene, or chlorinated hydrocarbons. This work reports the equilibrium distribution ratio of caprolactam and four model

  18. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., Source Category List § 63.60 Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The...

  19. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Page, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies, which consist of fuel pins held inside a graphite sleeve by means of stainless steel support grids and braces. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  20. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas BWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  1. Economic evaluation and comparison of the industrial photosynthesis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam via solar or lamp operated photooximation of cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, C.; Mueller, F.J.; Riffelmann, K.J.; Ortner, J.; Funken, K.H.

    1999-07-01

    A solar photochemical plant was drawn up for the manufacture of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam which is the base chemical for nylon-6. For the design and for the calculation of costs the lamp operated concept of Toray Ltd. was adapted to solar requirements. In a base case a unit with a capacity of 10,000 t/a was considered. Using that concept and economic evaluation was made to check the cost of solar production against the equivalent lamp-operated process. The results of the economic calculations suggest that solar production of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam may be profitable and large areas in the world are suitable for industrial solar photochemistry.

  2. [Determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography with indirect photometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linan; Duan, Zhengkang; Zeng, Hongyan; He, Yuping; Chen, Qiuyun

    2011-01-01

    An indirect photometric detection method for the determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption background reagents were added in the mobile phase, and the hexane, nonabsorption in ultraviolet region, was directly determined by a UV detector. The effects of the mobile phase composition, species and concentration of the background reagents etc. on the analyzed results were studied. The optimization of the separation was performed on an Agilent HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). A solution of methanol-water (85:15, v/v) containing 1.17 mmol/L 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was set at 35 degrees C. The gradient of wavelength was adopted to adjust the relative size of systematic peaks and the target peaks. The linear relationship in the range of 0.5-20 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 93 in this method was obtained. The recoveries and relative standard deviation for the hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam were 98.45%-102.3% and 2.53%, respectively. The detection limit was 0.03 mg/kg. The method is simple, and has good selectivity, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability for the accurate determination of hexane in practical samples quickly.

  3. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Cumming, I.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste occurs as the product of the process to remove carbon-14 from the THORP dissolver off-gas using a caustic scrubber. The carbon dioxide released during fuel dissolution is ultimately fixed as barium carbonate. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  4. Concept and economic evaluation of an industrial synthesis of {epsilon}-caprolactam via solar photo-oxidation of cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, C.; Muller, F.J.; Riffelmann, K.J.; Ortner, J.; Funken, K.H. [DLR, Solare Energietechnik, Koln (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The photochemical synthesis of {epsilon}-caprolactam was investigated for two plant concepts. The conventional lamp driven concept followed the process as realized in an industrial scale by Toray Ltd., Japan and a solar concept was designed at identical yearly output. The aim of the comparison was to determine the savings that could be achieved if photochemistry would make use of solar radiation instead of artificial light for this process. The investment cost for the solar plant is about twice as high as for the lamp driven plant, but the production cost lower resulting that the return on investment is better for the solar photochemical process because of the low energy demand. (authors)

  5. Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam using a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhoff, G.; Hoelderich, W.F. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The application of a fluidized bed reactor on the heterogeneously catalyzed Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam is presented. For this purpose the classic industrial synthesis route is compared to the new route catalyzed by [B]-MFI zeolite which proved to be the most suitable. To prepare the use of the catalyst the thermodynamics were calculated showing that the residence time of the reactants are of great importance. A regeneration model was developed resulting in a mathematical equation for the regeneration time calculated to seven hours under oxidative conditions. A 40 day regeneration experiment demonstrated the excellent regeneration behaviour of the chosen catalyst showing no decrease in activity after 40 recycle treatments. Finally, the experiments in a constructed non circulating fluidized bed showed good yields and selectivities (99%/91%) completely comparable to the actual synthesis route but avoiding 4 t ammonia sulphate/t product. (orig.)

  6. Influence of operational variables on the crystallization of ɛ-caprolactam from melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouropoulos, N. C.; Kontoyannis, C. G.; Koutsoukos, P. G.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of operational variables in the process of melt crystallization of ɛ-caprolactam, including water content and cooling rate was investigated. It was found that the metastable range depends linearly on the water content. Higher cooling rates resulted in higher water content of the ɛ-caprolactam crystals grown in water containing melts. In the presence of water, higher cooling rates resulted in the formation of less elongated crystals. In suspensions, the ɛ-caprolactam crystals formed agglomerates. The agglomeration kinetics of crystallites grown from unstirred melts containing 10% w/w water found to fit the perikinetic model.

  7. Amino-caprolactam γ-secretase inhibitors showing potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Martin L; Aubele, Danielle L; Marugg, Jennifer L; Jagodzinski, Jacek J; Konradi, Andrei W; Pleiss, Michael A; Szoke, Balazs; Zmolek, Wes; Goldbach, Erich; Quinn, Kevin P; Sauer, John-Michael; Brigham, Elizabeth F; Wallace, William; Bova, Michael P; Hemphill, Susanna; Basi, Guriqbal

    2011-06-15

    Herein we describe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of amino-caprolactam analogs derived from amino-caprolactam benzene sulfonamide 1, highlighting affects on the potency of γ-secretase inhibition, selectivity for the inhibition of APP versus Notch processing by γ-secretase and selected pharmakokinetic properties. Amino-caprolactams that are efficacious in reducing the cortical Aβ(x-40) levels in FVB mice via a single 100 mpk IP dose are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Draft genome sequence of a caprolactam degrader bacterium: Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9 is a caprolactam degrader, isolated from industrial wastewater in South Korea and considered to have the potential for caprolactam bioremediation. The genome of this strain is approximately 6.2 Mb (G+C content, 61.75%) with 6,010 protein-coding sequences (CDS), of which 46% are assigned to recognized functional genes. This draft genome of strain SJ9 will provide insights into the genetic basis of its caprolactam-degradation ability. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Enantioselective Synthesis of Caprolactam and Enone Precursors to the Heterocyclic DEFG Ring System of Zoanthenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Behenna, Douglas C; Stockdill, Jennifer L; Stoltz, Brian M

    2016-04-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of both caprolactam and enone synthons for the DEFG ring system of zoanthenol are described. The evolution of this synthetic approach proceeds first through a synthesis using the chiral pool as a starting point. Challenges in protecting group strategy led to the modification of this approach beginning with (±)-glycidol. Ultimately, an efficient approach was developed by employing an asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The caprolactam building block can be converted by an interesting selective Grignard addition to the corresponding enone synthon. Addition of a model alkyne provides support for the late-stage addition of a hindered alkyne into the caprolactam building block.

  10. Draft genome sequence of a caprolactam degrader bacterium: Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    Full Text Available Abstract Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9 is a caprolactam degrader, isolated from industrial wastewater in South Korea and considered to have the potential for caprolactam bioremediation. The genome of this strain is approximately 6.2 Mb (G + C content, 61.75% with 6,010 protein-coding sequences (CDS, of which 46% are assigned to recognized functional genes. This draft genome of strain SJ9 will provide insights into the genetic basis of its caprolactam-degradation ability.

  11. Tensile Properties of Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    N-vinyl caprolactam was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a free-radical initiator in alcohol/water solution. The resulting gels were thermally-responsive in water, undergoing an approximate fivefold reversible volume shrinkage between room temperature and ca. 50 C. Tensile testing showed that the stress-strain behavior was qualitatively different in the collapsed state above the temperature-induced transition. At the higher temperature, gels were stiffer, more ductile, and showed greater time dependence. Implications for the design of gel actuators are briefly discussed.

  12. Efficient capture of SO2 by a binary mixture of caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ionic liquid and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erhong; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Miaomiao; Guan, Yanan; Sun, Hua; Han, Jing

    2011-10-30

    The solubility of SO(2) in a binary mixture of water and caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ionic liquid (CPL-TBAB IL) was investigated. Though the ionic liquid and water were fully miscible, a phase separation occurred when SO(2) was introduced into the mixture. The SO(2) concentrated in the lower layer, and it could be released by heating the solution under reduced pressure (382.2K, 10.1 kPa). After desorption, the mixture could be reused to absorb SO(2). It was found that SO(2) acts as a switch to cause the water and CPL-TBAB IL to phase separate, and the mechanics of this phase separation process was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Karl-Fisher titration. The absorption and desorption of SO(2) in the CPL-TBAB/water mixtures were reversible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing

  14. Nucleation kinetics of ɛ-caprolactam melts in the presence of water impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouropoulos, Nicolaos Ch.; Kontoyannis, Christos G.; Koutsoukos, Petros G.

    1997-02-01

    The nucleation of ɛ-caprolactam in melts containing water impurities between 3% and 7% w/w was investigated in a batch reactor monitoring melt temperature. The induction times preceding the formation of ɛ-caprolactam nuclei were inversely proportional to the melt supersaturation and a threshold in the supersaturation of about 6% was found for homogenous nucleation. The interfacial tensions calculated using the classical nucleation theory ranged between 0.8 and 1.5 mJ m -2 for water content of 3%-7%, respectively. The concomitant increase of the size of the critical nucleus suggested that water inhibits the process of nucleation of ɛ-caprolactam in melts containing water impurity. This conclusion was further confirmed for the rates of crystal growth of the ɛ-caprolactam in the melts measured from the rates of temperature increase with time.

  15. Comparative Theoretical Study of the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Caprolactam vs Caprolactone Using QM/MM Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Schoenen, Iris; Fels, Gregor

    2013-06-07

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) efficiently catalyzes the ring-opening polymerization of lactones to high molecular weight products in good yield. In contrast, an efficient enzymatic synthesis of polyamides has so far not been described in the literature. This obvious difference in enzyme catalysis is the subject of our comparative study of the initial steps of a CALB catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε- caprolactone and ε-caprolactam. We have applied docking tools to generate the reactant state complex and performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) PBE0 level of theory to simulate the acylation of Ser105 by the lactone and the lactam, respectively, via the corresponding first tetrahedral intermediates. We could identify a decisive difference in the accessibility of the two substrates in the ring-opening to the respective acyl enzyme complex as the attack of ε-caprolactam is hindered because of an energetically disfavored proton transfer during this part of the catalytic reaction while ε-caprolactone is perfectly processed along the widely accepted pathway using the catalytic triade of Ser105, His224, and Asp187. Since the generation of an acylated Ser105 species is the crucial step of the polymerization procedure, our results give an explanation for the unsatisfactory enzymatic polyamide formation and opens up new possibilities for targeted rational catalyst redesign in hope of an experimentally useful CALB catalyzed polyamide synthesis.

  16. Tannin-caprolactam and Tannin-PEG formulations as outdoor wood preservatives: weathering properties

    OpenAIRE

    Tondi , Gianluca; Hu , Jinbo; Rizzo , Filippo; Buh , Janez; Medved , Sergej; Petutschnigg , Alexander; Thevenon , Marie-France

    2017-01-01

    International audience; AbstractKey messageThis article presents the leaching, fire and weathering resistance improvements of samples treated with tannin-based wood preservatives added of caprolactam. PEG-added formulations show limited applicability. The FT-IR and13C-NMR analyses of the caprolactam-added formulations show some evidences of copolymerization.ContextTannin-boron wood preservatives are known for their high resistance against leaching, biological attacks, fire as well as for the ...

  17. Denitrification with epsilon-caprolactam by acclimated mixed culture and by pure culture of bacteria isolated from polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C M; Wang, C C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate denitrifying bacteria utilizing epsilon-caprolactam as the substrate, from a polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system. The aim is also to compare the performance of PAN (polyacrylonitrile) mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam and isolated pure strain for treating different initial epsilon-caprolactam concentrations from synthetic wastewater under anoxic conditions. The result showed that the PAN mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam could utilize 1538.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. Sufficient time and about 2200 mg/l of nitrate were necessary for the complete epsilon-caprolactam removal. Paracoccus thiophilus was isolated from the polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system and it could utilize 1722.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. About 3500 mg/l of nitrate was necessary for the complete removal of epsilon-caprolactam. When the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was below 784.3 mg/l, the removal efficiency of epsilon-caprolactam by Paracoccus thiophilus was better than that for the PAN mixed bacteria cultures. The growth of Paracoccus thiophilus was better. However, when the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was as high as 1445.8 mg/l, both the epsilon-caprolactam removal efficiency by Paracoccus thiophilus and Paracoccus thiophilus specific growth rate were similar to the PAN mixed bacteria cultures.

  18. Stimuli Responsive Poly(Vinyl Caprolactam Gels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummara Madhusudana Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl caprolactam (PNVCL is one of the most important thermoresponsive polymers because it is similar to poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide. PNVCL precipitates from aqueous solutions in a physiological temperature range (32–34 °C. The use of PNVCL instead of PNIPAM is considered advantageous because of the assumed lower toxicity of PNVCL. PNVCL copolymer gels are sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature and pH; which gives them a wide range of biomedical applications and consequently attracts considerable scientific interest. This review focuses on the recent studies on PNVCL-based stimuli responsive three dimensional hydrogels (macro, micro, and nano for biomedical applications. This review also covers the future outlooks of PNVCL-based gels for biomedical applications, particularly in the drug delivery field.

  19. Influence of formation temperature and inhibitor concentration on the dissociation temperature for hydrates formed with polyvinyl caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen, A.C. [StatoilHydro, Stavanger (Norway); Svartaas, T.M. [Stavanger Univ., Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Kinetic inhibitors are used to delay hydrate nucleation and crystal growth in oil and gas pipelines. This study examined inhibitor containing systems for gas hydrates with kinetic inhibitors. Poly Vinyl Caprolactam (PVCap) was added to the water phase of structure 1 (s-1) and structure 2 (s-2) hydrates and experiments were conducted to determine dissociation temperatures for various formation temperatures and PVCap concentrations. Data obtained during the experiments were then compared with values calculated using a hydrate simulator tool called CSMHYD. The difference between the values calculated by the model and the experimental values demonstrated that both formation temperature and concentration influenced dissociation temperature. Dissociation temperatures for hydrates formed at lower degrees of subcooling were higher than hydrates formed at higher degrees of subcooling. It was concluded that increases in pressure diminished the influence of the hydrate formation temperature. Dissociation temperatures increased when kinetic inhibitor volumes were increased. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingmin

    2008-01-01

    We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous. (authors)

  1. Quantum Phase Transitions in Matrix Product States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Min, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous

  2. [Bacteria that degrade low-molecular linear epsilon-caprolactam olygomers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esikova, T Z; Akatova, E V; Taran, S A

    2014-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with the unique ability to utilize low-molecular linear caprolactam olygomers (nylon olygomers) were isolated from soil samples contaminated with industrial wastes of epsilon-caprolactam. Based on the properties studied and also on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, the strains BS2,BS3, BS9, BS38, and BS57 were classified to the general Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacteriun, Gulosibacter, and Achromobacter, respectively. All of the strains also utilized 6-aminohexanoic and adipic acids, which are intermidiates of the epsilon-caprolactam catabolism. This indirectly points to the fact that degradation of olygomers in these bacteria occurs via the monomer degradation pathway. The BS9 and BS57 strains utilized only olygomers of the epsilon-caprolactam, while BS2, BS3, and BS38 also degraded epsilon-caprolactam and its homologs, enantolactam and caprylolactam, which differentiates the latter from the previously known degraders of olygomers and suggests the presence in these strains of enzymes with lactam hydrolase activity, in addition to 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase.

  3. Industrial Research as a "Corporate Counterculture"? The Development of the HPO Caprolactam Process at DSM, 1956-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Arjan

    2007-07-01

    This paper focuses on the development of the hydroxylamine phosphate oxime (HPO) process for the manufacture of caprolactam, an intermediate for nylon, by Central Laboratory, the R&D organisation of the Dutch chemical company DSM. The example of the HPO process shows that Central Laboratory was independent rather than isolated. This position enabled it to develop its own view of the interest of the company and start research projects regardless of the opinion of the production and marketing functions. The example of the HPO process shows the potency of such a position but also the problems involved. As a medium-sized chemical company, DSM is a company that may be more typical for the practice of R&D between 1945 and 1970 than the large companies that historians have typically chosen for analysis.

  4. Effect of the amount of catalyst and chain-initiator on the anionic Polymerization of {epsilon}-caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D.W.; Oh, Y.T.; Park, Y.T. [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    Monomer casting nylons were synthesized by casting anionic polymerization of {epsilon}-caprolactam. Polymerization rates, molecular weights of the products and the conversions were determined while varying the content of catalysts in the range of 0.2{approx}0.6 mol% and 0.1{approx}1.0 mol% for initiator. The polymerization rates were enhanced as the ration of catalysts to initiator increased. The maximum molecular weight was observed when the ration of catalysts to initiator was 0.8, and as the ratio increased the molecular weight decreased. On the other hand, when the ratio of catalysts to initiator was below 0.8, the conversions and the molecular weights were abruptly diminished due to the termination of growing chain. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Morphology of ɛ-caprolactam crystals dependent on the crystallization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansens, P. J.; Langen, Y. H. M.; van den Berg, E. P. G.; Geertman, R. M.

    1995-10-01

    The morphology of caprolactam crystals is an important property because it can affect their filterability. This study shows that the morphology of caprolactam crystals depends on the water content of the mother liquor and on the applied growth kinetics. Needle-like crystals were formed during single crystal experiments under two sets of conditions: (1) at high growth rates in a water rich mother liquor and (2) at low growth rates in the absence of water. Experiments were also performed in a lab-scale batch crystallizer and in a pilot-scale continuous crystallizer but did not yield exclusively needle-like crystals.

  6. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    calculation tools for phase equilibrium in porous media with capillary pressure and adsorption effects. Analysis using these tools have shown that capillary pressure and adsorption have non-negligible effects on phase equilibrium in shale. As general tools, they can be used to calculate phase equilibrium...... in other porous media as well. The compositional simulator with added capillary pressure effects on phase equilibrium can be used for evaluating the effects in dynamic and more complex scenarios....

  7. [Regulation of the expression of plasmid determination responsible for caprolactam degradation by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esikova, T Z; Grishchenkov, V G

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the study of some Tn5 induced mutants in Pseudomonas putida strain BS836 containing the plasmid pBS268 coding caprolactam degradation, growth on caprolactam and its intermediates, and the data on the induction of oxidative activities in plasmid containing P. putida strain BS831 it was shown that plasmid and chromosome genes regulated the expression of CAP-determinants. The regulation has some elements of the negative control mechanism. Caprolactam is the inducer of the synthesis of key enzymes cleaving it and its intermediates (aminocaproic and adipic acids). At the same time each of its intermediates induced the synthesis of enzymes responsible for its cleavage.

  8. Thermoresponsive poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-coated gold nanoparticles: sharp reversible response and easy tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beija, Mariana; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Destarac, Mathias

    2011-03-14

    Narrowly distributed poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) obtained by the MADIX/RAFT process was used for the preparation of novel thermoresponsive gold nanoparticles presenting a sharp reversible response to temperature, which can be easily modulated near the physiological temperature by simply changing the polymer molecular weight or concentration.

  9. N-(phenylthio)-epsilon-caprolactam: a new promoter for the activation of thioglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durón, Sergio G; Polat, Tülay; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2004-03-04

    N-(phenylthio)-epsilon-caprolactam (1) has been applied as a new promoter for the activation of thioglycosides. This proceeds by the reaction of 1 with trifluoromethansulfonic anhydride, which subsequently activates the thioglycoside for glycosidic bond formation. Notably, the reaction proceeds efficiently at room temperature and is adaptable to our reactivity-based one-pot oligosaccharide synthesis. [reaction: see text

  10. Catalytic conversion of γ-valerolactone to ε-caprolactam: towards nylon from renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Rood, Marcus T M; Buijze, Florine K W; Drent, Eite; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    The conversion of γ-valerolactone (GVL) in three atom-efficient steps to the important polymer precursor ε-caprolactam is reported. The bio-based GVL can be converted to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates (MP) via trans-esterification with methanol with 94% yield (ratio of 3-MP/4-MP=3:1); subsequent aminolysis with ammonia leads to a mixture of pentenamides (PA) almost quantitatively (99% conversion). The resulting pentenamides are ultimately converted into ε-caprolactam via a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamidomethylation reaction, comprising an initial hydroformylation of the alkene moiety of PA and subsequent ring-closing reductive amidation of the resulting aldehyde with the amide functionality. A promising yield of caprolactam of about 90% can be obtained with a Rh/xantphos catalyst system in a two-stage hydroformylation-reductive amidation using pure 4-PA as feedstock. The use of 3-PA as a substrate not only results in a significantly lower regioselectivity for the 7-membered lactam, but also in the formation of high amounts of valeramide (VA). Consequently, a best overall yield of caprolactam of nearly 40% could be demonstrated with a Rh/POP-xantphos [POP-xantphos=4,5-bis(2,8-dimethyl-10-phenoxaphosphino)-9,9,-dimethylxanthene] catalyst system based on the 3:1 mixture of 3-PA/4-PA directly obtainable from GVL. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrochemical concentration of molybdenum in the form of a compound with epsilon-caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkova, G.N.; Brainina, K.Z.; Fedorova, N.D.; Fokina, L.S.

    1985-05-20

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of the possibilities of using epsilon-caprolactam for the electrochemical concentration of molybdenum on the surface of a graphite electrode and the development of a method of determining microgram quantities of molybdenum in the materials of ferrous metallurgy without the removal of accompanying components.

  12. Efficient activation of thioglycosides with N-(p-methylphenylthio)-ε-caprolactam-TMSOTf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sajal Kumar; Basu, Nabamita; Ghosh, Rina

    2012-06-01

    N-(p-Methylphenylthio)-ε-caprolactam (1) in combination with trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) provides an efficient thiophilic promoter system, capable of activating different thioglycosides. Both 'armed' and 'disarmed' thioglycosyl donors were activated for glycosidic bond formation. Notably, this reagent combination works well in reactivity-based one-pot oligosaccharide assembly strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caprolactam from renewable resources : catalytic conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into caprolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teddy, T

    2013-01-01

    In zijn dissertatie beschrijft dhr. Teddy experimentele onderzoek naar de omzetting van 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) naar caprolactam, de uitgangsstof voor nylon 6. Het HMF kan op zijn beurt weer gemaakt worden uit lignocellulosische biomassa, zoals hout of grasachtig afval, is dan dus een groen

  14. Addition compounds of lanthanide (III) chloroacetates with {epsilon}-caprolactam and N-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactam as ligands; Compostos de adicao dos cloroacetatos de lantanideos (III) tendo como ligantes a {epsilon}-caprolactama e a n-metil-{epsilon}-caprolactama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elias Meira da

    1995-07-01

    The lanthanide chloroacetate with {epsilon}-caprolactam and N-Methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactam were obtained by slowly addition of a solution of the ligands in triethyl orthoformate over a solution of the hydrated lanthanide chloroacetates in a solution 1:1 ethanol-triethyl orthoformate (molar ration 1:2) The lanthanide content was determined by complexometric titration with EDTA. Carbon, Nitrogen and hydrogen were determined by microanalytical procedures. (author)

  15. Method of test and survey of caprolactam migration into foods packaged in nylon-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E L; Speck, D R; Read, W A; Castle, L

    2004-12-01

    An analytical method for the determination of the nylon-6 monomer caprolactam in foods is described. The foodstuff was extracted with ethanol: water (1:2) containing capryllactam as internal standard and the extract was defatted using hexane. The extract was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The test method was calibrated down to 0.7 mg kg(-1). The repeatability of the method was good, with a relative standard deviation of 9% at the 15 mg kg(-1) level. The method was demonstrated to be accurate in an independent external check sample exercise. The new method was applied to the analysis of 50 retail foodstuffs packaged in nylon-6. Caprolactam was detected and confirmed in nine of the 50 food samples, in the range 2.8-13 mg kg(-1). The presence of caprolactam was indicated in a further 15 samples, in the range 0.8-11 mg kg(-1), but these samples did not meet all of the five confirmation criteria applied. All migration levels (both confirmed and unconfirmed) were below the European specific migration limit for caprolactam, which is 15 mg kg(-1). The average migration for all 50 samples, setting non-detectables at half the limit of detection, was 2.6 mg kg(-1) with a standard deviation of 3.1 mg kg(-1) (n = 50). All samples found to contain detectable levels of caprolactam migration were for applications involving heating the food in the packaging. They were packs of, for example, sausage meat for which the food would have been heat processed in the nylon casing, or they were nylon pouches for heating foods by boiling, microwaving or roasting.

  16. Exposure study to examine chemosensory effects of ɛ-caprolactam in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebig, Gerhard; Triebig-Heller, Isabel; Bruckner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    ε-Caprolactam is an important industrial chemical with a relatively low human toxicity; of importance is the irritations that occur after exposure to ε-caprolactam as aerosols or vapors. The aim of this study was to examine symptoms and objective effects, which occur on the mucous membranes of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. A total of 52 healthy volunteers (26 women and 26 men, aged between 19 and 50 years) were exposed by random to different ε-caprolactam concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 mg/m³) and the control condition (0.0 mg/m³) for 6 h on four consecutive days. Eye blinking frequency, tear film break-up time, eye redness, nasal flows and resistance, olfactory function as well as total protein and interleukin-8 in nasal lavage fluid were determined daily before, during and after exposure. Questionnaires were used to record both subjective symptoms and personality factors. There were no significant specific effects on the subjective and objective endpoints examined. Statistical analysis yielded no evidence of concentration-response relationships. Evaluation of olfactory symptoms showed that the duration of the stay in the chamber and not the ε-caprolactam concentration was decisive for the perception of "impure air". Personality factors had no significant influence on the reported symptoms. Exposure to ε-caprolactam concentrations of 5.0 mg/m³ at maximum for 6 h did not cause chemosensory effects on the upper respiratory tract or eyes of healthy volunteers. Therefore, the concentration of 5.0 mg/m³ corresponds to the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL).

  17. Orbital Fiber Optic Production Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the Orbital Fiber Optic Production Module (ORFOM), which addresses NASA's needs for sustainable space...

  18. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  19. High Productivity Aluminum Manufacturing: Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    recommended not to continue this program to the planned second year, Phase 2 tasks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS butt welding, LCS, high deposition , GMAW...10 Figure 1B High Deposition GMAW...length of the “stem of wine glass” for each weld condition

  20. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  1. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  2. Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Neumaier, N.; Pflaum, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form

  3. [scpA the new salicylate hydroxylase gene localized on salicylate/caprolactam degradation plasmids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A V; Volkova, O V; Puntus, I F; Esikova, T Z; Kosheleva, I A; Boronin, A M

    2013-01-01

    Both caprolactam and salicylate biodegradation by Pseudomonas salicylate/caprolactam degraders is controlled by large conjugative plasmids (SAL/CAP). Some of these plasmids determined to be the members of IncP-7 group. The new salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene (scpA) on SAL/CAP-plasmids has been detected and partially sequenced. Gene scpA was equally related to closest homologs nahG (NAH7), salA (P. reinekei MT1) and nahU (pND6-1), but identity of scpA to these genes did not exceed 72-74%. Synthesis of salicylate 1-hydroxylase ScpA was not induced by salicylate. This enzyme had wide substrate specificity and exhibited highest specific activity with 4-methylsalicylate and nonsubstituted salicylate. Besides pseudomonad's salicylate degradative conjugative plasmids without "classical" nah2-operon and harboring only salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene nahU have been firstly described.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Caprolactam-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain SJ3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kown; Park, Yeong-Jun; Yoo, Na-Kyung; Lee, Changhee; Park, Choi Kyu; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-07-23

    Pseudomonas putida strain SJ3, which possesses caprolactam-degrading ability, was isolated from dyeing industry wastewater in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of the strain. The 5,596,765-bp-long genome contains 4,293 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes with 61.70% G+C content. Copyright © 2015 Hong et al.

  5. Exposure study on chemosensory effects of epsilon-caprolactam in the low concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A E; Zimmer, H; Triebig, G

    2008-05-01

    Aim of the study was to examine possible chemosensory effects of epsilon-caprolactam in the low concentration range relevant to indoor environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 male, 10 female) aged from 21 to 38 years were exposed for 6 h, respectively, to 0, 0.15, 0.5 and 5 mg/m3 epsilon-caprolactam vapours in a randomized and double-blind method. As a measure of trigeminal stimulation of the eye, blink frequency was video-recorded four times per day and evaluated by using a new semi-automatic, computer-assisted method compared to baseline recording and manual counting. Digital slit lamp photographs were taken at the same time to examine conjunctival hyperaemia. A standardized ophthalmologic grading scale was used to measure redness of the eyes objectively. Active anterior rhinomanometry compared nasal resistance before and after exposure. Subjective ratings of discomfort and mental orientation were assessed using the German version of the Swedish Performance Evaluation system (SPES). As a measure of personality traits, positive and negative affectivity was determined (PANAS). Six hour exposures to epsilon-caprolactam revealed no significant dose-response relationship concerning blink frequency, nasal resistance and redness of the bulbar conjunctiva. Subjective ratings of discomfort (sum scores) significantly increased only at the highest concentration of 5 mg/m3. However, the increase in discomfort was only moderate, ranging between "not at all" and "somewhat". Significant increases of the subjective detection of malodour (subscore) already occurred at 0.15 mg/m3, showing no adaptation over time. Irritation of the eyes or upper airways was not reported. Exposure to epsilon-caprolactam vapour did not elicit any acute health effects in a concentration range up to 0.5 mg/m3. Even at the highest concentration of 5 mg/m3, we could only find a slight increase in subjective symptoms, mainly due to an unincisive increase of perception of malodour.

  6. Utilization of SO/sub 2/ gas of boiler flue gas in the epsilon-caprolactam (EC) manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, Y.

    1979-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide in boiler exhaust gas from high-sulfur, heavy oil combustion is used at the Sakai caprolactam plant of Ube Industries Ltd. At this plant, 20,000 tons/yr out of a total 90,000 tons/yr of EC is prepared by the reaction of cyclohexanone with hydroxylamine, which is in turn prepared by the Raschig synthesis, which involves reduction by sulfur dioxide of aqueous ammonium nitrite prepared by absorption of N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ into aqueous ammonium bisulfite. For SO/sub 2/ absorption, the flue gas is cooled to about 60/sup 0/C by isothermal cooling with the absorption solution. The SO/sub 2/ absorption reaction occurs in liquid phase at pH 5-5.8 in the absence of free ammonia, since otherwise, an aerosol would form. After further absorption of SO/sub 2/ from flue gas in a second absorber of the same type (which uses a different concentration of absorption liquid), the SO/sub 2/ in the flue gas is diminished to 40-60 ppm from its original 1300 ppm concentration. The chemistry and performance of the SO/sub 2/ absorption procedure, including the composition of the crude ammonium bisulfite solution during the absorption reactions, and of the Raschig process are discussed.

  7. Cationic Ring Opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam by a Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamal Eddine Kherroub

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ring opening bulk polymerization of ε-caprolactam catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ was reported. Maghnite-H+ is a montmorillonite silicate sheet clay was prepared through a straight forward proton exchange process. The effect of the amount of catalyst, and temperature was studied. Increasing Maghnite-H+ proportion and temperature produced the increase in ε-caprolactam conversion. The kinetics indicated that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to monomer concentration. Mechanism studies showed that monomer inserted into the growing chains with the acyl–oxygen bond scission rather than the break of alkyl–oxygen bond. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedSubmitted: 3rd October 2013; Revised: 28th February 2014; Accepted: 1st March 2014[How to Cite: Kherroub, D.E., Belbachir, M., Lamouri, S. (2014. Cationic Ring Opening Polymeriza-tion of ε-caprolactam by a Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 74-79. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5555.74-80][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5555.74-80

  8. Preparation of polysulfone microcapsules containing 1-octanol for the recovery of caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Lu, Yangcheng; Xiang, Ziying; Luo, Guangsheng

    2009-03-01

    Polysulphone (PSF) microcapsules containing 1-octanol were prepared with solvent extraction method for the recovery of caprolactam. One-step and two-step processes were, respectively, applied to prepare microcapsules. In order to get high extractant loading, a loading method with the assistance of ultrasound has been developed. With the two-step preparation process the extractant loss can be avoided. A very high extractant loading ratio of 5.96 g g(-1) and the maximum uptake to caprolactam of 65.6 mg g(-1) were achieved. Under the action of ultrasound the extractant loading efficiency is greatly intensified. With the one-step process 1-octanol loading ratio is highly limited. Only 1.74 g g(-1) loading ratio and 29.9 mg g(-1) uptake to caprolactam were realized. Meanwhile the extractant loss in the one-step process is serious. Considering extraction capacity and extractant loss in the preparation process, it is suggested that PSF microcapsules containing 1-octanol should be prepared with the two-step process. To fasten mass transfer rate, microcapsules with relatively smaller size are desired.

  9. Absorption of NO and NO2in Caprolactam Tetrabutyl Ammonium Halide Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erhong; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Dandan; Shi, Long; Sun, Hua; Wang, Yanan

    2011-12-01

    To explore environmentally benign solvents for the absorption of NO and NO 2 , a series of caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium halide ionic liquids were synthesized. The solubility of NO and NO 2 was measured at temperatures ranging from 298.2 to 363.2 K and atmospheric pressure, and the following trend in the solubility of NO and NO 2 in ionic liquids with various halide anions was observed, respectively: F > Br > Cl and Br > Cl > F. Moreover, as the temperature increased from 308.15 to 363.15 K and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1, the solubility of NO increased. Alternatively, the solubility of NO 2 decreased as the temperature increased from 298.15 to 363.15 K, and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1. The absorption and desorption of NO and NO 2 was practically reversible in the ionic liquids, which was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. The method, which is at least partially reversible, offers interesting possibilities for the removal of NO and NO 2 . [Box: see text].

  10. Simulation study ε-Caprolactam monomer and metallic elements migration from irradiated polymeric packaging into food stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite

    2008-01-01

    For decades migration study of chemical compounds from packaging into food, such as metals, residual monomers and additives, is a very important issue, concerning public health and minimize chemical contamination. In this work, it was done irradiations of packagings taken in contact with food simulant, and it was studied this migration through a mathematical model of the diffusion process, compiled in a computational simulation method in order to study the microscopic behavior of migration of metallic elements cadmium, chromium, antimony and cobalt, present in metallic plastics from dairy product packagings, and also the migration of - caprolactam monomer, present in nylon polymeric plastics used for package meat stuffs, to the food simulant acetic acid 3%. The results from simulations of the migration of -caprolactam monomer were compared with experimental results obtained from high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) measurements, and the simulation of metallic elements migration were compared with the neutron activation analysis measurements (NAA). These experimental results were performed and kindly informed by another research groups, partners in this project. The food packaging system was discretized in one-dimension space and in time and the partial differential equation that defines the diffusive process, the second 'Fick's law', together with an equation of Arrhenius type dealing with the thermal influence, were solved using finite differences. The final step of the resolution was a tridiagonal linear system, solved using the Thomas algorithm. It was studied, and in some cases even foreseen, experimental quantities, like the diffusion coefficient, activation energy and concentration profile of migrant compounds, allowing the understanding of the diffusion process and the quantitative estimate of the migration of such compounds under ionizing radiation influence. Variation on the initial concentration levels (C 0 ) of the monomer inside the packaging

  11. Gas and particulate phase products from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Healy, Robert M.; Tomaz, Sophie; Flaud, Pierre-Marie; Perraudin, Emilie; Wenger, John C.; Villenave, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in the urban atmosphere. In this work, the gas-phase ozonolysis of acenaphthylene was investigated in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and an aerosol time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for on-line characterization of the oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, respectively. SOA samples were also collected on filters and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). The major gas-phase products included a range of oxygenated naphthalene derivatives such as 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, naphthalene 1,8-dicarbaldehyde and naphthaldehyde, as well as a secondary ozonide. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed for the formation of these products and favoured pathways have been suggested. Many of these products were also found in the particle phase along with a range of oligomeric compounds. The same range of gas and particle phase products was observed in the presence and absence of excess cyclohexane, an OH scavenger, indicating that OH radical production from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene is negligible. SOA yields in the range 23-37% were determined and indicate that acenaphthylene ozonolysis may contribute to part of the SOA observed in urban areas.

  12. Sentinel-1A Product Geolocation Accuracy: Commissioning Phase Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schubert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A (S1A is an Earth observation satellite carrying a state-of-the-art Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging instrument. It was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA on 3 April 2014. With the end of the in-orbit commissioning phase having been completed at the end of September 2014, S1A data products are already consistently providing highly accurate geolocation. StripMap (SM mode products were acquired regularly and tested for geolocation accuracy and consistency during dedicated corner reflector (CR campaigns. At the completion of this phase, small geometric inconsistencies had been understood and mitigated, with the high quality of the final product geolocation estimates reflecting the mission’s success thus far. This paper describes the measurement campaign, the methods used during geolocation estimation, and presents best estimates of the product Absolute Location Error (ALE available at the beginning of S1A’s operational phase.

  13. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences.

  14. Isolation of the {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Shalu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chunchin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lee, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-25

    {epsilon}-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating {epsilon}-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539 mg/l {epsilon}-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete {epsilon}-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences.

  15. Influence of a synergist on the dissociation of gas hydrates formed in the presence of the kinetic inhibitor polyvinyl caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen, A.C. [StatoilHydro, Stavanger (Norway); Svartaas, T.M. [Stavanger Univ., Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Conventional chemical methods used to prevent natural gas hydrate plugs in oil and gas production lines are costly and can lead to pipeline corrosion. Polymer-based kinetic inhibitors are now being used to prevent hydrate nucleation and growth, and recent research has shown that the addition of small amounts of glycol ethers substantially improve the performance of the polymers. In this study, gas hydrates were formed from solutions containing Poly Vinyl Caprolactam (PVCap), or INHIBEX, a liquid mixture containing 50 wt per cent PVCAP 2k and 50 wt per cent butyl glycol. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a stirred cell. Hydrate formation was induced by magnetic stirring. Hydrates were then dissociated by increasing the cell temperature. Doses of 1500 ppm and 3000 ppm of the INHIBEX concentration were tested in the cell. Dissociation temperatures were then compared for hydrates formed in the presence of PVCap and INHIBEX. The influence of the INHIBEX concentration on dissociation temperature was also investigated. Results of the study showed that hydrates containing INHIBEX dissociated at lower temperatures than hydrate systems using PVCap. INHIBEX mixtures formed using 3000 ppm of INHIBEX had higher dissociation temperatures than mixtures with INHIBEX at 1500 ppm. It was concluded that the hydrophobicity of the alkoxy group within the glycol ethers caused the molecules to associate with the dissolved polymers. The presence of butyl glycol decreased the hydrate dissociation temperature observed for PVCap systems. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. In Silico Identification for α-Amino-ε-Caprolactam Racemases by Using Information on the Structure and Function Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payoungkiattikun, Wisarut; Okazaki, Seiji; Nakano, Shogo; Ina, Atsutoshi; H-Kittikun, Aran; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2015-07-01

    In silico identification for enzymes having desired functions is attractive because there is a possibility that numerous desirable enzymes have been deposited in databases. In this study, α-amino-ε-caprolactam (ACL) racemases were searched from the NCBI protein database. Four hundred thirteen fold-type I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes which are considered to contain sequences of ACL racemase were firstly obtained by submitting the sequence of ACL racemase from Achromobacter obae to the database. By identifying Lys241 as a key amino acid residue, 13 candidates for ACL racemase were selected. Then, putative ACL racemase genes were synthesized as codon-optimized sequences for expression in Escherichia coli. They were subcloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 and underwent His-tag purification. ACL and amino acid amide racemizing activities were detected among ten of the candidates. The locus tags Oant_4493, Smed_5339, and CSE45_2055 derived from Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC49188, Sinorhizobium medicae WSM 419, and Citreicella sp. SE45, respectively, showed higher racemization activity against D- and L-ACLs rather than that of ACL racemase from A. obae. Our results demonstrate that the newly discovered ACL racemases were unique from ACL racemase from A. obae and might be useful for applications in dynamic kinetic resolution for D- or L-amino acid production.

  17. Influence of cyclodextrin on the UCST- and LCST-behavior of poly(2-methacrylamido-caprolactam)-co-(N,N-dimethylacrylamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Alexander; Ritter, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The monomer 2-methacrylamido-caprolactam (4) was synthesized from methacryloyl chloride (3) and racemic α-amino-ε-caprolactam (2). Copolymerization of 4 with N,N-dimethylacrylamide (5) was carried out by a free-radical mechanism using 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator. The new copolymers show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water and an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. The solubility properties of the copolymers can be influenced significantly by the addition of randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (CD). The complexation of the copolymers with CD, was confirmed by the use of ROESY-NMR-spectroscopy.

  18. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  19. Synthesis of well-defined alkyne terminated poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) with stringent control over the LCST by RAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góis, Joana R; Costa, João R C; Popov, Anatoliy V; Serra, Arménio C; Coelho, Jorge F J

    The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) of N -vinyl caprolactam (NVCL) using two new xanthates with alkyne functionalities is reported. The kinetic data obtained for polymerization of this non-activated monomer using a protected alkyne-terminated RAFT agent (PAT-X 1 ) revealed a linear increase of the polymer molecular weight with the monomer conversion as well as low dispersity ( Đ ) during the entire course of the polymerization. The system reported here allowed us to enhance the final conversion, diminish Đ and reduce the polymerization temperature compared to the typical values reported in the scarce literature available for the RAFT polymerization of NVCL. The resulting PNVCL was fully characterized using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques. The temperature-responsive features of PNVCL in aqueous solutions were fully investigated under different conditions using turbidimetry. The presented strategy allows the synthesis of well-defined PNVCL with sharp and reversible phase transition temperatures around 37 °C. By manipulating the polymer molecular weight, or the solution properties, it is possible to tune the PNVCL phase transition. As a proof-of concept, the alkyne functionalized PNVCL was used to afford new linear block copolymers, by reacting with an azide-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (N 3 -PEG) through the copper catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The results presented establish a robust system to afford the synthesis of PNCVL with fine tuned characteristics that will enable more efficient exploration of the remarkable potential of this polymer in biomedical applications.

  20. Influence of radiolytic degradation products from organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, H.L.P. de.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of primary and secondary degradation products from TBP - dodecane on zirconium extraction is studied. The presence of radiolytical degradation at organic phase, in systems of initial concentration of HNO 3 1 and 4M, and absorbed γ radiation doses from 0,5 to 4,5 Wh/l, lead to an increase of zirconium extraction, being the HDBP the main product of degradation responsable by this effect. The influence of secondary degradation products is significative in systems of HNO 3 1M initial concentration. The formation of precipitator in extractions of Zr in HNO 3 1M with irradiated TBP-dodecane was observed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...

  2. Purification of raw anthracene from black coal tar by crystallization with n-methyl-epsilon-caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polaczek, J.; Tecza, T.; Szen, A.; Lisicki, Z.

    1988-07-01

    Compares the performance of NMC (n-methyl-epsilon-caprolactam) and NMP (n-methyl pyrrolidone) as solvents for extracting pure anthracene from crude black coal tar anthracene. Industrial crude anthracene contained 40% anthracene, 13% carbazole, 10% phenanthrene, 3% fluorene and other compounds. Results of laboratory solvent extraction experiments with NMC and NMP are provided, showing the efficient performance of NMC. Extracted anthracene by crystallization had 96% purity. Tables and graphs show crystallization yield and chemical composition of purified anthracene. It is therefore proposed to use NMC solvent for anthracene purification on an industrial scale. A patent application has been submitted under Polish patent nr. P-283250 (1986). 13 refs.

  3. Phase transition and monopole production in supergravity inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2011-10-01

    In F-term supergravity inflation models, scalar fields other than the inflaton generically receive a Hubble induced mass, which may restore gauge symmetries during inflation and phase transitions may occur during or after inflation as the Hubble parameter decreases. We study monopole (and domain wall) production associated with such a phase transition in chaotic inflation in supergravity and obtain a severe constraint on the symmetry breaking scale which is related with the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Depending on model parameters, it is possible that monopoles are sufficiently diluted to be free from current constraints but still observable by planned experiments. (orig.)

  4. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  5. Frame transforms, star products and quantum mechanics on phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniello, P; Marmo, G; Man'ko, V I

    2008-01-01

    Using the notions of frame transform and of square integrable projective representation of a locally compact group G, we introduce a class of isometries (tight frame transforms) from the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators in the carrier Hilbert space of the representation into the space of square integrable functions on the direct product group G x G. These transforms have remarkable properties. In particular, their ranges are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces endowed with a suitable 'star product' which mimics, at the level of functions, the original product of operators. A 'phase space formulation' of quantum mechanics relying on the frame transforms introduced in the present paper, and the link of these maps with both the Wigner transform and the wavelet transform are discussed

  6. Selectivity of solid-phase extraction phases in the determination of biodegradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka, K; Voelkel, A

    2001-05-18

    The extraction techniques connected with gas chromatography were used to describe quantitatively and qualitatively the biodegradation process. We investigated the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and non-ionic surfactants. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction were used for the isolation of the non-degraded compounds and their degradation products. The selectivity of SPE has a significant influence on the isolation and preconcentration of organic compounds from water.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on caprolactam migration from multilayer polyamide 6 films into food simulants: development and validation of a gas chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Juliana S; Monteiro, Magali; Manzoli, José E; Padula, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    A GC method to determine caprolactam in water, 15% ethanol, and olive oil food simulants was developed and validated. Linear ranges varied from 0.96 to 642.82 microg/mL for water, 0.64 to 800.32 microg/mL for 15% ethanol, and 1.06 to 1062.34 microg/g for olive oil, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. Method precision studies showed RSD values lower than 5.45%, while method accuracy studies showed recovery from 72 to 111% for all simulants. The effect of gamma irradiation on caprolactam migration from multilayer polyamide 6 (PA-6) films intended for cheese into water, 15% ethanol, olive oil, and 3% acetic acid simulants was also studied. For migration assay, non-irradiated and irradiated (12 kGy) films were placed in contact with the simulant and exposed at 40 degrees C for 10 days. The validated method was used to quantify caprolactam migration from multilayer PA-6 films into the simulants, which ranged from 1.03 to 7.59 mg/kg for non-irradiated films, and from 4.82 to 11.32 mg/kg for irradiated films. Irradiation caused almost no changes in caprolactam levels, with the exception of olive oil, which showed an increase in the caprolactam level. All multilayer PA-6 films were in accordance with the requirements of the legislation for caprolactam migration.

  8. Hydrogen production by aqueous phase catalytic reforming of glycerine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguer, Derya Oncel; Uysal, Bekir Zuehtue

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is believed to be the one of the main energy carriers in the near future. In this research glycerine, which is produced in large quantities as a by-product of biodiesel process, was converted to hydrogen aiming to contribute to clean energy initiative. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen was achieved via aqueous-phase reforming (APR) with Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The experiments were carried out in an autoclave reactor and a continuous fixed-bed reactor. The effects of reaction temperature (160-280 o C), feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 mL/dak) and feed concentration (5-85 wt-% glycerine) on product distribution were investigated. Optimum temperature for hydrogen production with APR was determined as 230 o C. Maximum gas production rate was found at the feed flow rates around 0.1 mL/min. It was also found that hydrogen concentration in the gas product increased with decreasing glycerol concentration in the feed.

  9. Two-step phase retrieval algorithm based on the quotient of inner products of phase-shifting interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Wenhu; Zhong, Liyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the quotient of inner products, a simple and rapid algorithm is proposed to retrieve the measured phase from two-frame phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase shifts. Firstly, we filtered the background of interferograms by a Gaussian high-pass filter. Secondly, we calculated the inner products of the background-filtered interferograms. Thirdly, we extracted the phase shifts by the quotient of the inner products then calculated the measured phase by an arctangent function. Finally, we tested the performance of the proposed algorithm by the simulation calculation and the experimental research for a vortex phase plate. Both the simulation calculation and the experimental result showed that the phase shifts and the measured phase with high accuracy can be obtained by the proposed algorithm rapidly and conveniently. (paper)

  10. Process development for the reactive injection moulding of caprolactam intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Lars Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the need for efficient large volume capable production technologies for high performance composite structures, a new processing technology has been developed. The process is based on the injection moulding technology but differs from this known processing technology by enabling the production of continuous fibre reinforced high performance composites with fibre volume contents of over 40 % by volume. The processing technology enables the processing of very low viscosity pol...

  11. Probing Electroweak Phase Transition via Enhanced Di-Higgs Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, Marcela [Chicago U., KICP; Liu, Zhen [Fermilab; Riembau, Marc [DESY

    2018-01-02

    We consider a singlet extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a spontaneous $Z_2$ breaking and study the gluon-gluon fusion production of the heavy scalar, with subsequent decay into a pair of SM-like Higgs bosons. We find that an on-shell interference effect can notably enhance the resonant di-Higgs production rate up to 40\\%. In addition, consistently taking into account both the on-shell and off-shell interference effects between the heavy scalar and the SM di-Higgs diagrams significantly improves the HL-LHC and HE-LHC reach in this channel. As an example, within an effective field theory analysis in an explicitly $Z_2$ breaking scenario, we further discuss the potential to probe the parameter region compatible with a first order electroweak phase transition. Our analysis is applicable for general potentials of the singlet extension of the SM as well as for more general resonance searches.

  12. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for CAGR graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on CAGR graphite. Three possible types of encapsulants for CAGR graphites:-Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on CAGR graphite. (author)

  13. Economical Production of Pu-238: NIAC Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Crawford, Douglas; Navarro, Jorge; O'Brien, Robert C.; Katalenich, Jeff; Ring, Terry

    2016-01-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238 (Pu-238). The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. Potentially, the front end capital costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. In the Phase I NIAC (NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts) grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. Finally, as the study progressed, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  14. Octakis(epsilon-caprolactam-kappaO)erbium(III) hexaisothiocyanatochromate(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Elisaveta V; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Virovets, Alexander V; Podberezskaya, Nina V; Cherkasova, Tatyana G

    2007-05-01

    The title compound, [Er(C(6)H(11)NO)(8)][Cr(NCS)(6)], is a new structure type for [Ln(epsilon-caprolactam)(8)][Cr(NCS)(6)], where Ln is a lanthanide. There are two independent cations and two independent anions in the asymmetric unit. The Er atom is in a distorted square-antiprismatic environment of eight O atoms of the organic ligands; Er-O bond distances are in the range 2.29-2.44 A. The coordination environment of the Cr atom is a slightly distorted octahedron; Cr-N bond distances vary from 1.99 to 2.01 A. The mutual packing of the cations and the anions follows a distorted NaCl motif. One cation has the Er atom on a twofold axis and one of the anions has the Cr atom on a twofold axis.

  15. Crystal structure and explosive performance of a new CL-20/caprolactam cocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changyan; Zhang, Haobin; Wang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jinjiang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Co-crystallization is an effective way to improve performance of the high explosive 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). A new CL-20/caprolactam (CPL) cocrystal has been prepared by a rapid solvent evaporation method, and the crystal structure investigations show that the cocrystal is formed by strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction. The cocrystal can only be prepared with low moisture content of the air, because water in the air has a profound effect on the cocrystal formation, and it can lead to crystal form conversion of CL-20, but not the formation of cocrystal. The CL20/CPL explosive possess very low sensitivity, and may be used as additive in explosives formulation to desensitize other high explosives.

  16. Influence of cyclodextrin on the UCST- and LCST-behavior of poly(2-methacrylamido-caprolactam-co-(N,N-dimethylacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burkhart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monomer 2-methacrylamido-caprolactam (4 was synthesized from methacryloyl chloride (3 and racemic α-amino-ε-caprolactam (2. Copolymerization of 4 with N,N-dimethylacrylamide (5 was carried out by a free-radical mechanism using 2,2’-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile (AIBN as an initiator. The new copolymers show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST in water and an upper critical solution temperature (UCST in ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. The solubility properties of the copolymers can be influenced significantly by the addition of randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (CD. The complexation of the copolymers with CD, was confirmed by the use of ROESY-NMR-spectroscopy.

  17. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for centrifuge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce and adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. Three possible types of encapsulants for Centrifuge Cake;- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers, are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie. Storage Transport, handling and emplacement Disposal, and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on Centrifuge Cake. (author)

  18. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper...

  19. Determination of caprolactam and 6-aminocaproic acid in human urine using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Hsueh; Wu, Ming-Ling; Lin, Chun-Chi; Chu, Wei-Lan; Yang, Chen-Chang; Lin, Robert Tate; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2012-02-15

    A simple and rapid assay based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry has been first developed and validated for simultaneous determination of caprolactam (CA) and 6-aminocaproic acid (6-ANCA) in human urine using 8-aminocaprylic acid as internal standard. A 20μL aliquot of urine was injected directly into the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) system. The analytes were separated on a Phenomenex Luna HILIC column with gradient elution. Detection was performed on Triple Quadrupole LC-MS in positive ions multiple reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)≥0.995) over the concentration range from 62.5 to 1250ng/mL for CA and 31.25 to 1000ng/mL for 6-ANCA. The detection limits of CA and 6-ANCA were 62.5 and 15.6ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 8.7% and 9.9%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy were between 5.3% and 3.5%, and between 6.1% and 6.6%, respectively. The method proved to be simple and time efficient, and was successfully applied to evaluate the kinetics of caprolactam in one unusual case of caprolactam poisoning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ε-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ε-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ε-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ≤20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ε-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ε-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ε-caprolactam utilization.

  1. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  2. Nanohybrids of nylon 6 with multi-walled carbon nanotubes: solvent-free polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam under variable experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Solis-González, Obed A; Alvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Puente-Lee, Iván; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2009-05-01

    The solvent-free polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam on 1,8-diaminooctane-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DA-MWNTs) is proposed as a simple and ecologically friendly approach to the preparation of carbon nanotubes/nylon 6 hybrid materials. The main goal of the present study was to find a minimum temperature resulting in an efficient epsilon-caprolactam polymerization, along with the optimization of the weight ratio of DA-MWNTs to epsilon-caprolactam and reaction time. The effect of temperature was studied in the range of 170 degrees C to 210 degrees C. After the reaction at 170 degrees C, the nanotubes functionalized contained a large amount of unreacted monomer along with ca. 14% of polyamide. Increasing the reaction temperature dramatically reduced the content of epsilon-caprolactam impurity and increased the nylon 6 content to ca. 20%. The reaction time tested was 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Exposures at less than 4 h were insufficient, where the infrared spectral bands of nylon 6 were barely seen. The reaction time of 6 h was found to be optimal since a more prolonged heating for 8 h did not provide an evident further increase in polyamide content. The effect of stoichiometry was studied by varying the weight ratio of DA-MWNTs to epsilon-caprolactam from 1:0.1 to 1:1. The ratios 1:0.1 and 1:0.2 were too high, since they did not provide the amount of epsilon-caprolactam necessary to form the composites with at least 20% content of nylon 6. Starting with the ratio of 1:0.3, the infrared band intensities qualitatively stabilized and did not show dramatic variations. The use of reagent ratios of 1:0.3 to 1:0.7 might be especially appropriate for preparing the composites targeted to biomedical applications, whereas higher weight ratios are expected to increase the content of undesirable monomer impurities.

  3. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Henrique Peres; Felix, Juliana Silva [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Manzoli, Jose Eduardo [Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Padula, Marisa [Packaging Technology Center/Food Technology Institute (CETEA/ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Magali [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: monteiro@fcfar.unesp.br

    2008-07-15

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 {mu}g/ml), RSD{<=}4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD{<=}3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 {mu}g/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses.

  4. Effects of γ-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Henrique Peres; Félix, Juliana Silva; Manzoli, José Eduardo; Padula, Marisa; Monteiro, Magali

    2008-07-01

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 μg/ml), RSD⩽4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD⩽3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 μg/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses.

  5. Hibernia production opportunities: A report on business and employment opportunities within the production phase of Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The offshore industry in Newfoundland is evolving into a new phase as construction of the Hibernia offshore platform continues and plans are being developed for the operation of the facility to extract oil from deposits on the Grand Banks. A study was conducted to identify the business and employment opportunities available to Newfoundland firms and individuals during Hibernia's production phase. To operate the platform, the Hibernia Management and Development Company (HMDC) and its contractors will employ ca 700-800 people directly. Average annual expenditures will be ca $400 million over the project life of 19 y. Ca 38% of these expenditures represent the operator's own costs, with the rest spent on downhole services, modifications and repairs, logistics and transportation, replacement equipment and materials, and routine maintenance. It is clearly stated that in formulating strategies to pursue production phase opportunities, companies must understand the greenfield characteristics of the Hibernia oil field and the implications that has on the operator's philosophy to procuring goods and services. Paramount to the discussion on procurement is the operator's choice of contracting out and performing services in-house. A number of approaches used by North Sea operators to procure goods and services are reviewed, and a trend is noted toward partnering agreements which are defined as multipurpose, long-term contractual relationships. HMDC is considering entering such agreements. HMDC's employment policies are outlined and business opportunities are described in alphabetical order by sector, giving a description of the opportunity, contracting strategy, and a list of typical companies involved in the sector. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  7. In ovo carcinogenicity assay (IOCA): evaluation of mannitol, caprolactam and nitrosoproline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, Klaus D; Enzmann, Harald G; Perrone, Carmen E; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Williams, Gary M

    2002-10-01

    The in ovo carcinogenicity assay (IOCA) was used to examine whether the noncarcinogens epsilon-caprolactam (CAP), D-mannitol (MAN) and nitrosoproline (NPRO) induce toxicity and subsequently morphological changes in embryonic turkey livers compared with the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Various doses of the test compounds were injected into fertilized turkey or quail eggs prior to incubation. Embryonic livers were collected 3-4 days before hatching and processed for histology. The positive control DEN induced hepatocyte altered foci (HAF) and karyomegalic hepatocytes, whereas histological analysis of livers from embryos exposed to CAP, MAN and NPRO did not show such histological changes. The effects of the tested compounds on liver were further examined in hepatocytes cultured from exposed turkey and quail embryos. As observed in ovo, megalocytes as well as karyomegalic hepatocytes were present in hepatocyte cultures established from DEN-exposed turkey embryos, but not from embryos exposed to CAP, MAN or NPRO. It is concluded that CAP, MAN and NPRO do not induce histological changes in embryonic liver of the type produced by the carcinogen DEN, correlating with findings for these compounds in rodent studies.

  8. Poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) grown on nanographene oxide as an effective nanocargo for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Thangavelu; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Park, Soo-Young

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated graphene oxide functionalized covalently with poly N-vinyl caprolactam (GO-PVCL) via in situ atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), as a nano-cargo carrier for the efficient delivery of drugs into cells. Water-soluble GO-PVCL exhibited excellent stability in physiological solutions. An anti-cancer drug, camptothecin (CPT), was then loaded onto GO-PVCL with a high payload (20%) through π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions, and its release could be controlled by varying the pH. PVCL grafted onto GO offers an additional advantage of targeted delivery according to temperature. GO-PVCL showed no obvious toxicity, whereas the CPT-loaded GO-PVCL showed high potency in killing cancer cells in vitro. The drug transportation mechanism was found to be energy-dependent endocytosis. Overall, this study revealed GO-PVCL to be a promising drug delivery vector with high biocompatibility, solubility and stability in physiological solutions, and good payload capacity owing to its small size, low cost, large specific area, ready scalability, and useful non-covalent interactions. This material is expected to be a novel material propitious for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dielectric relaxation at the glass transition of confined N-methyl-ɛ-caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoukaki, D.; Barut, G.; Pelster, R.; Nimtz, G.; Kyritsis, A.; Pissis, P.

    1998-09-01

    The effects of confinement on the glass transition of the nonassociating glass-forming liquid N-methyl-ɛ-caprolactam were studied in detail by means of broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, 5 Hz-2 GHz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements, 77-300 K. The liquid was two dimensionally confined in the pores of controlled porous glasses with mean pore diameter d=2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 20.0 nm (Gelsil glasses) and d=4.0 nm (Vycor glass) and three dimensionally confined in butyl rubber with mean droplet diameter d=7.6 nm. The confined liquid is classified into two fractions: a relatively immobile interfacial layer close to the wall and the inner layer (volume liquid). For the volume liquid the α relaxation associated with the glass transition becomes faster and the glass transition temperature decreases compared to the bulk liquid. These effects increase with decreasing d and are stronger for three- than for two-dimensional confinement. They can be understood on the basis of the cooperativity concept and the configurational entropy model of Adam and Gibbs. The systematic variation of d allows the determination of the cooperativity length ξ at Tg to ξ <=10-12 nm.

  10. Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the Phase II project is to provide a more complete investigation of the long-term needs of the simulant community based on the updated...

  11. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  12. Applicability of the theory of volume filling of micropores to adsorption of caprolactam from aqueous solutions with active carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodorov, E.I.; Kazakov, V.A.; Semerikova, V.V.; Surinova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    The absence of a scientifically based method of selecting adsorbents in the extraction of organic substances from waste water and solution which would allow for their multicycle use in adsorption-desorption stages often prevents the introduction of adsorption technology into industrial practice. This paper demonstrates the possibility of calculating the adsorption equilibrium of highly soluble organic compounds with the theory of volume filling of micropores equations in consideration of the activities of the extracted component in the solution and the change in the partial affinity coefficient with the degree of filling of the adsorption volume on the example of extraction of caprolactam from aqueous solutions.

  13. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing single phase induction motors exhibit low starting torque. Moreover, during accelerating time and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM ...

  14. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 8 (2010), s. 1708-1720 ISSN 0378-4371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : EPC * Agent based model * Phase transition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010

  15. Minimization of Defective Products in The Department of Press Bridge & Rib Through Six Sigma DMAIC Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, YA; Agustin, A.

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes the DMAIC Six Sigma approach of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve/Implement and Control (DMAIC) to minimizing the number of defective products in the bridge & rib department. There are 5 types of defects were the most dominant are broken rib, broken sound board, strained rib, rib sliding and sound board minori. The imperative objective is to improve the quality through the DMAIC phases. In the define phase, the critical to quality (CTQ) parameters was identified minimization of product defects through the pareto chart and FMEA. In this phase, to identify waste based on the current value stream mapping. In the measure phase, the specified control limits product used to maintain the variations of the product, the calculation of the value of DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunities) and the calculation of the value of sigma level. In analyze phase, determine the type of defect of the most dominant and identify the causes of defective products. In the improve phase, the existing design was modified through various alternative solutions by conducting brainstorming sessions. In this phase, the solution was identified based on the results of FMEA. Improvements were made to the seven priority causes of disability based on the highest RPN value. In the control phase, focusing on improvements to be made. Proposed improvements include making and define standard operating procedures, improving the quality and eliminate waste defective products.

  16. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pexová Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, JUN (2016), s. 518-523 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lactam * Algae * pollution * biosorption * pyrenoid * growth Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  17. Solid-phase enrichment and analysis of electrophilic natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wesche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In search for new natural products, which may lead to the development of new drugs for all kind of applications, novel methods are needed. Here we describe the identification of electrophilic natural products in crude extracts via their reactivity against azide as a nucleophile followed by their subsequent enrichment using a cleavable azide-reactive resin (CARR. Using this approach, natural products carrying epoxides and α,β-unsaturated enones as well as several unknown compounds were identified in crude extracts from entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria.

  18. Fabrication of thermo-responsive cotton fabrics using poly(vinyl caprolactam-co-hydroxyethyl acrylamide) copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; González, Edurne; Monterroza, Alexis Martell; Frey, Margaret

    2017-10-15

    A thermo-responsive polymer with hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition behavior, poly(vinyl caprolactam-co-hydroxyethyl acrylamide) P(VCL-co-HEAA), was prepared by copolymerization of vinyl caprolactam and N-hydroxyethyl acrylamide via free radical solution polymerization. The resulting copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of P(VCL-co-HEAA) was determined at 34.5°C. This thermo-responsive polymer was then grafted onto cotton fabrics using 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as crosslinker and sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst. FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) studies confirmed the successful grafting reaction. The modified cotton fabric exhibited thermo-responsive behavior as evidenced by water vapor permeability measurement confirming decreased permeability at elevated temperature. This is the first demonstration that a PVCL based copolymer is grafted to cotton fabrics. This study provides a new thermo-responsive polymer for fabrication of smart cotton fabrics with thermally switchable hydrophilicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products, used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events, is being...

  20. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after...

  1. Subchronic inhalation toxicity study of caprolactam (with a 4-week recovery) in the rat via whole-body exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, R W; Hoffman, G M; Bolte, H F; Rinehart, W E; Rusch, G M; Parod, R J; Kayser, M

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the potential subchronic inhalation toxicity of caprolactam when administered as a 3-micron aerosol from an aqueous solution to Sprague-Dawley CD rats (10/sex/group) via whole-body exposure. The study was enhanced with the inclusion of motor activity measurements and a functional observational battery to assess the neurotoxic potential of caprolactam. The rats were exposed at least 65 times over a 13-week period for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, to target concentrations (3 microns, mass median aerodynamic diameter) of 0, 25, 75, and 250 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). An additional 10 animals/sex/group were similarly exposed and then held for a 4-week recovery period. Exposure levels were determined gravimetrically six times daily; one daily sample was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. No deaths were observed in the study during the exposure or recovery periods. Treatment-related responses such as labored breathing and nasal discharge were seen during many of the exposures. Similar responses as well as moist rales were seen during the nonexposure periods during the 13 weeks of exposure. However, these responses abated during the 4-week recovery period. There were no clearly treatment-related responses observed with ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weight measurements, food consumption measurements, neurobehavioral evaluations, clinical pathology evaluations, organ weight measurements, or macroscopic pathology examinations. Microscopic findings that were considered related to exposure to the test material were seen in the nasoturbinal tissues (hypertrophy/hyperplasia of goblet cells in the respiratory mucosa and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic material in epithelial cells of the olfactory mucosa) of the two higher-exposure group animals and in the laryngeal tissues (squamous/squamoid metaplasia/hyperplasia of the pseudostratified columnar epithelium covering the ventral seromucous gland) of all three exposure

  2. Model description of bactrial 3-methylcatechol production in one- and two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, L.E.; Hoogakker, J.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida MC2 produces 3-methylcatechol from toluene in aqueous medium. A second phase of 1-octanol may improve total product accumulation. To optimise the design of such a biphasic process, a process model was developed, both for one- and two-phase applications. The insights obtained by

  3. Extra entropy production due to non-equilibrium phase transitions in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Lukacs, B.

    1984-04-01

    In a fluid-dynamical model the extra entropy production is calculated which arises from a non-equilibrium phase transition from nuclear to quark matter. The dynamics of processes producing extra entropy are treated in linear approximation. It is shown that there is a considerable extra entropy production provided the transition is not too fast. In measuring the entropy at the break-up, an excess entropy might signalize the phase transition to a transient quark-gluon plasma. (D.Gy.)

  4. Phase transition of the one-dimensional coagulation-production process

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G

    2001-01-01

    Recently an exact solution has been found (M.Henkel and H.Hinrichsen, cond-mat/0010062) for the 1d coagulation production process: 2A ->A, A0A->3A with equal diffusion and coagulation rates. This model evolves into the inactive phase independently of the production rate with $t^{-1/2}$ density decay law. Here I show that cluster mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations predict a continuous phase transition for higher diffusion/coagulation rates as considered in cond-mat/0010062. Numerical evidence is given that the phase transition universality agrees with that of the annihilation-fission model with low diffusions.

  5. Production Decline Analysis for Two-Phase Flow in Multifractured Horizontal Well in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, and orthogonal transformation. According to the model’s solution, the bilogarithmic type curves of the two-phase model are illustrated, and the production decline performance under the effects of hydraulic fractures and shale gas reservoir properties are discussed. The result obtained in this paper has important significance to understand pressure response characteristics and production decline law of two-phase flow in shale gas reservoirs. Moreover, it provides the theoretical basis for exploiting this reservoir efficiently.

  6. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Milking microalga Dunaliella salina for Beta-carotene production in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Holwerda, E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed for production of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Cells were grown in low light intensity and then transferred to a production bioreactor illuminated at a higher light intensity. It was a two-phase bioreactor consisting of an aqueous and a biocompatible organic

  8. HPLC profiling of radiolytic products of nitrobenzene - carbon tetrachloride - water two-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, M.K.; Kuruc, J.; Svec, A.; Cech, R.; Hutta, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolytic products of the two-phase systems of nitrobenzene - carbon tetrachloride - water mixtures have been identified using HPLC adsorption chromatography on SEPARON SIX silica gel column under an elution gradient from n-hexane to ethyl acetate. That the product formation is a function of the mixture composition is indicated by the chromatograms. Para-nitrophenol constitutes one of the major radiolytic products in the system where the volume ratio of nitrobenzene is more than that of carbon tetrachloride and its radiation yield is dependent on the volume ratio of the aqueous phase. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tabs

  9. Dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amide catalyzed by D-aminopeptidase and alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yasuhisa; Yamaguchi, Shigenori

    2005-06-01

    Amino acid amide racemizing activity was discovered in alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam (ACL) racemase (EC 5. 1. 1. 15) from Achromobacter obae. The enzymatic synthesis of d-alanine from l-alanine amide has been demonstrated by use of d-aminopeptidase (DAP; EC 3. 4. 11. 19) from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and ACL racemase. The conversion of 45 mM l-alanine amide was carried out at 30 degrees C for 7 h; l-alanine amide was completely converted to d-alanine, and no l-alanine was detected. The result of successive enzymatic reaction shows that the combination of ACL racemase and DAP can be applied for dynamic kinetic resolution of dl-amino acid amides to yield d-amino acids.

  10. Hydrogen bond driven chemical reactions: Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Mauro; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Liew, Chee Chin; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Parrinello, Michele

    2004-05-26

    Recent experiments have shown that supercritical water (SCW) has the ability to accelerate and make selective synthetic organic reactions, thus replacing the common but environmentally harmful acid and basic catalysts. In an attempt to understand the intimate mechanism behind this observation, we analyze, via first-principles molecular dynamics, the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water, for which accurate experimental evidence has been reported. Differences in the wetting of the hydrophilic parts of the solute, enhanced by SCW, and the disrupted hydrogen bond network are shown to be crucial in triggering the reaction and in making it selective. Furthermore, the enhanced concentrations of H(+) in SCW play an important role in starting the reaction.

  11. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  12. Oligomeric epoxide-amine adducts based on 2-amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam: Solubility in presence of cyclodextrin and curing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julian; Ritter, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    2-Amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam were reacted with glycerol diglycidyl ether to give novel oligomeric thermoresponsive epoxide-amine adducts. These oligomers exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior in water. The solubility properties were influenced with randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) and the curing properties of the amine-epoxide mixtures were analyzed by oscillatory rheology and differential scanning calorimetry, whereby significant differences in setting time, viscosity, and stiffness were observed.

  13. Two phases fermentative process for hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryane Mota Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrogen and methane production was investigated in two phases of fermentative process. Objective: At the acidogenic phase, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed with cassava wastewater producing hydrogen. Methods: Expanded clay was used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with HRT ranging from 8-1 h. Results: The best hydrogen yield production was 1.91 mol H2/mol glucose at HRT of 2 h. At the methanogenic phase, the acidogenic process effluent fed a fixed-bed reactor producing methane. Conclusion: Sururu (Mytella falcata shells was used as support acted as pH neutralizer in the fixed-bed reactor, yielding best (0.430±0.150 Lmethane/gCOD with 12h HRT phase.

  14. The novel structure of a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent fold-type I racemase, alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Seiji; Suzuki, Atsuo; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Kawano, Takeshi; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Takashi

    2009-02-10

    Alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam (ACL) racemase (ACLR) from Achromobacter obae catalyzes the interconversion of l- and d-ACL. ACLR belongs to the fold-type I group of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes. In this study, the first crystal structures of a fold-type I racemase are solved for the native form and epsilon-caprolactam-complexed form of ACLR at 2.21 and 2.40 A resolution, respectively. Based on the location of epsilon-caprolactam in the complex structure, the substrate-binding site is assigned between Trp49 and Tyr137. The carboxyl group of Asp210 is a reasonable candidate that recognizes the nitrogen atom of a lactam or amide in the substrate. Based on a structural comparison with fold-type III alanine racemase, Tyr137 is potentially the acid/base catalytic residue that is essential for the two-base racemization mechanism. The overall structure of ACLR is similar to that of fold-type I enzymes. A structural comparison with these enzymes explains the different reaction specificities.

  15. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  16. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Simulation study {epsilon}-Caprolactam monomer and metallic elements migration from irradiated polymeric packaging into food stimulants; Simulacao numerica da migracao de elementos metalicos e do monomero {epsilon}-caprolactama de embalagens polimericas irradiadas para simulantes de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite

    2008-07-01

    For decades migration study of chemical compounds from packaging into food, such as metals, residual monomers and additives, is a very important issue, concerning public health and minimize chemical contamination. In this work, it was done irradiations of packagings taken in contact with food simulant, and it was studied this migration through a mathematical model of the diffusion process, compiled in a computational simulation method in order to study the microscopic behavior of migration of metallic elements cadmium, chromium, antimony and cobalt, present in metallic plastics from dairy product packagings, and also the migration of - caprolactam monomer, present in nylon polymeric plastics used for package meat stuffs, to the food simulant acetic acid 3%. The results from simulations of the migration of -caprolactam monomer were compared with experimental results obtained from high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) measurements, and the simulation of metallic elements migration were compared with the neutron activation analysis measurements (NAA). These experimental results were performed and kindly informed by another research groups, partners in this project. The food packaging system was discretized in one-dimension space and in time and the partial differential equation that defines the diffusive process, the second 'Fick's law', together with an equation of Arrhenius type dealing with the thermal influence, were solved using finite differences. The final step of the resolution was a tridiagonal linear system, solved using the Thomas algorithm. It was studied, and in some cases even foreseen, experimental quantities, like the diffusion coefficient, activation energy and concentration profile of migrant compounds, allowing the understanding of the diffusion process and the quantitative estimate of the migration of such compounds under ionizing radiation influence. Variation on the initial concentration levels (C{sub 0}) of the monomer inside

  18. Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-02-15

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  19. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Application of molasses-urea blocks to ruminant production in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes briefly the accomplishments of a Coordinated Research Program to increase ruminant productivity in Indonesia by the application of urea-molasses blocks. The technology is highly cost effective and readily accepted by farmers. Suggestions are made for a three-year follow-up project to investigate the productivity of ruminants fed with packaged rice straw. 6 photographs

  20. Product analysis of the gas-phase reaction of β-caryophyllene with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogirou, A.; Kotzias, D.; Kettrup, A.

    The semivolatile ketoaldehydes 3,3-dimethyl-y-methylene-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 1 and 3,3-dimethyl-γ-oxo-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 2 and formaldehyde have been identified as the main products of the reaction of ß-caryophyllene with ozone in the gas phase. In minor amounts 9-methylene-,t,12,12-trimethyl-5-oxabicyclo[8.2.0.0.s]dodecane 3 was also formed. Nature and yields of these carbonyl products are discussed in terms of oxidation mechanisms involving the gas-phase reaction with ozone and OH radicals.

  1. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  2. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  3. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    In the view of H 2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO 2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO 2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H 2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO 2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  4. The health significance of gas- and particle-phase terpene oxidation products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C

    2013-10-01

    The reactions between terpenes and ozone (or other oxidants) produce a wide variety of both gas- and particle-phase products. Terpenes are biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are also contained in many consumer products. Ozone is present indoors since it infiltrates into the indoor environment and is emitted by some office and consumer equipment. Some of the gaseous products formed are irritating to biological tissues, while the condensed-phase products have received attention due to their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its respective health significance. Despite common scientific questions, the indoor and ambient air research communities have tended to operate in isolation regarding this topic. This review critically evaluates the literature related to terpene oxidation products and attempts to synthesize results of indoor and ambient air studies to better understand the health significance of these materials and identify knowledge gaps. The review documents the results of a literature search covering terpene oxidation chemistry, epidemiological, toxicological, and controlled human exposure studies, as well as health studies focused more generically on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The literature shows a clear role for gas-phase terpene oxidation products in adverse airway effects at high concentrations; however, whether these effects occur at more environmentally relevant levels is unclear. The evidence for toxicity of particle-phase products is less conclusive. Knowledge gaps and future research needs are outlined, and include the need for more consistency in study designs, incorporation of reaction product measurements into epidemiological studies conducted in both indoor and ambient settings, and more focused research on the toxicity of SOA, especially SOA of biogenic origin. © 2013.

  5. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  6. Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM's) to Preserve the Freshness of Seafood Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pudjiastuti, Wiwik; Listyarini, Arie; Riyanto, Arief

    2015-01-01

    The application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) as one of latent heat energy storage materials in smart cold system has been investigated for preserving a freshness of seafood products. In this investigation, PCMs was installed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) box system as insulated container. The freshness of the seafood product was shown by the time of keeping temperature during storage or distribution. Keeping temperature time of smart cold system using PCMs was compared to conventional col...

  7. Enhanced dipicolinic acid production during the stationary phase in Bacillus subtilis by blocking acetoin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Shu; Chumsakul, Onuma; Morimoto, Takuya; Liu, Shenghao; Masuda, Kenta; Kageyama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ogasawara, Naotake; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial bio-production during the stationary phase is expected to lead to a high target yield because the cells do not consume the substrate for growth. Bacillus subtilis is widely used for bio-production, but little is known about the metabolism during the stationary phase. In this study, we focused on the dipicolinic acid (DPA) production by B. subtilis and investigated the metabolism. We found that DPA production competes with acetoin synthesis and that acetoin synthesis genes (alsSD) deletion increases DPA productivity by 1.4-fold. The mutant showed interesting features where the glucose uptake was inhibited, whereas the cell density increased by approximately 50%, resulting in similar volumetric glucose consumption to that of the parental strain. The metabolic profiles revealed accumulation of pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, and the TCA cycle intermediates in the alsSD mutant. Our results indicate that alsSD-deleted B. subtilis has potential as an effective host for stationary-phase production of compounds synthesized from these intermediates.

  8. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  9. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  10. Description of the production process - agricultural phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the state-of-art of the production process of sugar cane bio ethanol in Brazil also denominated of first generation, involving the improvements in the agricultural phase and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies. The different aspects related do the use of sugar cane bagasse and straw cape.

  11. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model

  12. EU Product Environmental Footprint—Mid-Term Review of the Pilot Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing pilot phase of the European Product Environmental Footprint (PEF tests the PEF method and develops product category-specific rules (PEFCRs for selected product categories. The goal of PEF is to address all relevant environmental impacts and the full life cycle of products is acknowledged. However, PEF faces several methodological and practical challenges. This paper presents key findings of a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the PEF pilot phase (mainly based on the evaluation of all draft PEFCRs. Remaining key challenges are: (1 the still open goal and policy outcome of the PEF process; (2 the difficult applicability and, thus, the unclear tangible added value of some PEF rules compared to current life cycle assessment (LCA practice; (3 the insufficient maturity level of some predefined impact assessment methods and missing reliable methods for prioritizing impact categories; and (4 the fact that, in the worst case, the developed PEFCRs may not support a fair comparability of products. This “mid-term review” of the PEF pilot phase shows that the PEF method and the PEFCRs need to be further improved and refined for a successful policy implementation of PEF, but also for avoiding that unsolved issues of PEF affect the LCA method as such.

  13. Tetraaqua-1kappa4O-bis(epsilon -caprolactam-1kappa O)-mu-cyano-1:2kappa 2N:C-pentacyano-2kappa 5C-iron(III)yttrium(III), a novel cyano-bridged dinuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bei Chuan; Kou, Hui Zhong; He, Yi; Xiong, Ming; Wang, Ru Ji; Li, Yadong

    2002-09-01

    Using caprolactam as a ligand, the novel title cyano-bridged yttrium(III)-ferricyanide complex, [Y(caprolactam)(2)(H(2)O)(4)Fe(CN)(6)] or [FeY(CN)(6)(C(6)H(11)NO)(2)(H(2)O)(4)], has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The Y atom is seven-coordinate and has approximately pentagonal-bipyramidal stereochemistry, with water molecules occupying apical positions. Of the five ligands in equatorial positions, one is the N-bound bridging cyano group, and flanking this are two O-bound caprolactam moieties, which are markedly inclined towards the bridged ferricyanide moiety such that they partially envelop it. Water molecules occupy the remaining two equatorial positions. The Y-N-C-Fe-C-N sequence of atoms lies on a crystallographic twofold axis and is therefore perfectly linear, which has not been observed previously in cyano-bridged bimetallic complexes.

  14. Cheese whey valorisation: Production of valuable gaseous and liquid chemicals from lactose by aqueous phase reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Ruiz, J.; Oliva, M.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous phase reforming: a promising strategy for cheese whey valorisation. • In-depth understanding of the effect of the operating conditions on the process. • Process optimisation for the selective production of valuable gas and liquid products. • High P, T, lactose concentration and spatial time favour gas production. • High T, low spatial time and the use of diluted solutions maximise liquids production. - Abstract: Cheese effluent management has become an important issue owing to its high biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values. Given this scenario, this work addresses the valorisation of lactose (the largest organic constituent of this waste) by aqueous phase reforming, analysing the influence of the most important operating variables (temperature, pressure, lactose concentration and mass of catalyst/lactose mass flow rate ratio) as well as optimising the process for the production of either gaseous or liquid value-added chemicals. The carbon converted into gas, liquid and solid products varied as follows: 5–41%, 33–97% and 0–59%, respectively. The gas phase was made up of a mixture of H 2 (8–58 vol.%), CO 2 (33–85 vol.%), CO (0–15 vol.%) and CH 4 (0–14 vol.%). The liquid phase consisted of a mixture of aldehydes: 0–11%, carboxylic acids: 0–22%, monohydric alcohols: 0–23%, polyhydric-alcohols: 0–48%, C3-ketones: 4–100%, C4-ketones: 0–18%, cyclic-ketones: 0–15% and furans: 0–85%. H 2 production is favoured at high pressure, elevated temperature, employing a high amount of catalyst and a concentrated lactose solution. Liquid production is preferential using diluted lactose solutions. At high pressure, the production of C3-ketones is preferential using a high temperature and a low amount of catalyst, while a medium temperature and a high amount of catalyst favours the production of furans. The production of alcohols is preferential using medium temperature and pressure and a low amount of

  15. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  16. Laboratory Measurements of Gas Phase Pyrolysis Products from Southern Wildland Fuels using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharko, N.; Safdari, S.; Danby, T. O.; Howarth, J.; Beiswenger, T. N.; Weise, D.; Myers, T. L.; Fletcher, T. H.; Johnson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Combustion is an oxidation reaction that occurs when there is less fuel available than oxidizers, while pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs under "fuel rich" conditions where all of the available oxidizers are consumed leaving some fuel(s) either unreacted or partially reacted. Gas-phase combustion products from biomass burning experiments have been studied extensively; less is known, however, about pyrolysis processes and products. Pyrolysis is the initial reaction occurring in the burning process and generates products that are subsequently oxidized during combustion, yielding highly-oxidized chemicals. This laboratory study investigates the pyrolysis processes by using an FTIR spectrometer to detect and quantify the gas-phase products from thermal decomposition of intact understory fuels from forests in the southeastern United States. In particular, a laboratory flat-flame burner operating under fuel rich conditions (no oxygen) was used to heat individual leaves to cause decomposition. The gas-phase products were introduced to an 8 meter gas cell coupled to an infrared spectrometer were used to monitor the products. Trace gas emissions along with emission ratios, which are calculated by dividing the change in the amount of the trace gas by the change in the amount of CO, for the plant species, gallberry (Ilex glabra) and swampbay (Persea palustris) were determined. Preliminary measurements observed species such as CO2, CO, C2H2, C2H4, HCHO, CH3OH, isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol and NH3 being produced as part of the thermal decomposition process. It is important to note that FTIR will not detect H2.

  17. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during gas phase decontamination with ClF 3 has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO 2 in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO 2 was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF 3 ; (2) ClO 2 was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF 3 and ClF; and (3) ClO 2 was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClF 3 , ClF, or UF 6 . The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO 2 in the presence of ClO 2 F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF 3 + H 2 O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClO 2 F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF 3 treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO 2 should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project

  18. Organic Phase Change Nanoparticles for in-Product Labeling of Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Duong, Binh; Su, Ming

    2015-10-28

    There is an urgent need to develop in-product covert barcodes for anti-counterfeiting of agrochemicals. This paper reports a new organic nanoparticle-based in-product barcode system, in which a panel of organic phase change nanoparticles is added as a barcode into in a variety of chemicals (herein agrochemicals). The barcode is readout by detecting melting peaks of organic nanoparticles using differential scanning calorimetry. This method has high labeling capacity due to small sizes of nanoparticles, sharp melting peaks, and large scan range of thermal analysis. The in-product barcode can be effectively used to protect agrochemical products from being counterfeited due to its large coding capacity, technical readiness, covertness, and robustness.

  19. Effect of precursor mass on product phase composition in plasma dynamic synthesis of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrova, K. N.; Sivkov, A. A.; Shanenkov, I. I.; Saigash, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    An interest in WC1-x cubic tungsten carbide results from its catalytic properties similar to those of platinum group metals and the synergistic effect between WC1-x and Pt in reactions of hydrogen evolution and hydrogen oxidation. However, according to the phase diagram of the W-C system, the cubic phase WC1-x only exists in a narrow range of temperature stability (about 2798-3058 K), which makes it difficult for being obtained. To date, there are different methods for synthesizing tungsten carbide powder with a low content of cubic phase that complicates the study of WC1-x properties. A direct plasma dynamic synthesis is known as one of the promising methods to produce WC1-x. The aim of this work is to find the optimal amount of tungsten precursor to obtain cubic tungsten carbide with a high purity by plasma dynamic method. The synthesized products were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns showed that the main phase was cubic tungsten carbide with negligible content of hexagonal tungsten carbide W2C and pure tungsten W. According to a quantitative analysis of synthesized products, which were obtained using masses of initial tungsten equal to 1.0, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 gram, the yield of WC1-x phase was 84, 89, 95 and 92 wt%, respectively. The results of TEM displayed that the synthesized powders consist of crystallites, having the size less than 100 nm (WC1-x), and a carbon matrix. This carbon was not detected in XRD due to its presence as an amorphous phase.

  20. Multi Drug Loaded Thermo-Responsive Fibrinogen-graft-Poly(N-vinyl Caprolactam) Nanogels for Breast Cancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Baby, Thejus; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2015-03-01

    This study aims at the targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Megestrol acetate (Meg) loaded fibrinogen-graft-poly(N-Vinyl caprolactam) nanogels (5-FU/Meg-fib-graft-PNVCL NGs) toward α5β1-integrins receptors expressed on breast cancer cells to have enhanced anti-cancer effect in vitro. To achieve this aim, we developed biocompatible thermoresponsive fib-graft-PNVCL NGs using fibrinogen and carboxyl terminated PNVCL via EDC/NHS amidation reaction. The Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) of fib-graft-PNVCL could be tuned according to PNVCL/fibrinogen compositions. The 100-120 nm sized nanogels of fib-graft-PNVCL (LCST = 35 ?1 'C) was prepared using CaCl2 cross-linker. The 5-FU/Meg-fib-graft-PNVCL NGs showed a particle size of 150-170 nm size. The drug loading efficiency with 5-FU was 62% while Meg showed 74%. The 5-FU and Meg release was prominent above LCST than below LCST. The multi drug loaded fib-graft-PNVCL NGs showed enhanced toxicity, apoptosis and uptake by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells compared to their individual doses above their LCST. The in vivo assessment in Swiss albino mice showed sustained release of Meg and 5-FU as early as 3 days, confirming the therapeutic efficiency of the formulation. These results demonstrate an enhanced platform for the future animal studies on breast tumor xenograft model.

  1. Characterization of an α-amino-ɛ-caprolactam racemase with broad substrate specificity from Citreicella sp. SE45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payoungkiattikun, Wisarut; Okazaki, Seiji; Ina, Atsutoshi; H-Kittikun, Aran; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-05-01

    α-Amino-ε-caprolactam (ACL) racemizing activity was detected in a putative dialkylglycine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.64) from Citreicella sp. SE45. The encoding gene of the enzyme was cloned and transformed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The molecular mass of the enzyme was shown to be 47.4 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzymatic properties including pH and thermal optimum and stabilities were determined. This enzyme acted on a broad range of amino acid amides, particularly unbranched amino acid amides including L-alanine amide and L-serine amide with a specific activity of 17.5 and 21.6 U/mg, respectively. The K m and V max values for D- and L-ACL were 5.3 and 2.17 mM, and 769 and 558 μmol/min.mg protein, respectively. Moreover, the turn over number (K cat ) and catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) of purified ACL racemase from Citreicella sp. SE45 using L-ACL as a substrate were 465 S -1 and 214 S -1 mM -1 , respectively. The new ACL racemase from Citreicella sp. SE45 has a potential to be used as the biocatalytic application.

  2. One-, two-, and three-phase flow during free-product recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    An increasing variety of options is becoming available for recovering organic liquids from the subsurface following releases from leaking underground storage tanks, buried pipelines, and surface spills. Multiphase fluid flow in porous media during product recovery must be considered to optimize desired effects and minimize unintended consequences. Free-product recovery commonly focuses first on soils that are saturated with respect to nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL), especially when a substantial thickness of floating product is apparent in monitoring wells. This paper also addresses product recovery from soils that are unsaturated with respect to NAPL, such as in the transition zone between the water table and the capillary fringe. Considering both saturated and unsaturated soils, the available product recovery methods can generally be classified as those that aim to recover NAPL only; NAPL and water; and NAPL, water, and vapor. The corresponding flow processes, respectively, involve one, two, and three phases. Examples of these distinctly different approaches are presented, along with their applicability, advantages, and disadvantages

  3. Migração de β-caprolactama de embalagens contendo poliamida 6 para simulante ácido acético 3% e validação do método analítico β-Caprolactam migration from polyamide 6 packaging into 3% acetic acid food simulant and validation of the analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Félix

    2007-08-01

    deviations obtained for method precision were less than 4.3%, while method accuracy showed recovery between 100 and 106%. The method was able to quantify ε-caprolactam in the simulant, showing a wide linearity, good precision and accuracy. For the migration assay, polyamide 6 films were placed in glass vials containing 10 mL of simulant, which were hermetically capped and exposed at 40 °C for 10 days (total immersion. The amount of ε-caprolactam that migrated from packaging into the simulant varied from 7.8 to 10.5 and 6.9 to 7.6 mg.Kg-1, for films used as meat products and cheese packaging, respectively.

  4. Phase Change Material on Augmentation of Fresh Water Production Using Pyramid Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravishankara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The augmentation of fresh water and increase in the solar still efficiency of a triangular pyramid is added with phase change material (PCM on the basin. Experimental studies were conducted and the effects of production of fresh water with and without PCM were investigated. Using paraffin as the PCM material, performance of the solar still were conducted on a hot, humid climate of Chennai (13°5′ 2" North, 80°16′ 12"East, India. The use of paraffin wax increases the latent heat storage so that the energy is stored in the PCM and in the absence of solar radiation it rejects its stored heat into the basin for further evaporation of water from the basin. Temperatures of water, Tw, Temperature of phase change material, TPCM, Temperature of cover, Tc were measured using thermocouple. Results show that there is an increase of maximum 20%, in productivity of fresh water with PCM. Keywords: fresh water production; PCM; thermal energy storage; phase change material

  5. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E; Toussaint, M J M; Upragarin, N; Van, Ederen A M; Adewuyi, A A; Candiani, D; Nguyen, T K A; Sabeckiene, J

    2005-10-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for alpha1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contra-productive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP.

  6. Product energy deposition of CN + alkane H abstraction reactions in gas and solution phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we report the first theoretical studies of post-transition state dynamics for reaction of CN with polyatomic organic species. Using electronic structure theory, a newly developed analytic reactive PES, a recently implemented rare-event acceleration algorithm, and a normal mode projection scheme, we carried out and analyzed quasi-classical and classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the reactions CN + propane (R1) and CN + cyclohexane (R2). For (R2), we carried out simulations in both the gas phase and in a CH2Cl2 solvent. Analysis of the results suggests that the solvent perturbations to the (R2) reactive free energy surface are small, leading to product energy partitioning in the solvent that is similar to the gas phase. The distribution of molecular geometries at the respective gas and solution phase variational association transition states is very similar, leading to nascent HCN which is vibrationally excited in both its CH stretching and HCN bending coordinates. This study highlights the fact that significant non-equilibrium energy distributions may follow in the wake of solution phase bimolecular reactions, and may persist for hundreds of picoseconds despite frictional damping. Consideration of non-thermal distributions is often neglected in descriptions of condensed-phase reactivity; the extent to which the present intriguing observations are widespread remains an interesting question.

  7. Comparison of the mechanical characteristics of polymerized caprolactam and monofilament nylon loops constructed in parallel strands or as braided ropes versus cranial cruciate ligaments of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Andrew J; Anderson, David E; Johnson, Jed K; Lannutti, John J

    2013-03-01

    To compare the mechanical characteristics of polymerized caprolactam and monofilament nylon loops with those of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in cattle. 6 femorotibial joints harvested from 3 cows and suture constructs made from No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line. Joints were cleared of soft tissue structures except the CCL, connected to a load frame, and loaded to failure while measuring force and elongation. Synthetic constructs tested in a similar manner included single-stranded and 3-stranded No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 3- and 6-stranded 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 3- and 6-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line. The CCL ruptured at a mean ± SD force of 4,541 ± 1,417 N with an elongation of 2.0 ± 0.3 cm. The tensile strength of 3-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line was similar to that of the CCL, rupturing at loads of 5,310 ± 369 N (braided strands) and 6,260 ± 239 N (parallel strands). Elongation was greater for braided constructs. The 3-stranded cords of 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line most closely approximated the strength of the CCL. Marked increases in elongation occur when large-sized materials are constructed in braided configurations, and this elongation would likely not provide stability in CCL-deficient stifle joints. Additional studies are needed to determine whether any of these materials are suitable CCL replacements in cattle.

  8. Oligomeric epoxide–amine adducts based on 2-amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam: Solubility in presence of cyclodextrin and curing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Summary 2-Amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam were reacted with glycerol diglycidyl ether to give novel oligomeric thermoresponsive epoxide–amine adducts. These oligomers exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior in water. The solubility properties were influenced with randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) and the curing properties of the amine–epoxide mixtures were analyzed by oscillatory rheology and differential scanning calorimetry, whereby significant differences in setting time, viscosity, and stiffness were observed. PMID:24367444

  9. [The new gene encoding TrfA-type replication initiator has been found on caprolactam/salicylate degradation plasmid pBS270].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O V; Panov, A V; Kosheleva, I A; Esikova, T Z; Boronin, A M

    2013-01-01

    The mini-replicon of pseudomonads' caprolactam/salicylate degradation plasmid pBS270 (105 kb, contains incompatibility determinants of P-7 group) has been obtained and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The new gene encoding TrfA-like replication initiator has been found on this replicon. Poor homology of this replication initiator with known proteins of TrfA-family allows us to classify obtained replicon as IncP-1-like. The pBS270mini reveals chimeric nature.

  10. Oligomeric epoxide–amine adducts based on 2-amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam: Solubility in presence of cyclodextrin and curing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fischer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam were reacted with glycerol diglycidyl ether to give novel oligomeric thermoresponsive epoxide–amine adducts. These oligomers exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST behavior in water. The solubility properties were influenced with randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD and the curing properties of the amine–epoxide mixtures were analyzed by oscillatory rheology and differential scanning calorimetry, whereby significant differences in setting time, viscosity, and stiffness were observed.

  11. ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN COLLISIONLESS SYSTEMS. II. ARBITRARY PHASE-SPACE OCCUPATION NUMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Eric I.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of two thermodynamic techniques for determining equilibria of self-gravitating systems. One is the Lynden-Bell (LB) entropy maximization analysis that introduced violent relaxation. Since we do not use the Stirling approximation, which is invalid at small occupation numbers, our systems have finite mass, unlike LB's isothermal spheres. (Instead of Stirling, we utilize a very accurate smooth approximation for ln x!.) The second analysis extends entropy production extremization to self-gravitating systems, also without the use of the Stirling approximation. In addition to the LB statistical family characterized by the exclusion principle in phase space, and designed to treat collisionless systems, we also apply the two approaches to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) families, which have no exclusion principle and hence represent collisional systems. We implicitly assume that all of the phase space is equally accessible. We derive entropy production expressions for both families and give the extremum conditions for entropy production. Surprisingly, our analysis indicates that extremizing entropy production rate results in systems that have maximum entropy, in both LB and MB statistics. In other words, both thermodynamic approaches lead to the same equilibrium structures.

  12. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  13. Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid: The Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rates and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Harris, Allison E; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Carpenter, Barry K; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-12-29

    In this work, we investigate the impact of pressure and oxygen on the kinetics of and products from the gas-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid. The results reveal a decrease in the photolysis quantum yield as pressure of air or nitrogen is increased, a trend not yet documented in the literature. A Stern-Volmer analysis demonstrates this effect is due to deactivation of the singlet state of pyruvic acid when the photolysis is performed in nitrogen, and from quenching of both the singlet and triplet state in air. Consistent with previous studies, acetaldehyde and CO 2 are observed as the major products; however, other products, most notably acetic acid, are also identified in this work. The yield of acetic acid increases with increasing pressure of buffer gas, an effect that is amplified by the presence of oxygen. At least two mechanisms are necessary to explain the acetic acid, including one that requires reaction of photolysis intermediates with O 2 . These findings extend the fundamental understanding of the gas-phase photochemistry of pyruvic acid, highlighting the importance of pressure on the photolysis quantum yields and products.

  14. Phase analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, J.; Yee M, H.; Maldonado M, H.; Nunez, L.; Reguera, E.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays carbon steel continues being the most widely used metallic material in marine and coastal buildings. The economic losses, due to corrosion processes, of those countries with important industrial and social activities in coastal regions are highly significant. In this sense the evaluation of the corrosion process of carbon steel and other materials in seawater or in coastal zones is a primary task for protection methods or to predict the hfe of an specific installation. In this communication we present the phases analysis, using XRD and Moessbauer techniques, of corrosion products of a carbon steel (CT3, equivalent to AISI C1020) exposed in two natural corrosion stations in the Caribbean sea (Cuba). The exposition time run from days to 36 months and the evaluated rust are characteristic of samples totally immersed in seawater, from the splash zone and form coastal zones at different distance from the shoreline. Quantitative phase analysis shown presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), maghemite (y-Fe 2 O 3 ), akaganeite (B-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (y-FeOOH) and goethite (a-FeOOH) as iron bearing phases, and CaCO 3 (Calcite and aragonite), these last ones mainly in the immersed samples. Quantitative phase analysis by XRD was implemented as a linear combination of the patterns characteristic of all the detected phases and an appropriate model for the background. The quantitative results were used in kinetic models to understand the phase transformation between the iron oxides and oxy hydroxides in the studied conditions. The XRD qualitative and quantitative results were corroborated by Moessbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 20 to 300 K. (Author)

  15. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  16. Production of Decorative Cast Metal Matrix Composites with a Complex Relief and Nonmetal Reinforcement Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Spasova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is relevant to the research of possibilities for the production of decorative complex relief metal matrix composites (MMCs of the “invitro” type, with unformed and unchanging reinforcement (strengthening phase in the process of creating a composite. The research on the methods of metal matrix composites development in this paper has been brought to the application of different space vacuum schemes for composite synthesisof vacuuming the space for composites synthesis by using the notion of the “capillary forming”. In this method the metal matrix (copper alloy melt was infiltrated in the space between the pellets of reinforcement phase (quartz particles – SiO2, whereas the classical method adopted for the obtaining MMCs “in vitro”, uses a mechanism of forced insertion of the reinforcement phase into the ready for use melt, followed by homogenization of the composite structure. In the particular case, because the obtained composite will have a complex relief three-dimensional surface, the conditions for compacting the building phases in the three directions x, y, z should be virtually equalized. In order to accomplish the task set, a laboratory system is developed. The experiments were conducted with laboratory equipment elaborated on the base of another equipment for "capillary forming" with extra vacuum. The structures of the obtained MMCs were tested by metallographic analysis.

  17. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  18. Improvement in the water solubility of drugs with a solid dispersion system by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion with using the amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and d-mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Tomoki; Suzuki, Ryohei; Okamoto, Ryohei; Shibagaki, Kohei; Fujita, Kosuke; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion particles with a novel amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, as a water-soluble carrier. Solid dispersion particles were prepared by hot-melt extrusion and spray drying. Indomethacin (IMC) was used as a model comprising drugs with low solubility in water and d-mannitol (MAN) was used as an excipient. The physicochemical properties of prepared particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, FTIR spectra analysis, and drug release studies. Stability studies were also conducted under stress conditions at 40°C, 75% relative humidity. We found that dissolution behavior of the original drug crystal could be improved by solid dispersion with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer. The PXRD pattern and thermal analysis indicated that the solid dispersion prepared with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC was in an amorphous state. FTIR spectra analysis indicated that the interaction manner between the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC may differ with the preparation method and formulation of solid dispersions. Stability studies proved that the amorphous state of IMC in solid dispersion particles was preserved under stress conditions for more than two weeks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. New enzymatic method of chiral amino acid synthesis by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides: use of stereoselective amino acid amidases in the presence of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2007-08-01

    D- and L-amino acids were produced from L- and D-amino acid amides by D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and L-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of alternating poly(amide urea)s and poly(amide urethane urethane)s from ε-caprolactam, diamines, and diphenyl carbonate or ethylene carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubaghs, Luc; Sharma, Bhaskar; Keul, Helmut; Höcker, Hartwig; Loontjens, Ton; Benthem, Rolf van

    2003-01-01

    Alternating poly(amide urea)s from ε-caprolactam, diamines H2N-(CH2)x-NH2 (x = 2 - 4), and diphenyl carbonate were prepared in two steps. The microstructure of the poly(amide urea)s, as determined by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, reveals a strictly alternating sequence of the building blocks. The

  1. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the following...

  2. Time-invariant PT product and phase locking in PT -symmetric lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Onanga, Franck Assogba; Harter, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, non-Hermitian, PT -symmetric Hamiltonians have been investigated as candidates for both a fundamental, unitary, quantum theory and open systems with a nonunitary time evolution. In this paper, we investigate the implications of the former approach in the context of the latter. Motivated by the invariance of the PT (inner) product under time evolution, we discuss the dynamics of wave-function phases in a wide range of PT -symmetric lattice models. In particular, we numerically show that, starting with a random initial state, a universal, gain-site location dependent locking between wave-function phases at adjacent sites occurs in the PT -symmetry-broken region. Our results pave the way towards understanding the physically observable implications of time invariants in the nonunitary dynamics produced by PT -symmetric Hamiltonians.

  3. Catalytic Gas-Phase Production of Lactide from Renewable Alkyl Lactates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Rik; Dusselier, Michiel; Makshina, Ekaterina; Sels, Bert F

    2018-03-12

    A new route to lactide, which is a key building block of the bioplastic polylactic acid, is proposed involving a continuous catalytic gas-phase transesterification of renewable alkyl lactates in a scalable fixed-bed setup. Supported TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts are highly selective to lactide, with only minimal lactide racemization. The solvent-free process allows for easy product separation and recycling of unconverted alkyl lactates and recyclable lactyl intermediates. The catalytic activity of TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts was strongly correlated to their optical properties by DR UV/Vis spectroscopy. Catalysts with high band-gap energy of the supported TiO 2 phase, indicative of a high surface spreading of isolated Ti centers, show the highest turnover frequency per Ti site. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakzeski, Joseph; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-03-21

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model compounds and the distribution of products obtained during the lignin aqueous phase reforming revealed that lignin was depolymerized through disruption of the abundant β-O-4 linkages and, to a lesser extent, the 5-5' carbon-carbon linkages to form monomeric aromatic compounds. The alkyl chains contained on these monomeric compounds were readily reformed to produce hydrogen and simple aromatic platform chemicals, particularly guaiacol and syringol, with the distribution of each depending on the lignin source. The methoxy groups present on the aromatic rings were subject to hydrolysis to form methanol, which was also readily reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The composition of the isolated yields of monomeric aromatic compounds and overall lignin conversion based on these isolated yields varied from 10-15% depending on the lignin sample, with the balance consisting of gaseous products and residual solid material. Furthermore, we introduce the use of a high-pressure autoclave with optical windows and an autoclave with ATR-IR sentinel for on-line in situ spectroscopic monitoring of biomass conversion processes, which provides direct insight into, for example, the solubilization process and aqueous phase reforming reaction of lignin. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  6. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Leo W.; Perka, Alan T.; Roberts, George W.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  7. Application of a sponge media (BioCube) process for upgrading and expansion of existing caprolactam wastewater treatment plant for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K J; Yim, S K; Choi, K H

    2004-01-01

    For the upgrade and expansion of an existing caprolactam wastewater treatment plant, a freely floating sponge media (BioCube) process was selected based on extensive pilot-plant tests, due to extreme space constraints. In order to protect nitrifier inhibition caused by high strength organics in caprolactam wastewater, the pilot plant consisted of an organics removal reactor, which functioned as a pretreatment for nitrification, and followed the nitrogen removal reactor. The suspended MLSS was 1,800-4,000 and the media attached MLSS was maintained at 22,000-26,000 mg/L. The final effluent COD was noticeably low, around 20.4-37 mg/L, even with fairly large fluctuations in the feed levels, between 1,400-6,770 mg/L. The removal of total nitrogen with the system, when denitrification was close to completion, was approximately 97.6%. For the entire run, complete nitrification of 99.6% was achieved, which might have been due to well-acclimatized nitrifiers attached in the BioCube media. Specifically, after adaptation, the nitrification continuously increased in the organics removal reactor, even under high residual organics conditions. From the numerous experimental results, the BioCube process seemed to be an effective method for the upgrading and expansion of the existing wastewater treatment plant, with minimum reactor enlargement.

  8. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  9. Characterization of ionic liquid‐based biocatalytic two‐phase reaction system for production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    The property of a variety of ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media was evaluated for the production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of rapeseed oil. The IL Ammoeng 102, containing tetraaminum cation with C18 acyl and oligoethyleneglycol units, was found to be capable of forming oil....../IL biphasic reaction system by mixing with substrates, which is highly effective for the production of biodiesel with more than 98% biodiesel yield and nearly 100% conversion of oil. Conductor‐like screening model for real solvent (COSMO‐RS) in silico prediction of substrate solubility and simulation...... of partition coefficient change vs. reaction evolution indicated that the amphiphilic property of Ammoeng 102 might be responsible for creating efficient interaction of immiscible substrates; while big difference of partition coefficients of generated biodiesel and glycerol between the two phases suggests...

  10. Chirality-Controlled Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Mechanistic Understanding and Scalable Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0319 Chirality-Controlled Growth of Single -Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Mechanistic Understanding and...controlled growth of single -wall carbon nanotubes using vapor phase epitaxy: mechanistic understanding and scalable production FA9550-14-1-0115 Zhou...controlled synthesis of single -wall carbon nanotubes. Firstly, we have successfully demonstrated a vapor-phase-epitaxy-analogous general strategy for

  11. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F.J.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  12. Monitoring aldehyde production during frying by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R H; Smathers, J L

    1991-01-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) and other low molecular weight aldehydes (LMWAs) formed by degradation of the frying medium (triglycerides) were monitored by liquid chromatography (LC) during preparation of fried items. LMWA contents of coatings from codfish and of doughnuts and their volatiles that codistill with steam are monitored by trapping the vapors and distillate from the food matrix in a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. The resulting hydrazones are partitioned from the aqueous phase, first into isooctane and then into acetonitrile for LC analysis. The hydrazones are separated and quantified on a C18 reversed-phase column with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. LMWAs are confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. No difference was found in LMWA content in coatings from fish fillets fried at 182 or 204 degrees C. Cake doughnuts were higher in acrolein content than yeast-raised doughnuts prepared under similar conditions. Freshness of the frying medium, frying time, and batch size did not seem to influence LMWA production from doughnuts. Results indicated that most of the LMWAs formed codistilled with steam during frying rather than remaining with the food item.

  13. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... perspectives. This might create challenges or bring the process to a standstill ultimately wasting resources. By analysing case studies from three different Scandinavian product development companies: LEGO, LEO Pharma, and Zenit Design, this paper investigates the characteristics of the framing process...

  14. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for BWR/PWR dissolver wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out, under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes. Three possible types of encapsulants for BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes:- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), is recommended for Phase 3 studies on BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes. (author)

  15. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  16. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for MEB crud/filter aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out, under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on MEB Crud/Filter Aid. Three possible types of encapsulants for MEB Crud/Filter Aid:- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision and analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations, ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and, Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on MEB/Filter Aid. (author)

  17. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Composition of the corrosion product oxide phases in the gaps of three LMFBR-type mixed oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    Identification of the corrosion product oxide phases in the gaps of mixed oxide fuel pins clad with austenitic stainless steel is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of corrosion. Once the oxide is identified the reaction paths by which it is formed can be established. The corrosion product oxide will also be a reliable indication of the oxygen potential in the gap. A grey oxide phase which is recognised to contain the products of cladding corrosion is often observed in the gaps of mixed oxide fuel pins. Its main constituents are known to be chromium, caesium and oxygen, and recently the composition of the grey oxide phase in the gaps of three fuel pins was shown to be broadly similar, and it was proposed that the phase was essentially chromium oxide. (Auth.)

  19. Production circulator fabrication and testing for core flow test loop. Final report, Phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The performance testing of two production helium circulators utilizing gas film lubrication is described. These two centrifugal-type circulators plus an identical circulator prototype will be arranged in series to provide the helium flow requirements for the Core Flow Test Loop which is part of the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program (GCFR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report presents the results of the Phase III performance and supplemental tests, which were carried out by MTI during the period of December 18, 1980 through March 19, 1981. Specific test procedures are outlined and described, as are individual tests for measuring the performance of the circulators. Test data and run descriptions are presented

  20. Environmental monitoring in the various phases of the uranium nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pego, V.D.

    1981-10-01

    To systematize the water radioactive monitoring works in the various phases of the uranium nuclear fuel production, a sequence of procedures has been worked out, for the assessment of the water radioactive contamination. This sequence is based on the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activities, on the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in potable water, and on previously established reference levels. The procedures will provide a mean to avoid exceeding the annual incorporation limits by ingestion, recommended by the radiation protection regulatory agencies. Accordingly, it is expected that if these recommended procedures are adequately followed, the objectives of an water environmental monitoring program will be reached in a quite efficient and economical manner. (Author) [pt

  1. Production circulator fabrication and testing for core flow test loop. Final report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The performance testing of two production helium circulators utilizing gas film lubrication is described. These two centrifugal-type circulators plus an identical circulator prototype will be arranged in series to provide the helium flow requirements for the Core Flow Test Loop which is part of the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program (GCFR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report presents the results of the Phase III performance and supplemental tests, which were carried out by MTI during the period of December 18, 1980 through March 19, 1981. Specific test procedures are outlined and described, as are individual tests for measuring the performance of the circulators. Test data and run descriptions are presented.

  2. Bioassay of mannitol and caprolactam and assessment of response to diethylnitrosamine in heterozygous p53-deficient (+/-) and wild type (+/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Jeffrey, A M; Schlüter, G; Enzmann, H G; Williams, G M

    2001-03-01

    Alternative bioassays of mannitol (MAN) and caprolactam (CAP) were conducted in transgenic p53-deficient mice. Also, to assess the sensitivity of the transgenic mice to a model DNA-reactive carcinogen, the hepatic effects of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) were compared in the wild type background strain of mouse and in the transgenic derivative. Fifty-one male wild type strain C57BL/6 mice p53 (+/+), 8 weeks old, and 51 heterozygous p53 (+/-) C57BL/6 Tac-[KO] Trp53 N5 mice, 8 weeks old, were allocated to six experimental groups as follows: groups 1 (wild type +/+) and 2 (p53 +/-) served as room controls, groups 3 (+/+) and 4 (+/-) were exposed orally (gavage) to 50 mumol/kg body weight DEN weekly for a total of ten doses during the first 10 weeks of the study, group 5 (+/-) was exposed to 15,000 ppm CAP in the diet for up to 26 weeks, and group 6 (+/-) was exposed to 50,000 ppm MAN in the diet for up to 26 weeks. After 10 weeks, liver from control and DEN-exposed mice was used for O4-ethylthymidine (O4-EtT) DNA adduct analysis by the immunoslot blot method. The cell replicating fraction (RF) in the liver was determined by quantification of the percentage of immunohistochemically stained hepatocytes positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. No significant or consistent body or liver weight changes were present in any of the treatment groups. No consistent and pertinent changes in RF values were present in any of the treatment groups. None of the tested substances produced neoplasms of any type in p53 (+/-) mice. DEN induced comparable levels of O4-EtT adducts in the liver in both wild type and p53 +/- genotypes, but no morphologic changes were evident in the livers of either genotype. The lack of response to DEN, in spite of formation of DNA adducts, may reflect the resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis of the background C57BL/6 strain of the transgenic, and calls into question the general sensitivity of this transgenic for detection of carcinogenic effects.

  3. Structure and luminescent investigation of new Ln(III)-TTA complexes containing N-methyl-ε-caprolactam as ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alex Santos, E-mail: alexb@ifes.edu.br [Coordenadoria de Química e Biologia, IFES, Vitória, ES 29040-780 (Brazil); Caliman, Ewerton Valadares [Coordenadoria de Engenharia Metalúrgica, IFES, Vitória, ES 29040-780 (Brazil); Dutra, José Diogo L. [Departamento de Química Fundamental, UFPE, Recife, PE 50590-470 (Brazil); Da Silva, Jeferson G. [Departamento de Farmácia, UFJF, Governador Valadares, MG 35010-17 (Brazil); Araujo, Maria Helena, E-mail: maria.araujo@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Química, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ln(III)-TTA complexes (Ln=Eu(III) and Sm(III) ions; TTA=3-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate) with N-methyl-ε-caprolactam (NMC) are reported. The Ln complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration with EDTA and infrared spectroscopy. The molecular structures of the [Eu(TTA){sub 3}(NMC)(H{sub 2}O)] and [Sm(TTA){sub 3}(NMC)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. In these structures, the three TTA molecules are coordinated to the metal in anionic form as bidentate ligands, while the H{sub 2}O and NMC molecules are coordinated to the metal in neutral form as monodentated ligands. The coordination polyhedron around the Ln(III) atom can be described as square antiprismatic molecular geometry. The geometry of the [Eu(TTA){sub 3}(NMC)(H{sub 2}O)] complex was optimized with the Sparkle/RM1 model for Ln(III) complexes, allowing analysis of intramolecular energy transfer processes of the Eu(III) compound. The spectroscopic properties of the 4f{sup 6} intraconfigurational transitions of the Eu(III) complex were then studied experimentally and theoretically. The low value of emission quantum efficiency of {sup 5}D{sub 0} emitting level (η) of Eu(III) ion (ca. 36%) is due to the vibrational modes of the water molecule that act as luminescence quenching. In addition, the luminescence decay curves, the experimental intensity parameters (Ω{sub λ}), lifetimes (τ), radiative (A{sub rad}) and non-radiative (A{sub nrad}) decay rates, theoretical quantum yield (q{sub cal}) were also determined and discussed. - Highlights: • New Ln-TTA complexes with lactam were obtained and their luminescence investigated. • Jablonsky diagram for the Eu(III) complex shows the main channel for the IET process. • Data confirm the potentiality of the Eu(III) complex to produce red luminescence. • LUMPAC has provided useful information on the luminescence of the Eu

  4. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  5. Assessment of the microbial parameters along the production phases at a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%, followed by Escherichia coli (46% and Listeria monocytogenes (9.8 in bulk tank milk samples. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the tested samples.The swab samples taken from employees and working surfaces, water samples and pasteurized milk samples detected inadequate sanitary procedures during the phase of milk processing. Analysis of the swabs from employees hands revealed 1 positive sample for enumeration for Enterobacteriaceae and 7 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply withthe legislative, while the analysis of the swabs from working surfaces detected 5 samples positive for Enterobacteriaceae and 4 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply with the same legislative. The analysis of the water samples detected 2 samples with higher total viable count on 22°C, 2 samples for total viable count on 37°C and 1 sample for coliform bacteria that did not comply with the national legislative. None of the samples showed presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing clostridia and intestinal enterococci. The analysis ofthe pasteurized milk confi rmed 3 samples with presence of Enterobacteriacae, 1 sample for coagulase-positive staphylococci and 2 samples with high total viable count at 30°C that did not comply with the national legislative. The analysis of fermented milk products and cheese samples confirmed the need for immediate corective measures and subsequently, improved sanitation procedures. The testing detected 9 samples of

  6. The hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion improves the downstream methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, P; Dooms, M; Hattou, S; Benbelkacem, H

    2018-07-01

    The role of the hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion was investigated with a mixture of cattle slurry and maize silage with variable ratios (100, 70 and 30% volatile solids coming from cattle slurry). It was incubated for 48 h at 37, 55, 65 and 72 °C. Soluble chemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. Higher temperatures improved the amount of solubilized COD, which confirmed previously reported results. Nevertheless, solubilization mostly took place during the first 24 h. The rate of methane production in post-hydrolysis BMPs increased after 48 h hydrolysis time, but not after 24 h. The first order kinetic constant rose by 40% on average. No correlation was observed between soluble COD and downstream methane production rate, indicating a possible modification of the physical structure of the particulate solids during the hydrolytic stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of column and stationary phase properties on the productivity in chiral preparative LC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2018-03-01

    By generating 1500 random chiral separation systems, assuming two-site Langmuir interactions, we investigated numerically how the maximal productivity (P R,max ) was affected by changes in stationary phase adsorption properties. The relative change in P R,max , when one adsorption property changed 10%, was determined for each system and for each studied parameter the corresponding productivity change distribution of the systems was analyzed. We could conclude that there is no reason to have columns with more than 500 theoretical plates and larger selectivity than 3. More specifically, we found that changes in selectivity have a major impact on P R,max if it is below ∼2 and, interestingly, increasing selectivity when it is above ∼3 decreases P R,max . Increase in relative saturation capacity will have a major impact on P R,max if it is below ∼40%, but only modest above this percent. Increasing total monolayer saturation capacity, or decreasing the first eluting enantiomer's retention factor, will have a modest effect on P R,max and increased efficiency will have almost no effect at all on P R,max unless it is below ∼500 theoretical plates. Finally, we showed that chiral columns with superior analytic performance might have inferior preparative performance, or vice versa. It is, therefore, not possible to assess columns based on their analytical performance alone. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  9. Entanglement and quantum phase transitions in matrix-product spin-1 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, S.; Karimipour, V.; Memarzadeh, L.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a one-parameter family of matrix-product states of spin-1 particles on a periodic chain and study in detail the entanglement properties of such a state. In particular, we calculate exactly the entanglement of one site with the rest of the chain, and the entanglement of two distant sites with each other, and show that the derivative of both these properties diverge when the parameter g of the states passes through a critical point. Such a point can be called a point of quantum phase transition, since at this point the character of the matrix-product state, which is the ground state of a Hamiltonian, changes discontinuously. We also study the finite size effects and show how the entanglement depends on the size of the chain. This later part is relevant to the field of quantum computation where the problem of initial state preparation in finite arrays of qubits or qutrits is important. It is also shown that the entanglement of two sites have scaling behavior near the critical point

  10. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  11. Tropospheric Multiphase Chemistry Modeling : Sensitivity Tests Concerning The Sulfate and Nitric Acid Production In The Condensed Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Chaumerliac, N.

    Tropospheric multiphase chemistry is still poorly understood, because the interactions between trace gases and the condensed phase are quit complex (Jacob, 2000). A multi- phase chemical box model have been developed with an explicit chemistry for both gas and aqueous phase in Leriche et al. (2000) and in Leriche et al. (2001), the multiphase box model has been coupled with quasi-spectral microphysics, based upon Berry and ReinhardtSs parameterisations (1974 a, b). In these studies, chemical multiphase pro- cesses occurring during one cloudy event observed during the European Cloud Ice Mountain Experiment (CIME) held in 1997 has been investigated . The comparison of the partitioning of chemical species among the gas and condensed phases of the cloud, from model results and from measurements, displays, when collision/coalescence pro- cesses are considered, an improvement in retrieving the partitioning of soluble species, especially for nitric acid. The partitioning of nitric acid depends on the total chemical production of nitric acid both in gas and condensed phases, which is more important when microphysical processes are taken into account due to an important production in rainwater, which is comparable to the production in cloud water. The nitric acid production is related to two precursors in aqueous phase: the pernitric acid and the sulfite ion. Pernitric acid, due to its equilibrium in gas phase and its high solubility, is always available both in cloud water and in rainwater via the mass transfer from gas phase. The sulfite ion comes from the mass transfer from gas phase of the sulfur dioxide in cloud water before rain formation. When rainwater appears, it is efficiently transferred in rainwater by collision/coalescence processes. This two facts lead to an enhancement in nitric acid production when microphysics is considered which leads to a best retrieval of measured nitric acid partitioning. In this review, sensitivity tests are presented. The effect of

  12. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing

  13. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-10-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

  14. The beneficial influence of ultrasound in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam to polyamide-6 (Nylon 6). Part II: additional experiment to understand the "pre-sonication effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaini, Vittorio; Pirola, Carlo; Rocco, Giulio; Guaita, Cesare

    2007-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) "pre-sonication effect" is the beneficial effect of US in the hydrolytic polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam (CL) mixtures with very low water concentrations (about 0.1-1 wt%). It appears after a mild initial treatment of the mixtures with US [17.5-20 kHz, short times (5-15 min), low temperatures (70-110 degrees C)] followed by heating at 220-260 degrees C. An explanation is proposed on the basis of the formation in mild conditions (100 degrees C) of low concentrations of cyclic oligomers never detected in the literature at those conditions. These, under US irradiation, produce linear amino acid oligomers, which are strong activators of polymerization when the mixture of CL and water, after US irradiation, is heated at the suitable polymerization temperature indicated above.

  15. Growth of ɛ-caprolactam crystals from the melt: The influence of cyclohexanone on the {1 1 1¯} and {1 1 0} forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, E. P. G.; Bögels, G.; Arkenbout, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The (1 1 1¯) and (1 1 0) facets of ɛ-caprolactam growing from the melt appear to grow with different mechanisms. This is caused by the different molecular structure of the (1 1 1¯) and the (1 1 0) facets. Moreover, the cyclohexanone impurity concentration in front of the interface changes the growth mechanism leading to different distribution coefficients for each facet. Usually, in industry overall distribution coefficients are used and the crystal form is only of interest because of the filterability of the crystals. Here it is shown that a second factor, the growth mechanism of each facet has to be taken into account when considering the optimal conditions for growing pure crystals.

  16. Evaluation of the circulatory system in workers exposed to caprolactam and diphenyl in 1 of the chemical plants producing polyamine fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmider, K.; Sawinski, J.; Soroka, M.; Tomaszewska, Z.; Smulski, H.; Kloczkowski, H.

    1981-01-01

    The literature data indicating nonspecific pathologic symptoms of the circulatory system in those occupationally exposed to caprolactam and diphenyl inspired the authors to evaluate the circulatory system in a group of 495 workers of a Chemical Plant producing polyamide fibres. The anamnestic data, family inquiry and subjective changes indicate that any hints of the significant effects of the technological process on circulatory diseases in this professional group are unwarranted. The percentage values of the latent circulatory failure (1-2% of subjects), coronary insufficiency (6.6% of subjects), arterial hypertension (5.7% of subjects) did not show any significant differences, as compared to the control group and normal Polish population. The obtained results of ECG test evaluated according to the Minnesota-Code criterion did not significantly differ from 100 controls composed of those in whom no changes in the circulatory system were found, whereas clear differences were found related to 50 persons with documented heart ischemia.

  17. Caprolactam-silica network, a strong potentiator of the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Gheorghe, Irina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-03-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of a novel ε-caprolactam-silica (ε-SiO2) network and assessed its biocompatibility and ability to improve the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin. The results of the quantitative antimicrobial assay demonstrate that the obtained ε-SiO2 network has efficiently improved the kanamycin activity on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 strains, with a significant decrease of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ε-SiO2 network could be feasibly obtained and represents an alternative for the design of new antibiotic drug carriers or delivery systems to control bacterial infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expectations in multi-particle production in hh collisions in the TeV energy region. Full phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.

    1999-01-01

    First results of our programme of investigation of final charged particles multiplicity distributions properties in the TeV region and related correlation structure in hadron hadron collisions in full phase space, in rapidity and in transverse momentum intervals, are discussed. Attention is limited here to full phase space only-Huge (mini-)jets production is the main expectation in all examined scenarios. (author)

  19. Nutrient removal and energy production from aqueous phase of bio-oil generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan R; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep

    2017-04-01

    Removal of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) as struvite from bio-oil aqueous phase generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae was evaluated in this study. Effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and reaction time on struvite formation was studied. More than 99% of phosphorus and 40-100% ammonium nitrogen were removed under all experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of struvite, and the struvite recovered from bio-oil aqueous phase can be used as a slow-release fertilizer. Biogas production from struvite recovered bio-oil aqueous phase showed 3.5 times higher CH 4 yield (182±39mL/g COD) as compared to non-struvite recovered aqueous phase. The results from this study indicate that both struvite and methane can be produced from bio-oil aqueous phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of energetic consumptions and of renewable energy production potential for the Dordogne district. Phase 1 - Status and stakes, Phase 2 - Assessment of territory potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers reports made for phases 1 and 2 of a study which aimed at assessing the potential energy production by renewable energies in the French district of Dordogne. The first phase aimed at providing an overview of the present situation and an identification of stakes through an identification of electric and thermal energy sources (renewable or not) on this territory, and an analysis of energy consumptions per sector (housing and so on) in the district. Thus, it presents the district in its geographical, administrative, and demographic dimensions, as well as its local expertise. It gives an overview of the energy situation (energy and renewable energy production, electric power sector, gas sector, fuel supply network), and an overview of energy consumptions in the different sectors (housing, office building, industry, agriculture, transports). The second phase aimed at identifying and at assessing the potential energy production by renewable resources on the territory, and of the economic potential associated with renewable energy development. Raw, net and likely resources are assessed for hydroelectricity, solar sectors, wood energy, geothermal energy, aero-thermal energy, methanization, wind energy, and heat recovery

  1. Binding and release of drugs into and from thermosensitive poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihola, Henna; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni; Tenhu, Heikki

    2002-07-01

    Three model drug substances, the beta-blocking agents nadolol and propranolol and a choline-esterase inhibitor tacrine, were used in order to determine how different drug molecules affect the behavior of thermally responsive polymer nanoparticles composed of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL). Pure PVCL particles in water exist in a swollen state at room temperature, but the size of the particles decreases discontinuously when the temperature is raised above the volume phase transition temperature. At temperatures above this transition temperature, water is expelled out from the nanoscopic hydrogel particles. Light scattering studies revealed that the more hydrophobic drug substances, propranolol and tacrine, considerably swell the PVCL-microgel. The more hydrophilic drug, nadolol, decreased the transition temperature of PVCL particles, whereas the transition temperature values of pure PVCL particles and that of the added propranolol and tacrine were quite similar. Attenuated drug release results showed that the beta-blocking agents were tightly bound to the microgel, and this was more evident at higher temperatures. On the contrary, the release of tacrine across the cellulose membrane was increased when PVCL particles were present. Thus, both physical and chemical properties of the drugs clearly affected their binding to PVCL particles and the release of drugs was affected by the temperature.

  2. Influence of product phase separation on phospholipase A(2) hydrolysis of supported phospholipid bilayers studied by force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Kildemark; Balashev, K.; Callisen, Thomas Hønger

    2002-01-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy studies reveal a marked influence of the initial presence of hydrolysis products on the hydrolysis of supported phospholipid bilayers by phospholipase, A(2). By analysis of the nano-scale topography of a number of supported bilayers, with different initial product...... concentrations, made by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we show that small depressions enriched in products are efficiently promoting enzyme degradation of the bilayer. These small depressions, which are indicative of phase separation, are initially present in samples with 75% products. The kinetics...

  3. New Enzymatic Method of Chiral Amino Acid Synthesis by Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Amino Acid Amides: Use of Stereoselective Amino Acid Amidases in the Presence of α-Amino-ɛ-Caprolactam Racemase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2007-01-01

    d- and l-amino acids were produced from l- and d-amino acid amides by d-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and l-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of α-amino-ɛ-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides. PMID:17586677

  4. Production of pectinases by Polyporus squamosus in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, M G.; Pericin, D M.

    2001-03-08

    The ability of Polyporus squamosus to grow and produce pectinases in an aqueous two-phase medium composed of polyethylene glycol and crude dextran is reported. Fungal growth was restricted to the bottom phase leaving the top phase cell free. Amounts of produced biomass and endo and exo-pectinase activities were superior or equal to those obtained in homogeneous medium. The partition coefficient for the endo-pectinase was 1.52 followed by a top phase yield of 70.86%. Although the phase system composition favours partition of a greater part of exo-pectinase activity to the bottom phase (K(exo) was 0.6 and yield in top phase 48.56%) the partitioned activity in the top phase was equal to that produced in homogeneous cultivation.

  5. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (± 0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation.

  6. Computer modeling of fluid flow during production and environmental restoration phases of in situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines report describes the development and application of a computer model for simulating the hydrological activity associated with in situ leaching. The model is intended to provide uranium resource developers with a description of the flow behavior of leachants and ground water during the development, production, and restoration phases of a leaching operation involving an arbitrary pattern of injection and recovery wells. Different aquifer environments are modeled, using a closed-form solution to the partial differential equation that describes three-dimensional changes in piezometric head as a result of pumping from leachant injection and recovery wells. The computer program can model a maximum of 50 arbitarily located wells. Numerical techniques involving difference quotients and Taylor expansions about time points are used to derive time, velocity, areal sweep, and fluid volume parameters associated with leaching hydraulics. These parameters are output by the program in graphic and tabular formats. Other numeric methods insure that the program running time is minimized without significantly affecting the accuracy of results

  7. Learning strategies in the planning and evaluation phase of image production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, W.; Aspelin, P.; Lundberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and analyses radiographers' learning strategies in practice. These strategies are particularly important in the light of the great changes in radiology departments and the role of radiographers during the past two decades. With increased responsibility for quality assurance and diagnostic work, radiographers need to develop specific skills over time, which requires learning strategies in practice. The aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the learning strategies of novice and experienced radiographers in the planning and evaluation phase of image production. This study found that novice radiographers; use memorization combined with logical reasoning, apply focused observation, selective reading and information-seeking, communicate through: active and attentive listening, asking questions, receiving feedback, discussing problems and speak out loud. Experienced radiographers; use memorization in combination with logical reasoning and predicting, observe discriminating, read selectively, validate information and perform information-seeking. They communicate through: listening analyzing and demanding way, answering questions and providing feed-back and discussing problems. This study concludes that the difference between the learning strategies of novice and experienced radiographers is in the way they apply the strategies rather than the strategies themselves

  8. Comparative study of production of Bio-Indigo by Pandoraea sp. in a two phase - fed batch and continuous bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi Unde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigo, is blue of blue jeans, a synthetic dye used on large scale all over the world. Chemical production of the dye is taking a new route towards bacterial production to overcome the environmental effects that are posed by the synthetic blue powder (Indigo. In the present work a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from the oil contaminated soil is found to produce blue pigment which is analyzed qualitatively as indigo using UV-visible scan and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. The strain is used for indigo production at lab scale in two different bioreactor configurations first the fed batch mode and second continuous mode using two phases. The two phases consisting of medium carrying biomass and the second phase of silicone oil carrying substrate indole. The use of second phase allows higher concentration of substrate injection reducing the inhibition effects of the substrate as well as act as a partitioning agent for removal of the product. In two phase study, the maximum indigo produced was seen to be 0.068 g/L after 22 hours of substrate injection into the Fermentor in a fed batch mode. The maximum yield obtained in this configuration was 19%. For commercial production of bio-indigo a continuous operation is required, which was studied in a bioreactor with 2.5 liter capacity under the optimized conditions. The maximum indigo produced was found to be 0.052 g/L after about 72 hours of operation. The results showed decrease in the production of indigo in continuous mode as compared to fed batch operation, which may be due to the insufficient time available for the bacteria to bio-transform indole into indigo.

  9. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Alfaro, A.R.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  10. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  11. GMP production of pDERMATT for vaccination against melanoma in a phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, S G L; van den Berg, J H; Toebes, M; Schumacher, T N M; Haanen, J B A G; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2008-10-01

    For the treatment of melanoma DNA vaccines are a promising therapeutic approach. In our institute a plasmid encoding a melanoma-associated epitope (MART-1) and an immunostimulatory sequence (tetanus toxin fragment-c) termed pDERMATT was developed. In a phase I study the plasmid will be administered intradermally using a newly developed tattoo strategy to assess the toxicity and efficacy of inducing tumor-specific T-cell immunity. To facilitate this study a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant plasmid manufacturing process was set up and a pharmaceutical dosage form was developed. Each batch resulted in approximately 200mg plasmid DNA of a high purity >90% supercoiled DNA, an A260/280 ratio 1.80-1.95, undetectable or extremely low residual endotoxins, Escherichia coli host cell protein, RNA, and DNA. In the manufacturing process no animal derived enzymes like RNase or potentially harmful organic solvents are used. After sterile filtration the concentration of the plasmid solution is approximately 1.1mg/mL. For the scheduled phase I study a concentration of 5mg/mL is desired, and further concentration of the solution is achieved by lyophilisation. The formulation solution is composed of 1mg/mL pDERMATT and 20mg/mL sucrose in Water for Injections. Upon reconstitution with a five times smaller volume an isotonic sucrose solution containing 5mg/mL pDERMATT is obtained. Lyophilised pDERMATT is sterile with >90% supercoiled DNA, an A260-280 ratio 1.80-1.95, content 90-110% of labeled, and residual water content <2% (w/w). The product yields the predicted profile upon restriction-enzyme digestion, is highly immunogenic as confirmed in an in vivo mouse model, and stable for at least six months at 5 degrees C. We have not only developed a reproducible process to manufacture pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA but also a stable dosage form for the use in clinical trials.

  12. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Haefner, R. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  13. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  14. Production Decline Analysis for Two-Phase Flow in Multifractured Horizontal Well in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Wei-Yang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Tan, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Chao; Wang, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, ...

  15. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ozone and OH-radical reactions of myrcene were investigated in an aerosol chamber (at 292-295 K and 50% relative humidity) to examine the gas-phase oxidation products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The ozone reaction studies were performed in the presence and absence of CO, which serves as an OH radical scavenger. In the photooxidation experiments OH radicals were generated by photolysis of methyl nitrite. The ozonolysis of myrcene in the presence of CO resulted in a substantial yield of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal (55.3%), measured as m/z 111 plus m/z 93 using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and confirmed unambiguously as C7H10O by denuder measurements and HPLC/ESI-TOFMS analysis of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative. Additionally, the formation of two different organic dicarbonyls with m/z 113 and a molecular formula of C6H8O2 were observed (2.1%). The yields of these dicarbonyls were higher in the ozonolysis experiments without an OH scavenger (5.4%) and even higher (13.8%) in the myrcene OH radical reaction. The formation of hydroxyacetone as a direct product of the myrcene reaction with ozone with a molar yield of 17.6% was also observed. The particle size distribution and volume concentrations were monitored and facilitated the calculation of SOA yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.01 (ozonolysis in the presence of CO) to 0.39 (myrcene OH radical reaction). Terpenylic acid was found in the SOA samples collected from the ozonolysis of myrcene in the absence of an OH scavenger and the OH radical-initiated reaction of myrcene but not in samples collected from the ozonolysis in the presence of CO as an OH radical scavenger, suggesting that terpenylic acid formation involves the reaction of myrcene with an OH radical. A reaction mechanism describing the formation of terpenylic acid is proposed.

  16. A Bayesian approach to degradation-based burn-in optimization for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Tao; Bae, Suk Joo; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the two-phase degradation phenomena observed in light displays (e.g., plasma display panels (PDPs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)), this study proposes a new degradation-based burn-in testing plan for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns. The primary focus of the burn-in test in this study is to eliminate the initial rapid degradation phase, while the major purpose of traditional burn-in tests is to detect and eliminate early failures from weak units. A hierarchical Bayesian bi-exponential model is used to capture two-phase degradation patterns of the burn-in population. Mission reliability and total cost are introduced as planning criteria. The proposed burn-in approach accounts for unit-to-unit variability within the burn-in population, and uncertainty concerning the model parameters, mainly in the hierarchical Bayesian framework. Available pre-burn-in data is conveniently incorporated into the burn-in decision-making procedure. A practical example of PDP degradation data is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. The proposed method is compared to other approaches such as the maximum likelihood method or the change-point regression. - Highlights: • We propose a degradation-based burn-in test for products with two-phase degradation. • Mission reliability and total cost are used as planning criteria. • The proposed burn-in approach is built within the hierarchical Bayesian framework. • A practical example was used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  17. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  18. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a solution to overcome

  19. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a

  20. Vortex beam production and contrast enhancement from a magnetic spiral phase plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.M.; Loudon, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Electron vortex beam probes offer the possibility of mapping magnetic moments with atomic resolution. In this work we consider using the stray magnetic field produced from a narrow ferromagnetic rod magnetised along its long axis to produce a vortex beam probe, as an alternative to the currently used holographic apertures or gratings. We show through numerical modelling, electron holography observations and direct imaging of the electron probe, that a long narrow ferromagnetic rod induces a phase shift in the wave-function of passing electrons that approximately describes a helix in the regions near its ends. Directing this rod towards the optical axis of a charged-particle beam probe forming system at a limiting aperture position, with the free-end sufficiently close to the axis, is shown to offer a point spread function composed of vortex modes, with evidence of this appearing in observations of the electron probe formed from inserting a micro-fabricated CoFe rod into the beam path of a 300 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM). If the rod is arranged to contain the magnetic flux of h/e, thus producing a maximum phase shift of 2π, it produces a simple spiral-like phase contrast transfer function for weak phase objects. In this arrangement the ferromagnetic rod can be used as a phase plate, positioned at the objective aperture position of a TEM, yielding enhanced image contrast which is simulated to be intermediate between comparable Zernike and Hilbert phase plates. Though this aspect of the phase plate performance is not demonstrated here, agreement between our observations and models for the probe formed from an example rod containing a magnetic flux of ∼2.35h/e, indicate this phase plate arrangement could be a simple means of enhancing contrast and gaining additional information from TEM imaged weak phase samples, while also offering the capability to produce vortex beam probes. However, steps still need to be taken to either remove or improve the

  1. Transfer and Reuse of Knowledge from the Service Phase of Complex Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna

    The reuse of knowledge generated during the different phases of a product’s lifecycle is crucial for a company in order to achieve competitive advantage. This thesis investigates knowledge transfer within the service phase and between service and design phases through case studies from the oil...... and engineering designers were interested in knowledge about changes, issues and improvements generated during service; however, engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of the equipment at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems...... developing a model for managing the knowledge generated during the service phase. The core of this model, called the RSK model, is the analysis phase, in which information from service cases is evaluated and integrated into existing documentation. The RSK model has been developed based on the case studies...

  2. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - Nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    Within the project ''Application of Isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production'' a mission was spent in Indonesia. This travel report provides details on the progress of studies on the effects of urea-molasses block food supplements on growth and milk production in cattle, sheep and goats and on reproduction in goats. Also discussed is the use of iodine-125 radioimmunoassay procedures to monitor progesterone levels. 4 tabs

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural phase of wine production in the Maremma rural district in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bosco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest from retailers, industries and environmental associations in estimating the life cycle of greenhouse gases emitted in the atmosphere from everyday products and services, also known as carbon footprint (CF. Life cycle assessment (LCA is the most common methodology used to evaluate the environmental impact of a product. This approach was largely used in many industrial sectors and was also recently applied to quantify the environmental impact of the agri-food chain. Within agri-food products, wine is one of the most analysed, both for its importance in economic production and in the world distribution market. The present study is a part of the Carbon Label Project carried out in the wine production chain in the Maremma rural district (Tuscany, Italy. The project assesses the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wine production for labelling purposes. Here, we evaluated the environmental performances of four high quality wines for carbon labelling. The international standards ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, and the Product Category Rules (PCR Wine from Fresh Grapes (except sparkling wine and Grape Must for the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD certification, specifically for Climate Declaration, were used in order to carry out our analyses. The functional unit (FU used here was one 0.75 L bottle of wine. The system boundaries were set from the vineyard planting to the distribution and waste disposal. The global warming potential (GWP of four investigated wines was found to lie between 0.6 and 1.3 kg CO2-eq./bottle, showing a value comparable with literature. With all the four wines analysed, the agricultural phase covered, on average, 22% of the total GWP/bottle, while the main impact was in the production of the glass bottle. The results showed that the vineyard-planting phase has a significant impact on the wine CF, thus it has to be considered in the life cycle, while in literature it is

  4. Productive HIV-1 Infection of Human Cervical Tissue Ex Vivo is Associated with the Secretory Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Elisa; Origoni, Massimo; Taccagni, Gianluca; Ferrari, Davide; Doglioni, Claudio; Nava, Alice; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid; Poli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Cervical tissue explants (CTE) from 22 HIV-1 seronegative women were exposed to R5 HIV-1 ex vivo. Eight CTE were productively infected in terms of HIV-1 p24Gag release in culture supernatants whereas 14 were not. Nonetheless, both accumulation of HIV-1gag DNA and of p24Gag+ CD4+ T cells and macrophages occurred in both productive and, at lower levels, in nonproductive CTE. Nonproductive CTE differed from productive CTE for higher secretion of CCL3 and CCL5. A post-hoc analysis revealed that all productive CTE were established from women in their secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, whereas nonproductive CTE derived from women either in their secretory (28%) or proliferative (36%) menstrual cycle phases or with an atrophic endometrium (36%). Thus, our results support the epidemiological observation that sexual HIV-1 transmission from males to women as well as from women to men is more efficient during their secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:23385427

  5. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Broch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA. Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase.

  6. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    -ToF-MS) were used to quantify OA and VOC emissions, respectively. SOA production potential of the different emissions was quantified by introducing them into the PSI mobile smog chamber and a potential aerosol chamber (PAM) where they were photochemically aged. The measurements of primary emissions suggest that the COA factor identified in ambient atmospheric aerosols is mostly related to fat release from frying with vegetable oils or grilling fatty-meats. In contrast, vegetable cooking (boiling and frying) was associated with significant VOC emissions. The VOC emissions from frying consist mainly of aldehydes which are formed through breaking of fatty acids. Gas phase composition, emission factors and SAPP from all these processes will be presented. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation as well as the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n.° 290605 (COFUND: PSI-FELLOW). J. Allan et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 647-668 (2010) X.-F. Huang et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 8933-8945 (2010) Y.-L. Sun et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1581-1602 (2011)

  7. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    The present EFP98 project is the second phase of a long-term, strategic research project, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of significant amounts of biomass in the production of power and heat. The project deals with combustion and emission issues related to the use of biomass, specifically combustion of straw on a grate and wet flue gas desulphurization. A mathematical model for combustion of straw on a grate is developed as a tool to improve the understanding of this process. The model includes heat transfer to and in the bed as well as pyrolysis and char oxidation. To verify the model and to obtain a better understanding of fixed-bed straw combustion, a number of bench-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted at TNO in Holland. Predicted combustion rates and bed temperatures were in fairly good agreement with experimental fixed-bed data. A parameter analysis has identified the sensitivity of modeling predictions towards important parameters in the model. Measuring programs on straw firing have been conducted at Enstedvaerket and Masnedoe. Measuring results include gas temperature and gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO. SO{sub 2}, NO) from different positions in the boiler. Data from Masnedoe include also results from co-firing of straw with other biomass fuels (25-35%). The results indicate that co-firing in the quantities does not significantly affect emissions. Nitrogen oxides emissions from Masnedoevaerket were found to be significantly higher than those of Ensted. The work on wet flue gas desulphurization on aimed to provide the information necessary to optimize and further develop the process. The main focus was fuel and sorbent flexibility, use of the waste product from the semi-dry FGD process as a sorbent in wet FGD, and ways of optimizing the Wet FGD process with respect to a high degree of desulphurization, a low content of residual limestone in the gypsum and a continuous steady state operation of the FGD plant. Laboratory

  8. Solid-Solid Vacuum Regolith Heat-Exchanger for Oxygen Production, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel coaxial counterflow solid-solid heat exchanger to recover heat energy from spent regolith...

  9. Demonstration of "Optical Mining" For Excavation of Asteroids and Production of Mission Consumables, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative breakthrough in ISRU methods that we call "Optical Mining". Optical mining is an approach...

  10. In-Situ Resources Utilization for Organic Chemicals Production, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research Phase I addresses the development of a catalytic system for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen to...

  11. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2017-12-01

    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  12. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains summarized data on the effects of urea-molasses block (UMB) food supplements in dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats in Java. In addition to improvements in growth and milk production, UMB supplements cause a significant enhancement of ovulation rate and hence fecundity in sheep and goats. Similar data for dairy cattle are not yet available. 5 tabs

  14. Compositional evolution of particle-phase reaction products and water in the heterogeneous OH oxidation of model aqueous organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Chim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds present at or near the surface of aqueous droplets can be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals, which alter the molecular distribution of the reaction products within the droplet. A change in aerosol composition affects the hygroscopicity and leads to a concomitant response in the equilibrium amount of particle-phase water. The variation in the aerosol water content affects the aerosol size and physicochemical properties, which in turn governs the oxidation kinetics and chemistry. To attain better knowledge of the compositional evolution of aqueous organic droplets during oxidation, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH-radical-initiated oxidation of aqueous methylsuccinic acid (C5H8O4 droplets, a model compound for small branched dicarboxylic acids found in atmospheric aerosols, at a high relative humidity of 85 % through experimental and modeling approaches. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer reveal two major products: a five carbon atom (C5 hydroxyl functionalization product (C5H8O5 and a C4 fragmentation product (C4H6O3. These two products likely originate from the formation and subsequent reactions (intermolecular hydrogen abstraction and carbon–carbon bond scission of tertiary alkoxy radicals resulting from the OH abstraction occurring at the methyl-substituted carbon site. Based on the identification of the reaction products, a kinetic model of oxidation (a two-product model coupled with the Aerosol Inorganic–Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC model is built to simulate the size and compositional changes of aqueous methylsuccinic acid droplets during oxidation. Model results show that at the maximum OH exposure, the droplets become slightly more hygroscopic after oxidation, as the mass fraction of water is predicted to increase from

  15. Ion pair-reversed phase HPLC approach facilitates subcloning of PCR products and screening of recombinant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Bruha, C M; Lamb, K A

    2000-04-01

    The isolation of a single DNA molecule for cloning is technically difficult, and the subsequent screening of colonies for recombinant DNA clones is time consuming. Ion pair-reversed phase HPLC (IP-RP-HPLC) analysis of nucleic acids improves the resolution and isolation of PCR products to be cloned. We demonstrate that PCR products analyzed and collected using the IP-RP-HPLC approach (WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis System) can be cloned directly into a plasmid vector. In addition, we demonstrate that when IP-RP-HPLC analysis is extended to the colony screening process, the time required for these procedures is reduced.

  16. Compositional evolution of particle-phase reaction products and water in the heterogeneous OH oxidation of model aqueous organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Man Mei; Cheng, Chiu Tung; Davies, James F.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Nin Chan, Man

    2017-12-01

    Organic compounds present at or near the surface of aqueous droplets can be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals, which alter the molecular distribution of the reaction products within the droplet. A change in aerosol composition affects the hygroscopicity and leads to a concomitant response in the equilibrium amount of particle-phase water. The variation in the aerosol water content affects the aerosol size and physicochemical properties, which in turn governs the oxidation kinetics and chemistry. To attain better knowledge of the compositional evolution of aqueous organic droplets during oxidation, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH-radical-initiated oxidation of aqueous methylsuccinic acid (C5H8O4) droplets, a model compound for small branched dicarboxylic acids found in atmospheric aerosols, at a high relative humidity of 85 % through experimental and modeling approaches. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer reveal two major products: a five carbon atom (C5) hydroxyl functionalization product (C5H8O5) and a C4 fragmentation product (C4H6O3). These two products likely originate from the formation and subsequent reactions (intermolecular hydrogen abstraction and carbon-carbon bond scission) of tertiary alkoxy radicals resulting from the OH abstraction occurring at the methyl-substituted carbon site. Based on the identification of the reaction products, a kinetic model of oxidation (a two-product model) coupled with the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model is built to simulate the size and compositional changes of aqueous methylsuccinic acid droplets during oxidation. Model results show that at the maximum OH exposure, the droplets become slightly more hygroscopic after oxidation, as the mass fraction of water is predicted to increase from 0.362 to 0.424; however, the

  17. Short overview on the definitions and significance of the late phase fission product aerosol/vapour source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, J.; Kajimoto, M.; Hashimoto, K.; Soda, K.

    1994-09-01

    Fission product once deposited on the surface structure or dissolved in the water in a containment may be resuspended and/or re-vaporized and/or re-entrained during the course of a severe accident. These phenomena are supposed to take place in several situations such as rapid pressure decrease due to the containment failure or containment venting, or hydrogen combustion in containment. The mechanism of resuspension, revaporization or re-entrainment is either hydraulic, thermal, chemical or both. These phenomena, generally referred as 'resuspension' would pose some safety concern on a long-term release of fission products to the environment. This late phase fission product aerosol/vapor release was placed as one of unresolved issues in the analysis of severe accident phenomena, since this additional fission product source at or near the time of containment failure might reduce the benefits gained by delayed failure of the containment. The present paper gives an overview on the definition and significance of the late phase aerosol/vapor fission product source in severe accident condition, at the light of the various experimental and analytical efforts conducted to understand these phenomena

  18. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  20. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, X.; Moran, A.; Cuetos, M.J.; Sanchez, M.E. [Institute of Natural Resources, Avda de Portugal 41, University of Leon, Leon 24071 (Spain)

    2006-07-03

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34{sup o}C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3NLkg{sup -1}VS{sub rem}. (author)

  1. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Upragarin, N.; van Ederen, A.M.; Adewuyi, A.A.; Candiani, D.; Nguyen, T.K.A.; Sabeckiene (Balciute), J.

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP. PMID:16187407

  2. Use of in situ solid-phase adsorption in microbial natural product fermentation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas; Chase, Matthew; Wagner, Stephanie; Renzi, Chris; Powell, Marcella; DeAngelo, Joseph; Michels, Peter

    2013-05-01

    It has been half a century since investigators first began experimenting with adding ion exchange resins during the fermentation of microbial natural products. With the development of nonionic polymeric adsorbents in the 1970s, the application of in situ product adsorption in bioprocessing has grown slowly, but steadily. To date, in situ product adsorption strategies have been used in biotransformations, plant cell culture, the production of biofuels, and selected bulk chemicals, such as butanol and lactic acid, as well as in more traditional natural product fermentation within the pharmaceutical industry. Apart from the operational gains in efficiency from the integration of fermentation and primary recovery, the addition of adsorbents during fermentation has repeatedly demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase titers by sequestering the product and preventing or mitigating degradation, feedback inhibition and/or cytotoxic effects. Adoption of in situ product adsorption has been particularly valuable in the early stages of natural product-based drug discovery programs, where quickly and cost-effectively generating multigram quantities of a lead compound can be challenging when using a wild-type strain and fermentation conditions that have not been optimized. While much of the literature involving in situ adsorption describes its application early in the drug development process, this does not imply that the potential for scale-up is limited. To date, commercial-scale processes utilizing in situ product adsorption have reached batch sizes of at least 30,000 l. Here we present examples where in situ product adsorption has been used to improve product titers or alter the ratios among biosynthetically related natural products, examine some of the relevant variables to consider, and discuss the mechanisms by which in situ adsorption may impact the biosynthesis of microbial natural products.

  3. Acrolein Production by Gas-Phase Glycerol Dehydration Using PO₄/Nb₂O5 Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Am; Ryoo, HeeKyoung; Ma, Byung Chol; Kim, Youngchul

    2018-02-01

    In this study, modified niobium oxide were prepared to study the addictive effects on the catalytic performance for gas-phase glycerol dehydration. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR. The amount of phosphoric acid was up to 50 wt% in niobium. As a result, the highest glycerol conversion was achieved over 20 wt% PO4/Nb2O5. It indicates that the optimal amount of phosphoric acid leads the catalyst to have appropriate acidity which is an important factor for gas-phase glycerol dehydration.

  4. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  5. Modeling of the molar mass distribution of six-arm star-branched poly-epsilon-caprolactam using size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Cokki; Hillegers, Tom; Geladé, Erik; Nijenhuis, Atze

    2003-08-08

    This paper presents a modeling-based approach to the prediction of the molar mass distribution of the various species in a star-branched polycondensation mixture. The interpretation of experimental SEC data of the mixture of linear, cyclic and star-branched molecules is not straightforward, because of the different sizes of those molecules (having the same molecular mass). Therefore we have opted to use SEC analysis with only a concentration detector and fit the experimental data to the theoretical mass distribution, corrected for the volume of the various molecules. This allows the relative fraction and the distribution of the various species in the mixture (linear, cyclic and star-branched) to be determined. To demonstrate this, the six-arm star-branched poly-epsilon-caprolactam based on the six-functional coupling molecule, hexa(6-caproic acid) melamine has been analyzed. Five polymer mixtures with different initial concentration of coupling molecule have been synthesized. As the initial concentration of coupling molecule increased, we found that the weight fraction of star-branched molecules increased, while the weight fraction of linear and cyclic molecules decreased. We also found that the weight-average molar mass and the arm length decrease as the initial fraction of the coupling molecule increases.

  6. The beneficial influence of ultrasound in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam to polyamide-6 (Nylon 6). Part I: primary experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaini, Vittorio; Guaita, Cesare; Pirola, Carlo

    2007-09-01

    Epsilon-caprolactam (CL) polymerization to polyamide-6 (Nylon 6) was studied at different contents of water in CL (0.01-2 wt%), with or without epsilon-amino-caproic acid (ACA) as an activator, applying to the mixture an initial treatment of Ultrasound (US) (17.5-20 kHz) at low temperatures (70-110 degrees C) and for short times (max 10 min). It was verified that polymerization at 260 degrees C produces a polymer having a much higher molecular weight (MW) when US is applied with respect to silent (SIL) conditions i.e. without the use of ultrasound. This constitutes a "pre-sonication effect". The ratio (MW)(US)/(MW)(SIL) is inversely proportional to the initial content of water in CL. The action of US converts CL at very low temperatures (70-110 degrees C) and water content, in comparison with silent conditions where CL was unconverted. Optimized conditions are studied with respect to nature and pressure of gas inside the reactor, temperature, time and frequency of US irradiation, energy consumption and nature of activator.

  7. Formulation and Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam tablets using Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and Povidone in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Rabia; Hasan, S M Farid; Hassan, Fouzia; Rehman, Attique

    2017-03-01

    Meloxicam is a poor water soluble drug mostly prescribed in various rheumatic diseases. The present research study was design to formulate and increase the solubility of meloxicam in the tablet dosage form. A 3 2 full factorial design was employed to optimize meloxicam formulations. Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer) and Povidone were taken as independent variables while cumulative drug release at 90 minutes was selected as dependent variable. All trial formulations complied with official standards. Multiple regression by Microsoft Excel on cumulative drug release of the selected formulations (F1, F2, F6- F9) showed the positive effect of PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer (α = 0.05) and a negative effect of Povidone (α = 0.05). Formulation six (F6) (PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer 3 mg and Povidone 22.5 mg / tablet) was considered as the optimal formulation based on its cumulative drug release. Dissolution kinetics by model dependent analysis predicted Weibull (R 2 =0.99) as the best fit model in describing meloxicam dissolution kinetics. The role of PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer should be explored with other solubilizers in future studies.

  8. Effects of pore CaCO3 form agencies on dissolution mechanisms of amoxicillin drugs encapsulated in hydrogels full-IPN chitosan N-vinyl caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, Emil; Fauzia, Maghfira

    2018-04-01

    The administration of amoxicillin trihydrate in Helicobacter pylori infection is not effective enough because the conventional preparations used have a short retention time in the stomach. To overcome this problem, amoxicillin trihydrate was encapsulated into the floating drug delivery matrix-matrix. In this study, the full-ipn acetaldehyde crosslinked hydrogel (N-vinyl caprolactam) was synthesized with a 10% CaCO3 pore forming agent and then encapsulated on amoxicillin trihydrate and studied the mechanism of drug dissolution with its kinetic kinetics approach. The K-PNVCL Hydrogel produces optimal properties which are then loaded with amoxicillin trihydrate in situ and post loading. In this research, we have got the percentage of swelling, floating time, the efficiency of in situ and post loading 873%; 3.15 minutes; 99.8% and 99.4%. The dissolution test was performed on amoxicillin trihydrate which had been encapsulated K-PNVCL hydrogel in vitro at pH 1.2 resulting in 94.5% for in situ loading and 98.5% for post loading. Results of the kinetics of drug release for post loading and in situ loading methods tend to follow the Higuchi model kinetics. The drug release mechanism occurs by Fickian diffusion. Proof of drug release mechanism from K-PNVCL hydrogel matrix is further done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument.

  9. Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schemmann, Brita; Herrmann, Andrea M.; Chappin, Maryse M H; Heimeriks, Gaston J.

    2016-01-01

    The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of

  10. Quality prediction of bakery products in the initial phase of process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, H.; Asselman, A.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The development of food production processes is facilitated by tools which explore the interaction between process design, operation conditions and product characteristics. In this work an approach how to set-up a simulation model is presented for the phenomena and transformations which occur during

  11. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scal...

  12. On a mechanism of antenna phasing effect on impurity production during ICRF plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, V.V.; Grigor'eva, L.I.

    1990-01-01

    An appreciable reduction of the metal impurity in flux and a decrease in SOL plasma parameter disturbance occure during ICRP heating in some tokamaks when toroidally adjacent antennae are driven in anti-phase. Also cancelled are low-frequency electric field fluctuations arising in the sheaths and the associated charged particle flux fluctuations. 24 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  14. Temperature-controlled phase-transfer catalysis for ethylene glycol production from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhijun; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Aiqin; Zheng, Mingyuan; Zhang, Tao

    2012-07-18

    A temperature-controlled phase-transfer catalyst-tungsten acid, which in combination with a robust heterogeneous catalyst Ru/C shows a high activity and exceptional reusability for the one-pot conversion of cellulose to ethylene glycol. This binary system can be reused more than 20 times with ethylene glycol yield over 50%.

  15. Across-phase biomass pyrolysis stoichiometry, energy balance, and product formation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive correlations between reactions occurring in the gas-, liquid- and solid-phases are necessary to economically utilize the thermochemical conversion of agricultural wastes impacting the food, water, and energy nexus. On the basis of an empirical mass balance (99.7%), this study established...

  16. Tailoring wheat management to ENSO phases for increased wheat production in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Ramirez-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported regional wheat yields in Paraguay vary from 1 to 3 t/ha from year to year, but appear not to be correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases. Historical weather data from two locations in representative wheat-growing regions of Paraguay, Encarnación-Itapúa and Ciudad del Este-Alto Paraná combined with crop modeling, were analyzed to optimize nitrogen (N fertilizer application rates according to the ENSO phase of a growing season. The ENSO phase of a growing season was defined based on the average of the sea surface temperature (SST anomalies in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific region for the period June–October using the El Niño region 3.0 index (Niño 3.0. Simulated average yields in Alto Paraná were higher in the drier and cooler La Niña wheat-growing seasons (average of 3.5 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.2 t/ha and in Itapúa, in Neutral seasons (average of 3.8 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.7 t/ha. Accordingly, optimal N fertilizer applications ranged between 20 and 60 kg N/ha between phases depending on the sowing date, soil type and initial amount of soil water content. Applying an ENSO or General Circulation Model (GCM-based forecast for ENSO-season-type specific N fertilizer applications resulted in benefits of >100 US$/ha when compared with current farmers’ practice of consistently low N fertilizer applications in Paraguay. When N management based on forecasts was compared with optimized N application without forecast, the benefits of the forecast was only up to 8 US$/ha. The ENSO-persistence-based forecast showed higher values than the GCM-based forecasts with two lead-times but lower skill. Using climate information can significantly increase current wheat yields and gross margins in Paraguay by tailoring N fertilizer applications to the Niño 3.0-defined ENSO phases, which can be forecasted with moderate skill at the beginning of the growing season.

  17. Economic Evaluation of the Production Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles via Liquid-Phase Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Fariansyah, R.; Ramadhan, M. F.; Abdullah, A. G.; Widiaty, I.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. The evaluation was done in two perspectives: engineering and economic evaluation. The engineering perspective concerned about the analysis of the production rate based on the available apparatuses and raw materials, completed with mass balance calculation. The economic analysis was conducted based on several economic parameters: gross profit margin (GPM), internal return rate (IRR), payback period (PBP), cumulative net present value (CNPV), break even point (BEP), and profit to investment (PI). The engineering perspective showed that the production of MgO is feasibly done in small scale industry. This is verified by the potential production using current available apparatuses and raw materials in the market. Economic analysis obtained that the present project is profitable. But, for some cases, further studies must be done to get the present production process is attractive for investor.

  18. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  19. A level-playing field for medical isotope production - How to phase-out reliance on HEU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two decades ago, civilian commerce in highly enriched uranium (HEU) for use as targets in the production of medical isotopes was considered a relatively minor security concern for three reasons. First, the number of producers was small. Second, the amount of HEU involved was small. Third, the amount of HEU was dwarfed by the quantities of HEU in civilian commerce as fuel for nuclear research and test reactors. Now, however, all three variables have changed. First, as the use of medical isotopes has expanded rapidly, production programs are proliferating. Second, as the result of such new producers and the expansion of existing production facilities, the amounts of HEU involved are growing. Third, as the RERTR program has facilitated the phase-out of HEU as fuel in most research and test reactors, the quantities of HEU for isotope production have come to represent a significant percentage of global commerce in this weapons-usable material. Medical isotope producers in several states are cooperating with the RERTR program to convert to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets within the next few years, and one already relies on LEU for isotope production. However, the three biggest isotope producers - in Canada and the European Union - continue to rely on HEU, creating a double-standard that endangers the goal of the RERTR program. Each of these three producers has expressed economic concerns about being put at a competitive disadvantage if it alone converts. This paper proposes forging a firmer international consensus that all present and future isotope producers should convert to LEU, and calls for codifying such a commitment in a statement of intent to be prepared by producers over the next year. With such a level playing field, no producer would need fear being put at a competitive disadvantage by conversion, or being stigmatized by pressure groups for continued reliance on HEU. The phase-out of all HEU commerce for isotope production could be achieved within about

  20. Chemical composition of gas-phase organic carbon emissions from motor vehicles and implications for ozone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Drew R; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Davis, Laura C; Dallmann, Timothy R; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2013-10-15

    Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic carbon, which includes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other compounds with lower vapor pressures. These emissions react in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). With more chemical detail than previous studies, we report emission factors for over 230 compounds from gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles in summer 2010. Second, we use a fuel composition-based approach to quantify uncombusted fuel components in exhaust using the emission factor for total uncombusted fuel in exhaust together with detailed chemical characterization of liquid fuel samples. There is good agreement between the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels and comprise 32 ± 2% of gasoline exhaust and 26 ± 1% of diesel exhaust by mass. We calculate and compare ozone production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass emitted, the gas-phase organic compounds in gasoline exhaust have the largest potential impact on ozone production with over half of the ozone formation due to products of incomplete combustion (e.g., alkenes and oxygenated VOCs). When combined with data on gasoline and diesel fuel sales in the U.S., these results indicate that gasoline sources are responsible for 69-96% of emissions and 79-97% of the ozone formation potential from gas-phase organic carbon emitted by motor vehicles.

  1. Reliability prediction for evolutionary product in the conceptual design phase using neural network-based fuzzy synthetic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Ling, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Reliability prediction plays an important role in product lifecycle management. It has been used to assess various reliability indices (such as reliability, availability and mean time to failure) before a new product is physically built and/or put into use. In this article, a novel approach is proposed to facilitate reliability prediction for evolutionary products during their early design stages. Due to the lack of sufficient data in the conceptual design phase, reliability prediction is not a straightforward task. Taking account of the information from existing similar products and knowledge from domain experts, a neural network-based fuzzy synthetic assessment (FSA) approach is proposed to predict the reliability indices that a new evolutionary product could achieve. The proposed approach takes advantage of the capability of the back-propagation neural network in terms of constructing highly non-linear functional relationship and combines both the data sets from existing similar products and subjective knowledge from domain experts. It is able to reach a more accurate prediction than the conventional FSA method reported in the literature. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated via a case study of the fuel injection pump and a comparative study.

  2. Optimisation of Oil Production in Two – Phase Flow Reservoir Using Simultaneous Method and Interior Point Optimiser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerch, Dariusz Michal; Völcker, Carsten; Capolei, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Natural petroleum reservoirs are characterised by 2-phase flow of oil and water in the porous media (e.g. rocks) which they are built of. Conventional methods of extracting oil from those fields, which utilise high initial pressure obtained from natural drive, leave more than 70 % of oil in the r......Natural petroleum reservoirs are characterised by 2-phase flow of oil and water in the porous media (e.g. rocks) which they are built of. Conventional methods of extracting oil from those fields, which utilise high initial pressure obtained from natural drive, leave more than 70 % of oil...... structure leading to change of permeability with position in the reservoir, or high oil viscosity. Therefore it is desired to take into account all these phenomena by implementing a realistic simulator of the 2-phase flow reservoir, which imposes the set of constraints on the state variables of optimisation...... problem. Then, thanks to optimal control, it is possible to adjust effectively injection valves to control 2 phase immiscible flow in every grid block of the reservoir and navigate oil to the production wells so it does not remain in the porous media. The use of such a smart technology known also as smart...

  3. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Brian [Touchstone Research Laboratory Ltd, Triadelphia, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were

  4. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  5. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    is frequently given as a quantity of solid wasteand possibly some recovered energy from waste incineration.Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modeling oflandfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large...... number of assumptions and approximations concerninglandfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection systems (e.g. landfill gascombustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products......), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The computer toolLCA-LAND is useful for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in Europeancountries (for the present Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands). Input data...

  6. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  7. Optimizing the Critical Factors for Lipid Productivity during Stress Phase of Heterotrophic Microalgae Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chiranjeevi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae-derived biodiesel/biofuel is one of the promising and sustainable processes. In order to study the influence of different factors viz., pH, temperature, salinity and carbon concentration that influences the microalgae lipids and carbohydrate productivity Taguchi orthogonal array (OA experimental design (DOE was used with variation at four levels (21×44. Experiments were performed with allegorical batch experimental matrix [16 experimental trails]. Salinity, temperature, carbon concentration and pH showed marked influence on lipid production whereas temperature and carbon concentration showed major influence on carbohydrate production. Higher lipid productivity (55% was observed with experimental condition six (pH: 6; Salinity: 1 g/l; Temperature: 20 OC; Carbon concentration: 30 g/l. FAME analysis revealed the highest number of Saturated fatty acids (SFAs (C12:0 to C24:0 was detected with experimental set up six and eight more favoring the biodiesel properties.

  8. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal and management (APWR) system for incorporation into Polymer...

  9. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal (APWR) system for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)...

  10. Continuous production of functionalized polymer particles employing the phase separation in polymer blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChooJin; Hyun, Dong Choon; Lim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Su-Jeong; Kim, Young-Rok; Paik, Hyun-Jong; Jeong, Unyong

    2011-08-17

    This study reports a continuous prepartion of spherical or hemispherical polymer particles simply utilizing the phase separation in polymer blend films during the coating process. We took an advantage of the strong phase separation between a water-soluble crystalline polymer as a matrix and hydrophobic polymers as minor components. We demonstrated the prepartion of water-soluble polystyrene (PS) particles, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-functionalized PS particles for protein separation, and semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) particles. The sizes of the particles could be controlled by adjusting the film thickness and weight fraction of the minor component polymers in the blend film. It provides a simple facile way to prepare polymer particles in a continous process. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temp...

  12. Proposal of a new process of products environmental assessment/ improvement on CAD phase

    OpenAIRE

    Gaha, Raoudha; YANNOU, Bernard; Benamara, Abdelmajid

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most of methodologies, concepts and tools, which integrate Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) systems and aim at ecodesigning, are generally oriented to the environmental assessment. The environmental improvement is treated only in a few works; however it is a pivotal phase in the eco-design process. In this paper, we propose a new environmental improvement process based on the remaining Degrees of Freedom (DoFs) for CAD designer on which he ca...

  13. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  14. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  15. Application of isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Phase 2 Project was primarily aimed at consolidating the advances made during the previous phase, formulating practical agricultural technologies which can be adopted by farmers, disseminating and applying these technologies, and enhancing the capability of the Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) to conduct agricultural research using nuclear and related techniques. Outputs generated by this project were generally in accordance with those anticipated in the Project Document. Some outputs have been transferred to the target beneficiaries (farmers) through existing systems of extension, in co-operation with the main implementing agency (BATAN). Other outputs have potential for further assessment, and may lead to practical applications in future. The rest remain as important contributions to scientific knowledge. The project has been managed to assure sustainability after project termination. A strong indication of such sustainability is evident in the on-going research and development work at CAIR and the adoption of transferred technologies by the end-users. To keep up with rapid global advancements in bio-science and technology, a new project on application of nuclear and related techniques in agricultural bio-science and technology would be needed in relation to the second long-term phase of the national development programmes. (author)

  16. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of lignin in a three-phase reactor with aromatic aldehyde production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a process of catalytic wet air oxidation of lignin obtained from sugar-cane bagasse is developed with the objective of producing vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in a continuous regime. Palladium supported on g-alumina was used as the catalyst. The reactions in the lignin degradation and aldehyde production were described by a kinetic model as a system of complex parallel and series reactions, in which pseudo-first-order steps are found. For the purpose of producing aromatic aldehydes in continuous regime, a three-phase fluidized reactor was built, and it was operated using atmospheric air as the oxidizer. The best yield in aromatic aldehydes was of 12%. The experimental results were compatible with those values obtained by the pseudo-heterogeneous axial dispersion model (PHADM applied to the liquid phase.

  17. Synthetic polymers blend used in the production of high activated carbon for pesticides removals from liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Cristóvão Ramiro; Cansado, Isabel Pestana da Paixão; Mourão, Paulo Alexandre Mira

    2017-02-01

    For the activated carbon (AC) production, we used the most common industrial and consumer solid waste, namely polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), alone or blended with other synthetic polymer such polyacrylonitrile (PAN). By mixing PET, with PAN, an improvement in the yield of the AC production was found and the basic character and some textural and chemical properties were enhanced. The PET-PAN mixture was subjected to carbonisation, with a pyrolysis yield of 31.9%, between that obtained with PET (16.9%) or PAN (42.6%) separately. The AC revealed a high surface area (1400, 1230 and 1117 m 2  g -1 ) and pore volume (0.46, 0.56 and 0.50 cm 3  g -1 ), respectively, for PET, PAN and PET-PAN precursors. Selected ACs were successfully tested for 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and diuron removal from the liquid phase, showing a higher adsorption capacity (1.7 and 1.2 mmol g -1 , respectively, for MCPA and diuron) and good fits with the Langmuir (PET) and Freundlich equation (PAN and PET-PAN blend). With MCPA, the controlling factor to the adsorption capacity was the porous volume and the average pore size. Concerning diuron, the adsorption was controlled essentially by the external diffusion. A remarkable result is the use of different synthetic polymers wastes, as precursors for the production of carbon materials, with high potential application on the pesticides removals from the liquid phase.

  18. Production of renewable hydrogen from aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol over Pt catalysts supported on different oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Andre O. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia/MCT, Laboratorio de Catalise, Av. Venezuela 82/507, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22081-312 (Brazil); Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praca General Tiburcio, 80 Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22290-270 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michelly T.; Zimmaro, Adriana; Fraga, Marco A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia/MCT, Laboratorio de Catalise, Av. Venezuela 82/507, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22081-312 (Brazil); Borges, Luiz E.P. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praca General Tiburcio, 80 Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro/RJ 22290-270 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for hydrogen production presents several advantages as feed molecules can be easily found in a wide range of biomass, there is no need for its vaporization and the process allows thorough exploitation of the environmental benefits of using hydrogen as an energy carrier. The use of glycerol in particular is motivated due to its availability as a consequence of increasing biodiesel production worldwide. In this contribution, the performance of Pt-based catalysts supported on different oxides (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, MgO and CeO{sub 2}) is studied on glycerol reforming. All catalysts led to a hydrogen-rich gas phase. However, a good potential activity with high production of hydrogen and low concentration of undesired hydrocarbons was accomplished over the catalysts supported on MgO and ZrO{sub 2}. The high electron donating character of such oxides indicates the influence of the nature of the support in catalytic performance for glycerol reforming. (author)

  19. How Small Businesses Market Their Products during the Different Phases of the Product Life Cycle: The Case of Swedish Ice Cream Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Hallberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish ice cream market of today is dominated by a few major market leaders, which makes it a challenge for small firms to make themselves visible and survive on a long-term basis. The aim of this article is to investigate and understand how small firms in the ice cream business market their products, based on the marketing mix and the portfolio matrix, during the different phases of the product life cycle. The combination of the two models for strategic planning enables the marketing manager to conduct a more complete analysis of existing products and their place on the market and in the product life cycle. Eight CEOs of small-scale ice cream companies were interviewed. This study found that the marketing activities and strategies of large companies cannot be transferred to and implemented in small-scale businesses. Different marketing theories are developed for big businesses that have many employees and expert knowledge, which small companies do not possess. They also have less resources and knowledge to invest in expensive marketing activities in the marketing mix, and therefore the marketing mix models need to incorporate more of inexpensive marketing.

  20. Spectroscopic descriptors for dynamic changes of soluble microbial products from activated sludge at different biomass growth phases under prolonged starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the spectroscopic indices of soluble microbial products (SMP) were explored using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to identify different distinctive biomass growth phases (i.e., exponential phase, pseudo-endogenous phase, and endogenous phase) and to describe the microbial activity of activated sludge in a batch type bioreactor under prolonged starvation. The optical descriptors, including UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254), spectral slope, absorbance slope index (ASI), biological index (BIX), humification index (HIX), and the ratio of tryptophan-like to humic-like components (C1/C2), were examined to describe the dynamic changes in SMP. These indices were mostly associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of SMPs and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR). Among those, ASI was the most strongly correlated with the SOUR data for the pseudo-endogenous and the endogenous periods. Although the three microbial phases were well discriminated using the spectral slope, BIX, and the C1/C2 ratio, the C1/C2 ratio can be suggested as the most preferable indicator as it can also trace the changes of the relative abundance of proteins to humic-like substances in SMPs. The suggested spectroscopic descriptors were reasonably explained by the general trends of decreased large-sized biopolymer fractions (e.g., proteins) and increased humic substrates (HS) with starvation time, which were detected by size exclusion chromatography. This study provides a novel insight into the strong potential of using optical descriptors to easily probe microbial status in biological treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiments of biogas production from the solid phase of potato distillery wastes. Versuche zur Biogaserzeugung aus eingedickten Schlempen der Kartoffelbrennerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, A.

    1988-05-03

    In the present study the solid phase of separated potato distillery waste was tested for its suitability for biogas production. It was further investigated whether methanation of this residue could be improved by mixing with fresh or ensiled plant materials. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale using batch or semicontinuous fermentation methods. For inoculation a continuous precultured enrichment was used, which was adapted to separated distillery waste. Comparison of this inoculant with other bacterial cultures showed, that only the adapted culture allowed an immediate start of the fermentation and led to a steady methane formation and a high methane yield (353 l CH/sub 4//kg VS).

  2. Production of monoclonal antibodies for use in immunoassays based on the magnetizable solid phase separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Krasao, P.

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to TSH were produced by using mouse-ascites techniques. Various methods for purifying the antibody from the ascetic fluid have been tried in order to obtain an appropriate TSH kit production protocol. The purified antibodies were then immobilized on magnetizable cellulose for developing an IRMA for TSH. A detailed study of the assay system, including the stability of the magnetic adsorbent was made, which showed that the SCIPAc magnetizable cellulose is suitable for the production of TSH - Blood spot IRMA kits for use in the Neonatal hypothyroid screening programme to be launched in Thailand in the near future. (author). 4 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Ultraviolet-gas phase and -photocatalytic synthesis from CO and NH3. [photolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J. S.; Voecks, G. E.; Hobby, G. L.; Ferris, J. P.; Williams, E. A.; Nicodem, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ammonium cyanate is identified as the major product of the photolysis of gaseous NH3-CO mixtures at 206.2 or 184.9 nm. Lesser amounts of urea, biurea, biuret semicarbazide, formamide and cyanide are observed. A series of 18 reactions underlying the formation of photolysis products is presented and discussed. Photocatalytic syntheses of C-14-urea, -formamide, and -formaldehyde are carried out through irradiation of (C-14)O and NH3 in the presence of Vycor, silica gel, or volcanic ash shale surfaces. The possible contributions of the relevant reactions to the abiotic synthesis of organic nitrogen compounds on Mars, the primitive earth, and in interstellar space are examined.

  4. 2000 Annual report NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Molin, Christine; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    on several pilot projects being implemented by participating nations and continuing to build a program of collaborative endeavors. This meeting featured a special topical seminar titled, Product Oriented Environmental Measures, which focused participants’ attention on advances in product design and use....... The meeting featured several guest lectures on significant developments in government programs, academic research and industrial applications. The report presents the ideas and views shared by the delegates and invited participants at the Copenhagen meeting. The full report can be viewed on the US EPA...

  5. A comparison of three different pension savings products with special emphasis on the payout phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Linnemann, Per

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the pension benefits a pension saver will (expect to) receive will depend on the type of pension scheme chosen. We compare three widely different pension savings products: the ‘‘traditional’’ with-profits scheme involving bonus entitlement (average...

  6. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  7. Particulate and gas-phase products from the atmospheric degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several pesticides. However, there is a lack of information about its degradation process in air and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reactions of chlorpyrifos, one of the most world-used insecticide, and its main degradation product - chlorpyrifos-oxon - are described. The photo-oxidation under the presence of NOx was studied in a large outdoor simulation chamber for both chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, observing a rapid degradation (Half lifetime < 3.5 h for both compounds). Also, the photolysis reactions of both were studied. The formation of particulate matter (aerosol mass yield ranged 6-59%) and gaseous products were monitored. The chemical composition of minor products was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol and ethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl hydrogen phosphate. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been amplified based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to Pdbnd S bond.

  8. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas sp. and its role in aqueous phase partitioning and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P B; Sharma, S; Saini, H S; Chadha, B S

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of biosurfactant on aqueous phase solubility and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos. A Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), isolated from agricultural soil by enrichment culture technique in the presence of chlorpyrifos, was capable of producing biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) and degrading chlorpyrifos (0.01 g l(-1)). The partially purified rhamnolipid biosurfactant preparation, having a CMC of 0.2 g l(-1), was evaluated for its ability to enhance aqueous phase partitioning and degradation of chlorpyrifos (0.01 g l(-1)) by ChlD strain. The best degradation efficiency was observed at 0.1 g l(-1) supplement of biosurfactant, as validated by GC and HPLC studies. The addition of biosurfactant at 0.1 g l(-1) resulted in more than 98% degradation of chlorpyrifos when compared to 84% in the absence of biosurfactant after 120-h incubation. This first report, to the best of our knowledge, on enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in the presence of biosurfactant(s), would help in developing bioremediation protocols to counter accumulation of organophosphates to toxic/carcinogenic levels in environment.

  9. Comparing the environmental footprints of home-care and personal-hygiene products: the relevance of different life-cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Wildbolz, Caroline

    2009-11-15

    An in-depth life-cycle assessment of nine home-care and personal-hygiene products was conducted to determine the ecological relevance of different life-cycle phases and compare the environmental profiles of products serving equal applications. Using detailed data from industry and consumer-behavior studies a broad range of environmental impacts were analyzed to identify the main drivers in each life-cycle stage and potentials for improving the environmental footprints. Although chemical production significantly adds to environmental burdens, substantial impacts are caused in the consumer-use phase. As such, this research provides recommendations for product development, supply chain management, product policies, and consumer use. To reduce environmental burdens products should, for instance, be produced in concentrated form, while consumers should apply correct product dosages and low water temperatures during product application.

  10. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-16

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k, the power spectrum decreases to k^{-3}. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k^{5}. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k^{1} power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  11. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-01

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k , the power spectrum decreases to k-3. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k5. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k1 power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  12. Ice particle production in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds observed with collocated A-Train measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Collocated A-Train CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar measurements between 2006 and 2010 are analyzed to study primary ice particle production characteristics in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds on a global scale. For similar clouds in terms of cloud top temperature and liquid water path, Northern Hemisphere latitude bands have layer-maximum radar reflectivity (ZL that is  ∼  1 to 8 dBZ larger than their counterparts in the Southern Hemisphere. The systematically larger ZL under similar cloud conditions suggests larger ice number concentrations in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds over the Northern Hemisphere, which is possibly related to higher background aerosol loadings. Furthermore, we show that springtime northern mid- and high latitudes have ZL that is larger by up to 6 dBZ (a factor of 4 higher ice number concentration than other seasons, which might be related to more dust events that provide effective ice nucleating particles. Our study suggests that aerosol-dependent ice number concentration parameterizations are required in climate models to improve mixed-phase cloud simulations, especially over the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Ice particle production in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds observed with collocated A-Train measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Kollias, Pavlos; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Yang, Kang; Luo, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Collocated A-Train CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar measurements between 2006 and 2010 are analyzed to study primary ice particle production characteristics in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds on a global scale. For similar clouds in terms of cloud top temperature and liquid water path, Northern Hemisphere latitude bands have layer-maximum radar reflectivity (ZL) that is ˜ 1 to 8 dBZ larger than their counterparts in the Southern Hemisphere. The systematically larger ZL under similar cloud conditions suggests larger ice number concentrations in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds over the Northern Hemisphere, which is possibly related to higher background aerosol loadings. Furthermore, we show that springtime northern mid- and high latitudes have ZL that is larger by up to 6 dBZ (a factor of 4 higher ice number concentration) than other seasons, which might be related to more dust events that provide effective ice nucleating particles. Our study suggests that aerosol-dependent ice number concentration parameterizations are required in climate models to improve mixed-phase cloud simulations, especially over the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Improved production of polygalacturonate lyase by combining a pH and online methanol control strategy in a two-stage induction phase with a shift in the transition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman; Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-04-01

    Polygalacturonate lyase is a kind of enzyme that is abundantly used in the textile industry for cotton scouring. Previously, we reconstructed the polygalacturonate lyase gene in Pichia pastoris for the expression of this enzyme. To enhance the production of polygalacturonate lyase (PGL), a combined strategy was formulated by combining online methanol control and two-stage pH control strategies. For the two-stage pH control strategy during the growth phase, the pH was controlled at 5.5, and in the induction phase different pH levels were investigated for the optimum enzyme production. During the online methanol control strategy, the different levels of methanol (v/v) were investigated for the best enzyme production at pH 5.5. These two strategies were combined together for enhanced PGL productivity, and the induction phase was divided into two stages in which methanol concentrations were maintained at different levels online. The transition phase was introduced during the induction phase instead of introducing it after the growth phase. The two-stage combination strategy was formulated on the bases of methanol consumption of cells, optimal pH, cell viability and the production of polygalacturonate lyase by P. pastoris. By using this strategy, the production was doubled compared with common conditions, and the highest polygalacturonate lyase activity reached 1,631 U/ml. This strategy proved to be very useful for the enhancement of polygalacturonate lyase production by achieving higher cell viability, alcohol oxidase activity and phosphate-related compounds of the cells during the induction phase.

  15. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.

  16. Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.

  17. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  18. Solid-Phase Iminium Cyclization Reactions for the Synthesis of Natural Product-Like Diketopiperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rico

    The development of methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of fused 2,5-diketopiperazines with an emphasis on structural and stereochemical control, has been accomplished through two different approaches. The first approach was based on a highly trans-stereoselective (82% d.e.) intramolecular N......-suited for the synthesis of diastereoisomeric mixtures of 2,5-diketopiperazino[6,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinolines in high purities (74 to 90%), allowing for the separation of the cis-diastereoisomers. The route based on glyoxylic acid was found to be cis-stereoselective (1:2) generating the 2,5-diketopiperazino[6,1-a...... inhibitors based on the 2,5-diketopiperazino[6,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold was prepared and subsequently evaluated for biologically activity. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against a nuclear extract of HeLa cells, on average 200-fold lower than the activity of SAHA. When screened towards...

  19. The Study of Productivity Measurement and Incentive Methodology (Phase III - Paper Test). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    analogy of a crown of jewels might be used to illustrate the relationship. The models tested represent the jewels and are valuable in their own...right. However, when the jewels are placed in the crown (models built into an integrated methodology), they take on added value. Recommendat ions We...8217:hrou!;h product pries changes. The mathematical relationship remains jusc as crue for a whole induscry as for individual

  20. Production of High Energy Aviation Fuels from Advanced Coal Liquids. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    percentages of those aromatic molecules and may become one of the prime sources of the feedstocks needed for production of advanced fuels. Coal tars ...HRS) was an automated pilot plant capable of studying the processing associated with feedstocks such as petroleum, heavy oils, tars , coal liquids... coal that is rich in aromatics , producing liquids from it under the proper conditions, hydrotreating the aromatics to naphthenes and concentrating

  1. Chemical Composition Analysis and Product Consistency Tests of the ORP Phase 5 Nepheline Study Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Caldwell, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high-level waste glass compositions fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These data will be used in the development of improved models for the prediction of nepheline crystallization in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  2. Dynamic modeling of the microalgae cultivation phase for energy production in open raceway ponds and flat panel photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eMarsullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of microalgae cultivation phase is presented in this work. Two cultivation technologies are taken into account: the open raceway pond and the flat panel photobioreactor. For each technology, the model is able to evaluate the microalgae areal and volumetric productivity and the energy production and consumption. Differently from the most common existing models in literature, which deal with a specific part of the overall cultivation process, the model presented here includes all physical and chemical quantities that mostly affect microalgae growth: the equation of the specific growth rate for the microalgae is influenced by CO2 and nutrients concentration in the water, light intensity, temperature of the water in the reactor and by the microalgae species being considered. All these input parameters can be tuned to obtain reliable predictions. A comparison with experimental data taken from the literature shows that the predictions are consistent, slightly overestimating the productivity in case of closed photobioreactor. The results obtained by the simulation runs are consistent with those found in literature, being the areal productivity for the open raceway pond between 50 and 70 t/(ha*year in Southern Spain (Sevilla and Brazil (Petrolina and between 250 and 350 t/(ha*year for the flat panel photobioreactor in the same locations.

  3. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  5. Evaluation of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer nanomicelle for trigeminal ganglion neurons delivering with intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Song, Kaichao; Sun, Fengyuan; Hou, Yuzhen; Li, Jun; Wu, Xianggen

    2018-03-01

    Purpose How to deliver enough medical agents to the trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons conveniently still remains a challenge in pharmaceutics and clinics. The purpose of this study was to reveal that intranasal administration of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVCL-PVA-PEG) nanomicelle formulation could efficiently deliver agent to TG neurons in mice. Methods Ocular topical or intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6 was performed in mice, and tissue distribution after administration (0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h) was analyzed. Fluoro-Gold was used as a retrograde tracer to identify corneal and nasal neurons in the TG. Pharmacokinetic profiles after ocular topical or intranasal administration were explored in detail. Results Coumarin-6 levels in the TG neurons were significantly higher in intranasal administration groups than in topical administration groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at all time points except for 10 h. Interestingly, in cornea, coumarin-6 was detected after intranasal administration. For intranasal administration groups, it was also interestingly found that coumarin-6 levels in the TG neurons were much higher than that in the brain, suggesting that the TG neurons was a target tissue after the intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6. These levels also indicated the safety of brain tissue after intranasal administration. Using Fluoro-Gold tract tracing techniques, coumarin-6 was detected in TG neurons after either ocular topical or intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6, indicating the high colocalization of corneal and nasal neurons in the TG. Conclusions Intranasal administration of PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelle formulation could efficiently deliver to TG neurons, and it might be a promising therapy for pathological TG neurons.

  6. Effect of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer on bioadhesion and release rate property of eplerenone pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendre, Prakash Namdeo; Chaudhari, Pravin Digambar

    2017-05-01

    The present study involved the design and development of oral bioadhesive pellets of eplerenone. A solid dispersion of eplerenone was developed with a hydrophilic carrier, polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus ® ). Bioadhesive pellets were prepared from this solid dispersion using a combination of HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934P. Both the solid dispersion and the pellets were evaluated for various physicochemical properties such as solubility, entrapment efficiency, drug content, surface morphology, mucoadhesion and swelling behavior. Analysis carried out using FT-IR, DSC and XRD found no interaction between the eplerenone and excipients. The solid dispersion had irregular-shaped smooth-surfaced particles of diameter 265 ± 105.5 μm. In TEM analysis, eplerenone particles of size 79-120 nm were found. The solubility and dissolution of eplerenone in the Soluplus ® -based solid dispersion were 5.26 and 2.50 times greater, respectively. Investigation of the swelling behavior of the pellets showed that the thickness of the gel layer increased continuously over the duration of the study. Moreover, a correlation was observed between the thickness and strength of the gel layer and the percentage release. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian (anomalous), with the release kinetics approaching first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of the eplerenone bioadhesive pellet formulation was studied using Wistar rats and was found to be improved. An in vivo mucoadhesion study showed that the pellets are retained for 24 h in rabbits. It was concluded that Soluplus ® had a positive effect on the solubility and dissolution of pellets without affecting the bioadhesion.

  7. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  8. Study of Gas-Phase Reactions in TiO₂ Production and Functionalised Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, B.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is a pigment used in the whitening of millions of products from paint to foodstuffs. Produced via purification of ores using the Chloride Process, the mined TiO₂ ore is chlorinated along with all of the impurities. The resulting TiCl₄ is a liquid at room temperature and can be separated from its impurities using distillation. V₂O₅, an impurity present in this ore is converted to vanadium oxytrichloride (VOCl₃) which is too similar in boiling point to TiCl₄ to separate ...

  9. CMS Pixel Upgrade for the Phase I: Module Production and Qualification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078028

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector has been designed to be fully efficient up to a LHC luminosity of $10^{34}~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. However, the luminosity will increase by a factor of two in the coming years. Therefore it is planned to build and install a new detector in the extended year-end technical stop (YETS) in 2016-17. Barrel pixel modules are in production since Spring/Summer 2015 in five different centers. Module production requires bump bonding, wire bonding and gluing processes to finally assemble a full module. To have a uniform performance of all modules standard qualification procedures have been developed. All modules will be subjected to 10 termal cycles between +$17^{\\circ}$C and -$25^{\\circ }$C and then electrically tested. In addition, module performance will be verified under high rate X-rays, and internal calibrate signals used for electrical tests will be calibrated in units of electrons using well defined X-ray fluorescence lines from different target materials. The qualifica...

  10. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC–DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@cern.ch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max; Schmitz, Stefan; Wlochal, Michael

    2017-02-11

    The CMS pixel detector will be replaced during the technical stop 2016/2017. To allow the new pixel detector to be powered with the legacy cable plant and power supplies, a novel powering scheme based on DC–DC conversion will be employed. After the successful conclusion of an extensive development and prototyping phase, mass production of 1800 DC–DC converters as well as motherboards and other power PCBs has now been completed. This contribution reviews the lessons learned from the development of the power system for the Phase-1 pixel detector, and summarizes the experience gained from the production phase.

  11. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of air humidity on microstructure and phase composition of lithium deuteride corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Liu, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium deuteride samples are corroded by air with different relative humidity. • Show the structure and composition of fracture surface of corrosion particle. • The lithium carbonate formation is related to air humidity. • The lithium carbonate only exists in the surface of lithium hydroxide layer. • There is a concentration gradient of H 2 O across the lithium hydroxide layer. - Abstract: Lithium deuteride (LiD) was exposed to air for 600 min to determine the effect of air humidity on its microstructure and phase composition. XRD and XPS results revealed that LiOH and Li 2 CO 3 formed at relative humidity values of >30%, whereas only LiOH formed at values <20%. SEM and EDS images showed a clear LiOH layer; Li 2 CO 3 was confined to the surface of this layer. The schematic illustration revealed that the concentration gradient of H 2 O across the LiOH layer resulted in little Li 2 CO 3 formed in the layer. This work will contribute to increase understanding of LiD corrosion in air.

  13. Tegresstrade mark Urethral Implant Phase III Clinical Experience and Product Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Roger R

    2005-01-01

    Advances in materials technology, coupled with a heightened understanding of wound healing and tissue-materials interactions in the lower urinary tract, have led to the development of a variety of new urethral bulking agents that are expected to be available in the near future. Experience with such bulking agents continues to grow and study results are disseminated as more clinical trials are initiated and completed. The intention of this report is to review the characteristics and initial clinical results for one of these new agents: Tegresstrade mark Urethral Implant (C. R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ). This material, with unique phase-change properties upon exposure to body temperature fluids, offers ease of injection and requires less volume for clinical effect than bovine collagen. Additionally, Tegress Urethral Implant performance in clinical trials has suggested improved durability and correspondingly higher continence and improvement rates versus bovine collagen. As these materials evolve, an understanding of preferential implant techniques is being gained also. Delivery method and implant site may prove to substantially alter the biologic activity of these compounds. As outlined in this review, experience with Tegress Implant resulted in changes in delivery technique that translated into improved materials and tissue interaction.

  14. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  15. Statistical modeling of phenological phases in Poland based on coupling satellite derived products and gridded meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Katarzyna; Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing and predicting selected phenological phases. This issue is of particular importance in Poland where national-wide phenological monitoring was abandoned in the middle of 1990s and the reactivated network was established in 2006. Authors decided to evaluate possibilities of using a wide-range of statistical modeling techniques to create synthetic archive dataset. Additionally, a robust tool for predicting the most distinguishable phenophases using only free of charge data as predictors was created. Study period covers the years 2007-2014 and contains only quality-controlled dataset of 10 species and 14 phenophases. Phenological data used in this study originates from the manual observations network run by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB). Three kind of data sources were used as predictors: (i) satellite derived products, (ii) preprocessed gridded meteorological data, and (iii) spatial properties (longitude, latitude, altitude) of the monitoring site. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-3 vegetation products were used for detecting onset dates of particular phenophases. Following indices were used: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR). Additionally, Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) products were chosen to detect occurrence of snow cover. Due to highly noisy data, authors decided to take into account pixel reliability information. Besides satellite derived products (NDVI, EVI, FPAR, LAI, Snow cover), a wide group of observational data and agrometeorological indices derived from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) were used as a potential predictors: cumulative growing degree days (GDD), cumulative growing precipitation days (GPD

  16. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Seifert, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A Process Development Unit (PDU), which consisted of the four major units of the process, was designed, installed, and experimentally operated. The PDU was sized to 50MT/Yr. The deposition took place in a fluidized bed reactor. As a consequences of the experiments, improvements in the design an operation of these units were undertaken and their experimental limitations were partially established. A parallel program of experimental work demonstrated that Zinc can be vaporized for introduction into the fluidized bed reactor, by direct induction-coupled r.f. energy. Residual zinc in the product can be removed by heat treatment below the melting point of silicon. Current efficiencies of 94 percent and above, and power efficiencies around 40 percent are achievable in the laboratory-scale electrolysis of ZnCl2.

  17. Module Production and Qualification for the Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086689

    2015-01-01

    After consolidation of the LHC in 2013/14 its centre-of-mass energy will increase to 13TeV and the luminosity will reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}\\, \\textnormal{cm}^{-2} \\textnormal{s}^{-1}$, which is twice the design luminosity. The latter will result in more simultaneous particle collisions, which would significantly increase the dead time of the current readout chip of the CMS pixel detector. Therefore the entire CMS pixel detector is replaced in 2016/17 and a new digital readout with larger buffers will be used to handle increasing pixel hit rates. An additional fourth barrel-layer provides more space points to improve track reconstruction. Half of the required modules for layer four is being produced at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This poster deals with the smallest discrete subunit of the pixel detector, the module and its assembly process. Moreover first production experience will be shown.

  18. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight (300–650 Da naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night between spring and autumn in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16 oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC. The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3 and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7–1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4 (Hyytiälä and C3F5O2 (JPAC. The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C10H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4–5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1–1 ppt (~10

  19. Critical ranges for leaf nitrogen and potassium levels in coffee fertigated at the production phase1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Aparecida de Assis

    Full Text Available With the aim of establishing critical ranges for the leaf nitrogen (N and potassium (K levels in fertigated coffee crops under production, an experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector for Coffee Cultivation of the Department of Agriculture at the Federal University of Lavras, in Brazil. Treatments consisted of five levels of fertilizer applied through fertigation: 30%, 80%, 130%, 180% and 230% of the recommended amounts of N and K for rainfed coffee grown in Minas Gerais. A randomised block design with four replications was used. Critical ranges for nutrient concentrations in the leaves were established from the results of growth characteristics (plant height and stem diameter, leaf analyses and productivity. The results obtained were: a nitrogen (g kg-1: 32.39 to 32.40 for January/February; 33.60 to 33.61 for March/April; 27.39 to 27.42 for May/June; 24.23 to 24.24 for July/August; 26.06 to 26.09 for September/October and 26.50 to 26.51 for November/December; b potassium (g kg-1: 20.08 to 20.14 for January/February; 17.89 to 17.91 for March/April; 15.93 to 15.96 for May/June; 15.29 to 15.35 for July/August; 16.61 to 16.64 for September/October and 20.58 to 20.64 for November/December.

  20. Optimization of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biowaste for hydrogen and methane production through reject water recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Cecchi, F; Pavan, P

    2011-09-01

    The optimization of a two-phase thermophilic anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production was carried out at pilot scale using two stirred reactors (CSTRs) and without any physical/chemical pre-treatment of inoculum. During the experiment the hydrogen production at low hydraulic retention time (3d) was tested, both with and without reject water recirculation and at two organic loading rate (16 and 21 kgTVS/m3 d). The better yields were obtained with recirculation where the pH reached an optimal value (5.5) thanks to the buffering capacity of the recycle stream. The specific gas production of the first reactor was 51 l/kgVS(fed) and H2 content in biogas 37%. The mixture of gas obtained from the two reactors met the standards for the biohythane mix only when lower loading rate were applied to the first reactor, with a composition of 6.7% H2, 40.1% CO2 and 52.3% CH4 the overall SGP being 0.78 m3/kgVS(fed). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accurate Gas Phase Formation Enthalpies of Alloys and Refractories Decomposition Products

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2017-01-17

    Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal. The ΔHf values in question were derived within a composite Feller-Dixon-Peterson (FDP) scheme based protocol that combines the DLPNO-CCSD(T) enthalpy of ad hoc designed reactions and the experimental ΔHf values of few reference complexes. In agreement with other theoretical studies, we predict the ΔHf values for TiOCl2, TiOF2, GeF2, and SnF4 to be significantly different from the values tabulated in NIST-JANAF and other sources, which suggests that the tabulated experimental values are inaccurate. Similarly, the predicted ΔHf values for HfCl2, HfBr2, HfI2, MoOF4, MoCl6, WOF4, WOCl4, GeO2, SnO2, PbBr4, PbI4, and PbO2 also clearly differ from the tabulated experimental values, again suggesting large inaccuracy in the experimental values. In the case when largely different experimental values are available, we point to the value that is in better agreement with our results. We expect the ΔHf values reported in this work to be quite accurate, and thus, they might be used in thermodynamic calculations, because the effects from core correlation, relativistic effects, and basis set incompleteness were included in the DLPNO-CCSD(T) calculations. T1 and T2 values were thoroughly monitored as indicators of the quality of the reference Hartree-Fock orbitals (T1) and potential multireference character of the systems (T2).

  2. A new phase in the production of quality-controlled sea level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Quartly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is an essential climate variable (ECV that has a direct effect on many people through inundations of coastal areas, and it is also a clear indicator of climate changes due to external forcing factors and internal climate variability. Regional patterns of sea level change inform us on ocean circulation variations in response to natural climate modes such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and anthropogenic forcing. Comparing numerical climate models to a consistent set of observations enables us to assess the performance of these models and help us to understand and predict these phenomena, and thereby alleviate some of the environmental conditions associated with them. All such studies rely on the existence of long-term consistent high-accuracy datasets of sea level. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI of the European Space Agency was established in 2010 to provide improved time series of some ECVs, including sea level, with the purpose of providing such data openly to all to enable the widest possible utilisation of such data. Now in its second phase, the Sea Level CCI project (SL_cci merges data from nine different altimeter missions in a clear, consistent and well-documented manner, selecting the most appropriate satellite orbits and geophysical corrections in order to further reduce the error budget. This paper summarises the corrections required, the provenance of corrections and the evaluation of options that have been adopted for the recently released v2.0 dataset (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612. This information enables scientists and other users to clearly understand which corrections have been applied and their effects on the sea level dataset. The overall result of these changes is that the rate of rise of global mean sea level (GMSL still equates to ∼ 3.2 mm yr−1 during 1992–2015, but there is now greater confidence in this result as the errors associated with

  3. A new phase in the production of quality-controlled sea level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartly, Graham D.; Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Joana Fernandes, M.; Rudenko, Sergei; Carrère, Loren; Nilo García, Pablo; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole B.; Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Mbajon Njiche, Sabrina; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Sea level is an essential climate variable (ECV) that has a direct effect on many people through inundations of coastal areas, and it is also a clear indicator of climate changes due to external forcing factors and internal climate variability. Regional patterns of sea level change inform us on ocean circulation variations in response to natural climate modes such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and anthropogenic forcing. Comparing numerical climate models to a consistent set of observations enables us to assess the performance of these models and help us to understand and predict these phenomena, and thereby alleviate some of the environmental conditions associated with them. All such studies rely on the existence of long-term consistent high-accuracy datasets of sea level. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency was established in 2010 to provide improved time series of some ECVs, including sea level, with the purpose of providing such data openly to all to enable the widest possible utilisation of such data. Now in its second phase, the Sea Level CCI project (SL_cci) merges data from nine different altimeter missions in a clear, consistent and well-documented manner, selecting the most appropriate satellite orbits and geophysical corrections in order to further reduce the error budget. This paper summarises the corrections required, the provenance of corrections and the evaluation of options that have been adopted for the recently released v2.0 dataset (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612). This information enables scientists and other users to clearly understand which corrections have been applied and their effects on the sea level dataset. The overall result of these changes is that the rate of rise of global mean sea level (GMSL) still equates to ˜ 3.2 mm yr-1 during 1992-2015, but there is now greater confidence in this result as the errors associated with several of the corrections have

  4. Products and mechanisms of the reaction of gas phase ozone with organic colorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, D. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (USA)); Druzik, J.R. (Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA (USA)); Sensharma, D.K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Whitmore, P.M.; DeMoor, C.P.; Cass, G.R. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Studies carried out in this laboratory have shown that many artists organic colorants fade substantially when exposed to ozone in the dark. These studies typically involved pigment exposure for 12 weeks to purified air containing 0.3-0.4 ppm of ozone at ambient temperature and humidity. These laboratory conditions are equivalent to about six years of exposure inside a typical air-conditioned building in Los Angeles, and the observed fading is therefore directly relevant to possible damage to works of arts in museum settings. Organic colorants that were most ozone-fugitive included natural colorants, such as curcumin and indigo, as well as modern synthetic colorants such as alizarin lakes and triphenylmethane dyes. Thus, these colorants were selected for further study with emphasis on the nature of the reaction products. Exposures were carried out on different substrates including watercolor paper, cellulose, silica gel, and Teflon. The experiments involved long-term exposure to low levels of ozone (e.g. {approximately} 0.3 ppm for 90 days) or shorter-term exposure to higher ozone concentrations (e.g. 10 ppm for 24 hours). Exposed and control samples, along with solvent and substrate blanks, were analyzed by mass spectrometry using a Kratos Scientific Instruments MS25 hexapole mass spectrometer operated in either methane chemical ionization (CI) or electron impact (EI) modes.

  5. Comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in natural products by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Akio; Yamakawa, Yutaka; Noji, Ryoko; Oda, Ako; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro; Shibusawa, Yoichi

    2007-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using the three-phase solvent system n-hexane-methyl acetate-acetonitrile-water at a volume ratio of 4:4:3:4 was applied to the comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in several natural product extracts. A wide variety of secondary metabolites in each natural product was effectively extracted with the three-phase solvent system, and the filtered extract was directly submitted to the HSCCC separation using the same three-phase system. In the HSCCC profiles of crude natural drugs listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, several physiologically active compounds were clearly separated from other components in the extracts. The HSCCC profiles of several tea products, each manufactured by a different process, clearly showed their compositional difference in main compounds such as catechins, caffeine, and pigments. These HSCCC profiles also provide useful information about hydrophobic diversity of whole components present in each natural product.

  6. Two-phase anaerobic digestion for biogas production from dairy effluent—CSTR and ABR in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, L.; Ehimen, E. A.; Born, J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of low-strength dairy waste water has been used for the production of biogas. A two-phase pilot scale process had been established within 90 d using a 1 m3continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a 200 l anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in series. The system was fed at constant...... retention time of 1.6 d and with changing feed strengths resulting in various organic loading rates between 1.25-4.50 g/(l d). The average COD removal was 82% with a biogas yield of 0.26 l/gCOD. The combination of CSTR and ABR overcame the disadvantages of both reactor types. By further optimization...... the chosen system is able to replace conventional waste water treatment system used nowadays....

  7. The effects of phytase and root hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, A M; Mirakzehi, M T; Hosseini, S J; Agah, M J; Fard, M Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    1. A 6-week study was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root (WS) on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production. 2. Diets were arranged factorially (3 × 2 × 2) and consisted of a positive control with adequate Ca (4·37%) and nonphytate P (NPP; 0·39%) and a negative control diet with Ca (4·06%) and NPP (0·36 %); three concentrations of Withania somnifera (0, 65 and 130 mg/kg diet); and two concentrations of microbial phytase (0 and 300 U/kg diet). 3. A total of 144 72-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were randomly assigned to the 12 treatment groups. Each treatment was replicated 4 times (4 x 3 hens). Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, while feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every two weeks. Bone quality traits were evaluated at the end of experiment. 4. Withania somnifera supplementation increased egg production and lowered egg weight only in the second two weeks of the experiment. Addition of phytase significantly depressed specific gravity of the eggs for the entire experiment period. No dietary treatment effects were observed on egg shell thickness and yolk weight. 5. Withania somnifera at 130 mg/kg did not affect feed intake. The hens fed on the positive control diet had higher albumen weight than the negative control diet in the second two-week period. Supplementation of the positive control diet with 65 mg/kg Withania somnifera in the absence of phytase significantly improved shell weight compared with the negative control (5·779 vs. 5·273 g respectively). 6. Supplementing Withania somnifera significantly improved Ca and P retention in tibia bone. In addition, an increase in tibia bone P was observed with phytase supplementation. There were significant interactions between Withania somnifera content and phytase for tibia bone Ca and P. 7. The results of this experiment indicated that dietary

  8. A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium difficile Biofilm and Toxin Production during Stationary Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Erin B; McKee, Robert W; Courson, David S; Garrett, Elizabeth M; McBride, Shonna M; Cheney, Richard E; Tamayo, Rita

    2017-09-01

    The signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) mediates physiological adaptation to extracellular stimuli in a wide range of bacteria. The complex metabolic pathways governing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation are highly regulated, but the specific cues that impact c-di-GMP signaling are largely unknown. In the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile , c-di-GMP inhibits flagellar motility and toxin production and promotes pilus-dependent biofilm formation, but no specific biological functions have been ascribed to any of the individual c-di-GMP synthases or phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP PDE, PdcA, 1 of 37 confirmed or putative c-di-GMP metabolism proteins in C. difficile 630. Our studies reveal that pdcA transcription is controlled by the nutrient-regulated transcriptional regulator CodY and accordingly increases during stationary phase. In addition, PdcA PDE activity is allosterically regulated by GTP, further linking c-di-GMP levels to nutrient availability. Mutation of pdcA increased biofilm formation and reduced toxin biosynthesis without affecting swimming motility or global intracellular c-di-GMP. Analysis of the transcriptional response to pdcA mutation indicates that PdcA-dependent phenotypes manifest during stationary phase, consistent with regulation by CodY. These results demonstrate that inactivation of this single PDE gene is sufficient to impact multiple c-di-GMP-dependent phenotypes, including the production of major virulence factors, and suggest a link between c-di-GMP signaling and nutrient availability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Refinement of Modeled Aqueous-Phase Sulfate Production via the Fe- and Mn-Catalyzed Oxidation Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Itahashi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We refined the aqueous-phase sulfate (SO42− production in the state-of-the-art Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model during the Japanese model inter-comparison project, known as Japan’s Study for Reference Air Quality Modeling (J-STREAM. In Japan, SO42− is the major component of PM2.5, and CMAQ reproduces the observed seasonal variation of SO42− with the summer maxima and winter minima. However, CMAQ underestimates the concentration during winter over Japan. Based on a review of the current modeling system, we identified a possible reason as being the inadequate aqueous-phase SO42− production by Fe- and Mn-catalyzed O2 oxidation. This is because these trace metals are not properly included in the Asian emission inventories. Fe and Mn observations over Japan showed that the model concentrations based on the latest Japanese emission inventory were substantially underestimated. Thus, we conducted sensitivity simulations where the modeled Fe and Mn concentrations were adjusted to the observed levels, the Fe and Mn solubilities were increased, and the oxidation rate constant was revised. Adjusting the concentration increased the SO42− concentration during winter, as did increasing the solubilities and revising the rate constant to consider pH dependencies. Statistical analysis showed that these sensitivity simulations improved model performance. The approach adopted in this study can partly improve model performance in terms of the underestimation of SO42− concentration during winter. From our findings, we demonstrated the importance of developing and evaluating trace metal emission inventories in Asia.

  10. Estimates of aqueous-phase sulfate production from tandem differential mobility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, Joshua L.; Collins, Don R.; Hegg, Dean A.; Kaku, Kathleen C.; Covert, David S.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Buzorius, Gintautas

    2011-10-01

    During June and July of 2004, airborne measurements of size-resolved aerosol properties were made over the coastal Pacific near Marina, California. Tandem differential mobility analysis was used to determine the hygroscopic properties of these aerosols and, subsequently, to examine the change in soluble mass after the aerosol had been cloud-processed. Three of the eight cases analyzed during the field campaign exhibited increased soluble mass attributable to cloud-processing. The calculated change in soluble mass after cloud-processing, derived from measurements made below and above cloud, ranged from 1.08 ϒ g m -3 to 1.40 ϒ g m -3. These values are in agreement with those determined using data collected during previous field studies in the same region. Aerosol size distributions measured throughout the study with a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe were averaged to create a single representative distribution, which was used to examine the impact of the addition of sulfate to a typical aerosol measured during this project. Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated for both the initial and cloud-processed size distributions using Mie-Lorenz theory. These calculations show that the increase in mass light-scattering efficiency following passage through a single non-precipitating cloud to be 14%, which is in agreement with findings of previous studies in the same region. This new technique produces results that are consistent with existing methods for measuring in-cloud sulfate production and has the advantage of intrinsic consistency with the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of the aerosol.

  11. Study of the top quark production in complementary phase space regions and impact on PDFs in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Krintiras, Georgios Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The first measurement of the top quark pair production cross section ($\\sigma_{\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm{t}}}$) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV is reviewed. The data have been collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC and analyzed considering events with at least one charged lepton. The extraction of $\\sigma_{\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm{t}}}$ can be used to constrain the gluon distribution function (PDF) at large longitudinal parton momentum fraction and to establish experimentally the relation between the top-quark mass as implemented in Monte-Carlo generators and the Lagrangian mass parameter. The impact of the measurement on the determination of the gluon PDF is illustrated through a quantum chromodynamic analysis at next-to-next-to-leading order and the result is furthermore put in context with other top quark measurements in different phase space regions. The measurement has paved the way for the first observation of top quark production in nuclear collisions and the subsequent study of modifications induc...

  12. High-calorific biogas production from anaerobic digestion of food waste using a two-phase pressurized biofilm (TPPB) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Liu, Hong; Yan, Fang; Su, Dongfang; Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    To obtain high calorific biogas via anaerobic digestion without additional upgrading equipment, a two-phase pressurized biofilm system was built up, including a conventional continuously stirred tank reactor and a pressurized biofilm anaerobic reactor (PBAR). Four different pressure levels (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.7MPa) were applied to the PBAR in sequence, with the organic loading rate maintained at 3.1g-COD/L/d. Biogas production, gas composition, process stability parameters were measured. Results showed that with the pressure increasing from 0.3MPa to 1.7MPa, the pH value decreased from 7.22±0.19 to 6.98±0.05, the COD removal decreased from 93.0±0.9% to 79.7±1.2% and the methane content increased from 80.5±1.5% to 90.8±0.8%. Biogas with higher calorific value of 36.2MJ/m 3 was obtained at a pressure of 1.7MPa. Pressure showed a significant effect on biogas production and gas quality in methanogenesis reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regularities of selenium and chromium behavior in redox processes during hydrometallurgic treatment of solid phase products of rhenium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Петров

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main source of selenium is copper anode slime. But during the pyrometallurgical treatment of sulphide polymetallic ores significant amount of selenium along with radiogenic osmium and rhenium is concentrated in the solid-phase products of acid wash extraction and cannot be extracted, as gets lost with discharged chromium-containing solutions of osmium stage. The paper presents results of research into selenium reduction in the chromium-containing sulfuric acid medium by sulfurous gas and sodium sulphite. The use of the above reducers in optimum conditions leads to almost complete recovery of selenium (VI while selenium (IV extraction rate is not exceeding 60 %. The chrome (III present in solutions has no impact on the selenium extraction rate. Chrome (VI is almost completely reduced to a trivalent state, thus its negative impact on subsequent rhenium sorption from solutions purified from selenium is excluded. In view of a high rate of selenium extraction from chromium-containing sulfuric acid solutions formed in the process of radiogenic osmium production using sulfurous gas and sodium sulphite, choice of a method for selenium reduction is to a great extent dependent on the company’s profile.

  14. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  15. Evaluation of a compost obtained from forestry wastes and solid phase of pig slurry as a substrate for seedlings production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H M; Romero, A M; Pereira, H; Borges, P; Cabral, F; Vasconcelos, E

    2007-12-01

    A composted material obtained from forestry wastes and solid phase of pig slurry was evaluated as a substrate component for the production of tomato and lettuce seedlings. Four different substrates were tested: compost (100C), a mixture of 75% compost and 25% peat substrate (75C), a mixture of 50% compost and 50% peat substrate (50C), and peat-based substrate (control). Compost increased the pH of the substrate from 6.3 (control) to 6.9 (100C) but did not affect the electrical conductivity (0.26 and 0.27 mScm(-1), respectively, for control and 100C). Germination and growth of lettuce seedlings were not affected by the substrate type, contrasting with tomato seedlings where the highest growth occurred at 100C substrate. Increasing compost percentage on substrate increased nitrogen, calcium and magnesium availability and, consequently, the concentration of these elements in plant tissues increased. On the contrary, potassium and manganese concentration decreased. Results from the study suggest that the compost studied is a good alternative to peat-based substrates for the production of vegetable seedlings.

  16. A study of reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase. Production and evolution of aerosols resulting from these reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis

    1977-01-01

    The reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase with atmospheric pollutants (NO x ; hydrocarbons) were studied. Experiments showed that NO 2 contribution was significant and suggested that SO 2 transformation into sulfuric acid and sulfates might occur through oxidising agents mainly hydroxyl (OH) and hydro-peroxyl (HO 2 ) radicals. The production and evolution of the resulting aerosols was also studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of water vapour on particle production was significant and that primary embryos were formed from the hetero-molecular homogeneous nucleation acting on water vapour and very likely on sulfuric acid. There was a semi-quantitative agreement between our experimental results and some theoretical investigations on nucleation rate of the system (H 2 O - H 2 SO 4 ). The subsequent growth of particles was studied in a simulation chamber. Finally a model of sulfuric acid vapour evolution in presence of atmospheric aerosols made it possible to extend the previous results as far as possible to the case of atmosphere and then to compare the importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of the vapours according to atmospheric conditions. (author) [fr

  17. Image quality validation of Sentinel 2 Level-1 products: performance status at the beginning of the constellation routine phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Benjamin; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Espesset, Aude; Alhammoud, Bahjat; Bouzinac, Catherine; Clerc, Sébastien; Gascon, Ferran

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel-2 is an Earth Observation mission developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. The mission is based on a constellation of 2-satellites: Sentinel-2A launched in June 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in March 2017. It offers an unprecedented combination of systematic global coverage of land and coastal areas, a high revisit of five days at the equator and 2 days at mid-latitudes under the same viewing conditions, high spatial resolution, and a wide field of view for multispectral observations from 13 bands in the visible, near infrared and short wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The mission performances are routinely and closely monitored by the S2 Mission Performance Centre (MPC), including a consortium of Expert Support Laboratories (ESL). This publication focuses on the Sentinel-2 Level-1 product quality validation activities performed by the MPC. It presents an up-to-date status of the Level-1 mission performances at the beginning of the constellation routine phase. Level-1 performance validations routinely performed cover Level-1 Radiometric Validation (Equalisation Validation, Absolute Radiometry Vicarious Validation, Absolute Radiometry Cross-Mission Validation, Multi-temporal Relative Radiometry Vicarious Validation and SNR Validation), and Level-1 Geometric Validation (Geolocation Uncertainty Validation, Multi-spectral Registration Uncertainty Validation and Multi-temporal Registration Uncertainty Validation). Overall, the Sentinel-2 mission is proving very successful in terms of product quality thereby fulfilling the promises of the Copernicus program.

  18. Production of Bioethanol from Agricultural Wastes Using Residual Thermal Energy of a Cogeneration Plant in the Distillation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Cutzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentations were performed, adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83–85 °C of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit, and peaches wastes; and corn threshing residue (CTR. Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as starter yeast. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland; saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland. Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28 °C and 35 °C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10.22% (v/v and among fruits with apple (8.71% (v/v. Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from a cogeneration plant, were tested. Vacuum simple batch distillation by rotary evaporation at lab scale at 80 °C (heating bath and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93.35% (v/v and 89.59% (v/v of ethanol, respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.

  19. Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2011-10-01

    A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  1. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated streams containing fission products: mechanisms leading to crystalline phases in molten chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudry, D.

    2008-10-01

    The world of the nuclear power gets ready for profound modifications so that 'the atom' can aspire in conformance with long-lasting energy: it is what we call the development of generation IV nuclear systems. So, the new pyrochemical separation processes for the spent fuel reprocessing are currently being investigated. Techniques in molten chloride media generate an ultimate flow (with high chlorine content) which cannot be incorporated in conventional glass matrices. This flow is entirely water-soluble and must be conditioned in a chemical form which is compatible with a long-term disposal. This work of thesis consists in studying new ways for the management of the chlorinated streams loaded with fission products (FP). To do it, a strategy of selective FP extraction via the in situ formation of crystalline phases was retained. The possibility of extracting rare earths in the eutectic LiCl-KCl was demonstrated via the development of a new way of synthesis of rare earth phosphates (TRPO 4 ). As regards alkaline earths, the conversion of strontium and barium chlorides to the corresponding tungstates or molybdates was studied in different solvents. Mechanisms leading to the crystalline phases in molten chloride media were studied via the coupling of NMR and XRD techniques. First of all, it has been shown that these mechanisms are dependent on the stability of the used precursors. So in the case of the formation of rare earth phosphates the solvent is chemically active. On the other hand, in the case of the formation of alkaline earth tungstates it would seem that the solvent plays the role of structuring agent which can control the ability to react of chlorides. (author)

  2. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 2: A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive-Outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV), and was carried out from October 2001 to September 2002. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. One outcome of Phase II is that there is no clear distinction between the three types of tests in the way they are carried out, and that they are used according to need rather than according to an internal logic or structure. In order better to understand the complexity of ORV, it was found useful to introduce concepts such as: (1) Community of Practice, defined as a small groups of people who through extensive communication developed a common sense of purpose, work-related knowledge and experience; (2) embedding, which means that all tasks and activities take place in an environment or context that may be physical, social, or historical (cultural); and (3) the Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO) principle, which characterises how people try to adjust what they do to the local conditions of work (temporal, physical and organisational). By using these terms to understand the practice of ORV, it becomes easier to understand how actions at times can be carried out in such a manner that the outcomes differ significantly from what was desired. It

  3. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  4. Homology of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase, 2-amino-6-caprolactam racemase, 2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase, glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase and isopenicillin-N-epimerase with aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, P K; Christen, P

    1994-01-14

    Profile analysis showed the title enzymes to be homologous with the aminotransferases. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is closely related to subgroup I of aminotransferases which includes aspartate, alanine, histidinol-phosphate, tyrosine and phenylalanine aminotransferase. 2,2-Dialkylglycine decarboxylase, glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase and 2-amino-6-caprolactam racemase are most similar to subgroup II which comprises aminotransferases with omega-amino acids as substrates. 8-Amino-7-oxononanoate synthase is closely related to both subgroup I and II, and isopenicillin-N-epimerase to subgroup IV with serine and phosphoserine aminotransferase. Aminotransferases and the title enzymes belong to a regio-specific family of evolutionarily related pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes.

  5. The effect of Ce doped in Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(3)/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(3)-CeO(2) electrode and its electro-catalytic performance in caprolactam wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Yaochi; Zeng, Dongming; Lin, Jingping; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(3)/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(3)-CeO(2) anodes were prepared by brush coating with high temperature oxidation. The anodes were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope and cyclic voltammetry. The surface of the electrode shows more compact and exist shallower mud cracks than the others by coating with 1% Ce to the surface of Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(3) electrode. The XRD patterns show that as-prepared electrodes are SnO(2) and TiO(2). The electrode with 1% Ce dopant shows the highest efficiency in the electrolysis of caprolactam wastewater. The oxygen evolution potential is about 1.75 V, the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand is 50%, and the biochemical oxygen demand is 353 mg/L for 5 h at a current of 0.12 A.

  6. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  7. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-08

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  8. Environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in pig herds in relation to the productive phase and application of cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, G; Galletti, E; Guazzetti, S; Rosignoli, C; Alborali, G; Battisti, A; Franco, A; Bonilauri, P; Rugna, G; Martelli, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to better understand MRSA environmental contamination in pig holdings in relation to the productive phase and the application of environmental cleaning and disinfection practices (C&D). This study was carried out on six herds. Dust samples from farrowing crates, weaning boxes, growing and finishing pens were collected from each herd environment prior to and after C&D and cultured for MRSA. Ten samples were collected at the end of each productive phase with the animals present and 10 additional samples were collected after C&D, prior to introduction of a new stock. The proportion of positive samples prior to C&D was lower in fattening than in other phases. The proportion of positive samples prior to and after C&D was 121/240 (50%) and 46/240 (19%) respectively. In the mixed effects logistic regression analysis it was shown not only that both productive phase and C&D were associated with the probability of having a positive sample but also that the C&D effect was different in the different productive phases. In particular the effect of C&D was stronger in farrowing crates than in the other productive phases. The results of this study show that, although current practices of cleaning and disinfection reduce MRSA environmental contamination, they are likely to be inadequate to the elimination of the microorganism. However, a strict application of hygienic protocols can lead to a marked reduction of MRSA environmental contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing the Production of Extreme-ultraviolet Late-phase Solar Flares Using the Model Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Ding, Mingde

    2018-04-01

    Recent observations in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths reveal an EUV late phase in some solar flares that is characterized by a second peak in warm coronal emissions (∼3 MK) several tens of minutes to a few hours after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak. Using the model enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), we numerically probe the production of EUV late-phase solar flares. Starting from two main mechanisms of producing the EUV late phase, i.e., long-lasting cooling and secondary heating, we carry out two groups of numerical experiments to study the effects of these two processes on the emission characteristics in late-phase loops. In either of the two processes an EUV late-phase solar flare that conforms to the observational criteria can be numerically synthesized. However, the underlying hydrodynamic and thermodynamic evolutions in late-phase loops are different between the two synthetic flare cases. The late-phase peak due to a long-lasting cooling process always occurs during the radiative cooling phase, while that powered by a secondary heating is more likely to take place in the conductive cooling phase. We then propose a new method for diagnosing the two mechanisms based on the shape of EUV late-phase light curves. Moreover, from the partition of energy input, we discuss why most solar flares are not EUV late flares. Finally, by addressing some other factors that may potentially affect the loop emissions, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is mainly observed in warm coronal emissions.

  10. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on reproductive characteristics of male broiler breeders during the post-peak production phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eugênio Triques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their membrane constitution, sperm cells of male broiler breeders are prone to lipid peroxidation, which affects their fertilizing capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation on the reproductive characteristics of 12 male broiler breeders (Cobb older than 50 weeks. The roosters were randomly distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (treatment 1: commercial feed; treatment 2: commercial feed supplemented with canthaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C and 6 replicates. Semen samples were collected by abdominal massage, and then underwent evaluation of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, vigor, and morphology. Morphometric analyses of testes, combs, and dewlaps were performed at 68 weeks. Testes samples were collected for morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubules and analysis of cellular proliferation in the germinal epithelium by using immunohistochemical staining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA antibodies. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SAS software (SAS, 2002. No significant effects of antioxidant supplementation were observed on semen characteristics (p > 0.05. A significant positive effect of the antioxidant blend was observed on the percentage of normal sperm, dewlap weight and width, and testes weight and length (p < 0.05. PCNA-positive cell counts and morphometry of the seminiferous tubules were not affected by the treatment. Dietary antioxidant supplementation may represent a nutritional tool to increase fertility in male broiler breeder flocks during the post-peak production phase.

  11. The gas phase reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene: formation yields of some toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Franz; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separate experiments, small quantities of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene were added as a tracer for OH. Formation yields of acrolein of (52±7)%, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene of (3.1±0.5)% and OH radicals of (13±3)% were observed. In addition, the rate coefficient of the gas-phase reaction of ozone with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene was measured both directly and relative to propene, finding an average of (1.6±0.4)×10 -18 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, respectively, at 296±2 K. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the effect of atmospheric processing on the toxicity of 1,3-butadiene.

  12. Liquid phase mass production of air-stable black phosphorus/phospholipids nanocomposite with ultralow tunneling barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiankun; Liu, Yinan; Lai, Jiawei; Qi, Shaomian; An, Chunhua; Lu, Yao; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Sun, Dong; Chen, Jian-Hao; Liu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (FLBP), a recently discovered two-dimensional semiconductor, has attracted substantial attention in the scientific and technical communities due to its great potential in electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, reactivity of FLBP flakes with ambient species limits its direct applications. Among various methods to passivate FLBP in ambient environment, nanocomposites mixing FLBP flakes with stable matrix may be one of the most promising approaches for industry applications. Here, we report a simple one-step procedure to mass produce air-stable FLBP/phospholipids nanocomposite in liquid phase. The resultant nanocomposite is found to have ultralow tunneling barrier for charge carriers which can be described by an Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping mechanism. Devices made from such mass-produced FLBP/phospholipids nanocomposite show highly stable electrical conductivity and opto-electrical response in ambient conditions, indicating its promising applications in both electronic and optoelectronic applications. This method could also be generalized to the mass production of nanocomposites consisting of other air-sensitive 2D materials, such as FeSe, NbSe2, WTe2, etc.

  13. Applications of CE-ESI-MS/MS analysis to structural elucidation of methylenecyclohexane ozonolysis products in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Conny; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2007-05-01

    The composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the gas phase ozonolysis of methylenecyclohexane was analyzed in a series of indoor aerosol chamber experiments. Capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-ITMS) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SOA constituents. A number of dicarboxylic acids in the range of C(5)-C(6), such as adipic acid and glutaric acid, were found as major components of the organic products. Besides these smaller compounds, the formation of higher-molecular-weight compounds were observed under both neutral and acidic conditions. MS/MS experiments were carried out in order to obtain information on the monomer units and the structure of the dimers. MS(2) experiments of the two most prominent dimers with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 257 and m/z 273 yielded common fragments of m/z 83, 129 or 145. Based on the fragmentation patterns, these dimers are tentatively identified as carboxylate ester acids containing a unit of adipic acid in the structure. The dimer with m/z 257 was nearly 60% of the total detected compounds for both the neutral and acidic seed particle experiments.

  14. Sulfonated nanocellulose for the efficient dispersive micro solid-phase extraction and determination of silver nanoparticles in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-08

    This paper reports a simple approach to Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N) that integrates the nanotool, sulfonated nanocellulose (s-NC), and nanoanalyte, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the same analytical process by using an efficient, environmentally friendly dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μSPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with s-NC as sorbent material. Introducing negatively charged sulfate groups onto the surface of cellulose enhances its surface chemistry and enables the extraction and preconcentration of AgNPs of variable diameter (10, 20 and 60nm) and shell composition (citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings) from complex matrices into a cationic surfactant. In this way, AgNPs of diverse nature were successfully extracted onto the s-NC sorbent and then desorbed into an aqueous solution containing thiotic acid (TA) prior to CE without the need for any labor-intensive cleanup. The ensuing eco-friendly D-μSPE method exhibited a linear response to AgNPs with a limit of detection (LOD) of 20μg/L. Its ability to specifically recognize AgNPs of different sizes was checked in orange juice and mussels, which afforded recoveries of 70.9-108.4%. The repeatability of the method at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level was 5.6%. Based on the results, sulfonated nanocellulose provides an efficient, cost-effective analytical nanotool for the extraction of AgNPs from food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing nitrilase production from Fusarium proliferatum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Farnaz; Chaubey, Asha; Raina, Arvind; Jamwal, Urmila; Parshad, Rajinder

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of three independent variables i.e. carbon source (glucose), nitrogen source (sodium nitrate) and inducer (ϵ-caprolactam) on nitrilase production from Fusarium proliferatum were investigated using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. Response surface methodology (RSM) was followed to generate the process model and to obtain the optimal conditions for maximum nitrilase production. Based on central composite design (CCD) a quadratic model was found to fit the experimental data (pnitrilase activity of 58.3U/g biomass obtained experimentally correlated to the predicted activity which proves the authenticity of the model. Overall 2.24 fold increase in nitrilase activity was achieved as compared to the activity before optimization (26U/g biomass).

  16. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 3. A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive Outage (Safety-train Outage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and communication between

  17. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 3. A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive Outage (Safety-train Outage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage [subavstaellning], which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and

  18. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...

  19. Selective extraction of phospholipids from dairy products by micro-solid phase extraction based on titanium dioxide microcolumns followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima; Jensen, Ole; Zambonin, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A new micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE) procedure based on titanium dioxide microcolumns was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids (PLs) from dairy products before matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. All...

  20. Cocatalyzing Pt/PtO Phase-Junction Nanodots on Hierarchically Porous TiO2for Highly Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Ning; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Jin, Jun; Wu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Fu; Wu, Min; Li, Yu; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Su, Bao-Lian

    2017-09-06

    Phase-junctions between a cocatalyst and its semiconductor host are quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity and are widely studied, while reports on the phase-juncted cocatalyst are still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO 2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H 2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodot formation and dispersity. Compared to the TiO 2 nanoparticles, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 network containing 0.18 wt % Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst demonstrates a highest photocatalytic H 2 rate of 13 mmol g -1 h -1 under simulated solar light, and possesses a stable cycling activity without obvious decrease after five cycles. Such high H 2 production performance can be attributed to both the phase-juncted Pt/PtO providing more active sites while PtO suppresses the undesirable hydrogen back reaction, and the special hierarchically porous TiO 2 network with inner-particle mesopores presenting short diffusion path lengths for photogenerated electrons and enhanced light harvesting efficiency. This work suggests that Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst on hierarchically porous TiO 2 nanostructures is a promising strategy for advanced photocatalytic H 2 production.

  1. The use of a housecleaning product in an indoor environment leading to oxygenated polar compounds and SOA formation: Gas and particulate phase chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, S.; Rio, C.; Ustache, A.; Fable, S.; Nicolle, J.; Même, A.; D'Anna, B.; Nicolas, M.; Leoz, E.; Chiappini, L.

    2013-08-01

    This work investigates Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formed by limonene ozonolysis using a housecleaning product in indoor environment. This study combines simulation chamber ozonolysis experiments and field studies in an experimental house allowing different scenarios of housecleaning product use in real conditions. Chemical speciation has been performed using a new method based on simultaneous sampling of both gas and particulate phases on sorbent tubes and filters. This method allowed the identification and quantification of about 35 products in the gas and particulate phases. Among them, products known to be specific from limonene ozonolysis such as limononaldehyde, ketolimonene and ketolimonic acid have been detected. Some other compounds such as 2-methylbutanoic acid had never been detected in previous limonene ozonolysis studies. Some compounds like levulinic acid had already been detected but their formation remained unexplained. Potential reaction pathways are proposed in this study for these compounds. For each experiment, chemical data are coupled together with physical characterization of formed particles: mass and size and number distribution evolution which allowed the observation of new particles formation (about 87,000 particle cm-3). The chemical speciation associated to aerosol size distribution results confirmed that limonene emitted by the housecleaning product was responsible for SOA formation. To our knowledge, this work provides the most comprehensive analytical study of detected compounds in a single experiment for limonene ozonolysis in both gaseous and particulate phases in real indoor environment.

  2. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, S.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has adopted a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the Phase-1 Upgrade of its pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters with a conversion ratio of around 3 are installed on the support structures, outside of the sensitive tracking region, requiring a re-design of the low and high voltage distribution to the pixel modules. After several years of R and D, the project has entered the production phase. A total of 1800 DC-DC converters are being produced, and rigorous quality assurance and control is being employed during the production process. The testing program is outlined, results from mass production are presented and issues that have been encountered are described. In addition, two system level challenges, namely the choice of output voltage in the presence of large, load-dependent voltage drops, and the thermal management required to remove the heat load caused by the DC-DC converters, are discussed

  3. Two Synthetic Methods for Preparation of Chiral Stationary Phases Using Crystalline Degradation Products of Vancomycin: Column Performance for Enantioseparation of Acidic and Basic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Assem; Heydari, Rouhollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2017-07-01

    Two chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on crystalline degradation products (CDPs) of vancomycin by using different synthetic methods were prepared and compared. Crystalline degradation products of vancomycin were produced by hydrolytic loss of ammonia from vancomycin molecules. Performances of two chiral columns prepared with these degradation products were investigated using several acidic and basic drugs as model analytes. Retention and resolution of these analytes on the prepared columns, as two main parameters, in enantioseparation were studied. The results demonstrated that the stationary phase preparation procedure has a significant effect on the column performance. The resolving powers of prepared columns for enantiomers resolution were changed with the variation in vancomycin-CDP coverage on the silica support. Elemental analysis was used to monitor the surface coverage of silica support by vancomycin-CDP. The results showed that both columns can be successfully applied to chiral separation studies.

  4. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  5. Analysis of reaction products formed in the gas phase reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with atmospheric oxidants: Reaction mechanisms and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenar, I.; Martin, P.; Cabañas, B.; Salgado, S.; Martinez, E.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of reaction products for the reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with chlorine atoms (Cl) and OH and NO3 radicals has been carried out at the first time with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the tropospheric reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight detector (GC-TOFMS) were used to carry out the qualitative and/or quantitative analyses. Reaction products in gas and particulate phase were observed from the reactions of E,E-2,4- hexadienal with all oxidants. E/Z-Butenedial and maleic anhydride were the main products identified in gas phase. E-butenedial calculated molar yield ranging from 4 to 10%. A significant amount of multifunctional compounds (chloro and hydroxy carbonyls) was identified. These compounds could be formed in particulate phase explaining the ∼90% of unaccounted carbon in gas phase. The reaction with Cl atoms in the presence of NOx with a long reaction time gave Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an additional product, which is known for being an important specie in the generation of the photochemical smog. Nitrated compounds were the major organic products from the reaction with the NO3 radical. Based on the identified products, the reaction mechanisms have been proposed. In these mechanisms a double bond addition of the atmospheric oxidant at C4/C5 of E,E-2,4-hexadienal is the first step for tropospheric degradation.

  6. A new isolate from Fusarium proliferatum (AUF-2) for efficient nitrilase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Farnaz; Chaubey, Asha; Jamwal, Urmila; Parshad, Rajinder

    2013-10-01

    A fungal isolate from Fusarium proliferatum strain AUF-2 has been found to have a high nitrilase activity (≥ 1,000 U/l culture). The present work describes optimization of growth conditions and production medium to achieve maximum nitrilase production. The most effective carbon and nitrogen sources for nitrilase production were glucose and sodium nitrate, respectively. ε-Caprolactam was found to be the best inducer for maximum nitrilase production with 80 g/l wet cell biomass and 26 U/g nitrilase activity. An overall nitrilase activity of ≥ 2,000 U/l culture was obtained in this study, which is one of the best activities reported so far in any Fusarium strain. Chemo-profiling has shown that the strain is versatile in its ability to hydrolyze both aliphatic as well as aromatic nitriles. Efforts are being made to use the strain for biotransformation of pharmaceutical substrates.

  7. Improved quantification of farnesene during microbial production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two-liquid-phase fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Stefan; Nielsen, Jens; Khoomrung, Sakda

    2016-01-01

    of identification and quantification methods for farnesene produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two-liquid-phase fermentations using GC-MS and GC-FID. By increasing the polarity of the stationary phase introducing a ZB-50 column (50%-phenyl-50%-dimethylsiloxane) peak intensity could be increased and solvent...

  8. High performance liquid chromatographic separations of gas oil samples and their hydrotreated products using commercial normal phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Nicole E; Lucy, Charles A

    2011-10-28

    Three commercially available high performance liquid chromatography columns are used in normal phase or quasi-normal phase mode for the separation of gas oil samples. The columns are tested with 20 analytical standards to determine their suitability for separations of petroleum samples and their ability to separate the nitrogen group-types (pyrrole and pyridine) found in petroleum. The columns studied are polymeric hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HGN), a biphenyl phase, and a Chromegabond "DNAP" column from ES Industries. The HGN column separates gas oils based on both ring structure and heteroatom, while the biphenyl phase has low retention of most compounds studied in quasi-normal phase mode. The "DNAP" column is selective for nitrogen-containing compounds, separating them from PAHs as well as oxygen and sulphur compounds. Retention data of standards on all three columns is shown, along with chromatograms of gas oil samples on the HGN and "DNAP" columns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the “possible” synergism of the different phases of TiO 2 in photo-catalysis for hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Wahab, A.K.

    2017-05-19

    The effect of TiO2 phase composition on the photocatalytic hydrogen production of water/ethanol (95/5 volume ratio) has been studied in order to understand the structural effect (and associated electronic properties) on the reaction within the so called “synergistic effect” concept. Within the investigated series of 1wt.% Pt/TiO2 with initial particle dimension of ca. 15nm the highest hydrogen production rate per unit area was observed for catalysts composed of 80% anatase, 18% rutile and 2% brookite. The associated particle sizes for this catalyst were 44, 82 and 33nm for the three phases, respectively. XRD patterns analyzed by the Rietveld method as well as X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of the Ti K-edge mapped the phase transformation from anatase/brookite to rutile where it appears that the brookite phase is initially transformed to anatase phase. XRD patterns and Raman shift were found to be more sensitive to subtle changes in phase composition when compared to UV-vis absorbance or XANES of the Ti K-edge. The photocatalytic reaction for the complete series was conducted in identical condition and with excess photon flux in order to extract accurate reaction rates. In addition to the observed multi-phase effects on the reaction rate, other parameters extracted from the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns were found to be useful. In particular, at the narrow window where the reaction rate was found to be maximum, the c-dimension of the anatase phase had values in the range 9.510–9.515Å. These c-dimension values are between those observed for nanoparticles with less than 20nm in size and those for larger particles with a size above 50nm. Results from this work indicate that the synergism between anatase and rutile on the photocatalytic reaction for hydrogen production, often attributed to increase the charge carrier life time, may be linked to the lattice expansion of the anatase phase which in turn would affect its electronic

  10. Quantification of Sunscreen Ethylhexyl Triazone in Topical Skin-Care Products by Normal-Phase TLC/Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna W. Sobanska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylhexyl triazone (ET was separated from other sunscreens such as avobenzone, octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate and from parabens by normal-phase HPTLC on silica gel 60 as stationary phase. Two mobile phases were particularly effective: (A cyclohexane-diethyl ether 1 : 1 (v/v and (B cyclohexane-diethyl ether-acetone 15 : 1 : 2 (v/v/v since apart from ET analysis they facilitated separation and quantification of other sunscreens present in the formulations. Densitometric scanning was performed at 300 nm. Calibration curves for ET were nonlinear (second-degree polynomials, with R > 0.998. For both mobile phases limits of detection (LOD were 0.03 and limits of quantification (LOQ 0.1 μg spot−1. Both methods were validated.

  11. High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, we will transition MicroLink's 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable...

  12. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of the insoluble phases in the nuclear waste glasses. Application to the vitrification of molybdenum and of platinoid fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    After the dissolution of the used fuel and the separation of several elements by the Purex process, the high level nuclear wastes composed of fission products and minor actinides are reprocessed and vitrified in nuclear glasses at AREVA La Hague plant. Some of the fission products precipitate: they are not solubilized in the glass matrix. On the one hand, depending on the oxygen potential of the glass melt, the platinoid elements Pd-Ru-Rh form complex solid oxide phases or intermetallic compounds containing chalcogen elements such as selenium and tellurium. On the other hand, the molybdenum forms only oxide phases. It reacts strongly with the oxide phases present in the glass melt to form molybdate phases able to solubilise other elements like lanthanides. These phases can locally precipitate for a high load in molybdenum. Nevertheless, the formation of the molybdate phases has to remain transient. In this thesis, the thermodynamics of the chemical Systems containing the platinoid elements Pd-Rh-Ru and the chalcogen elements Se and Te were experimentally investigated. The Systems containing the platinoids were studied by DTA, DSC, Tian-Calvet drop calorimetry and by annealing. For the Systems containing the molybdenum, the interactions between MoO 3 and the main oxides composing the glass (Na 2 O, SiO 2 , MoO 3 and CaO) were studied by high temperature XRD. In the meantime, the thermodynamics of these chemical Systems was modeled with the Calphad method so as to be able to predict the crystallization phenomena of molybdenum and of the platinoids. The ternary Systems Ru-Rh-O and Pd-Se-Te were optimized to understand the platinoids thermochemistry. The Systems CaO-MoO 3 , Na 2 O-MoO 3 and Na 2 MoO 4 -CaMoO 4 were modeled to assess the thermodynamics of the molybdate phases. Moreover, the Systems Na 2 0 - SiO 2 and Na 2 O-SiO 2 -MoO 3 were optimized to describe the interaction between the molybdate phases and the glass melt. These modelling allow to perform

  14. Elevated acetyl-CoA by amino acid recycling fuels microalgal neutral lipid accumulation in exponential growth phase for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lina; Shen, Hui; Wang, Nan; Tatlay, Jaspaul; Li, Liang; Tan, Tin Wee; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2017-04-01

    Microalgal neutral lipids [mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs)], feasible substrates for biofuel, are typically accumulated during the stationary growth phase. To make microalgal biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels, generating strains that trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase is a promising biological approach. The regulatory mechanisms to trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase (TAEP) are important to be uncovered for advancing economic feasibility. Through the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by sodium dichloroacetate, acetyl-CoA level increased, resulting in TAEP in microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta. We further reported refilling of acetyl-CoA pool through branched-chain amino acid catabolism contributed to an overall sixfold TAEP with marginal compromise (4%) on growth in a TAG-rich D. tertiolecta mutant from targeted screening. Herein, a three-step α loop-integrated metabolic model is introduced to shed lights on the neutral lipid regulatory mechanism. This article provides novel approaches to compress lipid production phase and heightens lipid productivity and photosynthetic carbon capture via enhancing acetyl-CoA level, which would optimize renewable microalgal biofuel to fulfil the demanding fuel market. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ELISA for evaluating the incorporation of plasma derived complement split-products C3b/iC3b into solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Svehag, S E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2001-01-01

    An ELISA that measures plasma derived complement (C) split-products C3b/iC3b deposited on solid-phase immune complexes during C activation is described. Plates are coated with BSA, anti-BSA and plasma is added. Deposited C3b/iC3b is then detected by biotinylated anti-C3c-antibodies, avidin...

  17. Resonant di-Higgs boson production in the b b ¯ W channel: Probing the electroweak phase transition at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; No, J. M.; Pernié, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Safonov, A.; Spannowsky, M.; Winslow, P.

    2017-08-01

    We analyze the prospects for resonant di-Higgs production searches at the LHC in the b b ¯W+W- (W+→ℓ+νℓ, W-→ℓ-ν¯ℓ) channel, as a probe of the nature of the electroweak phase transition in Higgs portal extensions of the Standard Model. In order to maximize the sensitivity in this final state, we develop a new algorithm for the reconstruction of the b b ¯W+W- invariant mass in the presence of neutrinos from the W decays, building from a technique developed for the reconstruction of resonances decaying to τ+τ- pairs. We show that resonant di-Higgs production in the b b ¯W+W- channel could be a competitive probe of the electroweak phase transition already with the data sets to be collected by the CMS and ATLAS experiments in run 2 of the LHC. The increase in sensitivity with larger amounts of data accumulated during the high-luminosity LHC phase can be sufficient to enable a potential discovery of the resonant di-Higgs production in this channel.

  18. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  19. [Contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production in different restoration phases of the Yellow River estuary, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Guang; Sun, Zhi-Gao; Gan, Zhuo-Ting; Sun, Wan-Long; Wang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    By using the method of time-space mutual substitution, the contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production was studied in the un-restoration wetland (R0), restoration wetland since 2007 (R2007) and restoration wetland since 2002 (R2002) of the Yellow River estuary to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration projects. Results showed wetland soil total N2O production had a significant difference in different restoration phases, but the N2O release was the main source. The N2O production in restoration wetland was higher than that in un-restoration wetland. The N2O production wss mainly due to the nitrification and nitrifier denitrification processes, while the denitrification process had great weakening effects on N2O production, which was closely related to the physical and chemical properties of wetland soils in different restoration phases. The non-biological processes made greater contributions to N2O production and these were mainly due to that iron was reductive, while the Yellow River estuary was an area of highly active iron. Although N2O production in wetland soils was the results of biological processes combined with non-biological processes in different restoration phases, non-biological processes had larger influences and should be paid a special attention. There were different influences on wetland soil processes generating N2O between temperature and water content, indicating responses of soil microbial activities to temperature and water content were different. In addition, the N2O production contents ranged from 0.37 +/- 0.08 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) to 9.75 +/- 7.64 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) in marshes of the Yellow River estuary, which was slightly higher than those in the S. alterniflora wetland soils of the Min River estuary, but significantly lower than those in the C. malaccensis wetland soils of the Min River estuary, the grassland soils and the aerobic forest soils. We found that the long-term implements of ecological

  20. Phase-chronometric measuring systems for the provision of technological processes and diagnostics of the production of electromechanical engineering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumakova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper the main problems and objectives assessment of the current technical condition of the machine-building equipment are considered. Modern measuring systems used in engineering analysis. The paper considers a phase-chronometric information technology-metrological support for the evaluation of the technical condition of the synchronous electromechanical systems on the example of turbine CHP. Analysis of the main problems in the diagnosis of electromechanical systems is given. Phase-chronometric method as a basis for building a new system of diagnosis of electromechanical systems reviewed. The paper describes the main elements of technology, assessment of the economic effects of its introduction in the industry.

  1. The hadron production in π−-C interaction at 40 GeV/c and QCD phase transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgongerel B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed to study the phase transition process to use the new pair of variables, the temperature T and the cumulative number nc (T,nc. We considered the transverse energy spectra of protons and π−-mesons produced in π−-C interactions at 40 GeV/c as a function of cumulative number nc (or four-dimensional momentum transfer t and the baryonic chemical potential μb(√t. Obtained results indicate the possible appearance of QCD phase transition of nuclear matter.

  2. Fuzzy Decision Support in the Early Phases of the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Appio, Francesco Paolo

    2010-01-01

    and analysis of the process to go from opportunity identification to concepts, and often they even abort the process or start over. Koen’s Model for the FFE is composed of 5 different phases, the first two being Opportunity Identification and Opportunity Analysis, which are the focus of this paper. Furthermore......, several tools can be used by designers/managers in order to improve, structure and organize their work during the FFE. However, these tools tend to be selected and used in a heuristic manner. Additionally, some tools are preferred and more effective during specific phases of the FFE; hence an economic...

  3. Effect of high-temperature stress on microalgae at the end of the logarithmic phase for the efficient production of lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Han, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Ma, Guixia

    2016-10-01

    Efficient production of microalgae lipid is significant for the production of renewable biodiesel. In the present study, the high temperature of 40°C as stress environment was tested for stimulating lipid accumulation after the microalgae (Scenedesmus quadricauda) cells in suitable conditions grew to the end of the logarithmic phase. Different stress cultivation times of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days were studied. Interestingly, the lipid content and productivity reached 33.5% and 23.2 mg/L d after one day stress cultivation, showing substantial improvements of 39.6% and 33.3% compared with that in the untreated (day 0) microalgae cells, respectively. Longer stress time led to the decrease of biomass and lipid content compared with the untreated microalgae. However, a maximum protein content of 58.7% was obtained after six days. The stress cultivation at the end of the microalgae exponential phase for one day at a high temperature of 40°C could be a very useful industrial approach for efficiently promoting lipid content and biodiesel production.

  4. Explorative Solid-Phase Extraction (E-SPE) for Accelerated Microbial Natural Product Discovery, Dereplication, and Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    -phase extraction" (E-SPE) protocol using SAX, Oasis MAX, SCX, and LH-20 columns for targeted exploitation of chemical functionalities. E-SPE provides a minimum of fractions (15) for chemical and biological analyses and implicates development into a preparative scale methodology. Overall, this allows fast extract...

  5. Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P

    2010-08-01

    An integrated bioconversion process was developed to convert corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol effectively. In this study, corn stover was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which retained glucan ( approximately 100%) and xylan (>80%) in the solids. The pretreated carbohydrates-rich corn stover was converted to ethanol via two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF). This single-reactor process employed sequential simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), i.e. pentose conversion using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 in the first phase, followed by hexose conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the second phase. In the first phase, 88% of xylan digestibility was achieved through the synergistic action of xylanase and endo-glucanase with minimal glucan hydrolysis (10.5%). Overall, the TPSSF using 12-h SAA-treated corn stover resulted in the highest ethanol concentration (22.3g/L), which was equivalent to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) in the untreated corn stover. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using an automatic solid-phase extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2011-07-13

    A reliable analytical method was presented for the simultaneous determination of six N-nitrosamines, nine aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The sample treatment includes the precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile, centrifugation, solvent changeover by evaporation, and continuous solid-phase extraction for cleanup and preconcentration purposes. Samples (5 g) containing 0.15-500 ng of each amine were analyzed, and low detection limits (15-130 ng/kg) were achieved. Recoveries for milk and dairy products samples spiked with 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg ranged from 92% to 101%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviation values below 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to determine amine residues in several milk types (human breast, cow, and goat) and dairy products.

  7. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  8. Development of a perfusion reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the characterisation of maize products using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Nogales, J M; Garcia, M C; Marina, M L

    2006-02-03

    A perfusion reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been designed to allow rapid (3.4 min) separations of maize proteins with high resolution. Several factors, such as extraction conditions, temperature, detection wavelength and type and concentration of ion-pairing agent were optimised. A fine optimisation of the gradient elution was also performed by applying experimental design. Commercial maize products for human consumption (flours, precocked flours, fried snacks and extruded snacks) were characterised for the first time by perfusion RP-HPLC and their chromatographic profiles allowed a differentiation among products relating the different technological process used for their preparation. Furthermore, applying discriminant analysis makes it possible to group the samples according with the technological process suffered by maize products, obtaining a good prediction in 92% of the samples.

  9. Stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of simvastatin and ezetimibe from their combination drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Bharat G; Patel, Natvarlal M; Shah, Paresh B

    2007-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid stability-indicating reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of simvastatin (SIM) and ezetimibe (EZE) from their combination drug product. The proposed RP-LC method utilizes a LiChrospher 100 C18, 5 microm, 250 x 4.0 mm id column at ambient temperature; optimum mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-methanol (60 + 25 + 15, v/v/v) with apparent pH adjusted to 4.0 +/- 0.1; mobile phase flow rate of 1.5 mL/min; and ultraviolet detection at 238 nm. SIM, EZE, and their combination drug product were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. There were no other coeluting, interfering peaks from excipients, impurities, or degradation products due to variable stress conditions, and the method is specific for the estimation of SIM and EZE in the presence of degradation products. The described method was linear over the range of 1-80 and 3-80 microg/mL for SIM and EZE, respectively. The mean recoveries were 99.17 and 100.43% for SIM and EZE, respectively. The intermediate precision data were obtained under different experimental conditions, and the calculated value of the coefficient of variation was found to be less than the critical value. The proposed method can be useful in the quality control of bulk manufacturing and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe from their combination drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Bharat G; Patel, Natvarlal M; Shah, Paresh B; Patel, Laxman J; Patel, Vipul P

    2007-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid stability-indicating reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin (ATV) and ezetimibe (EZE) from their combination drug product. The proposed RP-LC method utilizes a LiChrospher 100 C18, 5 microm, 250 x 4.0 mm id column at ambient temperature; the optimum mobile phase consists of acetonitrile-water-methanol (45 + 40 + 15, v/v/v) with apparent pH adjusted to 4.0 +/- 0.1; mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; and UV detection at 250 nm. ATV, EZE, and their combination drug product were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. There were no other coeluting, interfering peaks from excipients, impurities, or degradation products due to variable stress conditions, and the method is specific for the estimation of ATV and EZE in the presence of degradation products. The response was linear over the concentration range of 1-80 microg/mL for ATV and EZE. The mean recoveries were 99.27 and 98.5% for ATV and EZE, respectively. The intermediate precision data were obtained under different experimental conditions, and the calculated value of the coefficient of variation was found to be less than the critical value. The proposed method can be useful in the quality control of bulk manufacturing and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  11. Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Sugar Beet Molasses in a Two Phase Anaerobic Digestion System in UASB Reactors under Thermophilic Temperature (55 Deg C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongjan, P.; Villafa, S.; Beltran, P.; Min, B.; Angelidaki, I. (Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark)). e-mail: pak@env.dtu.dk

    2008-10-15

    Simultaneous production of hydrogen and methane in two sequential stages of acidogenic and methanogenic step was investigated in two serial operated up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors at thermophilic temperature (55 deg C). Hydrogen production from molasses was carried out in the first reactor at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Molasses were converted into hydrogen with the yield of 1.3 mole-H{sub 2}/mole-hexose{sub added} or 82.7 ml- H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of molasses, and the hydrogen productivity was 2696 ml-H{sub 2}/dxl{sub reactor}. The effluent (mainly butyrate, acetate and lactate) after the acidogenic process was subsequently fed to the second reactor for methane production at HRT of 3 days. Methane production yield of 255 ml-H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of influent or 130.1 ml-H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of molasses and methane production rate of 1056 ml/dxl{sub reactor} were obtained. Significant decrease of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was also observed in the effluent of the second reactor. A two phase anaerobic digestion was successfully demonstrated for molasses as a potential substrate to produce hydrogen and subsequent methane in the UASB reactors

  12. Improved biogas production and biodegradation of oilseed rape straw by using kitchen waste and duck droppings as co-substrates in two-phase anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuqiao; Hong, Feng; Lu, Yong; Liu, Hengming

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape straw (ORS) is a kind of biorefractory waste widely existing in the rural area of China, which is highly suitable to mix with kitchen waste (KW) and duck droppings (DD) in two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD). This research introduced the importance of KW and DD addition to improve the biogas production and biodegradation of ORS. A set of comparative experiments were conducted on two-phase mono- and co-digestion with organic load of 60 g VS/L. The total methane yield (TMY) and the biodegradation of ORS of co-digestions were obviously improving, and the synergistic effect found in the two-phase co-digestions. The optimum mixing ratio of ORS, KW and DD was 50:40:10, and the corresponding TMY and VS degradation rate of ORS were 374.5 mL/g VS and 49.7%, respectively. Addition of KW and DD maintained the pH within the optimal range for the hydrolyzing-acidification, improved the phase separation and buffering capacity of AD system. PMID:28767709

  13. Low Melatonin Production During Adulthood - Phase 2: Association with Levels of Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging and DNA Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobel, Eugene L; Davanipour, Zoreh; Poulsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of the proposed study is to develop cross-sectional evidence concerning whether or not lower melatonin production levels are associated with increased oxidative DNA guanine damage...

  14. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570], Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  15. Electrofluid hydrolysis enhances the production of fermentable sugars from corncob via in/reverse-phase induced voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Yamei; Li, Dandan; Zhou, Yuyi; Guo, Lunan; Zhang, Mengyue; Xu, Xueming; Yang, Na

    2017-06-01

    To improve the economic value of lignocellulosic biomasses, an innovative electrofluidic technology has been applied to the efficient hydrolysis of corncob. The system combines fluidic reactors and induced voltages via magnetoelectric coupling effect. The excitation voltage had a positive impact on reducing sugar content (RSC). But, the increase of voltage frequency at 400-700Hz caused a slight decline of the RSC. Higher temperature limits the electrical effect on the hydrolysis at 70-80°C. The energy efficiency increased under the addition of metallic ions and series of in-phase induced voltage to promote hydrolysis. In addition, the 4-series system with in-phase and reverse-phase induced voltages under the synchronous magnetic flux, exhibited a significant influence on the RSC with a maximum increase of 56%. High throughput could be achieved by increasing series in a compact system. Electrofluid hydrolysis avoids electrochemical reaction, electrode corrosion, and sample contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    answered satisfactorily. An additional important factor in discouraging collaborative work in animal and grassland production is, without doubt, the complexity of work in this field compared with much of that in the individual discipline and, in particular, the com- plexity of work on forage as a source of nutrients for live- stock.

  17. Indigo production by Escherichia coli carrying the phenol hydroxylase gene from Acinetobacter sp strain ST-550 in a water-organic solvent two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukyu, N; Toyoda, K; Aono, R

    2003-02-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain ST-550 produces indigo from indole in the presence of a large volume of diphenylmethane and a high level of indole. Particular proteins increased remarkably in strain ST-550 grown in the two-phase culture system for indigo production. One of the proteins showed a N-terminal amino acid sequence that was identical to that of the largest subunit of phenol hydroxylase (MopN) from A. calcoaceticus NCBI8250. The indigo-producing activity was strongly induced when ST-550 was grown with phenol as a sole carbon source. Genes coding for the multicomponent phenol hydroxylase were cloned, based on the homology with mopKLMOP from A. calcoaceticus NCBI8250. Escherichia coli carrying the genes produced indigo from indole. E. coli JA300 and its cyclohexane-resistant mutant, OST3410, carrying the hydroxylase genes and the NADH regeneration system were grown in the two-phase culture system for indigo production. The OST3410 recombinant produced 52 microg indigo ml(-1) of medium in the presence of diphenylmethane. This productivity was 4.3-fold higher than that of the JA300 recombinant.

  18. The effect of natural antioxidants on the rate of accumulation of oxidation products in the fat phase of butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Voronina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the main finishing prefabricated pastries and cakes-cream. Researched range of cream depending on the fruit components and method of production. Aim: to study the degree of oxidation cream with natural antioxidants from fruits and berries processing products, namely in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries. Outlines the process of oxidation of lipids, one of the fundamental processes of loss of quality food products. Describes the action of antioxidants as antioxidants on accumulation intensity concentrations of primary and secondary oxidation products, making the final product unsuitable for the consumer and the bounding its shelf life. Presents the results of a study of the contents of primary and secondary oxidation products in butter cream immediately after cooking, as well as samples, stored for five days with the addition of antioxidants in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries in the amount of 2–7% by weight of cream. As a control sample has been used cream with no additives. Quality indicators to characterize the degree of oxidation of the product: acid, peroxide, anizidin and tioburbit number. The study found that adding a concentrated juice of fruits and berries as antioxidant in recipe cream reduces the growth rate of the concentration of free fatty acids on the fifth day, as compared with the reference sample. Adding concentrated juice of fruits and berries slows down the process of dissolution of the fat molecules in fat fraction of cream with the formation of free fatty acids; intensity decay reaction of peroxides and hydroxides slows down and, consequently, decreases the formation of aldehydes, deteriorating the taste and smell of the cream; quantitatively reduced the growth of education malondial′degida.

  19. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  20. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Xinyuan

    2017-05-19

    The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD) of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR) are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  1. Case Study of Survey of Occasional Application of Vinasse in Compost Production in Different Phases (during Production and after Producing Compost, at Waste Resumption Complex of Aradkooh in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recycling organic wastes has vital roles in sustainable agriculture, reducing pollutants in the environment, and nutrient enrichment of soils. Compost is the product of recycling organic waste through anaerobic treatment, which can be a good alternative.Again the use of chemical fertilizers is inappropriate. Vinasse is brown material and it is a product of industrial production of alcohol from molasses. Vinasse, a by-product of ethanol production from molasses, is a highstrength effluent with a high content of organics, mainly organic acids, reducing substances, cultured matter and glycerol. The wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of potassium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, a high content of suspended solids, a high CoD (Chemical oxygen Demand level and a high temperature at the moment of generation.Vinasse can be used as a supplement for enhancing compost fertilizer quality, because it has plenty of organic matter and minerals. This research was done with the purpose of surveying application of vinasse in different levels on indices of compost producing (temperature, microbial population, nitrogen, carbon, the ratio C/N, nitrate, pH and EC and producing time in different phases (during the production and after compost production for 5 months in the waste resumption complex of Aradkooh in Tehran. Materials and Methods: The method used for compost production from solid waste material was ventilating the fixed mass. In this research, the volume of ventilation was 0.6 lit air for 1 lit waste material in a minute.Four different treatments (each three replicates were applied to the compost:C0 without vinasse (control, C1, C2 and C3, respectively 10, 20 and 30 ml vinasse per kg waste material. The following factors were measured during each phase: Total-N was measured by the Kjeldahl method and organic carbon was measured by the Walkley-Black method. Thermometers were used for temperature monitoring at different

  2. Uranium favourability and evaluation in Mongolia (phase II), recent events in uranium resources and production in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batbold, T.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium exploration in Mongolia covered a period of over 5 decades. The main results of these activities were the discoveries of 6 uranium deposits and about 100 occurrences as well as numerous favourable indications. Sizable resources are found mainly in deposits of the sandstone, volcanic and alkaline intrusive types. Of these, the first two are considered to be of economic importance. Uranium production in Mongolia started in 1989 with the exploitation of volcanic type uranium deposits of the Mongol-Priargun metallogenic province, known as the Dornot Mine. Due to political and economic changes in the country and neighbouring areas of the Russian Federation, this uranium production was terminated in 1995. A new plan to restart production at the Mardai-gol deposits as a joint venture between Mongolia, the Russian Federation and a US company is being considered. (author)

  3. Growing Cu2S Thin Films by Exposing a Copper Substrate to Gas-Phase Products of Brown Coal Hydrothermal Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitskii, D. P.; Stanishevskii, Ya. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thin films of copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S) are synthesized on a copper substrate by exposing it to vapor-phase sulfur-containing products resulting from the hydrothermal desulfurization of brown coal. The synthesized 0.1-mm-thick films have grain sizes in the range of 10‒20 μm, electrical resistivity ρ = 0.92 Ω cm at T = 300 K, and bang gap E g = 1.91 eV. The roughness of the films, in terms of the arithmetic mean deviation of the assessed profile, is R a = 2.46 μm.

  4. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3. [using a fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and operation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) for the production of granular semiconductor grade silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles is presented. The construction of the process development unit (PDU) is reported. The PDU consists of four critical units of the EPSDU: the fluidized bed reactor, the reactor by product condenser, the zinc vaporizer, and the electrolytic cell. An experimental wetted wall condenser and its operation are described. Procedures are established for safe handling of SiCl4 leaks and spills from the EPSDU and PDU.

  5. Automated synthesis of a 96 product-sized library of triazole derivatives using a solid phase supported copper catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlalia, Ibtissem; Beauvineau, Claire; Beauvière, Sophie; Onen, Esra; Aufort, Marie; Beauvineau, Aymeric; Khaba, Eihab; Herscovici, Jean; Meganem, Faouzi; Girard, Christian

    2010-04-28

    This article deal with the parallel synthesis of a 96 product-sized library using a polymer-based copper catalyst that we developed which can be easily separated from the products by simple filtration. This gave us the opportunity to use this catalyst in an automated chemical synthesis station (Chemspeed ASW-2000). Studies and results about the preparation of the catalyst, its use in different solvent systems, its recycling capabilities and its scope and limitations in the synthesis of this library will be addressed. The synthesis of the triazole library and the very good results obtained will finally be discussed.

  6. Study of double phases corium atmosphere fission product time. Evolution after a nuclear reactor emergency shutdown by using Phado code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.; Nimal, B.; Maro, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the PHADO code which is a part of the ESCADRE (French system of accident analysis codes for Water Reactors). The objectives of ESCADRE system is to characterize (quantitatively, qualitatively) for all the accident duration, the fission products behaviour and to define and evaluate the means for severe accident mitigation and management (limitation of core degradation and containment failure). The PHADO code treats the fission products aspects in the corium and in the atmosphere: mass, concentration, activity, residual gamma and beta decay heating for any cooling time after the emergency shutdown. (TEC)

  7. A three-phase centrifuge to minimize waste from production tank bottoms and sludges: An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Graham, A.L.; Steele, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bretz, R.E. [New Mexico Tech., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The performance of a three-phase centrifuge process in separating tank bottoms into salable oil, brine and solids was scaled using the sigma method. The profitability was analyzed for a range of processed volumes for three business scenarios: producer owned, service company and a disposal facility. Centrifuge processes operated at full capacity in these situations may be very profitable investments but any investment decision should be heavily influenced by the annual volume to be processed, the quality of the feed and the price received for separated oil.

  8. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  9. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  10. More productive in vitro culture of Cryptosporidium parvum for better study of the intra- and extracellular phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Perez Cordón

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The great difficulties in treating people and animals suffering from cryptosporidiosis have prompted the development of in vitro experimental models. Due to the models of in vitro culture, new extracellular stages of Cryptosporidium have been demonstrated. The development of these extracellular phases depends on the technique of in vitro culture and on the species and genotype of Cryptosporidium used. Here, we undertake the molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism of different Cryptosporidium isolates from calves, concluding that all are C. parvum of cattle genotype, although differing in the nucleotide at positions 472 and 498. Using these parasites, modified the in vitro culture technique for HCT-8 cells achieving greater multiplication of parasites. The HCT-8 cell cultures, for which the culture had not been renewed in seven days, were infected with C. parvum sporozoites in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% IFBS, CaCl2 and MgCl2 1 mM at pH 7.2. Percentages of cell parasitism were increased with respect to control cultures (71% at 48 h vs 14.5%, even after two weeks (47% vs 1.9%. Also, the percentage of extracellular stages augmented (25.3% vs 1.1% at 96 h. This new model of in vitro culture of C. parvum will enable easier study of the developmental phases of C. parvum in performing new chemotherapeutic assays.

  11. Solvent extraction of some fission products using tetracycline as a complexing agent : dependence on the ph of the aqueous phase and on the nature of some inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1982-10-01

    The behavior of tetracycline as a complexing agent in solvent extraction studies is presented. The extraction curves for the fission products 90 Sr, 140 Ba, 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru and also for U have been determined for the extraction system tetracycline-benzyl alcohol. The extraction dependence on the pH of the aqueous phase as well as on the kind of electrolyte present was examined. As a practical application, the possiblity of using the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol system for separation of the fission products present in a mixture of them, as well as for the separation of uranium from those elements, was tested. (Author) [pt

  12. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of Triazine and Phenylurea Herbicides and Their Degradation Products in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, E. A; Strahan, A. P; Thurman, E. M

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography...

  13. Project Maghreb - Europe: Solar Production of Hydrogen. Phase I: Feasibility and opportunity study of the project; Projet Maghreb - Europe: Production d'hydrogene solaire. Phase I: Etude d'opportunite et de faisabilite du projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf; Chader, Samira; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Harouadi, Farid; Etievant, Claude; Lechevalier, Steve; Cherigui, Abdel-Nasser

    2007-07-01

    During the 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference which held on June 13-16, 2006, in Lyon (France), an important project appeared, the Maghreb-Europe Project for production and export of solar hydrogen, proposed in the Algiers Declaration of the hydrogen of origin renewable and directed by the researchers efforts of the Renewable Energies Development Center of Algiers (CDER) and members of the European company of Hydrogen Technologies (CETH). The present introductory communication exposes a scientific study on the appropriateness and the feasibility of the Project, as well as the objectives, missions and the fundamental elements for a scientific and technique accompaniment of this important project. (auth)

  14. Rapid determination of 54 pharmaceutical and personal care products in fish samples using microwave-assisted extraction-Hollow fiber-Liquid/solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Wen; Yue, Zhenfeng; Lin, Li; Zhao, Fengjuan; Chen, Peijin; Wu, Weidong; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Bo; Kuang, Yanyun; Wang, Jiong

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a simple, rapid, solvent-less and environmental friendliness microextraction method, microwave-assisted extraction-hollow fiber-liquid/solid phase microextraction (MAE-HF-L/SME), was developed for simultaneous extraction and enrichment of 54 trace hydrophilic/lipophilic pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from fish samples. A solid-phase extraction material, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, was synthesized. The SPME fiber had a homogeneous, loose structure and good mechanical properties, and they exhibited a good adsorption capacity for most PPCPs selected. The material formed the basis for the method of MAE-HF-L/SME. A method of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectroscopy (LC-HRMS) for analysis of 54 PPCPs. Under optimal synthesis and extraction conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, n=3) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs, n=10) for the 54 PPCPs were between 0.01-0.50μg·kg -1 and 0.052.00μg·kg -1 , respectively. Percent recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in spiked fish samples (n=6) were between 56.3%-119.9% and 0.3%-17.1%, respectively. The microextraction process of 54 PPCPs in MAE-HF-L/SME took approximately 12min. The method has a low matrix interference and high enrichment factor and may be applicable for determination of 54 different PPCPs in fish samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2006-09-07

    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  16. Reflection on the role of the Dutch government in sustainable supply chains. New phase in the transition of sustainable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, W.; Kok, M.; Van Oorschot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on an exploratory study which analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: - cocoa and tea. The study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cocoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier. [nl

  17. Production of low-density poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) foam via phase inversion from binary solvent/nonsovent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simandl, R.F.; Robinson, D.N.; Bolinger, W.L.; Davis, W.E.

    1991-11-01

    Phase inversion from durene/naphthalene, durene/tmpdo, and durene/hexadecanol binary solvent/nonsolvent systems produced well interconnected, radiographically homogeneous, open-celled poly (4- methyl-1-pentene) or pmp foams. These foams ranged in density from 5 to 50 mg/cm{sup 2}. Foam homogeneity and casting efficiency were dependent on casting scheme, durene quality, solvent-to-nonsolvent ratio, and quench temperature. Foam density tracked linearly with dissolved-polymer content. Homogeneous, ultralow-density (5 to 6 mg/cm{sup 3}) foams were produced by using a 49/51 durene/naphthalene solvent eutectic. Foam hardness or firmness tracked somewhat linearly with foam density. Foams with densities above 20 mg/cm{sup 3} were too fragile to handle without damage.

  18. Production of vanadium nitride nanopowders from gas-phase VOCl3 by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-01-01

    Vanadium nitride (VN) nanopowders were directly prepared via decomposition of gas-phase vanadium oxytrichloride (VOCl 3 ) in N 2 /Ar/H 2 microwave plasma generated at the atmospheric pressure. The dark greenish black powders were deposited on the inner wall of the quartz tube in the microwave plasma torch. The synthesized samples were taken from two regions of the plasma reactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All the samples taken from two regions consisted of typical nanoparticles, containing a large amount of VN and a little bit of V 2 O 3 . The TEM images show that the nanoparticles have sphere-shapes and well-defined planes formed by ordered stackings with d-spacings of 0.17 and 0.21 nm

  19. Efficient production of α-ketoglutarate in the gdh deleted Corynebacterium glutamicum by novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Sun, Lanchao; Feng, Jia; Wu, Ruifang; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Chen, Ning; Xie, Xixian

    2016-06-01

    Production of L-glutamate using a biotin-deficient strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long history. The process is achieved by controlling biotin at suboptimal dose in the initial fermentation medium, meanwhile feeding NH4OH to adjust pH so that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) can be converted to L-glutamate. In this study, we deleted glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1 and gdh2) of C. glutamicum GKG-047, an L-glutamate overproducing strain, to produce α-KG that is the direct precursor of L-glutamate. Based on the method of L-glutamate fermentation, we developed a novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy for α-KG production. Specifically, NH4OH was added to adjust the pH at the bacterial growth stage and NaOH was used when the cells began to produce acid; besides adding an appropriate amount of biotin in the initial medium, certain amount of additional biotin was supplemented at the middle stage of fermentation to maintain a high cell viability and promote the carbon fixation to the flux of α-KG production. Under this control strategy, 45.6 g/L α-KG accumulated after 30-h fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor and the productivity and yield achieved were 1.52 g/L/h and 0.42 g/g, respectively.

  20. New DC conductivity spectra of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (Zn–Al–NO3–LDH and its calcined product of ZnO phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zn–Al–NO3–LDH nanostructure was synthesized via the coprecipitation method at molar ratio Zn2+/Al3+ = 4 and pH = 7. The resultant sample was thermally treated at calcined temperatures of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The layered structure of the Zn–Al–NO3–LDH samples was stable below the calcination temperature 200 °C as shown in powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD patterns of calcined samples. The calcination products showed a collapse of LDH structure and ZnO phase was formed at 200 °C and above. The dielectric spectroscopy of LDH was explained using anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD due to the low mobility of LDH carriers. The conductivity spectra of LDH can be theoretically described according to the effective phase within the calcination products of LDH. In the comparison with previously researches, this study presented higher values of DC conductivity for all studied samples.

  1. Simple method for the determination of personal care product ingredients in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Peralta, Jerónimo; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2018-02-19

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of personal care product ingredients: galaxolide, tonalide, oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzyliden camphor, padimate-o, 2-ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed. Lettuce was directly extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with methanol, this extract was combined with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction in immersion mode, and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Good linear relationships (25-250 ng/g, R 2  > 0.9702) and low detection limits (1.0-25 ng/g) were obtained for analytes along with acceptable precision for almost all analytes (RSDs < 20%). The validated method was applied for the determination of personal care product ingredients in commercial lettuce and lettuces grown in soil and irrigated with the analytes, identifying the target analytes in leaves and roots of the latter. This procedure is a miniaturized and environmentally friendly proposal which can be a useful tool for quality analysis in lettuce. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Gas-phase reaction products and yields of terpinolene with ozone and nitric oxide using a new derivatization agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Harrison, Joel C.; Wells, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The new derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX) was used to investigate the carbonyl reaction products from terpinolene ozonolysis. With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, four carbonyl compounds were detected: methylglyoxal (MG), 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, (4MCH), 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene) heptanal (6OPH), and 3,6-dioxoheptanal (36DOH). The tricarbonyl 36DOH has not been previously observed. Using cyclohexane as a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, the yields of 6OPH and 36DOH were reduced indicating the influence secondary OHrad radicals have on terpinolene ozonolysis products. However, the MG yield increased and the 4MCH yield was unchanged when OHrad radicals were scavenged suggesting they are only made by the terpinolene + O3 reaction. The detection of 36DOH using TBOX highlights the advantages of a smaller molecular weight derivatization agent for the detection of multi-carbonyl compounds. The product yields from terpinolene ozonolysis experiments conducted in the presence of 20 ppb nitric oxide (NO) remained unchanged except for MG which decreased. However, in experiments where O3 was kept constant at 50 ppb and NO was varied (20, 50, 100 ppb) MG, 6OPH, 36DOH decreased with increasing NO while 4MCH increased with increasing NO. The use of TBOX derivatization if combined with other derivatization agents may address a recurring need to simply and accurately detect multi-functional oxygenated species in air.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  5. A multi-phase approach to select new wine yeast strains with enhanced fermentative fitness and glutathione production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, Tommaso; De Vero, Luciana; Mezzetti, Francesco; Fay, Justin C; Giudici, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The genetic improvement of winemaking yeasts is a virtually infinite process, as the design of new strains must always cope with varied and ever-evolving production contexts. Good wine yeasts must feature both good primary traits, which are related to the overall fermentative fitness of the strain, and secondary traits, which provide accessory features augmenting its technological value. In this context, the superiority of "blind," genetic improvement techniques, as those based on the direct selection of the desired phenotype without prior knowledge of the genotype, was widely proven. Blind techniques such as adaptive evolution strategies were implemented for the enhancement of many traits of interest in the winemaking field. However, these strategies usually focus on single traits: this possibly leads to genetic tradeoff phenomena, where the selection of enhanced secondary traits might lead to sub-optimal primary fermentation traits. To circumvent this phenomenon, we applied a multi-step and strongly directed genetic improvement strategy aimed at combining a strong fermentative aptitude (primary trait) with an enhanced production of glutathione (secondary trait). We exploited the random genetic recombination associated to a library of 69 monosporic clones of strain UMCC 855 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to search for new candidates possessing both traits. This was achieved by consecutively applying three directional selective criteria: molybdate resistance (1), fermentative aptitude (2), and glutathione production (3). The strategy brought to the selection of strain 21T2-D58, which produces a high concentration of glutathione, comparable to that of other glutathione high-producers, still with a much greater fermentative aptitude.

  6. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  7. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  8. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...

  9. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K. [Advanced Product Development, Bristol, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  10. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  11. Acetonitrile/water gas-phase reaction products observed by use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization: adducts formed with sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Coddington, Arthur B; Murphy, Joan S; Wisnoski, David D; Zartman, C Blair; Ramjit, Harri G

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) are the two most common mass spectrometric ionization methods used in the pharmaceutical industry. However, APCI analysis can sometimes lead to ambiguity in compound characterization and quantitation due to gas-phase reactions occurring between acetonitrile and water in the plasma, and between these plasma-generated compounds and the analyte. During the analysis of various sultams and sulfonamides we observed signals corresponding to m/z [M+44](+) and [M+60](+). Various solvent conditions and collisionally activated dissociation MS(n) experiments revealed that under the high-energy plasma conditions of APCI, the acetonitrile/water solvent mixture reacts undergoing acid-catalyzed hydrolysis producing acetamide, 59 Da. Further, the highly reactive 43 Da species ethanimine is also produced. These two compounds, normally not observed in APCI analysis, are stabilized by the sulfonamide and appear as adduct species in the mass spectra. The sulfone oxygens and the lone pair of electrons on the amide nitrogen play a role in stabilizing this adduct.

  12. Silicon and Manganese Partition Between Slag and Metal Phases and Their Activities Pertinent to Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengizler, Hakan; Eric, R. Hurman

    Equilibrium between MnO-CaO-MgO-SiO2-Al2O3 slags and carbon saturated Mn-Si-Fe-C alloys was investigated under CO at 1500oC. Manganese and silicon activities were obtained by using the present data and the previously determined MnO and SiO2 activities of the slag. Quadratic multi-coefficient regression equations were developed for activity coefficients of manganese and silicon. The conclusions of this work are:(i)increase in the basicity and the CaO/Al2O3 ratios decreases the Mn distribution ratio,(ii)increase in the silica concentration and the MgO/CaO ratio increases the Mn distribution ratio, iii)carbon and manganese as well as carbon and silicon of the metal phase are inversely proportional,(iv)as Mn/Fe and Mn/Si ratio increases in the metal the carbon solubility increases,(v)decrease in the basicity increases the silicon content of the metal and (vi)increase in the silica content of the slag increases the silicon content of the metal and this effect is more pronounced at the higher Mn/Fe and Mn/Si ratios.

  13. Silicification of wood adopted for barrel production using pure silicon alkoxides in gas phase to avoid microbial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Widmann, Giacomo; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nardin, Tiziana; Callone, Emanuela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a new approach, covering wood with silica-based material in order to protect it from spoilage due to microbial colonisation and avoiding the loss of the natural features of the wood. Wood specimens derived from wine barrels were treated with methyltriethoxysilane in gas phase, leading to the deposition of a silica nanofilm on the surface. (29)Si and (13)C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis observations showed the formation of a silica polymeric film on the wood samples, directly bonding with the wood constituents. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy quantification of Si showed a direct correlation between the treatment time and silica deposition on the surface of the wood. The silica-coated wood counteracted colonisation by the main wine spoilage microorganisms, without altering the migration from wood to wine of 21 simple phenols measured using a HPLC-Electrochemical Coulometric Detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes. [phase changes in chemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Mechanisms for the SiCl4/Na and SiF4/Na reaction systems were examined. Reaction schemes which include 25 elementary reactions were formulated for each system and run to test the sensitivity of the computed concentration and temperature profiles to the values given estimated rate coefficients. It was found that, for SiCl4/Na, the rate of production of free Si is largely mixing-limited for reasonable rate coefficient estimates. For the SiF4/Na system the results indicate that the endothermicities of many of the reactions involved in producing Si from SiF4/Na cause this system to be chemistry-limited rather than mixing-limited.

  15. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    efficiency obtained with the SPME method can be affected by different factors such as fiber type, stirring of sample versus not stirring, extraction temperature and time. These factors can easily be controlled and optimized to obtain the highest possible extraction efficiency. However, extraction efficiency...... can also be affected by uncontrollable factors such as batch to batch variation between fibers of the same type and presence of compounds in the sample matrix, which competes with the compounds of interest for adsorption to the SPME fiber. The latter factor is particularly a problem when SPME is used...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  16. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    efficiency obtained with the SPME method can be affected by different factors such as fiber type, stirring of sample versus not stirring, extraction temperature and time. These factors can easily be controlled and optimized to obtain the highest possible extraction efficiency. However, extraction efficiency...... can also be affected by uncontrollable factors such as batch to batch variation between fibers of the same type and presence of compounds in the sample matrix, which competes with the compounds of interest for adsorption to the SPME fiber. The latter factor is particularly a problem when SPME is used...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  17. Evidence for the Active Phase of Heterogeneous Catalysts through In Situ Reaction Product Imaging and Multiscale Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, S.; Blomberg, S.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Zetterberg, J.; Gustafson, J.; Lundgren, E.; Reuter, K.

    2015-06-17

    We use multiscale modeling to analyze laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of the CO oxidation reaction over Pd(100) at near-ambient reaction conditions. Integrating density functional theory-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the active catalyst into fluid-dynamical simulations of the mass transport inside the reactor chamber, we calculate the reaction product concentration directly above the catalyst surface. Comparing corresponding data calculated for different surface models against the measured LIF signals, we can discriminate the one that predominantly actuates the experimentally measured catalytic activity. For the probed CO oxidation reaction conditions, the experimental activity is due to pristine Pd(100) possibly coexisting with other (oxidic) domains on the surface.

  18. Production of muconic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Berthomieu, Roland; Hao, Zhangying; Zhao, Nanxia; Benites, Veronica Teixeira; Baidoo, Edward E K; Loqué, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Muconic acid (MA) is a dicarboxylic acid used for the production of industrially relevant chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and caprolactam. Because the synthesis of these polymer precursors generates toxic intermediates by utilizing petroleum-derived chemicals and corrosive catalysts, the development of alternative strategies for the bio-based production of MA has garnered significant interest. Plants produce organic carbon skeletons by harvesting carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, and therefore represent advantageous hosts for engineered metabolic pathways towards the manufacturing of chemicals. In this work, we engineered Arabidopsis to demonstrate that plants can serve as green factories for the bio-manufacturing of MA. In particular, dual expression of plastid-targeted bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) resulted in the conversion of the endogenous salicylic acid (SA) pool into MA via catechol. Sequential increase of SA derived from the shikimate pathway was achieved by expressing plastid-targeted versions of bacterial salicylate synthase (Irp9) and feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate synthase (AroG). Introducing this SA over-producing strategy into engineered plants that co-express NahG and CatA resulted in a 50-fold increase in MA titers. Considering that MA was easily recovered from senesced plant biomass after harvest, we envision the phytoproduction of MA as a beneficial option to add value to bioenergy crops. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Photochemical Conversion of Surrogate Emissions for Use in Toxicological Studies: Role of Particulate- and Gas-Phase Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Jonathan D; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H; Turlington, John M; Lonneman, William A; Modak, Nabanita; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Gavett, Stephen H; Gilmour, M Ian; DeMarini, David M; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E

    2018-03-06

    The production of photochemical atmospheres under controlled conditions in an irradiation chamber permits the manipulation of parameters that influence the resulting air-pollutant chemistry and potential biological effects. To date, no studies have examined how contrasting atmospheres with a similar Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), but with differing ratios of criteria air pollutants, might differentially affect health end points. Here, we produced two atmospheres with similar AQHIs based on the final concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). One simulated atmosphere (SA-PM) generated from irradiation of ∼23 ppmC gasoline, 5 ppmC α-pinene, 529 ppb NO, and 3 μg m -3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as a seed resulted in an average of 976 μg m -3 PM 2.5 , 326 ppb NO 2 , and 141 ppb O 3 (AQHI 97.7). The other atmosphere (SA-O 3 ) generated from 8 ppmC gasoline, 5 ppmC isoprene, 874 ppb NO, and 2 μg m -3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 resulted in an average of 55 μg m -3 PM 2.5 , 643 ppb NO 2 , and 430 ppb O 3 (AQHI of 99.8). Chemical speciation by gas chromatography showed that photo-oxidation degraded the organic precursors and promoted the de novo formation of secondary reaction products such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Further work in accompanying papers describe toxicological outcomes from the two distinct photochemical atmospheres.

  20. Products of the gas-phase reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH and NO{sub 3} radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuazon, E.C.; Alvarado, A.; Aschmann, S.M.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1999-10-15

    1,3-Butadiene is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of sources including combustion sources and is listed in the US as a hazardous air pollutant. In the atmosphere, 1,3-butadiene reacts with OH radicals, NO{sub 3} radicals, and O{sub 3} with the dominant tropospheric removal processes being daytime reaction with the OH radical and nighttime reaction with the NO{sub 3} radical. The authors have used gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS) to identify and quantify the products formed from the reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH radicals (in the presence of NO) and NO{sub 3} radicals. Acrolein, formaldehyde, and furan were identified and quantified from the OH radical-initiated reaction, with formation yields of 0.58 {+-} 0.04, 0.62 {+-} 0.05, and 0.03--0.04, respectively. Organic nitrates were observed by FT-IR spectroscopy with an estimated yield of 0.07 {+-} 0.03, and the API-MS analyses indicated that these organic nitrates are mainly the hydroxynitrate HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCH{sub 2}ONO{sub 2} and/or its isomers. API-MS analyses showed the formation of a hydroxycarbonyl with the formula C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}, attributed to HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCHO and/or its isomers. The major products of the NO{sub 3} radical-initiated reaction were organic nitrates; the API-MS analyses indicated the formation of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, and unsaturated C{sub 4}-hydroxycarbonyls, hydroxynitrates, carbonyl nitrates, and nitrooxyhydroperoxides. Acrolein, HCHO, and furan were again quantified by gas chromatographic and FT-IR analyses. The data is compared with previous literature studies, and detailed reaction mechanisms are presented and discussed.