WorldWideScience

Sample records for caproates

  1. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-04-15

    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates).

  2. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-04-15

    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates). PMID:26905795

  3. Relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations and gestational age at delivery in twin gestation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caritis, Steve N

    2012-11-01

    We sought to evaluate in women with twin gestation the relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) concentration and gestational age at delivery and select biomarkers of potential pathways of drug action.

  4. Biological formation of caproate and caprylate from acetate: fuel and chemical production from low grade biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology for anaerobic digestion to recover valuable products from low grade biomass. In this mixed culture fermentation, organic waste streams are converted to caproate and caprylate as precursors for biodiesel or chemicals. It wa

  5. Second trimester cervical length and risk of preterm birth in women with twin gestations treated with 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Durnwald, Celeste P

    2010-12-01

    To compare rates of preterm birth before 35 weeks based on cervical length measurement at 16-20 weeks in women with twin gestations who received 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) or placebo.

  6. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  7. The Influence of Prior Obstetrical History on Current 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla E. Ransom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if gestational age of prior preterm delivery influences a woman's receipt of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP-C. Methods. Retrospective cohort of women eligible for 17-OHP-C at Duke Obstetrics Clinic were identified by medical record review. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Results. Of 104 eligible subjects, 82 (78.8% were offered 17-OHP-C. Of these, thirty-four (41.5% declined. The median gestational age of the most recent preterm delivery was significantly lower among subjects who accepted 17-OHP-C as compared to those who declined (28.7 vs. 34.0 weeks, =.02 and in subjects offered 17-OHP-C compared to those not offered 17-OHP-C (30.2 vs. 36.0 weeks, =.03. Subjects not offered 17-OHP-C were more likely to have had an interval term delivery (31.8% vs. 9.7%, =.009 Conclusion. Women with earlier preterm deliveries were more likely to be offered and accept 17-OHP-C. Prior obstetric history may influence both providers' and patients' willingness to discuss and/or accept 17-OHP-C.

  8. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, C Andrew; Thomas J. GARITE; Maurel, Kimberly; Mallory, Kimberly; Edwards, Rodney K.; Lu, George; Porreco, Richard; Das, Anita; ,

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a...

  9. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Combs C Andrew; Garite Thomas J; Maurel Kimberly; Mallory Kimberly; Edwards Rodney K; Lu George; Porreco Richard; Das Anita

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a weekly intra...

  10. Comparison of Risk of Preterm Labor between Vaginal Progesterone and17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Caproate in Women with Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Abootaleb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Threatened miscarriage is a common complication in pregnancy that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor. This study aimed to compare the vaginal progesterone (Cyclogest versus 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton on preventing preterm labor in pregnant women with threatened abortion at less than 34 weeks’ gestational age. Materials and methods This balanced randomized, double-blind, single-center controlled clinical trial included 190 women with threatened abortion. They were then randomly allocated into Cyclogest (n=95 and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton, n=95 groups. Interested outcome was preterm labor less than 34 weeks. The Pearson chi-square and Student’s t test were used to compare two groups. The data were analyzed by Stata software version 13. Results The risks of preterm labor less than 34 weeks in Proluton and Cyclogest groups were 8.6 and 6.52%, respectively. There was no significant difference for risk of preterm labor less than 34 weeks [relative ratio (RR: 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47- 3.66, P=0.59] between two groups. Conclusion Risk of preterm labor in the vaginal progesterone group and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group in pregnant women with threatened abortion is the same (Registration Number: IRCT2014123120504N1.

  11. Production of butyrate and caproate from a coculture of Sporomusa ovata and Clostridium kluyveri during MES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Faraghi Parapari, Neda;

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is the process in which microorganisms use electrons derivedfrom an electrode to reduce carbon dioxide via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to form organiccompounds. S. ovata, a Gram-negative acetogenic bacterium is the best electrotroph organismreported to date. The lack...... bypass the lack of genetic tools. S. ovata is able to produceethanol and acetate while C. kluyveri uses these two compounds as carbon source and producesbutyrate and caproate.The first step was to optimize the growth medium for S. ovata to increase ethanol production. Theeffect of trace metal ions such...

  12. 新型Lewis酸铁钾矾催化合成己酸乙酯%Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Caproate over New Lewis Acid Ferric Potassium Alum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小丹; 张福捐

    2012-01-01

    新型Lewis酸铁钾矾催化己酸和乙醇合成反应生成己酸乙酯,其性能优于硫酸,并且是一种绿色催化剂.研究了催化剂的用量、酸醇摩尔比、反应时间对酯化反应的影响.实验结果表明,较佳的反应条件为:催化剂用量1.0 g/0.05 mol己酸,酸醇物质的量比为1∶2.4,反应时间为100 min,此条件下己酸转化率为94.3%.%Ethyl caproate was synthesized from hexanoic acid and ethyl alcohol with new Lewis acid ferric potassium alum as catalyst.The factors of influencing esterification rate were investigated.The results showed that ferric potassium alum was a good green catalyst for synthesis of ethyl caproate.The optimum conditions were:molar ratio of hexanoic acid to ethyl alcohol was 1∶ 2.4,amount of catalyst was 1.0 g /0.05 mol hexanoic acid,the water-carrying toluene was 10 mL,and the reaction time was 100 min.The highest esterification rate was 94.3%,and the catalyst can be recycled for many times.

  13. Identification of a mutation causing a defective spindle assembly checkpoint in high ethyl caproate-producing sake yeast strain K1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Ryo; Kume, Kazunori; Okada, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Eri; Tamura, Hiroyasu; Hasuda, Hirokazu; Inahashi, Masaaki; Okazaki, Naoto; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Dai

    2016-08-01

    In high-quality sake brewing, the cerulenin-resistant sake yeast K1801 with high ethyl caproate-producing ability has been used widely; however, K1801 has a defective spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). To identify the mutation causing this defect, we first searched for sake yeasts with a SAC-defect like K1801 and found that K13 had such a defect. Then, we searched for a common SNP in only K1801 and K13 by examining 15 checkpoint-related genes in 23 sake yeasts, and found 1 mutation, R48P of Cdc55, the PP2A regulatory B subunit that is important for the SAC. Furthermore, we confirmed that the Cdc55-R48P mutation was responsible for the SAC-defect in K1801 by molecular genetic analyses. Morphological analysis indicated that this mutation caused a high cell morphological variation. But this mutation did not affect the excellent brewing properties of K1801. Thus, this mutation is a target for breeding of a new risk-free K1801 with normal checkpoint integrity. PMID:27191586

  14. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combs C Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a weekly intramuscular injection of 17P (250 mg in 1 mL castor oil or placebo (1 mL castor oil. The primary outcome was the rate of continuing the pregnancy until 34.0 weeks of gestation or until documentation of fetal lung maturity at 32.0 to 33.9 weeks of gestation. Planned secondary outcomes were duration of latency period and rate of composite neonatal morbidity. Enrollment of 111 participants per group, 222 total, was planned to yield 80% power to detect an increase in the primary outcome from 30% with placebo to 50% with 17P. Results Twelve women were enrolled of whom 4 were randomly assigned to receive 17P and 8 to receive placebo. The trial was terminated prematurely because of two separate issues related to the supply of 17P. No adverse events attributable to 17P were identified. Conclusion Because of premature termination, the trial does not have adequate statistical power to evaluate efficacy or safety of 17P in women with PROM. Nonetheless, ethical principles dictate that we report the results, which may contribute to possible future metaanalyses and systematic reviews. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01119963 Supported by a research grant from the Center for Research, Education, and Quality, Pediatrix Medical Group, Sunrise, FL

  15. 17α-羟基孕酮己酸酯和醋酸甲羟孕酮预防孕鼠感染性早产的机制%Effect of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on inflammation-induced preterm birth of mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潇潇; 时春艳; 廖秦平

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过研究17α-羟基孕酮己酸酯(17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate,17P)和醋酸甲羟孕酮(medroxyprogesterone acetate,MPA)对早产小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织环氧合酶-2(cyclooxygenase-2,COX-2)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)表达的影响,探讨孕激素预防感染性早产的作用机制.方法 选择清洁级雌性CD-1小鼠30只,于妊娠第15天,随机分为对照组、内毒素脂多糖( lipopolysaccharides,LPS)组、17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA 1 mg+ LPS组、二甲基亚砜(dimethyl sulfoxide,DMSO)+ LPS组,每组5只.治疗组均于皮下注射相应剂量的孕激素1h后腹腔注射LPS,6h后取小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织,用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应技术和免疫组织化学方法检测子宫肌层及胎盘组织COX-2和TNF-α mRNA及蛋白的表达.采用ANOVA进行统计学分析,两两比较用LSD法.结果 1.各组小鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织中COX-2 mRNA和TNF-α mRNA的相对表达量的比较:(1)各给药组孕鼠子宫肌层及胎盘组织COX-2mRNA和TNF-α mRNA表达均显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(2)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组和MPA 1 mg+LPS组小鼠子宫肌层COX-2 mRNA表达分别为11.410±3.931、8.352±3.209和11.920±2.905,均显著低于LPS组(20.540±4.147)和DMSO组+LPS组(18.620±4.156) (P<0.05),而TNF-α mRNA也低于LPS组和DMSO组+LPS组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(3)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA 1 mg+LPS组胎盘组织COX-2 mRNA表达分别为10.864±3.777、7.084±1.667和11.830±3.652,均显著低于LPS组(18.920±4.106)和DMSO组+LPS组(23.820±7.554) (P<0.05).(4)17P 1 mg+LPS组、17P 2 mg+LPS组、MPA1 mg+ LPS组胎盘组织TNF-α mRNA表达分别为14.340±1.618、11.488±2.910和13.040±2.982,均显著低于LPS组(24.240±7.059)和DMSO组+LPS组(23.040±5.896)(P<0.05).2.各组小鼠胎盘组织COX-2和TNF-α蛋白表达的比较:(1)各给药组胎盘组织中COX-2蛋白的表达和TNF-α蛋白的

  16. Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the thermoc

  17. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol-1, respectively. (Authors)

  18. Drug: D04219 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08 Fluocortolone D04219 Fluocortolone caproate (USAN) D DERMATOLOGICALS D07 CORTICOSTEROIDS, DERMATOLOGICAL ...PREPARATIONS D07A CORTICOSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AC Corticosteroids, potent (group III...MONES AND INSULINS H02 CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR SYSTEMIC USE H02A CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR SYSTEMIC USE, PLAIN H02AB G

  19. Effect of hydrogen and carbon dioxide on carboxylic acids patterns in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, D.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Diels, L.; Wever, De H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the carboxylate spectrum from mixed culture fermentation of three organic waste streams after supplying 2 bar hydrogen and carbon dioxide or a mixture of these two gases to the headspace. Under any modified headspace, propionate production was ceased and butyrate, caproate an

  20. Drug: D01159 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 24 Hormones 247 Estrogen an...G03DA01] D01159 Gestonorone caproate (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Hormones and hormone antagonist

  1. Chain Elongation with Reactor Microbiomes: Open-Culture Biotechnology To Produce Biochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angenent, L.T.; Richter, H.; Buckel, W.; Spirito, C.M.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Plugge, C.M.; Strik, D.; Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation into medium-chain carboxylates, such as n-caproate and n-caprylate, with ethanol as an electron donor and with open cultures of microbial consortia (i.e., reactor microbiomes) under anaerobic conditions is being developed as a biotechnological production platform. The goal is to use

  2. Efficacy of 17α- hydroxy progestrone on decreasing preterm labor in ART pregnancies: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Aflatoonian; Hoora Amouzegar; Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preterm labor (PTL) is one of the most important causes in neonatal mortality and morbidity. Late preterm labor (34-36w) includes 75% of such birth. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnant women are at increased risk of PTL. Objective: The study has been undertaken to determine whether beginning and continuing 17-α hydroxy progesterone caproate can reduce risk of PTL or change neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical randomized control trial, 1...

  3. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I S

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to in...

  4. Development of a mixed culture chain elongation process based on municipal solid waste and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: mixed culture fermentation; Carboxylates; Caproate; Heptanoate; ethanol; OFMSW To reduce dependence on oil, alternative fuel and chemical production processes are investigates. In this thesis, we investigated the production of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using an anaerobic chain elongation process from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and (diluted) ethanol.By using OFMSW for the production of MCFAs, OFMSW can be valorised. Moreover, the food-fuel discussion...

  5. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ∼55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch. PMID:25941741

  6. Progestogens and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler AE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the intensive research by E. Diczfalusy and his scholars with the concept of the “feto-placental-unit”, the development of diagnostic procedures by hormone measurements in pregnancy, therapeutic and preventive effects of the use of progestogens (progesterone, dydrogesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate were developed and are at present to be further evaluated in order to be used for prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders such as threatened miscarriage, recurrent (habitual miscarriage, preterm labor and preeclampsia (hypertension in pregnancy.

  7. Prevention of Preterm Labour: 2011 Update on Tocolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hubinont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review available data about drugs for preventing preterm labour. Tocolytic therapy includes β adrenergic receptor agonists, NO donors, magnesium sulphate, prostaglandin-synthase inhibitors, oxytocin receptor antagonists, calcium-channel blockers, progesterone, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and antibiotics. Their specific effects on myometrial contractility, their safety, their efficiency, and side effects profile for the mother and the fetus are presented. The main question of why and for what reasons tocolysis should be administrated is discussed.

  8. Drug: D09796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available STOMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS A01AC Corticosteroids for local oral treatment A01AC03 Hydrocortisone D09796 Hy...NFECTIVE AGENTS A07E INTESTINAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY AGENTS A07EA Corticosteroids acting locally A07EA02 Hydroco...ATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AA Corticosteroids C05...AL PREPARATIONS D07A CORTICOSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AA Corticosteroids, weak (group I) D07AA02 Hydrocortisone D09...796 Hydrocortisone caproate (JAN) D07X CORTICOSTEROIDS, OTHER COMBINATIONS D07XA Corticosteroids, weak, othe

  9. Treatment efficiency and VFA composition of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating food industry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time on volatile fatty acid composition and treatment efficiency of high rate thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor (TACR) treating potato-chips wastewaters. The operational performance of TACR was monitored from start-up by assessing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and biogas composition. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6 to 8 kg COD/m3 d. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 86-97% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 68-89% during the OLRs studied. The approximate methane yield was found to be 0.42 m3 CH4/kg CODremoved. The major intermediate products of anaerobic digestion were acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate, valerate, iso-caproate and caproate. The use of thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of potato-chips wastewaters since high COD removal efficiencies and high methane percentage in the biogas produced can be attained even at high OLRs.

  10. Infrared, thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis of cerium soaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, K.N. [Agra Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Chauhan, M. [Agra Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Shukla, R.K. [R.B.S. Coll., Agra (India)

    1997-03-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of cerium soaps (Caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, thermal and X-ray diffraction measurements. The IR results reveal that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and soaps possess partial ionic character. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order with energy of activation 6.7 and 7.3 K cal mol{sup -1} for cerium caproate and caprate, respectively. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirm the double layer structure of cerium soaps. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von IR-, thermischen und Roentgendiffraktionsmessungen wurden die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften von Cerseifen (Capron- und Caprylsaeuresalze)in festem Zustand bestimmt. Die IR-Untersuchungen zeigen, dass die Fettseifen in dimerem Zustand, gebunden durch Wasserstoffbruecken vorliegen und partiell ionischen Charakter haben. Die Zersetzungsreaktion war von einer Kinetik nullter Ordnung, die Aktivierungsenergien lagen bei 6,7 K cal mol{sup -1} fuer Capronsaeuresalze und 7,3 K cal mol{sup -1} fuer Caprylsaeuresalze. Mit Hilfe von Roentgendiffraktionsmessungen wurden die grossen Zwischenraeume bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse lassen auf eine Doppelschichtstruktur der Cerseifen schliessen. (orig.)

  11. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  12. Treatment efficiency and VFA composition of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating food industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuerk, E.; Ince, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Onkal Engin, G., E-mail: guleda@gyte.edu.tr [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time on volatile fatty acid composition and treatment efficiency of high rate thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor (TACR) treating potato-chips wastewaters. The operational performance of TACR was monitored from start-up by assessing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and biogas composition. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6 to 8 kg COD/m{sup 3} d. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 86-97% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 68-89% during the OLRs studied. The approximate methane yield was found to be 0.42 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD{sub removed}. The major intermediate products of anaerobic digestion were acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate, valerate, iso-caproate and caproate. The use of thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of potato-chips wastewaters since high COD removal efficiencies and high methane percentage in the biogas produced can be attained even at high OLRs.

  13. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis.

  14. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration...... of BHBA, propanol, isopropanol, and isobutyrate; net splanchnic flux of propionate; hepatic extraction of ethanol and portal recovery of dietary ethanol. The overall metabolic effect of feeding large doses of propanol was a glucogenic response presumably driven by hepatic metabolism of propanol...... all 3 treatments C ≪ PPA metabolic variables responded to P and PPA treatments including decreased proportion of ruminal acetate to total VFA; increased proportions of ruminal propionate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate; increased arterial glucose concentration; decreased arterial...

  15. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  16. 超高压射流技术对白酒四大酯影响研究%Effects of the four esters in liquor disposed by ultra-high pressure jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义娜; 王盛民; 樊迪; 王懿萍; 张小荣; 陈波

    2012-01-01

    Object:To study the effects of the four esters in liquor disposed by ultra-high pressure jet.Methods:Using the ultra-high pressure jet equipment to dispose new liquor when pressures are from 0.1 MPa to 350 MPa,then detect the four esters’content by gas chromatography,test again after three months,and invite professional wine tasters to taste and identify.Results:The content of ethyl caproate,ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate in Luzhou-flavor liquor has decreased,the content of ethyl lactate has increased.The content of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate in Maotai-flavor liquor has decreased while ethyl lactate and ethyl caproate has increased.Experts judged that after treatment by ultra-high pressure jet,the liquor taste better,and good to impurity.Conclusion:Changes of esters in liquor after treatment by ultra-high pressure jet was nearly the same with natural aging tendency.%目的:研究超高压射流技术对白酒中四大酯的影响。方法:利用超高压射流技术加压至350MPa处理白酒,采用气相色谱法检测酯类含量,自然存放3个月后再次检测,并请专业品酒师进行鉴品。结果:超高压射流处理后,浓香型白酒中己酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯含量呈下降趋势,乳酸乙酯含量呈上升趋势;酱香型白酒中乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯含量呈下降趋势,乳酸乙酯、己酸乙酯含量呈上升趋势。专家品评认为经超高压射流处理后,酒体醇和,有良好去杂效果。结论:超高压射流技术处理后白酒酯类变化与自然陈化趋势基本一致。

  17. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  18. RANDOMISED CONTROL STUDY OF USE OF PROGESTERONE V / S PLACEBO FOR MANAGEMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC PLACENTA PREVIA BEFORE 34 WEEKS OF GESTATION IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: APH complicates 3 - 5% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal mortality worldwide. Progesterone is essential in maintenance of pregnancy and helps in prolongation of pregnancy. Different trials have been done to show the efficacy and safety of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth but study related to use in expectant management of symptomatic placenta previa is very limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to determine the effectiveness of intramascular 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone Caproate therapies vs. placebo in conservative management of patient with symptomatic placenta previa before 34 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: It is a randomized control study with 100 pregnant women attending Obstetric deptt. a t Nilratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata with symptomatic placenta previa having episode of warning haemorrhage before 34 weeks of gestation and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study in a two year period from January 2013 to December 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using student t - test and chai - square test where appropriate. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: In our study prolongation of pregnancy in progesterone receiving group is statistically significant (p - value<0.001, significant difference were also found in gestational age at delivery ( p value of 0.0288, birth - weight (p - value of 0.0470. CON CLUSION: In this study use of 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone in expectant management of symptomatic placenta previa tends to be beneficial than placebo.

  19. Molecular phylogenetical studies of the thermophilic spore-forming desulfotomaculum isolated from oil-field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wu; Li Chunyan; Xiang Fu; Yu Longjiang

    2005-01-01

    A novel thermophilic and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, strain CW-03, was isolated from crude oil well whose depth was 3.2 kilometer. The bacterium was strictly anaerobic; it does not endure acid and itsmaximum surviving temperature was 70℃. Many short chain organic compounds can be utilized as electron donors, which were acetate, formate, lactate, propionate, pyruvate, butyrate, succinate, malate, fumarate,valerate, caproate, heptanoate, octanoate, decanoate, tridecanoate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, heptadecanoate or ethanol, while sulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. The following substrates were not utilized: benzoate undecanoate, dodecanoate, tetradecane, propanol, butanol, H2+CO2 (80/20%; v/v) and acetate (1mM)+ H2. When lactate was used as electron donors, sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfer and nitrate, can be used as electron acceptors. Strain CW-03 was motile, curved rod, Gram-positive, pole flagellum and spore-forming. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence alignment (accession numbers: AY703032), CW-03 should be included in the genus Desulfotomaculum with BIAST analysis on line. However, some of its physiology and multiple sequence alignments were different from other members of this genus. Therefore, CW-03 should be recognized as a new species, for which we propose the name Desulfotomaculum chinamiddle (Bacteria, Firmicutes, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Peptococcaceae).

  20. Control of periplasmic nitrate reductase gene expression (napEDABC) from Paracoccus pantotrophus in response to oxygen and carbon substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, H J; Sawers, G; Berks, B C; Ferguson, S J; Richardson, D J

    2000-11-01

    The napEDABC operon of Paracoccus pantotrophus encodes a periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP), together with electron-transfer components and proteins required for the synthesis of a fully functional enzyme. Previously, it had been shown that high NAP activity was observed when P. pantotrophus was grown aerobically on highly reduced carbon sources such as butyrate or caproate, but not when cultured on more oxidized substrates such as succinate or malate. The enzyme is not present to any extent when the organism is grown anaerobically under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the carbon source. Transcriptional analyses of the nap operon have now identified two initiation sites which were differentially regulated in response to the carbon source, with expression being maximal when cells were grown aerobically with butyrate. Analysis of a P. pantotrophus mutant (M6) deregulated for NAP activity identified a single C-->A transversion in a heptameric inverted-repeat sequence that partially overlapped the proximal promoter. Transcription analysis of this mutant revealed that expression of nap was completely derepressed under all growth conditions examined. Taken together, these findings indicate that nap transcription is negatively regulated during anaerobiosis, such that expression is restricted to aerobic growth, but only when the carbon source is highly reduced. PMID:11065376

  1. 无刺卡因菠萝果实发育期间香气物质的变化%The Variation of Aroma Components of Smooth Cayenne Pineapple during Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钰乾; 魏长宾; 刘胜辉; 何新华; 孙光明; 孙伟生

    2013-01-01

    Aroma component is one of the factors which play a full role in fruit quality.Based on the techniques of solid phase micro-extraction and GC-MS,the aroma profiles during fruit development of Smooth Cayenne pineapple were studied.The results showed that there were 69 kinds of components during this process,and most of which were esters and alkenes; methyl hexanoate,methyl octanoate,ethyl caproate were the specific aromatic components of Smooth Cayenne pineapple fruits; the types and quantities of the aroma components were evidently different in different development periods.%采用顶空固相微萃取技术和气质联用仪测定不同发育期卡因菠萝果实的香气成分,以了解果实发育期间香气物质的变化.结果表明,无刺卡因果实在成熟的4个阶段共有香气成分69种,主要为酯类和烯类,其中己酸甲酯、辛酸甲酯、正己酸乙酯等成分是卡因菠萝的主要香气成分.卡因菠萝不同发育时期果实香气物质的种类和相对含量均有明显差异.

  2. Nonionic Microemulsions as Solubilizers of Hydrophobic Drugs: Solubilization of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Ting Lo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategy using nonionic microemulsion as a solubilizer for hydrophobic drugs was studied and is demonstrated in this work. The aqueous phase behaviors of mixed nonionic surfactants with various oils at 37 °C are firstly constructed to give the optimal formulations of nonionic microemulsions with applications in the enhanced solubilization of the model hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, at 37 °C. Briefly, the suitable oil phase with paclitaxel significantly dissolved is microemulsified with appropriate surfactants. Surfactants utilized include Tween 80, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (4.3 cocoyl ether, while various kinds of edible oils and fatty esters are used as the oil phase. On average, the apparent solubility of paclitaxel is increased to ca. 70–100 ppm in the prepared microemulsions at 37 °C using tributyrin or ethyl caproate as the oil phases. The sizes of the microemulsions attained are mostly from ca. 60 nm to ca. 200 nm. The cytotoxicity of the microemulsion formulations is assessed with the cellular viability of 3T3 cells. In general, the cell viability is above 55% after 24 h of cultivation in media containing these microemulsion formulations diluted to a concentration of total surfactants equal to 50 ppm and 200 ppm.

  3. Use of dried blood spots in doping control analysis of anabolic steroid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Gmeiner, Günter; Forsdahl, Guro; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique for whole blood sampling on a piece of filter paper, has more than 50-years tradition, particularly in the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in neonatal screening. Due to the minimal invasiveness, straightforwardness, robustness against manipulation and fastness DBS sampling recommends itself as an advantageous technique in doping control analysis. The present approach highlights the development of a screening assay for the analysis of eight anabolic steroid esters (nandrolone phenylpropionate, trenbolone enanthate, testosterone acetate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate) and nandrolone in DBS. The detection of the intact esters allows an unequivocal proof of the administration of conjugates of exogenous testosterone and its derivatives. Precise, specific and linear conditions were obtained by means of liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Sensitivity in the low ppb range was accomplished by the preparation of the methyloxime derivatives of the target compounds. Labeled internal standards (d3-nandrolone, d3-nandrolone caproate and d3-nandrolone undecanoate) were applied to compensate for the broad range in chain length of the esters. The assay presented here outlines the application of DBS for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in doping controls for the first time providing great potential to simplify the proof of exogenous administration of testosterone. PMID:24713476

  4. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  5. A novel thermoalkalostable esterase from Acidicaldus sp. strain USBA-GBX-499 with enantioselectivity isolated from an acidic hot springs of Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gina; Chow, Jennifer; Bongen, Patrick; Lauinger, Benjamin; Pietruszka, Jörg; Streit, Wolfgang R; Baena, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Several thermo- and mesoacidophilic bacterial strains that revealed high lipolytic activity were isolated from water samples derived from acidic hot springs in Los Nevados National Natural Park (Colombia). A novel lipolytic enzyme named 499EST was obtained from the thermoacidophilic alpha-Proteobacterium Acidicaldus USBA-GBX-499. The gene estA encoded a 313-amino-acid protein named 499EST. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (58 %) with a putative α/β hydrolase from Acidiphilium sp. (ZP_08632277.1). Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicated that 499EST is a new member of the bacterial esterase/lipase family IV. The esterase reveals its optimum catalytic activity at 55 °C and pH 9.0. Kinetic studies showed that 499EST preferentially hydrolyzed middle-length acyl chains (C6-C8), especially p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) caproate (C6). Its thermostability and activity were strongly enhanced by adding 6 mM FeCl3. High stability in the presence of water-miscible solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was observed. This enzyme also exhibits stability under harsh environmental conditions and enantioselectivity towards naproxen and ibuprofen esters, yielding the medically relevant (S)-enantiomers. In conclusion, according to our knowledge, 499EST is the first thermoalkalostable esterase derived from a Gram-negative thermoacidophilic bacterium.

  6. 钠盐浓度对厌氧产氢颗粒污泥从蔗糖中产氢的影响%Effect of Sodium Ion Concentration on Hydrogen Production from Sucrose by Anaerobic Hydrogen-producing Granular Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小龙; 周明华; 俞汉青; 沈琴琴; 雷乐成

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated the effects of sodium ion concentration, ranging from 0 to 16000mg·L-1(Na+), on the conversion of sucrose to hydrogen by a high-activity anaerobic hydrogen-producing granular sludge. At the optimum sodium ion concentration [1000-2000mg·L-1(Na+)] for hydrogen production at 37℃, the maximum sucrose degradation rate, the specific hydrogen production yield and the specific hydrogen production rate were 393.6-413.1mg·L-1·h-1, 28.04-28.97ml·g-1, 7.52-7.83ml·g-1·h-1, respectively. The specific production yields of propionate, butyrate and valerate decreased, with increasing sodium ion concentration, whereas the specific acetate production yield increased, meanwhile the specific production yields of ethanol and caproate were less than 55.3 and 12.6mg·g-1, respectively. The hybrid fermentation composition gradually developed from acetate, propionate and butyrate to acetate with the increase in sodium ion concentration.

  7. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  8. Effects of Fatty Acid Salts against Trichophyton Violaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus. Dermatophytosis (Tinea is fungal infection that can infect the scalp, glabrous skin, and nails. In general, Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or bathroom or floor materials. The treatments of Tinea need antifungal medication and good hygiene environment. The effective antifungal medication and infection prevention, and the creation of antifungal medication with high safety are required. In this study was focused on the antifungal effect of fatty acids potassium salts. The antifungal activity of nine fatty acid salts (butyrate, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate was tested on the spores of Trichophyton violaceum NBRC 31064. The results show that C6K, C8K, C10K, C12K, C18:2K, C18:3K was the most inhibit 4-log unit (99.99 % of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min. It was observed that C12K and C18:3K was most high antifungal activity MIC. Commercially soap was lowest antifungal activity. This is because of the oleic acid is a major component of soap. Although further investigation is necessary to make clear antifungal mechanisms, our results suggest that fatty acid potassium will use to the development of a coating agent such as furniture.

  9. Gelatin-Modified Polyurethanes for Soft Tissue Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kucińska-Lipka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the field of biomaterials for soft tissue scaffolds, the interest of their modification with natural polymersis growing. Synthetic polymers are often tough, and many of them do not possess fine biocompatibility. On the other hand, natural polymers are biocompatible but weak when used alone. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers gives the suitable properties for tissue engineering requirements. In our study, we modified gelatin synthetic polyurethanes prepared from polyester poly(ethylene-butylene adipate (PEBA, aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI, and two different chain extenders 1,4-butanediol (BDO or 1-ethoxy-2-(2-hydroxyethoxyethanol (EHEE. From a chemical point of view, we replaced expensive components for building PU, such as 2,6-diisocyanato methyl caproate (LDI and 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (BDI, with cost-effective HDI. The gelatin was added in situ (in the first step of synthesis to polyurethane to increase biocompatibility and biodegradability of the obtained material. It appeared that the obtained gelatin-modified PU foams, in which chain extender was BDO, had enhanced interactions with media and their hydrolytic degradation profile was also improved for tissue engineering application. Furthermore, the gelatin introduction had positive impact on gelatin-modified PU foams by increasing their hemocompatibility.

  10. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuit Ewoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  11. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2003-12-01

    correlations were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa submitted to thermal processing treatment, during 120 days of storage under two different temperatures. The color characteristics, Hunter 'L', 'a'and 'b'values, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, volatile compounds (ethyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, ethyl caproate and hexyl caproate and furfural were correlated with sensory characteristics (juice homogeneity of color, orange color, characteristic aroma, floral aroma, sweet aroma, characteristic flavor, off flavor, oxidized flavor, cooked flavor, sweet taste and bitter taste by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The color parameters and sensory characteristic correlations such as juice homogeneity of color and orange color, and a-value was proportional, instead ofL and b-values. Important correlations were observed between volatile compounds and characteristics flavor and aroma, sweet and floral aroma; furfural and oxidized, cooked and off flavor. The sucrose levels were statistically correlationated with sweet and floral aroma, characteristic flavor and sweet taste, while the reducing sugars were correlated with off flavor and bitter taste. From the results it can be concluded that the instrumental methods can be indicated, such as the browning color where colorimetric parameters like a-value is the best one.

  12. 白酒中酯类化合物的稳定性研究%Study on the Stability of Ester Compounds in Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何义国; 赵兴秀; 邓静; 吴华昌

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of four main ester compounds in liquor in alcohol-water system including ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl lactate and ethyl caproate, the association between stabilizers and ester compounds, and the effects of dissolved oxygen, microwave and ultrasonic wave on the hydrolysis of ester compounds were studied. The results suggested that, the hydrolysis rate constant of ester compounds reduced with the in- crease of the concentration of ethanol, the addition of stabilizers could inhibit compound hydrolysis at a certain degree, and dissolved oxygen, microwave and ultrasonic wave had certain destructive effects on ester compounds in liquor.%研究了白酒中四大酯类化合物(乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯、己酸乙酯)在醇水体系中的水解,以及稳定剂与酯类化合物之间的缔合作用,还研究了外界条件溶解氧、微波和超声波对白酒中酯类化合物水解的影响。结果表明,酯类化合物随着乙醇浓度的增加,水解速率常数降低;加入稳定剂对酯类化合物水解具有一定的抑制作用;氧气、微波和超声波对白酒酯类物质具有一定的破坏作用。

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Megasphaera sp. reveals niche specialization and its potential role in the human gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Anand Shetty

    Full Text Available With increasing number of novel bacteria being isolated from the human gut ecosystem, there is a greater need to study their role in the gut ecosystem and their effect on the host health. In the present study, we carried out in silico genome-wide analysis of two novel Megasphaera sp. isolates NM10 (DSM25563 and BL7 (DSM25562, isolated from feces of two healthy individuals and validated the key features by in vitro studies. The analysis revealed the general metabolic potential, adaptive features and the potential effects of these isolates on the host. The comparative genome analysis of the two human gut isolates NM10 and BL7 with ruminal isolate Megasphaera elsdenii (DSM20460 highlighted the differential adaptive features for their survival in human gut. The key findings include features like bile resistance, presence of various sensory and regulatory systems, stress response systems, membrane transporters and resistance to antibiotics. Comparison of the "glycobiome" based on the genomes of the ruminal isolate with the human gut isolates NM10 and BL revealed the presence of diverse and unique sets of Carbohydrate-Active enzymes (CAZymes amongst these isolates, with a higher collection of CAZymes in the human gut isolates. This could be attributed to the difference in host diet and thereby the environment, consequently suggesting host specific adaptation in these isolates. In silico analysis of metabolic potential predicted the ability of these isolates to produce important metabolites like short chain fatty acids (butyrate, acetate, formate, and caproate, vitamins and essential amino acids, which was further validated by in vitro experiments. The ability of these isolates to produce important metabolites advocates for a potential healthy influence on the host. Further in vivo studies including transcriptomic and proteomic analysis will be required for better understanding the role and impact of these Megasphaera sp. isolates NM10 and BL7 on the

  14. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on human colon cancer cell phenotype are associated with histone hyperacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnebusch, Brian F; Meng, Shufen; Wu, James T; Archer, Sonia Y; Hodin, Richard A

    2002-05-01

    The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced via anaerobic bacterial fermentation within the colon and is thought to be protective in regard to colon carcinogenesis. Although butyrate (C4) is considered the most potent of the SCFA, a variety of other SCFA also exist in the colonic lumen. Butyrate is thought to exert its cellular effects through the induction of histone hyperacetylation. We sought to determine the effects of a variety of the SCFA on colon carcinoma cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. HT-29 or HCT-116 (wild-type and p21-deleted) cells were treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of various SCFA, and histone acetylation state was assayed by acid-urea-triton-X gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Growth and apoptotic effects were studied by flow cytometry, and differentiation effects were assessed using transient transfections and Northern blotting. Propionate (C3) and valerate (C5) caused growth arrest and differentiation in human colon carcinoma cells. The magnitude of their effects was associated with a lesser degree of histone hyperacetylation compared with butyrate. Acetate (C2) and caproate (C6), in contrast, did not cause histone hyperacetylation and also had no appreciable effects on cell growth or differentiation. SCFA-induced transactivation of the differentiation marker gene, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), was blocked by histone deacetylase (HDAC), further supporting the critical link between SCFA and histones. Butyrate also significantly increased apoptosis, whereas the other SCFA studied did not. The growth arrest induced by the SCFA was characterized by an increase in the expression of the p21 cell-cycle inhibitor and down-regulation of cyclin B1 (CB1). In p21-deleted HCT-116 colon cancer cells, the SCFA did not alter the rate of proliferation. These data suggest that the antiproliferative, apoptotic and differentiating properties of the various SCFA are linked to the degree of induced histone

  15. Mesophilic and thermophilic conditions select for unique but highly parallel microbial communities to perform carboxylate platform biomass conversion.

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    Emily B Hollister

    Full Text Available The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic 55 °C, but utilizing the same inoculum and lignocellulosic feedstock. Community composition segregated by temperature. The thermophilic community harbored genes affiliated with Clostridia, Bacilli, and a Thermoanaerobacterium sp, whereas the mesophilic community metagenome was composed of genes affiliated with other Clostridia and Bacilli, Bacteriodia, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Although both communities were able to metabolize cellulosic materials and shared many core functions, significant differences were detected with respect to the abundances of multiple Pfams, COGs, and enzyme families. The mesophilic metagenome was enriched in genes related to the degradation of arabinose and other hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides, and the production of valerate and caproate. In contrast, the thermophilic community was enriched in genes related to the uptake of cellobiose and the transfer of genetic material. Functions assigned to taxonomic bins indicated that multiple community members at either temperature had the potential to degrade cellulose, cellobiose, or xylose and produce acetate, ethanol, and propionate. The results of this study suggest that both metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy contribute to the platform's ability to process lignocellulosic substrates and are likely to provide a degree of stability to the platform's fermentation processes.

  16. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  17. Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaut, M

    1987-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) also named volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major end-products of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates in the alimentary canal. The highest concentrations are observed in the forestomach of the ruminants and in the large intestine (caecum and colon) of all the mammals. Butyrate and caproate released by action of gastric lipase on bovine milk triacylglycerols ingested by preruminants or infants are of nutritional importance too. Both squamous stratified mucosa of rumen and columnar simple epithelium of intestine absorb readily SCFA. The mechanisms of SCFA absorption are incompletely known. Passive diffusion of the unionized form across the cell membrane is currently admitted. In the lumen, the necessary protonation of SCFA anions could come first from the hydration of CO2. The ubiquitous cell membrane process of Na+-H+ exchange can also supply luminal protons. Evidence for an acid microclimate (pH = 5.8-6.8) suitable for SCFA-protonation on the surface of the intestinal lining has been provided recently. This microclimate would be generated by an epithelial secretion of H+ ions and would be protected by the mucus coating from the variable pH of luminal contents. Part of the absorbed SCFA does not reach plasma because it is metabolized in the gastrointestinal wall. Acetate incorporation in mucosal higher lipids is well-known. However, the preponderant metabolic pathway for all the SCFA is catabolism to CO2 except in the rumen wall where about 80% of butyrate is converted to ketone bodies which afterwards flow into bloodstream. Thus, SCFA are an important energy source for the gut mucosa itself.

  18. Production of bio-hydrogen by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation in an acid-phase sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L; Stevens, David K

    2007-02-15

    The pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were varied to optimize the conversion of carbohydrate-rich synthetic wastewater into bio-hydrogen. A full factorial design using evolutionary operation (EVOP) was used to determine the effect of the factors and to find the optimum condition of each factor required for high hydrogen production rate. Experimental results from 20 runs indicate that a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4,460-5,540 mL/L/day under the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR) of 75 g-COD/L/day obtained at an observed design point of HRT = 8 h and pH = 5.7. The hydrogen production rate was strongly dependent on the HRT, and the effect was statistically significant (P 0.05) was found for the pH on the hydrogen production rate. When the ASBR conditions were set for a maximum hydrogen production rate, the hydrogen production yield and specific hydrogen production rate were 60-74 mL/g-COD and 330-360 mL/g-VSS/day, respectively. The hydrogen composition was 43-51%, and no methanogenesis was observed. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate, and ethanol were major liquid intermediate metabolites during runs of this ASBR. The dominant fermentative types were butyrate-acetate or ethanol-acetate, representing the typical anaerobic pathway of Clostridium species. This hydrogen-producing ASBR had a higher hydrogen production rate, compared with that produced using continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). This study suggests that the hydrogen-producing ASBR is a promising bio-system for prolonged and stable hydrogen production.

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-10-01

    Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, (S)-Tenatoprazole sodium salt monohydrate 19-28z, Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate, ADV-TK, AE-37, Aflibercept, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Asenapine maleate, Axitinib; Bavituximab, Becatecarin, beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Bevacizumab, Bremelanotide; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Casopitant mesylate, Catumaxomab, CDX-110, Cediranib, CMD-193, Cositecan; Darinaparsin, Denosumab, DP-b99, Duloxetine hydrochloride; E75, Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, EMD-273063, EndoTAG-1, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Eribulin mesilate, Esomeprazole magnesium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Faropenem daloxate, Febuxostat, Fenretinide; Ghrelin (human); I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, I-131-3F8, Iclaprim, Iguratimod, Iloperidone, Imatinib mesylate, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Ipilimumab, Iratumumab, Ispinesib mesylate, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Laquinimod sodium, Larotaxel dehydrate, Linezolid, LOR-2040; Mapatumumab, MKC-1, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NK-012; Olanzapine pamoate, Oncolytic HSV, Ortataxel; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Paliperidone palmitate, Panitumumab, Patupilone, PCV-9, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pimecrolimus, Plerixafor hydrochloride, PM-02734, Poly I:CLC, PR1, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Progesterone caproate, Prucalopride, Pumosetrag hydrochloride; RAV-12, RB-006, RB-007, Recombinant human erythropoietin alfa, Rimonabant, Romidepsin; SAR-109659, Satraplatin, Sodium butyrate; Tadalafil, Talampanel, Tanespimycin, Tarenflurbil, Tariquidar

  20. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with multiple pregnancies: the AMPHIA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers Hubertina CJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15% of multiple pregnancies ends in a preterm delivery, which can lead to mortality and severe long term neonatal morbidity. At present, no generally accepted strategy for the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies exists. Prophylactic administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC has proven to be effective in the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies with a previous preterm delivery. At present, there are no data on the effectiveness of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Methods/Design We aim to investigate the hypothesis that 17OHPC will reduce the incidence of the composite neonatal morbidity of neonates by reducing the early preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies. Women with a multiple pregnancy at a gestational age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation will be entered in a placebo-controlled, double blinded randomised study comparing weekly 250 mg 17OHPC intramuscular injections from 16–20 weeks up to 36 weeks of gestation versus placebo. At study entry, cervical length will be measured. The primary outcome is composite bad neonatal condition (perinatal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcome measures are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We need to include 660 women to indicate a reduction in bad neonatal outcome from 15% to 8%. Analysis will be by intention to treat. We will also analyse whether the treatment effect is dependent on cervical length. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not 17OHPC-treatment is an effective means of preventing bad neonatal outcome due to preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40512715

  1. Determination of Odor Release in Hydrocolloid Model Systems Containing Original or Carboxylated Cellulose at Different pH Values Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatographic (SHS-GC Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahn-Shick Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC analysis was performed to determine the release of 13 odorants in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or regio-selectively carboxylated cellulose at different pH values. The release of most odor compounds was decreased in the hydrocolloid solutions compared to control, with the amounts of 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanedione released into the headspace being less than those of any other odor compound in the hydrocolloid model systems. However, there was no considerable difference between original cellulose-containing and carboxylated-cellulose containing systems in the release of most compounds, except for relatively long-chain esters such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl nonanoate. The release from the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions controlled to pH 10 was significantly higher than that from solutions adjusted to pH 4 and 7 in the case of some esters (ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, butyl propionate, ethyl caproate and alcohols (2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, in particular, ethyl butyrate and 3-methyl-1-butanol. In contrast, the release of 2,3-butanedione from both the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions was increased at pH 4 and 7 compared to that at pH 10 by about 70% and 130%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that the release of some odorants could be changed significantly by addition of both original and carboxylated cellulose in hydrocolloid model systems, but only minor effect was observed in pH of the solution.

  2. Prediciton of high-pressure vapor liquid equilibrium of six binary systems, carbon dioxide with six esters, using an artificial neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Si-Moussa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are applied to high-pressure vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE related literature data to develop and validate a model capable of predicting VLE of six CO2-ester binaries (CO2-ethyl caprate, CO2-ethyl caproate, CO2-ethyl caprylate, CO2-diethyl carbonate, CO2-ethyl butyrate and CO2-isopropyl acetate. A feed forward, back propagation network is used with one hidden layer. The model has five inputs (two intensive state variables and three pure ester properties and two outputs (two intensive state variables.The network is systematically trained with 112 data points in the temperature and pressure ranges (308.2-328.2 K, (1.665-9.218 MPa respectively and is validated with 56 data points in the temperature range (308.2-328.2 K. Different combinations of network architecture and training algorithms are studied. The training and validation strategy is focused on the use of a validation agreement vector, determined from linear regression analysis of the plots of the predicted versus experimental outputs, as an indication of the predictive ability of the neural network model. Statistical analyses of the predictability of the optimised neural network model show excellent agreement with experimental data (a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.9995 and 0.9886, and a root mean square error equal to 0.0595 and 0.00032 for the predicted equilibrium pressure and CO2 vapor phase composition respectively. Furthermore, the comparison in terms of average absolute relative deviation between the predicted results for each binary for the whole temperature range and literature results predicted by some cubic equation of state with various mixing rules and excess Gibbs energy models shows that the artificial neural network model gives far better results.

  3. Progesterone, Inflammatory Cytokine (TNF-α), and Oxidative Stress (H2O2) Regulate Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Expression in Fetal Membrane Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Murtha, Amy P; Feng, Liping

    2016-09-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is an important novel mediator of progesterone (P4) function in fetal membrane cells. We demonstrated previously that PGRMC1 is differentially expressed in fetal membranes among pregnancy subjects and diminished in preterm premature rupture of membrane subjects. In the current study, we aim to elucidate whether PGRMC1 expression is regulated by P4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and H2O2 in fetal membrane cells. Primary cultured membrane cells were serum starved for 24 hours followed by treatments of P4, 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and medroxyprogesterone 17 acetate (MPA) at 10(-7) mol/L with ethanol as vehicle control; TNF-α at 10, 20, and 50 ng/mL with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control; and H2O2 at 10 and 100 μmol/L with culture media as control for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of PGRMC1 was quantified using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. We found that PGRMC1 protein expression was regulated by MPA, TNF-α, and H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. This regulation is also specific to the type of cell (amnion, chorion, or decidua). The upregulation of PGRMC1 by MPA might be mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) demonstrated using amnion and chorion cells model with GR knockdown by specific small interfering RNA transfection. The mRNA expression of PGRMC1 was decreased by H2O2 (100 μmol/L) treatment in amnion cells, which might ultimately result in downregulation of PGRMC1 protein as our data demonstrated. None of other treatments changed PGRMC1 mRNA level in these cells. We conclude that these stimuli act as regulatory factors of PGRMC1 in a cell-specific manner. PMID:26919974

  4. Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-30

    The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble

  5. A novel alkaliphilic bacillus esterase belongs to the 13(th bacterial lipolytic enzyme family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial derived lipolytic hydrolysts are an important class of biocatalysts because of their huge abundance and ability to display bioactivities under extreme conditions. In spite of recent advances, our understanding of these enzymes remains rudimentary. The aim of our research is to advance our understanding by seeking for more unusual lipid hydrolysts and revealing their molecular structure and bioactivities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacillus. pseudofirmus OF4 is an extreme alkaliphile with tolerance of pH up to 11. In this work we successfully undertook a heterologous expression of a gene estof4 from the alkaliphilic B. pseudofirmus sp OF4. The recombinant protein called EstOF4 was purified into a homologous product by Ni-NTA affinity and gel filtration. The purified EstOF4 was active as dimer with the molecular weight of 64 KDa. It hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates including p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C12 and triglycerides (C2-C6. Its optimal performance occurred at pH 8.5 and 50°C towards p-nitrophenyl caproate and triacetin. Sequence alignment revealed that EstOF4 shared 71% identity to esterase Est30 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with a typical lipase pentapeptide motif G91LS93LG95. A structural model developed from homology modeling revealed that EstOF4 possessed a typical esterase 6α/7β hydrolase fold and a cap domain. Site-directed mutagenesis and inhibition studies confirmed the putative catalytic triad Ser93, Asp190 and His220. CONCLUSION: EstOF4 is a new bacterial esterase with a preference to short chain ester substrates. With a high sequence identity towards esterase Est30 and several others, EstOF4 was classified into the same bacterial lipolytic family, Family XIII. All the members in this family originate from the same bacterial genus, bacillus and display optimal activities from neutral pH to alkaline conditions with short and middle chain length substrates. However, with roughly 70% sequence

  6. The Best Treatment Effects of Active Carbon on Low-alcohol Liquor of Different Alcoholicity%不同酒度低度白酒活性炭处理最佳效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代汉聪; 张宿义; 谢明; 李云辉

    2012-01-01

    对不同酒度低度白酒活性炭除浊、香味损失及化学性能等指标进行了研究。结果表明,同一酒度白酒进行活性炭处理,随着活性炭用量的增加,酒中己酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯等色谱骨架成分及棕榈酸乙酯、亚油酸乙酯、油酸乙酯等高级脂肪酸乙酯的含量均有一定程度的降低;总酸、总酯也随着活性炭添加量的增加有一定程度减小,且酒质香浓感减弱,酒体抗冻能力增强。用同量活性炭对不同酒度白酒进行处理,酒度越高,其处理降度后的低度白酒微量香味成分越丰富,酒质香浓感越好,但酒体抗冻能力越弱。新处理工艺能够增加酒体香浓感,且大幅度提升酒体口感质量。%Active carbon was used for turbidity-removal of low-alcohol liquor of different alcoholicity,and the loss of liquor aroma and the change in its chemical indexes were studied.The results indicated that,for liquor of the same alcoholicity,with the increase of active carbon use level,the content of ethyl caproate,ethyl lactate,ethyl acetate,ethyl butyrate,palmitic acid ethyl ester,ethyl linoleate,ethyl oleate and other higher fatty ethyl esters reduced to some extent in the liquor,the content of total acids and total esters also decreased and liquor aroma weakened,however,liquor antifreeze capacity enhanced;for liquor of different alcoholicity but treated by the same use level of active carbon,the higher of liquor alcoholicity,the richer of trace flavoring components in treated liquor and the better of liquor quality and liquor aroma,however,the weaker of liquor antifreeze capacity.The new processing techniques could enhance the aroma of liquor body and greatly improve liquor taste and liquor quality.

  7. Brewing Technology of Persimmon plus Hawthorn Fruit Wine%柿子、山楂复合果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海珍; 张天英; 曾辉; 杨宁; 张浩

    2013-01-01

    In this study, water persimmon from Huixian of Henan province and red hawthorn from northern Henan province were used as the raw materials to optimize the brewing technology of persimmon +hawthorn complex fruit wine.Water persimmon was used as the foundation, and the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted respectively to 3.2, 3.6, 4.0 and 5.0 by hawthorn with higher organic acid content .The change rule of the main compositions in the fermentation process as well as the flavor of the finished product wine were studied.The results showed that:when the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted to 3.6 by hawthorn, the taste of the complex fruit wine was delicious , sweet and scented, and its aroma components mainly included some esters , such as ethyl ace-tate and ethyl caproate.The products had good biological stability with clear and transparent appearance .%  利用河南辉县水柿和豫北红山楂作为原料酿制柿子山楂酒,以水柿为基础,采用有机酸含量较高的山楂调节果浆pH值分别至3.2、3.6、4.0和5.0,研究发酵过程中主要成分的变化规律以及成品酒的风味,结果显示:采用山楂果浆调节pH值至3.6的柿子山楂酒的口感圆润、香气浓郁,香气组分主要以乙酸乙酯和己酸乙酯等酯类为主,产品生物稳定性好、澄清透明。

  8. Analysis of Volatile Components of Za Wine Using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction Combined with GC-MS%顶空-固相微萃取-气质联用分析咂酒挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗优; 郑炯

    2016-01-01

    采用顶空-固相微萃取对咂酒中挥发性成分进行提取,通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术对提取出的挥发性成分进行定性和定量分析。结果表明:从咂酒中共鉴定出挥发性成分50种,其中酯类和醇类是咂酒中种类和含量最多的两种挥发性物质,分别为20种和15种。咂酒中的主要挥发性化合物有异戊醇(19.48%)、乙酸乙酯(17.78%)、丁二酸二乙酯(14.73%)、辛酸乙酯(10.95%)、乙酸戊酯(9.51%)、癸酸乙酯(5.92%)、异丁酸(5.91%)、己酸乙酯(3.07%)。%The volatile components of Za wine were extracted by using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified the volatile components and analyzed their content. The results showed that 50 volatile compounds were identified from Za wine. The esters and alcohols were the-mostabundant category and highest contenttwo kinds of volatile substances, which were 20 and 15 respectively. The main volatile compounds were isoamyl alcohol(19.48%), ethyl acetate(17.78%), butanedioic acid, di-ethyl ester(14.73%), octanoic acid, ethyl ester(10.95%), acetic acid, pentyl ester(10.95%),ethylcaprate (5.92%), isobutyric acid(5.91%), ethyl caproate(3.07%).

  9. 循证医学在早产防治中的应用%Evidence-Based Medicine in Prevention and Treatment of Preterm Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴香

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is one of obstetric complications and is the primarycause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, prediction and early diagnosis of preterm labor, become one of obstetric research focus in recent years. Domestic and international obstetric community and neonatology have done a lot of researches on many aspects including the physical indicators, laboratory biochemical, immunological indicators, the use of tocolyfic drugs, antibiotic applications, and promotion of fetal lung maturation. They have brought a lot of approaches of prevention, treatment of preterm labor and reduction of perinatal mortality and morbidity. It focuses on introducing measurement of cervical length with transvaginal ultrasound, cervical cerclage, progesterone preparation( 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate), cytokine (C-reactive protein) and medicine supplementarytherapy (vitamin C and vitamin E) from evidence-based medicine in prevention and therapy of preterm birth.%早产是产科常见并发症之一,是围生儿死亡和发病的首要病因.因此早产的预测和早期诊断是当前产科研究热点之一.国内外产科和新生儿科研究者做了大量研究,从物理指标、实验室生化指标、免疫指标、使用宫缩抑制剂及保胎药物、抗生素的应用、促胎肺成熟等方面提出许多预防、治疗早产和降低围生儿死亡、发病的方法.从循证医学的角度介绍阴道超声测量宫颈长度、宫颈环扎术、孕激素及其制剂(17-α己酸羟孕酮)、细胞因子(C反应蛋白)、药物(维生素C和维生素E)补充疗法等在早产防治中的作用.

  10. Effect of freeze-drying temperature on volatile components of Capsella bursa-pastoris L.%冷冻干燥温度对荠菜挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 刘腾飞; 薛妍君; 杨代凤; 董明辉; 汝骅; 郁志芳

    2015-01-01

    The wild Capsella bursa-pastoris L. was freeze-dried at 5 ℃, 10 ℃, 15 ℃ and 20 ℃, respectively, and the combination of head space-solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography ( HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to detect the volatile components. As many as 53 types of volatile components were detected at 10 ℃, among which, alcohols inclu-ding cis-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-pentene-3-alcohol, benzene ethanol and 1-hexanol, esters including amyl nitrate, acetic acid leaf alcohol ester, ethyl caproate, two hydrogen actinidia lactone and 3-hexenoic acid ethyl ester, ketones including methyl hep-tenone and 3-methyl-2-heptanone presented higher contents than those treated at other temperatures. Acids in 10 ℃ dried products were the most abundant, and 3-amino-2,3-two hydrogenation of benzoic acid and 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid in fresh samples were maintained to the greatest contents. The losses of aldehydes and hydrocarbon were relatively small in 10℃ dried products. In conclusion, the flavor of C. bursa-pastoris L. was well maitained under the following conditions:sample loading 50 g, pre-freezing at -20 ℃ for 6 h, cold trap at -85 ℃,vacuum degree at 0. 5 MPa,freeze-drying at 10 ℃ for 14 h.%为研究不同冷冻干燥温度对荠菜挥发性物质的影响,采用不同温度(5℃、10℃、15℃和20℃)对荠菜进行冷冻干燥处理,利用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对荠菜中的挥发性物质进行检测。结果显示:与其他处理组相比,10℃冷冻干燥处理产品中挥发性成分种类最多,为53种,其中醇类物质如叶醇、1-戊烯-3-醇、苯乙醇和1-己醇含量较其他处理组高,酯类物质如亚硝酸异戊酯、乙酸叶醇酯、正己酸乙酯、二氢猕猴桃内酯和3-己烯酸乙酯等相对含量较高,酮类物质如甲基庚烯酮和3-甲基-2-庚酮含量较高。酸类物质种类在10℃冷冻干燥产品中最为丰富,新鲜荠菜中的3-氨基-2,3-二氢苯甲酸和2-甲基-4-

  11. 固相微萃取GC-MS法测定不同干燥方式下枣产品的芳香成分%Application of Solid Phase Microextraction with GC/MS Method for Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Dried Jujube Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金峰; 于静静; 丁媛媛; 赖必辉

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取与气相色谱-质谱联用技术对枣鲜样及不同干燥方式枣产品的芳香成分进行分析.结果表明,河北滩枣鲜样主要芳香成分为:酸类物质占24.31%,烯类物质占14.2%,烷烃类物质占11.73%.热风干燥处理后产生较多酯类和酮类物质,使产品呈现蒸煮味道,损失较多烷烃类物质;微波干燥处理后除酯类和酮类物质增多外,其余风味物质均损失较多;冷冻干燥处理后生成了其他干燥方式未有的己酸乙酯和庚酸乙酯;真空干燥处理后产生较多的酸类、酯类和酮类物质;相对于其余四种干燥方式,变温压差膨化干燥处理后,代表枣风味的酸类、酯类、酮类和醛类明显增多,且生成许多新的香气成分如庚酸、己醛和2-呋喃基甲基酮等.%The paper studied the difference of volatile compounds in fresh jujube and drying products with different drying methods by combining solid phase micro-extraction with GC-MS method. The results showed that the volatile compounds in fresh Hebei Beach jujube mainly include acid, vinyl and alkane, and the percent of acid was 24.3 1%, the percent of vinyl was 14.2% and the percent of alkane was 11.73%.The jujube treated by hot-air drying method showed a steam cooked taste, producing ketone compounds but losing more alkanes. The jujube by microwave drying method produced much esters and ketones and lost much volatile compounds which belong to fresh jujube. And the jujube by freeze drying method created ethyl caproate and ethyl enanthate which other drying methods did not have. And much acid, ester and ketone,comparing with the other products, were found in the jujube by vacuum drying method. The jujube by the explosion puffing with difference temperature and pressure method has created much acid, ester, ketone and aldehyde which can mostly stand for characteristic volatile compounds ofjujube, and created many new volatile compounds, for example enanthylic acid

  12. 3种芦丁脂肪酸酯在空气/水界面的成膜性质%Monolayers of Three Amphiphilic Esters of Rutin at the Air-water Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段煜; 杜宗良; 李瑞霞; 吴大诚

    2011-01-01

    The π - A isotherms for monolayers of three amphiphilic rutin esters, rutin - 4''' - 0 - stearate ( RS ), rutin - 4''' - 0 -laurate (RL) and rutin -4''' -0 -caproate (RC), were measured at the air-water interface and air-aqueous aluminum sulfate solution interface.The properties of the monolayers of three rutin esters were related to the carbon number of alkyl, the compression rate and the property of substrate.Although RS and RL showed scant water solubility, they formed monolayers with the liquid-expanded phase when spread on water.While RC could not form insoluble monolayer at the air-water interface, which may be due to the larger water solubility of RC.Appropriately low compression rate was critical to the formation of relatively stable monolayers.When spread on an aqueous aluminum sulfate solution, the formation of a complex between the aluminum ions and the rutin ester resulted in higher values of acoll for RS and RL monolayers compared with their values on water, and RC could spread as liquid-expanded phase monolayer.The present results provided valuable information for investigating the interaction of flavonoids and biomembranes and the anti-oxidant mechanism of flavonoids.%采用LB膜分析仪分别研究了芦丁硬脂酸酯(RS)、芦丁月桂酸酯(RL)和芦丁正己酸酯(RC)在空气/水界面的成膜性质,及亚相中的Al3+对3种芦丁脂肪酸酯成膜性质的影响.结果显示,3种芦丁脂肪酸酯的成膜性质与其疏水基的碳链长度、压膜速度和亚相性质有关.RS和RL能在水面铺展为液态扩张膜,RC则不能成膜.引入芦丁分子中的疏水基碳链越长,成膜越稳定.慢速压膜利于膜稳定性,膜的崩溃压大;较快速压膜能使更多膜分子保留在水表面,膜的平均分子面积大.选择适宜的压膜速度对得到比较稳定的芦丁脂肪酸酯膜很关键.当亚相中含Al3+时,RS、RL和RC均铺展成液态扩张膜,且RS膜和RL膜崩溃时的分子面积(acoll)大于它们在水表

  13. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  14. 啤酒发酵过程对重要醇酯影响的研究%The Effects of Beer Fermentation on the Content of Higher Alcohols and Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成; 杨攀飞; 刘伶普; 郝俊光; 贾士儒

    2015-01-01

    风味物质的含量决定啤酒的品质,其特征会直接决定啤酒口感和其市场竞争力。研究了麦汁浓度、主酵温度和接种量对啤酒中风味物质的影响。在不同的发酵条件下,以全麦芽为原料,经下面发酵生产啤酒。采用顶空气相色谱法检测啤酒中高级醇和酯类的浓度。研究发现麦汁浓度对高级醇和酯的影响最大,且提高麦汁浓度能够同时增大啤酒中高级醇和酯的含量,当麦汁浓度从11°P提高到15°P,乙酸乙酯的含量提高了34%。在相同接种量和麦汁浓度下,主酵温度越高,异戊醇含量越高,异丁醇的含量却有所降低。在较高的发酵温度下乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯和乙酸异戊酯的含量升高,但是己酸乙酯的含量变化无规律。研究结果显示接种量对醇和酯的影响都不显著。%The content of flavoring substances determines the quality of beer and the flavoring characteristics will directly determine the taste and market competitiveness of beer product. In this study, the effects of wort concentration, chief fermenting temperature and barm inoculating quantity on flavoring substances in beer were investigated. In the experiments, beer was produced with whole malt as raw materials by bottom fermentation under different fermenting conditions. The content of higher alcohols and esters were detected by HS-GC. The experimental re-sults suggested that wort concentration among the three factors had the greatest effects on higher alcohols & esters content. The enhance of wort concentration could increase both higher alcohols content and esters content at the same time. As wort concentration got enhanced from 11° P to 15° P, the content of ethyl caproate increased by 34%. Under the conditions of the same barm inoculating quantity and the same wort concentration, higher chief fermenting temperature might induce higher content of isoamylol but lower content of isobutanol. The content of

  15. 一株窖泥己酸菌株的多相鉴定及产酸研究%Polyphasic Identification of a Hexanoic Acid Bacteria Strain from the Pit Mud and Study on Its Acid Producing Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛正楷; 薛原

    2016-01-01

    Polyphasic identification of a combination of morphological observation, physiological&biochemical indexes, 16s RNA gene se-quencing analysis was adopted to identify a hexanoic-acid-producing bacteria strain K-2 (isolated from the mud of 180-year-old pit). Then the metabolites of this strain were analyzed by GC. The results showed that, K-2 could utilize various carbon sources including D-glucose, manni-tol, inulin, L-arabinose, D-sucrose and it had hydrolysis activities of urease, esculin and gelatin. 16s RNA gene sequence (1346 bp) of strain K-2 showed the identity of 99%to Clostridium celerecrescens by NCBI blast, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence posi-tioned K-2 in the Clostridium branch, thus we identified it to be Clostridium celerecrescens. Besides, K-2 demonstrated a highly-efficient capa-bility of producing hexanoic acid (547.26 mg/100 mL) and butyric acid (382.45 mg/100 mL) , but it hardly produced ethyl caproate and ethyl butyrate. This study was the first report at home and abroad on a hexanoic-acid-producing Clostridium celerecrescens strain isolated from Non-gxiang Baijiu pit mud.%采用常规形态、生理生化指标,并结合16s RNA基因序列分析进行多相鉴定方法及气相色谱分析技术,对分离自泸州老窖180年窖池的1株产己酸菌株(K-2)进行分类鉴定和代谢产物分析,结果表明,K-2菌株能利用D-葡萄糖、甘露醇、菊糖、L-阿拉伯糖、D-蔗糖等多种碳源,具有脲酶、七叶灵和明胶酶水解活性;K-2菌株16s RNA基因序列(1346bp)与Clostridium celerecrescens一致率为99%,Strain K-216s RNA基因序列在系统进化树中位于Clostridium属分支,与Clostridium celerecrescens序列相似性最近,本研究将其鉴定为梭菌属(GenusI Clostrid-ium)中的Clostridium celerecrescens菌株,该菌株有高效的产己酸(547.26 mg/100 mL)和丁酸能力(382.45 mg/100 mL)能力,但几乎不产己酸乙酯和丁酸乙酯.此研究为国内外首次报道从浓香

  16. 山刺番荔枝果实发育进程中挥发性成分的组成分析%Analysis of volatile components in Annona montana fruit at different developmental stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子健; 龙娅丽; 江雪飞; 乔飞; 党志国; 陈业渊

    2016-01-01

    -SPME-GC/MS.Flesh of green fruit,degreening fruit and ripe fruit was sampled and quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen and then preserved in-80 ℃.15 g of the finely powdered flesh samples was transferred into a 40 mL Teflon capvial (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with 5 g of NaCl and sealed with a silicone/PTFE septum and a magnetic cap for continuous agitation and heating.Headspace volatiles were extracted by exposing a 75-μm carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber (Supelco,USA) to the vial headspace.The fiber was then inserted into an ISQ GC-MS (Thermo Scientific instruments,USA) injection port and the volatiles were desorbed and performed on an HP-INNOWAX column with helium as the carrier gas at a constant flow.[Results] At different stages of fruit development,the relative contents and types of volatile components changed greatly.A total of 16 volatile components with relative content higher than 1% in all three development stages were detected,including 2 aldehydes,9 esters,4 alcohols and 1 acid.In green fruit,the main volatile components were trans-2-hexenal,caproaldehyde,leaf alcohol and hexyl alcohol,and the relative content of the four components reached 82.61% with trans-2-hexenal accounting for 48.09%.In degreening fruit,the main volatile components included caprylic acid methyl ester,prenyl acetate,methyl decanoate,4-penten-1-yl acetate,cineole,and α-terpineol and linalool.These 7 compounds occupied 68.85% and caprylic acid methyl ester was most abundant (35.86%).Esters increased obviously in degreening fruit compared with green fruit.In ripe fruit,the relative contents of 9 volatile components were higher than 1%.They were prenyl acetate,ethyl caprylate,caprylic acid methyl ester,4-penten-1-yl acetate,cineole,ethyl caproate,octanoic acid,α-terpineol and ethyl caprate.Their relative content was 42.76% and prenyl acetate was the highest one (9.40%),followed by ethyl caprylate (9.29%).In ripe fruit,the relative content of prenyl acetate and caprylic acid

  17. 残次裂枣枣酒发酵菌相变化及工艺比较分析%Study on Variation of Microbial Community and Comparison of Two Fermentation Technologies in Making Wine by Defective Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘凯旋; 甘峰; 李志西; 王晨; 张俊娜

    2012-01-01

    bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The contents of alcohol and Vc in the wine produced by direct fermentation technique were 8. 9% and 45. 8 jug/g. And the contents of them in the wine made by the second technology were 7.8% and 47. 7 jug/g. The contents of polyphenol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lac-tate, and ethyl caproate in the wine produced by direct fermentation technology were higher and the content of fusel oil was lower than that produced by the other technique. The contents of methanol in the wine produced by both the fermentation technologies were lower than 0. 4 g/L which was the max-imal value regulated by Chinese National Standard. So, the property of wine produced by direct fermentation technique was better than that produced by another technique.