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Sample records for caprino capra hircus

  1. Vomeronasalni organ u angora koza (Capra hircus).

    OpenAIRE

    Besoluk, Kamil; Eken, Emrullah; Boydak, Murat

    2001-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja bio je opisati morfologiju vomeronazalnog organa u koze pasmine angora (Capra hircus). Istraživanje je provedeno na ukupno šest glava koza, i to makroskopskom i mikroskopskom pretragom koja je uključivala i histološku analizu. Utvrđeno je da se vomeronazalni organ proteže duž nazalnog septuma, i to od razine incizivne papile pa sve do gornjeg premolara. Organ se sastoji od bilateralnog vomeronazalnog kanala i vomeronazalne hrskavice na dnu nosne šupljine. Srednja dužina izno...

  2. A first glance on the epigenome of Capra hircus

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    Stefano Frattini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNA are two important forms of epigenetic modifications that play an important role in gene regulation in animals. Methylation at the carbon 5 position of cytosine residues is a fundamental layer of cellular differentiation through the control of transcriptional potential. MiRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Complete DNA methylomes for several organisms are now available; at the present, methylome of the domestic goat is unexplored. There is also still limited knowledge about miRNAs expression profiles in small ruminant species. Therefore, to contribute information on epigenetic modification in Capra hircus, we analysed the methylome and the miRNA population of three tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary from 3 adult Saanen goats. We used Methylated DNA binding domain sequencing with enrichment of methylated DNA fragments and next generation sequencing. We produced least 23 million reads per sample, which were aligned to the goat reference genome. Further analyses were performed to identify peaks corresponding to hyper-methylated regions. We sequenced miRNAs expressed in the three tissues with Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Reads were mapped on the Capra hircus reference genome and both known and novel miRNAs, and miRNA target sites were identified using information collected in miRBase and using specific bioinformatic tools. This study produced a comprehensive miRNA profile related to the biology of goat. Furthermore, this is the first work dealing with methylome in Capra hircus: our preliminary results could provide new information for a deeper comprehension of epigenetic mechanisms of this species.

  3. Morphological characterization of Haemonchus contortus in goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wahab A; Abd Hamid, Suhaila

    2007-06-01

    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). This paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of H. contortus adults from the two hosts. There were more ridges in H. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. Total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.

  4. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus) were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml) at estrus phase and dropped dow...

  5. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  6. Estudo comparativo da ação anti-helmíntica da batata de purga (Operculina hamiltonii e do melão de são caetano (Mormodica charantia em caprinos (Capra hircus naturalmente infectados Comparative study of the anti-helminthic action of the potato of purges (Operculina hamiltonii and the cantaloups of São Caetano (Mormodica charatia in naturally infected goats (Capra hircus

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    Luciano de Brito-Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As helmintoses gastrintestinais ocupam lugar de destaque na produção de pequenos ruminantes como um fator limitante e o seu controle vem sendo realizado por meio do uso indiscriminado de anti-helmínticos favorecendo o surgimento da resistência a medicamentos. Com o objetivo de comparar a ação anti-helmíntica das plantas Operculina hamiltonii (batata de purga, Marmodica charantia (Melão de São Caetano e do moxedctin a 0,2% sobre as infecções helminticas naturais de caprinos, foram utilizados 40 caprinos, sem raça definida, fêmeas, com idade entre seis e 12 meses, naturalmente infectados, separados em quatro grupos: o GRUPO 1 (G1 - animais controle negativo tratados com água destilada; o GRUPO 2 (G2 - animais tratados com o extrato alcoólico da O. hamiltonii; o GRUPO 3 (G3 - animais tratados com o extrato alcoólico da M. charantia e no GRUPO 4 (G4 - animais controle positivo tratados com moxidectina 0,2%. Todos os grupos receberam os tratamentos por três dias consecutivos. As amostras fecais foram coletadas nos dias 0, 30 e 60 após tratamento, para a realização da contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e larvacultura. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos, aplicou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (RCOF. A RCOF do G2, G3 e G4 foram de 63 e 90; 40 e 40; 100 e 100%, respectivamente para 30 e 60 dias pós-tratamento respectivamente. Durante o período de estudo, observou-se que todas as amostras coletadas estavam positivas para larvas de helmintos da superfamília Trichostrongyloidea, com exceção para o G4, nos dias 30 e 60 pós-tratamento. O Haemonchus foi o parasita mais prevalente nas coproculturas.Gastrintestinal helminthosis occupy a place of prominence in the production of small ruminants as an edge factor. Its control has been carried through the indiscriminate use of anti-helminthic products in favor of the appearing resistance to the medicines. With the objective to compare the anti

  7. Cloned goats (Capra hircus) from adult ear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jitong(郭继彤); AN; Zhixing(安志兴); LI; Yu(李煜); LI; Xuefeng(李雪峰); LI; Yuqiang(李裕强); GUO; Zekun(郭泽坤); ZHANG; Yong(张涌)

    2002-01-01

    The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815/330). 66.17% (1201/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the MⅡchromosomes were enucleated. Ear skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult female Jining Grey goat (C. hircus). The cells were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after passage 2. Thawed cells were further cultured for 3-6 passages and were subjected to serum starvation by 0.5% FBS for 2-10 d, then used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. 98.12% (889/906) of the enucleated oocytes were reconstructed by intracytoplasmic injection of karyoplast. The reconstructed embryos were activated by 5 μmol/L ionomycin for 4.5 min and further activated by culturing with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h. After 36 h of culture in mCR1aaBF, 76.69% (645/841) of the cloned embryos cleaved. There were no significant differences in development in vitro between the cloned embryos derived from donor cells precooled at 4℃ for 24 h and nonprecooled donor cells. The cleavage rates, 4-cell development, and blastocyst development of reconstructed embryos were 72.48% (79/109), 53.16% (42/79), and 19.05% (8/42) in precooled group; 68.5% (211/308), 59.72% (126/211), and 17.46% (22/126) in nonprecooled group, respectively. Eighteen cloned 4-cell embryos derived from precooled donor cells were transferred and one cloned kid was born. Eighty-four cloned 4-cell embryos derived from nonprecooled donor cells were transferred and no offspring were produced. Of 18 cloned morale from nonprecooled donor cells transferred, one kid was born. The results of microsatellite DNA analyses indicated that the two cloned kids were from the same donor fibroblast cell line derived from an adult goat ear skin.

  8. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; C. J. Ogugbue

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8....

  9. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangtao; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Fan, Jingsheng; Xiong, Chaorui; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hongping

    2016-05-01

    This study has presented the complete mitogenome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus), a crossbreed known for its high growth rate and good-meat quality in China. The mitogenome was 16,643 bp in length, including 33.54% A, 26.07% C, 13.10% G and 27.29% T. It contained a non-coding control region, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Two kinds of inititiation codon and four types of termination codon were identified. Moreover, most of the genes were encoded on H-strand. These information will be useful for further investigation on the genetic divergence among Chinese domestic goats. PMID:25391031

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hechuan white goat in China (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangxin; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Chen, Li-Peng; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Hechuan white goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous of China. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further explore the breed improvement in Chinese goat. PMID:26704695

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cunling; Wei, Zehui

    2016-09-01

    Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus), a breed distributed widely and adapted highly in China, has the characteristics of high milk production and high litter size. Our research revealed that the complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat was 16,639 bp in length. The contents of A, C, G and T in the mitochondrial genome were 33.6%, 26.0%, 13.1% and 27.3%, respectively. It had a typical mitogenome structure, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Most of the PCGs have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. These results provide essential information for phylogeographic history and population genetic structure, genetic diversity of domestic goats and mitochondrial genome editing based on the goat model. PMID:25630737

  12. Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abund...

  13. Eimeria minasensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the Domestic Goat Capra hircus, from Brazil

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    Silva Andréa C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9 mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2 mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6 mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8 mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2 easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47 in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  14. A Quantitative Study on the Trachea of the Red Sokoto (Maradi Goat (Capra hircus

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    O. Byanet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trachea forms the part of the conducting system which transports air from the external environment to the lungs. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative dimensions of the trachea of Red Sokoto goat (Capra hircus. Quantitative analysis was conducted on nine tracheas from goats (ages were ranged between eight months and three years without sex variation in this study. The results showed that tracheas were extended from the cricoid cartilage of larynx to the hilus of the lungs, where they were divided into the right and left bronchi. They were structurally composed of the cartilaginous rings that were incomplete dorsally but bridged by tracheal muscles at the ends of the tracheal cartilages. The mean length of the trachea from the first to the last ring was 257 ± 7.11 mm and the number of tracheal rings varied from 35 to 57, with a mean value of 49.33 ± 2.78. The left bronchial mean length (19.78 ± 2.66 mm was significantly longer than the right (10.44 ± 1.79 mm. The cross-sectional area (CSA was wider at the intrathoracic area (221.5 ± 0.2 mm2 than cervical area (176 ± 0.1 mm2.

  15. Evaluation of DNA Integrity of Cryopreserved Boer Goat (Capra hircus) Sperm Using Comet Assay at Various pH Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Iswadi Mohd; Fazly Ann Zainalabidin; Mohamed Norhazilah; Mohd Padzil Rahman; Mazni Othman Abas; Fatimah Ibrahim Siti

    2013-01-01

    A very wide range of temperature changes during cryopreservation process reported cause complications to the sperm. One of it is DNA damage on the sperm which has been identified during the freezing and thawing process. Comet assay is a useful tool in sperm DNA integrity evaluation. Alkaline and neutral comet assay were able to differentiate DNA single- and double-strand breaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the DNA integrity of post-thaw Boer goat (Capra hircus) sperm using com...

  16. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals: categorisation learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susann; Nürnberg, Gerd; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The ability to establish categories enables organisms to classify stimuli, objects and events by assessing perceptual, associative or rational similarities and provides the basis for higher cognitive processing. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals are receiving increasing attention in applied ethology, a development driven primarily by scientifically based efforts to improve animal welfare. The present study investigated the learning of perceptual categories in Nigerian dwarf goats (Capra hircus) by using an automated learning device installed in the animals' pen. Thirteen group-housed goats were trained in a closed-economy approach to discriminate artificial two-dimensional symbols presented in a four-choice design. The symbols belonged to two categories: category I, black symbols with an open centre (rewarded) and category II, the same symbols but filled black (unrewarded). One symbol from category I and three different symbols from category II were used to define a discrimination problem. After the training of eight problems, the animals were presented with a transfer series containing the training problems interspersed with completely new problems made from new symbols belonging to the same categories. The results clearly demonstrate that dwarf goats are able to form categories based on similarities in the visual appearance of artificial symbols and to generalise across new symbols. However, the goats had difficulties in discriminating specific symbols. It is probable that perceptual problems caused these difficulties. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that goats housed under farming conditions have well-developed cognitive abilities, including learning of open-ended categories. This result could prove beneficial by facilitating animals' adaptation to housing environments that favour their cognitive capabilities. PMID:22457061

  17. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

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    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  18. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals: categorisation learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susann; Nürnberg, Gerd; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The ability to establish categories enables organisms to classify stimuli, objects and events by assessing perceptual, associative or rational similarities and provides the basis for higher cognitive processing. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals are receiving increasing attention in applied ethology, a development driven primarily by scientifically based efforts to improve animal welfare. The present study investigated the learning of perceptual categories in Nigerian dwarf goats (Capra hircus) by using an automated learning device installed in the animals' pen. Thirteen group-housed goats were trained in a closed-economy approach to discriminate artificial two-dimensional symbols presented in a four-choice design. The symbols belonged to two categories: category I, black symbols with an open centre (rewarded) and category II, the same symbols but filled black (unrewarded). One symbol from category I and three different symbols from category II were used to define a discrimination problem. After the training of eight problems, the animals were presented with a transfer series containing the training problems interspersed with completely new problems made from new symbols belonging to the same categories. The results clearly demonstrate that dwarf goats are able to form categories based on similarities in the visual appearance of artificial symbols and to generalise across new symbols. However, the goats had difficulties in discriminating specific symbols. It is probable that perceptual problems caused these difficulties. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that goats housed under farming conditions have well-developed cognitive abilities, including learning of open-ended categories. This result could prove beneficial by facilitating animals' adaptation to housing environments that favour their cognitive capabilities.

  19. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

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    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.

  20. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat Manure

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    T. P. Nwogu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  1. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; Ogugbue, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830

  2. An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus genome

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    Casadio Rita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goat (Capra hircus represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat, with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs: on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome. These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the

  3. Histomorphometric and fractal analysis of femoral, tibial, and metatarsal compact bone samples in sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    GUDEA, ALEXANDRU; STEFAN, ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    Histological sections of femur, tibia, and metatarsals originating from sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were examined in this study. Our research focused mainly on the quantitative characteristics of the microstructure of these bones. The areas, perimeters, minimum and maximum diameters of the secondary Haversian units, as well as structures of the primary osteonal units were assessed using comparative statistical methods. In addition to these param...

  4. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Differences between Primary and Secondary Hair Follicle-derived Dermal Papilla Cells of the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhu; Teng Xu; Jianlong Yuan; Xudong Guo; Dongjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    The dermal papilla is thought to establish the character and control the size of hair follicles. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus) have a double coat comprising the primary and secondary hair follicles, which have dramatically different sizes and textures. The Cashmere goat is rapidly becoming a potent model for hair follicle morphogenesis research. In this study, we established two dermal papilla cell lines during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle from the primary and seco...

  5. Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus using WGS data

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    Badr eBenjelloun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of their domestication, goats (Capra hircus have evolved in a large variety of locally adapted populations in response to different human and environmental pressures. In the present era, many indigenous populations are threatened with extinction due to their substitution by cosmopolitan breeds, while they might represent highly valuable genomic resources. It is thus crucial to characterize the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of indigenous populations. A fine characterization of whole genome variation in farm animals is now possible by using new sequencing technologies. We sequenced the complete genome at 12X coverage of 44 goats geographically representative of the three phenotypically distinct indigenous populations in Morocco. The study of mitochondrial genomes showed a high diversity exclusively restricted to the haplogroup A. The 44 nuclear genomes showed a very high diversity (24 million variants associated with low linkage disequilibrium. The overall genetic diversity was weakly structured according to geography and phenotypes. When looking for signals of positive selection in each population we identified many candidate genes, several of which gave insights into the metabolic pathways or biological processes involved in the adaptation to local conditions (e.g. panting in warm/desert conditions. This study highlights the interest of WGS data to characterize livestock genomic diversity. It illustrates the valuable genetic richness present in indigenous populations that have to be sustainably managed and may represent valuable genetic resources for the long-term preservation of the species.

  6. Nucleotide sequencing, cloning, and expression of Capra hircus Heme Oxygenase-1 in caprine islets to promote insulin secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Lila, Mohd Azmi B Mohd; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Ajdari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans that have been isolated from whole pancreas is an attractive alternative for the reversal of Type 1 diabetes. However, in vitro culture of isolated pancreatic islets has been reported to cause a decrease in glucose response over time. Hence, the improvement in islet culture conditions is an important goal in islet transplantation. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress protein that has been described as an inducible protein with the capacity of preventing apoptosis and cytoprotection via radical scavenging. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the influence of endogenous HO-1 gene transfer on insulin secretion of caprine islets. The full-length cDNA sequence of Capra hircus HO-1 was determined using specific designed primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends of pancreatic tissue. The HO-1 cDNA was then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vectors and transfected into caprine islets using lipid carriers. Efficiency of lipid carriers to transfect caprine islets was determined by flow cytometry. Insulin secretion assay was carried out by ovine insulin ELISA. The finding demonstrated that endogenous HO-1 gene transfer could improve caprine islet function in in vitro culture. Consequently, strategies using HO-1 gene transfer to islets might lead to better outcome in islet transplantation.

  7. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus skin during hair follicle development and cycling.

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    Rongqing Geng

    Full Text Available Cashmere goat (Capra hircus hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

  8. Molecular characterization of Capra hircus lysosomal α-mannosidase and potential mutant site for the therapy of locoweed poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangya, Kong; Jiangye, Zhang; Ying, Wu; Jianfei, Li; Qinfan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal α-Mannosidase (LAM) belongs to the glycoside hydrolyzing enzymes family 38 and is involved in the biosynthesis and turnover of N-linked glycoproteins process. Locoweeds, which contain swainsonine (SW) that inhibits LAM, are the main poisoning plants in many regions of the world, and thereby resulting in animal poisoning or even death. Based on regions of protein sequence conservation between LAM from Bos taurus and Homo sapiens, we cloned cDNA encoding Capra hircus LAM (chLAM). Expression of cDNA in Pichia pastoris resulted in the secretion of aLAM activity into the culture medium. The recombinant chLAM was activated 1.6 and 1.2-fold with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+), respectively. By homology modeling, molecular docking and mutant analysis, we obtained the probable binding modes of SW at the allosteric sites of chLAM, and the potential mutant sites for the resistance to SW. Prediction of SW sensitivity to A28 W/G, D58 Y/G mutant chLAM is lower than wild type chLAM. The obtained results lead to a better understanding of not only interactions between substrate/SW and chLAM, but also of a potential strategy for a novel therapy for locoweed poisoning. PMID:24660168

  9. Variação estacional de Bovicola caprae parasitando caprinos no Estado da Paraíba Seasonal variation of Bovicola caprae parasitizing goats in the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluvial na população de Bovicola caprae parasitando caprinos na região semi-árida do Estado da Paraíba foram avaliados de agosto 1999 a julho de 2002. Nos dois primeiros anos (agosto de 1999 a julho de 2001 30 caprinos foram examinados, enquanto que 16 caprinos foram examinados no terceiro ano (agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. Os animais eram mestiços adultos de ambos os sexos e foram abatidos para consumo humano no Matadouro Público de Patos, PB. As amostras de piolhos foram coletadas de três regiões anatômicas do corpo: maxilar, dorso e glúteo. O teste de Spearman (pThe effects of temperature, humidity and rainfall on field population trend of the biting louse Bovicola caprae, parasitizing goats bred in the semiarid region of the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil were monthly evaluated from August 1999 to July 2002. In the first two years (August 1999 to July 2001 30 goats were examined, whereas 16 goats were examined in the last year (August 2001 to July 2002. All goats were crossbred, both sexes and abated for human consumption. The lice were collected in an area 4cm of diameter at three body sites: maxillary, back line and haunch. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted (p< 0.05 between monthly average intensity of infestation of all stages (egg, larva, nymph, male and female of the life cycle pooled and monthly total counts of each stage and mean temperature, mean relative humidity and rainfall. B. caprae was found throughout the year with prevalence of 75-100%. Increase of the louse population during the drier months was probably a consequence of poor nutrition due to reduced pasture and inadequate husbandry practices instead the influence of abiotic factors.

  10. Morphometric Evaluation of Blood Pressure Regulating Organs in Teddy Goats (Capra hircus in Relation to Age and Sex

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    M. Shah, A. S. Qureshi*1, S. Rehan1 and R. Hussain1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of 36 teddy goats (Capra hircus of both sexes, divided in 3 age groups viz. kids (6-12 months, adults (13-21 months and old (22-24 months were collected after slaughter. Immediately after collection, absolute and relative weights, length, width, thickness, circumference and volume of all organs were recorded. Shape of the heart was cone like and the coronary groove was filled with fat. None of the anatomical parameters of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands differed between male and female goats, except that absolute weight of the right kidney and volume of right and left kidneys were higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Absolute and relative weights of the heart, volume, length, circumference, right atrial wall thickness and right ventricle wall thickness were higher in old than in kids or adult animals (P<0.05. No difference was seen in various anatomical parameters between the right and the left kidneys. However, values of most of the anatomical parameters were higher in old than in kids or adult goats (P<0.05, except relative weight of the organ and thickness of medulla, which did not differ among animals of three age groups. For adrenals, the absolute weight and length of the left organ were higher than the right (P<0.05. Similarly, absolute weight, length and width were higher in old than in kids (P<0.05. It is conceivable from these findings that goat has a stable cardiovascular system. The development of heart, kidneys and adrenals showed an increase parallel to the advancing age to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process. Sex, however, played a secondary role.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of tyrosinase gene in the skin of Jining Gray Goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Wang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Dong, Zhongdian; Zhou, Fenna; Fu, Yong; Zeng, Yongqing

    2012-07-01

    Tyrosinase is the key regulatory enzyme of melanogenesis and plays a major role in mammal coat color. For the first time, we have sequenced and characterized the tyrosinase (TYR) of Jining Gray Goat (Capra hircus), which is the world-famous fur-bearing animal with its special color and pattern. The full-length cDNA was cloned by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. As a result, one 2131-bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA of TYR was obtained. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of the TYR is 1593 bp and encodes for 530 amino acids, which is well conserved compared with TYR of various species with higher degree of sequence similarity with other mammalian (74-99 %) than amphibian, aves, and fishes (56-73 %). The deduced amino acids contained one signal peptide, one transmembrane domain, five N-linked glycosylation sites, and two copper binding sites. The result of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression level of TYR was the highest in the dark-gray goats and the lowest in the light-gray ones, while the goats of dark-gray individuals have more than 50 % black fiber and light-gray ones less than 30 %. During the whole life of Jining gray goat, TYR expression level changes with certain regularity and their coat color will change correspondingly by investigating the expression level in ten development stages. After comparing the result and the coat phenotype, we presume that it seems to have a positive relationship between the color depth of coat and the expression level of TYR. PMID:22407568

  12. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  13. Structure and genetic relationships between Brazilian naturalized and exotic purebred goat domestic goat (Capra hircus breeds based on microsatellites

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    Joelliton Domingos de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic relationships and structure of fourteen goat (Capra hircus populations were estimated based on genotyping data from 14 goat populations (n = 410 goats at 13 microsatellite loci. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and F statistics (F IS, F IT and F ST to evaluate the genetic diversity (Ho, He and ad of the goats. Genetic distances between the 14 goat populations were calculated from allelic frequency data for the 13 microsatellite markers. Moderate differentiation was observed for the populations of the undefined breeds (including the Anglo-Nubian-M breed, the naturalized Brazilian breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, the exotic purebred breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Toggenbourg and Anglo-Nubian and the naturalized Brazilian Graúna group. Our AMOVA showed that a major portion (88.51% of the total genetic variation resulted from differences between individual goats within populations, while between-populations variation accounted for the remaining 11.49% of genetic variation. We used a Reynolds genetic distance matrix and PCA to produce a phenogram based on the 14 goat populations and found three clusters, or groups, consisting of the goats belonging to the undefined breed, the naturalized breeds and the exotic purebred breeds. The closer proximity of the Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Paraíba to the Graúna breed from the same state than to the genetically conserved Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Ceará, as well as the heterozygosity values and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that there was a high number of homozygotes in the populations studied, and indicates the importance of the State for the conservation of the local breeds. Cataloguing the genetic profile of Brazilian goat populations provides essential information for conservation and genetic improvements programs.

  14. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

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    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing reveals differences between primary and secondary hair follicle-derived dermal papilla cells of the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus.

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    Bing Zhu

    Full Text Available The dermal papilla is thought to establish the character and control the size of hair follicles. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus have a double coat comprising the primary and secondary hair follicles, which have dramatically different sizes and textures. The Cashmere goat is rapidly becoming a potent model for hair follicle morphogenesis research. In this study, we established two dermal papilla cell lines during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle from the primary and secondary hair follicles and clarified the similarities and differences in their morphology and growth characteristics. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to identify gene expression differences between the two dermal papilla cell lines. Many of the differentially expressed genes are involved in vascularization, ECM-receptor interaction and Wnt/β-catenin/Lef1 signaling pathways, which intimately associated with hair follicle morphogenesis. These findings provide valuable information for research on postnatal morphogenesis of hair follicles.

  16. Single strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP detection in exon I of the a-lactalbumin gene of Indian Jamunapari milk goats (Capra hircus

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Jamunapari goats (Capra hircus was investigated using an optimized non-radioactive polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP method to detect a-lactalbumin polymorphism in a sample of 50 goats. Our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability in Jamunapari goats. Polymorphism was detected in the sample, indicating that Jamunapari goats have high genetic variability at loci, exon I of the a-lactalbumin gene. This result opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and conservation strategies. These a-lactalbumin variants can be sequenced and screened in the population to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for association studies and marker assisted selection.

  17. Desarrollo de yogurt con capacidad antioxidante elaborado con leche de cabra (Capra hircus y tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.

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    Carlos Enrique Alvarado Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de productos es el proceso secuencial de encontrar ideas para nuevos bienes y servicios, para convertirlas en productos comercialmente exitosos, seguros, beneficiosos para el consumidor y manufacturados de manera rentable. En el presente trabajo se siguieron todos los pasos de un Desarrollo Exploratorio en la elaboración de un yogurt a partir leche de cabra (Capra hircus, saborizado con una mermelada de tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn. para incrementar su capacidad antioxidante gracias a su contenido de polifenoles y otros componentes bioactivos. Se partió de un concepto de producto evaluado favorablemente por un grupo de consumidores y de criterios de formulación basados en la norma venezolana para yogurt COVENIN 2393:2001. La fórmula final seleccionada fue sometida a análisis físicos, químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales para su caracterización. Los resultados corroboraron el cumplimiento de lo establecido en la norma. Se cuantificó su actividad antioxidante, mediante la prueba ‘oxigen radical absorbance capacity’, antes y después de la adición de la mermelada de tomate de árbol, encontrándose que la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt saborizado fue 71 % mayor que la del yogurt natural. Por tanto, la incorporación de la mermelada de tomate de árbol permite incrementar la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt de leche de cabra.

  18. Desarrollo de yogurt con capacidad antioxidante elaborado con leche de cabra (Capra hircus y tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Alvarado Carrasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de productos es el proceso secuencial de encontrar ideas para nuevos bienes y servicios, para convertirlas en productos comercialmente exitosos, seguros, beneficiosos para el consumidor y manufacturados de manera rentable. En el presente trabajo se siguieron todos los pasos de un Desarrollo Exploratorio en la elaboración de un yogurt a partir leche de cabra (Capra hircus, saborizado con una mermelada de tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn. para incrementar su capacidad antioxidante gracias a su contenido de polifenoles y otros componentes bioactivos. Se partió de un concepto de producto evaluado favorablemente por un grupo de consumidores y de criterios de formulación basados en la norma venezolana para yogurt COVENIN 2393:2001. La fórmula final seleccionada fue sometida a análisis físicos, químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales para su caracterización. Los resultados corroboraron el cumplimiento de lo establecido en la norma. Se cuantificó su actividad antioxidante, mediante la prueba ‘oxigen radical absorbance capacity’, antes y después de la adición de la mermelada de tomate de árbol, encontrándose que la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt saborizado fue 71 % mayor que la del yogurt natural. Por tanto, la incorporación de la mermelada de tomate de árbol permite incrementar la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt de leche de cabra.

  19. Histomorphometric, fractal and lacunarity comparative analysis of sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) compact bone samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudea, A I; Stefan, A C

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies dealing with histomorphometry of the bone tissue play a new role in modern legal medicine/forensic medicine and archaeozoology nowadays. This study deals with the differences found in case of humerus and metapodial bones of recent sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus) specimens, both from a qualitative point of view, but mainly from a quantitative perspective. A novel perspective given by the fractal analysis performed on the digital histological images is approached. This study shows that the qualitative assessment may not be a reliable one due to the close resemblance of the structures. From the quantitative perspective (several measurements performed on osteonal units and statistical processing of data),some of the elements measured show significant differences among 3 species(the primary osteonal diameter, etc.). The fractal analysis and the lacunarity of the images show a great deal of potential, proving that this type of analysis can be of great help in the separation of the material from this perspective. PMID:24068686

  20. Características das papilas o dorso da língua de cabras (Capra hircus): estudo por de microscopia eletrônica de varredura e luz

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Toledo da Fonseca; Cláudia Marinovic de Oliveira; André Luís Rezende Franciolli; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2011-01-01

    A morfologia das papilas linguais da cabra doméstica (Capra hircus) foi estudada por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV) e Microscopia de luz. Papilasfiiliformes, cônicas e lentiformes possuem função mecânica, enquanto que as papilas fungiformes e as valadas possuem função gustativa. As papilasfiiliformes estavam distribuídas por toda a extensão da língua, nas superfícies dorsal e lateral. Possuem um formato cônico com a extremidade pontiaguda direcionada caudalmente. Possuem vários pro...

  1. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.

  2. Production of transgenic goat (Capra hircus with human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF gene in Brazil

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    Vicente J.F. Freitas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce transgenic goats with hG-CSF, a total of 24 adult Saanen and 48 adult undefined breed goats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Donors were estrus-synchronized with vaginal sponges and superovulated by a treatment with 200 mg FSH given twice daily in decreasing doses over 3 days starting 48 h before sponge removal. Ovulation was induced by injecting 100µg GnRH 36 h after sponge removal. The recipients also received an estrus synchronization treatment. Donors were mated with fertile Saanen bucks and, approximately 72 h after sponge removal, zygotes were recovered surgically by flushing oviducts. The recovered zygotes were briefly centrifuged to a reliable visualization of the pronuclei. The DNA construct containing hG-CSF gene flanked by goat and bovine alphas1-casein sequences was injected into pronuclei of 129 zygotes. The microinjected embryos (3-6 per female were transferred to 27 recipients. Ten recipients became pregnant and 12 kids were born. One transgenic male founder was identified in the group of kids. This is the first report of a birth of a transgenic goat in Latin America.A fim de produzir caprinos transgênicos para o hG-CSF, utilizou-se 24 cabras Saanen adultas e 48 cabras sem raça definida adultas como doadoras e receptoras, respectivamente. As doadoras tiveram o estro sincronizado por esponjas vaginais e foram superovuladas com 200 mg de FSH em doses decrescentes, duas vezes ao dia e iniciando 48 h antes da retirada da esponja. A ovulação foi induzida pela injeção de 100 µg de GnRH às 36 h após a retirada da esponja. As receptoras também receberam um tratamento de sincronização do estro. As doadoras foram cobertas por bodes Saanen férteis e, aproximadamente 72 h após a retirada da esponja, os zigotos foram colhidos cirurgicamente por lavagem dos ovidutos. Os zigotos colhidos foram rapidamente centrifugados para uma melhor visualização dos pró-núcleos. A construção de DNA

  3. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could

  4. 气候与白昼长度变化对苏格兰拉姆岛上野化山羊种群日活动节律的影响%Influence of Climate and Daylength on the Activity Budgets of Feral Goats (Capra hircus) on the Isle of Rum, Scotland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建斌; Robin Dunbar; 李迪强; 肖文发

    2006-01-01

    对生活于苏格兰西北部拉姆岛上的野化山羊(Capra hircus)种群在1981、 1982和2000年三年中的日活动节律进行了分析研究. 详细分析了两个主要气象因素(温度和降水)以及昼长季节变化对该种群动物的日活动节律的影响.研究结果表明, 拉姆岛上野化山羊的日取食活动时间百分比随月平均温度上升而显著下降, 但卧息活动时间百分比随月平均温度的上升而显著上升,而降水则对二者无显著影响.拉姆岛所在地区的昼长季节性变化明显,每年6、7月白昼时间最长,而12、1月最短. 由于受昼长季节变化影响,尽管该山羊种群的日取食活动时间百分比随季节变化而由夏季到冬季增加,但其真正用于取食活动的白昼时间由夏季到冬季反而减少.研究表明,白昼时间长短的季节变化是制约该山羊种群取食活动的一个重要因素,尤其是在食物匮乏而天气寒冷、阴湿的冬季.进而探讨了这种制约作用对其冬季取食量和冬季存活率的影响,以及对种群数量的调节意义.%Daytime activity budgets of feral goats (Capra hircus) were studied in 1981, 1982 and 2000 on the Isle of Rum, northwest Scotland. This paper analyzes the influence of key weather variables (temperature and rainfall) and seasonal variations in daylength on daytime activity budgets. This study showed that the percentage of daytime spent in feeding by feral goats on Rum Island decreased with average monthly temperature, while the percentage of daytime spent in lying increased and rainfall had no significant effects on the percentage daytime spent in feeding or lying. The daylength varied greatly from January to December with the longest daylength being in June and July, and the shortest one in December and January. The amount of daytime spent feeding decreased from summer to winter, although the percentage of daytime spent feeding increased greatly from summer to winter. The seasonal

  5. Screen and Analysis of Enzymic Property of β-glucosidase from Metagenome of Goat (Capra hircus) Rumen%山羊瘤胃宏基因组文库中β-葡萄糖苷酶筛选及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许发芝; 李炳华; 李吕木; 丁小玲

    2013-01-01

    通过构建瘤胃宏基因组文库并筛选新的有效降解粗纤维的纤维素酶基因,从而找到提高纤维物质降解的有效途径,本研究从山羊(Capra hircus)瘤胃中提取微生物DNA,成功构建了一个含有12 100个克隆的瘤胃未培养微生物宏基因组文库,对文库进行活性筛选获得了10个表达β-葡萄糖苷酶活性的克隆,并对其中一个表达强β-葡萄糖苷酶活性的pET-6进行亚克隆,序列分析发现了一个全长为1 836 bp的ORF,编码一个可能的β-葡萄糖苷酶umcel 6X基因,其编码产物和来自Dictyoglomus thermophilumH-6-12的一种β-葡萄糖苷酶具有55%的同源性,65%的相似性.将umcel 6X基因导入到大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)中经IPTG诱导表达,表达产物Umcel 6X的分子量与预测大小相似.酶谱分析表明Umcel 6X具有β-葡萄糖苷酶活性,证实umcel 6X基因为一个β-葡萄糖苷酶基因.进一步经Ni-NTA纯化Umcel 6X并测定其酶学特性,结果表明,其最适pH和最适温度分别为7.5和50℃.Ca2+、Na+和Mg2+能显著提高该酶的酶活,Cu2+、Fe2+和Hg+明显抑制酶的活性.在pH5.5和35℃条件下,Umcel 6X经过Ni-NTA柱纯化的酶液比活力为33.6 IU/mg.本研究经瘤胃中获得的纤维素酶基因可为体外研究降解粗纤维提供材料.

  6. Effect of Different Forage Ratio Diet on Hepatic Protein Metabolism and Milk Protein Content in Lactating Goat(Capra hircus)%不同精粗比日粮对泌乳山羊肝脏蛋白质代谢及乳蛋白含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树坤; 姜雪元; 倪迎冬; 张源淑; 沈向真

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in the regulation of protein metabolism in body. The purpose of this research is to reveal the relationship between protein synthesis and secretion and liver protein metabolism in goats(Capra hircus) under different dietary patterns. Eight healthy mid- lactation goats were randomly divided into two groups, using 2×2 Latin square design with two replications. Dietary concentrate to forage ratios were 4: 6 and 6: 4. Milk samples were taken to measure milk yield and milk protein levels, and liver samples were collected by living donor liver biopsy. The differential expression proteins in the goat liver were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MAIDI-TOF-TOF. The daily milk yield of high-concentrate group(6:4 group)was significantly higher than that of the low-concentrate group(4: 6 group, P 0.05). The results of proteomics showed that in high-concentrate group(6:4 group), elongation factor Tu and glutamate dehydrogenase and adenosine homocysteine enzyme involved in protein metabolism had higher expression , while 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 7 and serum prealbumin involved in protein metabolism had low expression. The ability to synthesize small peptide and lactalbumin was decreased in the liver, while the catabolism of amino acids and the role of oxidative stress were enhanced. The liver metabolism had an important influence to milk protein synthesis and metabolism. It was not conducive to synthesis milk protein for lactation goats fed high- concentrate diets because the consumption of amino acids increased and the synthesis of small peptide decreased. So he raw material for milk protein synthetic was consumed too much and its mechanism will be worth further study. The results of this study provided a clue to research the liver impact of milk protein synthesis.%肝脏在机体蛋白质代谢调控中起着重要的作用.为了揭示不同精粗饲料比条件下山羊肝脏蛋白质代谢与

  7. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera en cánidos y caprinos en Chile New records of Phthiraptera in domestic mammals in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita para las especies domésticas Canis familiaris los Phthiraptera Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 y Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909, y para Capra hircus a Linognathus africanus Kellogg & Paine (Kellog and Paine 1911 provenientes de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región. Se discute la descripción de Heterodoxus longitarsus (Piaget 1880 hecha anteriormente en Chile y también la presencia de L. africanus en Chile.The presence of the Phthiraptera species Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 and‘Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909 on the domestic dog Canis familiaris, and Linognathus africanus (Kellog and Paine 1911 on Capra hircus are described in the province of Ñuble, 8th Region of Chile. The description of Heterodoxus longitarsus (Paiget 1880, and the presence of L. africanus in Chile is discussed.

  8. Osteoporose em caprinos

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    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  9. EDADES DE COSECHA EN CAPRINOS

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    Pablo Andr\\u00E9s Chac\\u00F3n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la edad del pasto Pennisetum purpureum cv. king grass, a la cual los caprinos presentan un mayor consumo y aprovechamiento de nutrientes. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante el segundo semestre del 2007 en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicada a 1542 msnm. Se obtuvo la cantidad de pasto Pennisetum purpureum cv. king grass producida a los 60, 75 y 90 días de rebrote, consumida por caprinos (peso promedio 45 kg de las razas Saanen Lamancha y Toggenburg, distribuidas en un cuadrado latino con tres repeticiones. El mayor consumo de materia verde se obtuvo cuando el forraje fue cosechado a 60 días (p0,05. Se observó una disminución gradual en el consumo de materia seca y proteína cruda conforme aumentó la edad de cosecha y la proporción de tallos en el forraje; mientras que la fibra neutro detergente y la fibra ácido detergente se comportaron de manera contraria. A menor edad del material y mayor relación hoja:tallo, las cabras aumentaron el consumo de forraje y el aprovechamiento de los nutrientes del mismo.

  10. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

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    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  11. Phytohemagglutinin improves the development and ultrastructure of in vitro-cultured goat (Capra hircus) preantral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective this study was to determine the effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on survival, growth and gene expression in caprine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. Secondary follicles (∼0.2 mm) were isolated from the cortex of caprine ovaries and cultured individually for 6 days in α-MEM+ supplemented with PHA (0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL). After 6 days of culture, follicle diameter and survival, antrum formation, ultrastructure and expression of mRNA for FSH receptors (FSH-R), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were determined. All treatments maintained follicular survival [α-MEM+ (94.59%); 1 µg/mL PHA (96.43%); 10 µg/mL PHA (84.85%); 50 µg/mL PHA (85.29%); 100 µg/mL PHA (88.57%), and 200 µg/mL PHA (87.50)], but the presence of 10 µg/mL PHA in the culture medium increased the antrum formation rate (21.21%) when compared with control (5.41%, P < 0.05) and ensured the maintenance of oocyte and granulosa cell ultrastructures after 6 days of culture. The expression of mRNA for FSH-R (2.7 ± 0.1) and PCNA (4.4 ± 0.2) was also significantly increased in follicles cultured with 10 µg/mL PHA in relation to those cultured in α-MEM+ (1.0 ± 0.1). In conclusion, supplementation of culture medium with 10 µg/mL PHA maintains the follicular viability and ultrastructure, and promotes the formation of antral cavity after 6 days of culture in vitro

  12. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

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    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  13. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  14. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  15. ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION WITH MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE IMPREGNATED SPONGES IN GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

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    R. KAUSAR, S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND M. S. SHAH

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed to synchronize estrus in goats by locally prepared progesterone-impregnated sponges and to determine the time of onset and duration of estrus alongwith subsequent fertility rate. The study was conducted from May to December, 2007 at NIAB (Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad. Polyurethane sponges were prepared with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP: 60 mg and inserted intra-vaginally in a lot of 8 female postpartum goats (Beetal x Dwarf. Two goats were kept as control and were treated with sponges without MAP. Sponges were removed on 17th day of insertion and goats were examined for the signs of estrus at 6 h intervals. A buck was introduced in the herd for breeding, one day after removal of sponges. Estrus was further confirmed by determining serum estradiol levels using radioimmunoassay (RIA. All the experimental goats exhibited estrus within 21-100 h of removal of sponges, whereas one control animal also showed estrus. The average time from sponge withdrawal to the onset of estrus was 65.4 ± 24.0 h and duration of estrus was 29.8 ± 6.7 hours in experimental group. The control animal showed estrus after 22.0 h of sponge removal with estrus duration of 36 h. Estradiol concentrations in experimental lot were in the range of 2.2-15.0 pg/ml during estrus. Animals were observed for reversal towards estrus after 21 days. Only one experimental animal exhibited 2nd estrus. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound after 60 days of sponge removal. The gestation period of 150.4 ± 3.4 days, a litter size of 1.3 ± 0.5 and a fertility rate of 87.5% were observed in the experimental lot. The control doe produced a male kid after 150.0 days of gestation. It is evident from this experiment that estrus can be synchronized in goats (Beetal x Dwarf by locally prepared progesterone sponges with good fertility rate.

  16. Assessment of postpartum uterine involution and progesterone profile in Nubian goats (Capra hircus

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    Majdi Elnaim Badawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 12 postpartum (pp Nubian goats were included in the study to measure the uterine involution by ultrasonography from day 3 to 31 pp. Coinciding with ultrasonography, blood samples were collected at every 3 days to monitor the ovarian activity by measuring plasma progesterone (P4 concentration using progesterone radio-immuno-assay (RIA. Uterine diameter (UD and uterine lumen (UL were maximum on day 3, and minimum on day 31 pp. More than 50% of uterine involution occurred between day 3 and day 14 pp. The end of uterine involution was characterized by small UD and absence of lochia in the UL. The maximum (0.87±0.4 ng/mL and minimum (0.54±0.2 ng/mL plasma P4 levels were reported on day 27 and day 7 pp, respectively. Completion of uterine involution was recorded at 22±3.3 days pp. There was a negative correlation between P4 level and uterine parameters (UD and UL. It can be concluded that ultrasonography is a reliable tool to determine uterine involution in Nubian goats.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE EVENTS AT OESTRUS IN DWARF GOAT (CAPRA HIRCUS

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    R. Kausar, S. A. Khanum and M. Hussain

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the profiles of LH, estradiol and progesterone hormones during oestrus in Dwarf goats. Five does were synchronized into oestrus with 2 intramuscular injections of PGF2 at an interval of 10 days. Blood samples were drawn at 8 h intervals from 0 to 77 h after second injection and hormones were estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA. One of the does did not show oestrus. In two goats, LH rises were observed from hours 25-45 and attained peak levels at h-70 after second PGF2 injection. In two other does the rise in LH was significantly earlier and reached peak levels at 24-30 h. The concentration of LH ranged between 7.5 and 30 ng/ml (mean 19 ng/ml. The estradiol peaks in does were noticed at the same time as that of the LH. Estradiol concentrations varied between 9 and 16 pg/ml (mean 12 pg/ml. The progesterone remained at basal levels (0.1-0.2 ng/ml throughout the oestrus in all animals. These results indicate that the estradiol and LH rises have temporal relationship with each other, rising almost at the same time and LH fall was earlier than estradiol.

  18. Assessment of postpartum uterine involution and progesterone profile in Nubian goats (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    Majdi Elnaim Badawi; Sharaf Eldien Abdalla Makawi; Rehab Mohamed Abdelghafar; Mohamed TajEldien Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A total number of 12 postpartum (pp) Nubian goats were included in the study to measure the uterine involution by ultrasonography from day 3 to 31 pp. Coinciding with ultrasonography, blood samples were collected at every 3 days to monitor the ovarian activity by measuring plasma progesterone (P4) concentration using progesterone radio-immuno-assay (RIA). Uterine diameter (UD) and uterine lumen (UL) were maximum on day 3, and minimum on day 31 pp. More than 50% of uterine involution occurred ...

  19. Phytohemagglutinin improves the development and ultrastructure of in vitro-cultured goat (Capra hircus preantral follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Cunha

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to determine the effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA on survival, growth and gene expression in caprine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. Secondary follicles (∼0.2 mm were isolated from the cortex of caprine ovaries and cultured individually for 6 days in α-MEM+ supplemented with PHA (0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL. After 6 days of culture, follicle diameter and survival, antrum formation, ultrastructure and expression of mRNA for FSH receptors (FSH-R, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were determined. All treatments maintained follicular survival [α-MEM+ (94.59%; 1 µg/mL PHA (96.43%; 10 µg/mL PHA (84.85%; 50 µg/mL PHA (85.29%; 100 µg/mL PHA (88.57%, and 200 µg/mL PHA (87.50], but the presence of 10 µg/mL PHA in the culture medium increased the antrum formation rate (21.21% when compared with control (5.41%, P < 0.05 and ensured the maintenance of oocyte and granulosa cell ultrastructures after 6 days of culture. The expression of mRNA for FSH-R (2.7 ± 0.1 and PCNA (4.4 ± 0.2 was also significantly increased in follicles cultured with 10 µg/mL PHA in relation to those cultured in α-MEM+ (1.0 ± 0.1. In conclusion, supplementation of culture medium with 10 µg/mL PHA maintains the follicular viability and ultrastructure, and promotes the formation of antral cavity after 6 days of culture in vitro.

  20. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher (P P < 0.05) during peak winter season as compared with moderate season. The iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were mainly localized in plasma membrane and cytoplasm of PBMCs. To conclude, data generated in the present study indicate the possible involvement of the NOS family genes in amelioration of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats. PMID:26205811

  1. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

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    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean black goat (Capra hircus aegagrus

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    JM Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. The study took place in 2012, on 491 Korean black goats, older than 2 years, from goat herds located in Southern region, Korea. The animals were sampled and tested for paratuberculosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microbiological culture were used to investigate MAP infection. Among the 491 goats from 100 herds screened, 4 (0.8% and 3 (0.6% goats were defined positive for MAP by ELISA and faecal culture, respectively. Isolated colonies were confirmed as MAP by IS900-PCR, and genotyped by IS1311 PCR-REA assays. The results revealed MAP infection at a low prevalence rate with "cattle type" and "bison type" genotypes.

  3. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher ( P cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats.

  4. Effect of dexamethasone on the estrous cycle length in Black Bengal goats (Capra hircus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M G; Ahmed, J U; Jahan, S

    1989-04-01

    In an experiment to examine the relationships between adrenals and reproductive cycle, 10 mg dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) were injected intramuscularly twice daily for 10 d to four Black Bengal goats, beginning on Day 11 of the synchronized estrous cycle. The extended length of the sexual cycle was monitored by the clinical signs of anestrus. Laparotomy was performed to examine the status of the ovary of an 8, 9, 10 and 8 d extended cycle, respectively. The length of the next cycle was normal. Endogenous cortisol values were suppressed for 11, 13, 20 and 24 d, respectively. It is thought that dexamethasone caused prolonged luteal function either by the suppression of prostaglandin F(2)alpha synthesis or by the suppression of pituitary stimulation of follicular growth. PMID:16726609

  5. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) during peak summer, and iNOS and eNOS expressions were also observed to be significantly higher ( P < 0.05) during peak winter season as compared with moderate season. The iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were mainly localized in plasma membrane and cytoplasm of PBMCs. To conclude, data generated in the present study indicate the possible involvement of the NOS family genes in amelioration of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats.

  6. Expression of HSPs: an adaptive mechanism during long-term heat stress in goats ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Maurya, V. P.; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2015-08-01

    Menacing global rise in surface temperature compelled more focus of research over understanding heat stress response mechanism of animals and mitigation of heat stress. Twenty-four goats divided into four groups ( n = 6) such as NHS (non-heat-stressed), HS (heat-stressed), HS + VC (heat-stressed administered with vitamin C), and HS + VE + Se (heat-stressed administered with vitamin E and selenium). Except NHS group, other groups were exposed to repeated heat stress (42 °C) for 6 h on 16 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at the end of heat exposure on days 1, 6, 11, and 16. When groups compared between days, expression of all heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed a similar pattern as first peak on day 1, reached to basal level on the sixth day, and followed by second peak on day 16. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90 was observed highest ( P protection on the first day followed by second window of protection on day 16. HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 play an important role during the initial phase of heat stress acclimation whereas HSP105/110 joins this cascade at later phase. Antioxidants may possibly attenuate the HSP expression by reducing the oxidative stress.

  7. Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate after Aminoglycoside and Aminocyclitol Treatment in Goats (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    DINEV, Toncho; KANAKOV, Dian; Georgi BEEV; Rusenova, Nikolina; Stefan DENEV

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to follow up the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in healthy female goats during and after 5-day parenteral treatment with amikacin (10 mg/kg), tobramycin (5 mg/kg), apramycin (20 mg/kg), gentamicin (4 mg/kg), kanamycin (10 mg/kg) and spectinomycin (20 mg/kg). Gentamicin and tobramycin caused an initial increase followed by a significant decrease of ESR on the 5th day for gentamicin and the 10th day for tobramycin, respectively, followed by recovery after ...

  8. Phytohemagglutinin improves the development and ultrastructure of in vitro-cultured goat (Capra hircus) preantral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, E.V.; Costa, J.J.N.; Rossi, R.O.D.S.; Silva, A.W.B.; Passos, J.R.S.; Portela, A.M.L.R.; Pereira, D.C.S.T. [Núcleo de Biotecnologia de Sobral, NUBIS, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Sobral, CE (Brazil); Donato, M.A.M. [Laboratório de Ultraestrutura, CPqAM/FIOCRUZ, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Campello, C.C. [Laboratório de Manipulação de Oócitos e Folículos Pré-Antrais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Saraiva, M.V.A. [Núcleo de Biotecnologia de Sobral, NUBIS, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Sobral, CE (Brazil); Peixoto, C.A. [Laboratório de Ultraestrutura, CPqAM/FIOCRUZ, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, J.R.V.; Santos, R.P. [Núcleo de Biotecnologia de Sobral, NUBIS, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Sobral, CE (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    The objective this study was to determine the effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on survival, growth and gene expression in caprine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. Secondary follicles (∼0.2 mm) were isolated from the cortex of caprine ovaries and cultured individually for 6 days in α-MEM{sup +} supplemented with PHA (0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL). After 6 days of culture, follicle diameter and survival, antrum formation, ultrastructure and expression of mRNA for FSH receptors (FSH-R), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were determined. All treatments maintained follicular survival [α-MEM{sup +} (94.59%); 1 µg/mL PHA (96.43%); 10 µg/mL PHA (84.85%); 50 µg/mL PHA (85.29%); 100 µg/mL PHA (88.57%), and 200 µg/mL PHA (87.50)], but the presence of 10 µg/mL PHA in the culture medium increased the antrum formation rate (21.21%) when compared with control (5.41%, P < 0.05) and ensured the maintenance of oocyte and granulosa cell ultrastructures after 6 days of culture. The expression of mRNA for FSH-R (2.7 ± 0.1) and PCNA (4.4 ± 0.2) was also significantly increased in follicles cultured with 10 µg/mL PHA in relation to those cultured in α-MEM{sup +} (1.0 ± 0.1). In conclusion, supplementation of culture medium with 10 µg/mL PHA maintains the follicular viability and ultrastructure, and promotes the formation of antral cavity after 6 days of culture in vitro.

  9. Hair follicle transcriptome profiles during the transition from anagen to catagen in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y X; Wu, R B; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y J; Wang, R J; Su, R; Wu, J H; Dong, Y; Li, J Q

    2015-12-22

    Previous molecular genetic studies of the goat hair life cycle have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in hair follicle cycle regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog differential gene expression profiles in the hair growth cycle (anagen to catagen) of goat, comparing the primary hair follicle with the secondary hair follicle. There were 13,769 and 12,240 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from primary hair follicle and secondary hair follicle, respectively. Genes encoding keratin proteins and keratin-associated proteins were the most highly expressed. A total of 5899 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen primary hair follicles, with 532 genes up-regulated and 5367 genes down-regulated. A total of 5208 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen secondary hair follicle, including 545 genes that were up-regulated and 4663 genes that were down-regulated. Numerous hair growth genes are expressed in the goat hair follicle, of which 73 genes showed co-up-regulation in both hair follicles during the anagen stage. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as STC2, VEGFR, and ROR2, are known to be transfactors in the process of cell differentiation and in the cell cycle. The differential gene expression profiles between primary hair follicles and secondary hair follicles obtained provide a foundation for future studies examining the network of gene expression controlling hair growth cycle in Cashmere goat.

  10. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min). During training, the control group (n = 10) did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time) of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded) were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability). Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and reliability of using cognitive biases paradigms to investigate and promote animal welfare. PMID:27761311

  11. Genetic Diversity Analysis of the Gohilwari Breed of Indian Goat (Capra hircus Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Gohilwari breed of goat is a multipurpose goat mainly for milk and meat purposes and best suited in its harsh climatic condition. This breed is inadequately characterized till now at DNA level. So the present study was undertaken for population genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stake holders. Approach: The experiment was conducted on 50 genomic DNA samples of unrelated goat using 25 microsatellite markers selected from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG and FAO’s (DAD-IS. Results: All of the 25 microsatellites were well amplified. The observed number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4-24 with an overall mean of 10.12±5.46. Overall mean observed heterozygosity of 0.505 was lower than the overall mean expected heterozygosity of 0.684. Most of the loci showed the heterozygote deficit as also depicted by Fis value. There was substantial genetic variation and polymorphism across studied loci in the Gohilwari breed of goat. And this population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at most of the studied loci. This population was also receiving new genetic materials throuFgh introduction of immigrants. Conclusion: The strong inference that the Gohilwari breed of goat has not undergone bottleneck is also important for goat breeders and conservationists, as it suggests that any unique alleles present in this breed may not have been lost. Therefore, it can be recommended that within-breed diversity is actively maintained to enable these extensively unmanaged stocks to adapt to future demands and conditions and there is ample scope for further improvement in its productivity through appropriate breeding strategies. Though, microsatellites are neutral to selection with Ewens-Watterson test for neutrality some microsatellites were found not neutral or linked to some selective trait that must be further investigated for association to selective traits.

  12. ECTOPARASITES IN GOATS AND SHEEPS IN THE TOWN OF MOSSORO, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE ECTOPARASITOS EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MOSSORÓ, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ana diogenes suassuna bezerra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Goats and sheeps present an ectoparasite diversity that may result in considerable losses in these animals productivity. Fifteen agrarian reform settlements were visited, with the purpose of identifying ectoparasites in goats and sheeps, in which scraping, direct exams, and auricle exsudate collections were carried out. From the 494 examined goats, 89.87% had ectoparasites, as well as 232 sheeps, 76.72%. The arthropods identified in the goats were: Bovicola caprae (80.76%, Rhipicephalus microplus (1.01%, Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae (0.6%, Psoroptes cuniculi (0.4%, and Ctenocephalides felis (3.23%, Amblyomma parvum (1.01% and Linognathus stenopsis (0.2% which were described for the first time in Brazilian northeast. Mixed parasitism of B. caprae with R. microplus (0.46% and P. cuniculi with B. caprae (0.23% was also identified. In sheeps, B. ovis (74.5%, R. microplus (0.86%, C. hominivorax larvae (0.43% and A. parvum (0.43% were the ones registered for the first time, in this species, in Brazilian northeast, besides the association of B. ovis with R. microplus (0.56%. There was no association between gender and age (P>0.05. The development of studies to evaluate the ectoparasite importance as a limiting factor to animal production becomes important. 

    KEY WORDS: Goats, ectoparasite, sheeps.

    Caprinos e ovinos apresentam uma diversidade de ectoparasitos que podem resultar perdas consideráveis na produtividade desses animais. Visitaram-se quinze assentamentos de reforma agrária, com o objetivo de identificar ectoparasitos de caprinos e ovinos, procedendo-se à realização de raspados, exames diretos e coletas de exsudato do pavilhão auricular. Dos 494 caprinos examinados, 89,87% apresentaram ectoparasitos, e dos 232 ovinos, 76,72%. Os artrópodes identificados em caprinos foram: Bovicola caprae (80,76%, Rhipicephalus microplus (1,01%, larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax (0,6%, Psoroptes cuniculi (0,4%, além de

  13. Rastreio parasitológico em populações de caprinos silvestres, assilvestrados e domésticos no Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Patrícia de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A cabra-montesa (Capra pyrenaica) é uma espécie endémica da Península ibérica, uma das mais emblemáticas do Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês. Contam-se 13 anos desde o regresso deste ungulado silvestre a território português depois de a espécie ser considerada extinta em 1890. A presença crescente de gado doméstico e assilvestrado, sobretudo de caprinos, nas áreas ocupadas pelas cabras montesas constitui uma das principais ameaças...

  14. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  15. Production of transgenic goat (Capra hircus) with human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF) gene in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente J.F. Freitas; IRINA A. SEROVA; Andreeva, Lyudmila E.; Guennadi A. Dvoryanchikov; Edilson S. Lopes-Jr.; Dárcio I.A. Teixeira; Luciene P.B. Dias; Suely R.G. Avelar; Raylene R. Moura; Melo, Luciana M.; Alexsandra F. Pereira; João B. Cajazeiras; Maria L.L. Andrade; Karlliely C. Almeida; Francisco C. Sousa

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce transgenic goats with hG-CSF, a total of 24 adult Saanen and 48 adult undefined breed goats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Donors were estrus-synchronized with vaginal sponges and superovulated by a treatment with 200 mg FSH given twice daily in decreasing doses over 3 days starting 48 h before sponge removal. Ovulation was induced by injecting 100µg GnRH 36 h after sponge removal. The recipients also received an estrus synchronization treatment. Donors ...

  16. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA in the mammary gland of dairy goat (Capra hircus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BO QU; YOUWEN QIU; ZHEN ZHEN; FENG ZHAO; CHUNMEI WANG; YINGJUN CUI; QIZHANG LI; LI ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of the mammary gland by posttranscriptionally affecting their target genes. The objective of this research was to identify novel miRNAs in the mammary gland ofdairy goats with a bioinformatics approach that was based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analyses. We applied all known major mammals, miRNAs to search against the goat EST and GSS databases for the first time to identify new miRNAs. We, then, validated these newly predicted miRNAs with stem–loop reverse transcription followed by a SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction assay. Finally, 29 mature miRNAs were identified and verified, and of these, 14 were grouped into 13 families based on seed sequence identity and 85 potential target genes of newly verified miR-NAs were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode the proteins participating in regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, growth and development. The predicting accuracy of the new miRNAs was 70.37%, which confirmed that the methods used in this study were efficient and reliable. Detailed analyses of the sequence characteristics of the novel miR-NAs of the goat mammary gland were performed. In conclusion, these results provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without a complete genome and thus improve the understanding of miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland.

  17. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies related to intramuscular fat deposition in Capra hircus skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development.

  18. Photoperiod induction of fertile oestrus and changes in LH and progesterone concentrations in yearling dairy goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BonDurant, R H; Darien, B J; Munro, C J; Stabenfeldt, G H; Wang, P

    1981-09-01

    Oestrus and ovulation were induced in a group of 19 yearling dairy goats which had been maintained for 70 days on a 19 h/day photoperiod regimen. Six yearling females, raised under natural photoperiod, served as controls. An intact, light-treated male was introduced to each group 42 days after termination of the artificial lighting. Behavioural, endocrine and kidding observations indicated that 15 of the experimental females (79%) ovulated within 21-30 days after introduction of the male, that 12 (63%) conceived at the induced ovulation, and that 10 (53%) gave birth to live kids, while none of the controls ovulated during this time. The breeding season was advanced between 60 and 80 days. In experimental and control nannies there was a brief, small surge (320 +/- 42 pg/ml) of plasma progesterone which occurred 19.5 days after introduction of the male and which closely preceded oestrus in the nannies that ovulated and at 25 days in control females. Ovulatory surges of LH (to 70 ng/ml plasma) were closely associated with oestrus, and remained above basal levels for 9.0 +/- 0.75 h, in 7 experimental females. Two of 6 control nannies also showed LH surges but they did not ovulate. PMID:7277307

  19. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus) kids

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel M Chojnacki; Judit Vas; Inger Lise Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian da...

  20. Discovery of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) microRNAs in skin and hair follicles by Solexa sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xiaolong; Geng, Rongqing; He, Xiaolin; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of endogenous, non-coding RNAs, about 22 nucleotides long, which regulate gene expression through sequence-specific base pairing with target mRNAs. Extensive studies have shown that miRNA expression in the skin changes remarkably during distinct stages of the hair cycle in humans, mice, goats and sheep. Results In this study, the skin tissues were harvested from the three stages of hair follicle cycling (anagen, catagen and telogen) in a fibre-...

  1. The goat (Capra hircus) mammary gland secretory tissue proteome as influenced by weight loss: A study using label free proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, labelfree proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to...

  2. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA in the mammary gland of dairy goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Qiu, Youwen; Zhen, Zhen; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Chunmei; Cui, Yingjun; Li, Qizhang; Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of the mammary gland by posttranscriptionally affecting their target genes. The objective of this research was to identify novel miRNAs in the mammary gland of dairy goats with a bioinformatics approach that was based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analyses. We applied all known major mammals, miRNAs to search against the goat EST and GSS databases for the first time to identify new miRNAs. We, then, validated these newly predicted miRNAs with stem-loop reverse transcription followed by a SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction assay. Finally, 29 mature miRNAs were identified and verified, and of these, 14 were grouped into 13 families based on seed sequence identity and 85 potential target genes of newly verified miRNAs were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode the proteins participating in regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, growth and development. The predicting accuracy of the new miRNAs was 70.37%, which confirmed that the methods used in this study were efficient and reliable. Detailed analyses of the sequence characteristics of the novel miRNAs of the goat mammary gland were performed. In conclusion, these results provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without a complete genome and thus improve the understanding of miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland. PMID:27659334

  3. Optimization of murine model for Besnoitia caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Sadoughifar, R; Namavari, M

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that mice, particularly the BALB/c ones, are susceptible to infection by some of the apicomplexan parasites. To compare the susceptibility of the inbred BALB/c, outbred BALB/c and C57 BL/6 to Besnoitia caprae inoculation and to determine LD50, 30 male inbred BALB/c, 30 outbred BALB/c and 30 C57 BL/6 mice were assigned into 18 groups of 5 mice. Each group was inoculated intraperitoneally with 12.5 × 10(3), 25 × 10(3), 5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(5), 2 × 10(5) tachyzoites and a control inoculum of DMEM, respectively. The inbred BALB/c was found the most susceptible strain among the experienced mice strains so the LD50 per inbred BALB/c mouse was calculated as 12.5 × 10(3.6) tachyzoites while the LD50 for the outbred BALB/c and C57 BL/6 was 25 × 10(3.4) and 5 × 10(4) tachyzoites per mouse, respectively. To investigate the impact of different routes of inoculation in the most susceptible mice strain, another seventy five male inbred BALB/c mice were inoculated with 2 × 10(5) tachyzoites of B. caprae via various inoculation routes including: subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, infraorbital and oral. All the mice in the oral and infraorbital groups survived for 60 days, whereas the IM group showed quicker death and more severe pathologic lesions, which was then followed by SC and IP groups. Therefore, BALB/c mouse is a proper laboratory model and IM inoculation is an ideal method in besnoitiosis induction and a candidate in treatment, prevention and testing the efficacy of vaccines for besnoitiosis. PMID:27605770

  4. Intoxicação por Portulaca elatior (Portulacaceae) em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Glauco J.N. Galiza; Luciano A. Pimentel; Diego M. de Oliveira; Felipe Pierezan; Antônio F.M. Dantas; Rosane M.T. Medeiros; Franklin Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Portulaca elatior foi diagnosticado no município de Aroeiras, Paraíba, na época das chuvas. Entre os meses de fevereiro e abril, em um rebanho de 316 caprinos, 16 adoeceram, sendo 15 de um lote de 16 caprinos que tinham sido introduzidos recentemente na fazenda e um animal do rebanho já existente na fazenda. Os caprinos apresentaram intensa salivação, relutância em se movimentar, tremores de lábios, marcha incoordenada, diarreia, timpanismo, dor abdomina...

  5. INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL EM CAPRINOS COM MYCOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS DE ORIGEM BOVINA

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    Fernando Padilia Poester

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Uma amostra de Mycobacterium paratuberculosis de origem bovina foi experimentalmente inoculada por via oral em caprinos. Após três anos de observação, os autores obtiveram a reprodução da infecção em dois dos três caprinos inoculados, concluindo que os caprinos são suscetíveis a amostras bovinas de M. paratuberculosis. A possibilidade de transmissão intra-uterina da bactéria, embora tentada não foi possível de ser demonstrada.

  6. Haemonchus resistente a lactona macrocíclica em caprinos naturalmente parasitados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Mary Jane Tweedie de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O ivermectin, antiparasitário amplamente utilizado em caprinos jovens, foi avaliado sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais, em todas as fases parasitárias. Doze caprinos jovens, naturalmente parasitados foram utilizados no experimento, sendo um grupo de seis animais medicado com ivermectin, na dose de 200µg.kg-1 v.o. e o outro grupo utilizado como controle. Para a avaliação, utilizou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos (FECR, redução de larvas infectantes e carga parasitária. Amostras fecais de caprinos foram coletadas no dia da medicação (dia zero, aos sete e catorze dias. No décimo quarto dia pós-medicação, todos os caprinos foram sacrificados, para a coleta de helmintos e cálculo da carga parasitária total. A redução do número de ovos (FECR e a eficácia sobre adultos foi de 42,10 % e 32,62 %, respectivamente.O gênero Haemonchus representou 100 % da população do grupo medicado e 99,58 % do grupo controle. Estes resultados indicam que os caprinos já estavam parasitados por Haemonchus resistente ao ivermectin.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Manrique, Marina; Tobes, Raquel; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Domínguez, Lucas; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-06-25

    Here we report the complete genome sequences of field isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and the related mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium caprae. The genomes of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different virulence, prevalence, and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced.

  8. Phytochemistry and in vitro Studies on Anti-Fertility Effect of Ficus religiosa Fruits Extract on Uterine Morphology of Goat (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A. K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal methods for fertility regulation is widely accepted alternative for the synthetic drugs containing chemical having side effects. Ficus religiosa is a large evergreen tree found throughout India, wild as well as cultivated. It is a highly apparent plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. No report is available on the antifertility activity of plant extract hence; the present study was carried out to investigate the same.The phytochemical analysis was done using GC-MS. The compound detection employed the NIST Ver. 2.0 - Year 2008 library. The results of the GC-MS analysis provide different peaks determining the presence of many phytochemical compounds with different therapeutic activities. The major phytoconstituents were n-Hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid; 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, and Butyl 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoate.Effects of 1% methanol extract of fruits extract was studied on the goat uterus in vitro in exposure duration dependent manner (1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours. Effects on dimensions of uterine glands, surface epithelium, gland cell and myometrium were observed. The treatment induces a decline in uterine glands diameter which are crucial for implantation. Present observations suggest that the extract has antifertility activity and should be experimented for antifertility programme.

  9. Biotechnological richness of the northeastern semi-arid region: antioxidant activity of casein hydrolysates from Moxotó goat milk (Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 obtained by papain action

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    Vilma Sobral Bezerra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify antioxidant peptides from caprine casein hydrolysates by papain application using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and a 2² full factorial design, with 4 axial points, in order to evaluate kinetic parameters (time and pH effects on the degree of hydrolysis as well as the antioxidant activity of Moxotó goat milk casein peptides. Degree of hydrolysis was determined by total and soluble protein ratio in casein. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS method with 2, 2-cation-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. TROLOX was used as standard. Peptide pattern and sequence of antioxidant amino acids were obtained using MALDI-TOF/MS. The highest degree of hydrolysis (28.5% and antioxidant activity (2329.6 mmol.L TROLOX. mg- 1 peptide were observed in the permeate. NENLL, NPWDQVK and LLYQEPVLGPV peptides, detected in the permeate, were pointed as the responsible for antioxidant activity, suggesting their potential application as food supplement and pharmaceutical products.

  10. Identification of Differentially Expressed miRNAs between White and Black Hair Follicles by RNA-Sequencing in the Goat (Capra hircus

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    Zhenyang Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a key role in many biological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A number of miRNAs have been identified from livestock species. However, compared with other animals, such as pigs and cows, the number of miRNAs identified in goats is quite low, particularly in hair follicles. In this study, to investigate the functional roles of miRNAs in goat hair follicles of goats with different coat colors, we sequenced miRNAs from two hair follicles samples (white and black using Solexa sequencing. A total of 35,604,016 reads were obtained, which included 30,878,637 clean reads (86.73%. MiRDeep2 software identified 214 miRNAs. Among them, 205 were conserved among species and nine were novel miRNAs. Furthermore, DESeq software identified six differentially expressed miRNAs. Quantitative PCR confirmed differential expression of two miRNAs, miR-10b and miR-211. KEGG pathways were analyzed using the DAVID website for the predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Several signaling pathways including Notch and MAPK pathways may affect the process of coat color formation. Our study showed that the identified miRNAs might play an essential role in black and white follicle formation in goats.

  11. EFEITO DO DIÂMETRO FOLICULAR SOBRE A QUALIDADE DOS OÓCITOS OBTIDOS DE OVÁRIOS DE OVELHAS (Ovis aries) E CABRAS (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Macêdo Chaves; Cristiano Aguiar Filho; Edivaldo Rosas Santos Júnior; José Monteiro Almeida Filho; Paulo Fernandes Lima; Marcos Antônio Lemos de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of follicular diameter on the quality of oocytes from ovaries of female sheep and goats. The ovaries of sheep (156 units) and goats (105 units) from slaughterhouse were used. The follicles were measured, aspirated and divided into three classes of follicular diameter: class 1 (CI) – 2 to 3 mm, class 2 (CII) – 4 to 5 mm and class 3 (CIII) – 6 mm. The recovered oocytes were evaluated and classified according to morphological aspect in 5 quality groups:...

  12. The First Report of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi (Hoogstraal and Kaiser 1960 from Wild Goats (Capra hircus aega¬grus in Iran

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    S Nabian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies concerning ticks were of interest to evaluate the distribution and composition of species affecting live¬stock, thus it was a main step in our knowledge of the pathogens that they may transmit by tick. Methods: A collection of 21 adult female and 15 male hard ticks, all is representing a single species of tick collected under the tail of wild goat. The specimens preserved in 70 % alcohol in glass vial and brought to laboratory for identification. In or¬der to distinguish species relationships between wild and domestic animals, tick sampling has been achieved in 7 different places located around Kolah Qazi national park in Isfahan Province. Results: Important descriptions of ticks isolated from wild goat strongly supported that the tick species in this collection was only Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi. Conclusion: It seems that this is the first report of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in Iran. Wild sheep and goats live throughout Iran ex¬cept in forest and other tall vegetation areas. Although, both animals has pastured occasionally in same open rangeland but we could not find any tick of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in domestic animals.

  13. The health performance of imported Boer goat (Capra hircus) and their crosses with Woito-guji goat breeds in South Omo Zone, South-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Bereket

    2016-04-01

    Goat production in Ethiopia is constrained by various bottlenecks and low genetic performance of local breeds is among them. Southern Agricultural Research Institute had introduced Boer goats, for crossing, evaluate and distribute to users. This research was conducted to assess the survivability and productive and reproductive performance of Boers and its crosses, on animals managed in on-station, Jinka Research Center and Key-afer Goat Research Station from January 2011 to March 2014. The diseases affecting the imported flock were heart water, pyogenic infections/caseous lymphadenitis, and wart/orf diseases with crude mortality rate of 47.6% and case fatality rates of 40.7, 2.4, and 4.7%, respectively. Heart water was responsible for 85% of the overall deaths. The twining percentage of Boer goats was found to be 36.3%, which was by far superior to that of Woito-guji breeds. The mortality rate in 50% crosses was found to be 35.2%; 54.5 and 20.6% in Jinka and Key-afer, respectively. The survival rate of 50% cross kids was found to be associated with birth weight and location. The average birth weight and 1 month weight of 75% crosses was found to be 3.25 ± 0.43 and 7.12 ± 1.57 kg, respectively. The 75% crosses survival rate up to weaning was found to be 100%. Despite improvement in productive and reproductive performance through increased exotic blood level, the survivability was strangely questioned for pure and higher blood levels in South Omo Zone. Pure Boer and 75% crosses could better adapt and perform in intensive and semi-intensive production systems. Small holder and pastoral livestock production systems, like South Omo Zone area, should focus on managing 50 % cross sires and rearing 25% crosses for market. PMID:26888205

  14. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758 and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758

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    Aris Pourlis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (P<0.05; in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P<0.05. In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.

  15. EFEITO DO DIÂMETRO FOLICULAR SOBRE A QUALIDADE DOS OÓCITOS OBTIDOS DE OVÁRIOS DE OVELHAS (Ovis aries E CABRAS (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Macêdo Chaves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of follicular diameter on the quality of oocytes from ovaries of female sheep and goats. The ovaries of sheep (156 units and goats (105 units from slaughterhouse were used. The follicles were measured, aspirated and divided into three classes of follicular diameter: class 1 (CI – 2 to 3 mm, class 2 (CII – 4 to 5 mm and class 3 (CIII – 6 mm. The recovered oocytes were evaluated and classified according to morphological aspect in 5 quality groups: grade 1 (GI, grade 2 (GII, grade 3 (GIII, naked (N and atresia (A. Of the 468 follicles aspirated from sheep, 327 CI, 84 CII, CIII 57 and 83 GI, 78 GII, GIII 95, 119 N, 93 A were found, and from the 422 follicles aspirated from goats 197 CI, 132 CII, 92 CIII and 64 GI, 70 GII, 91 GIII, 123 N, 74 A were found. The data did not show significant correlation between quality of oocytes and diameter of follicles (P > 0.05. Under the conditions observed in this study it was concluded that the follicular diameter has no influence on the quality of cumulus-oocyte complex (COC recovered from the ovaries of female sheep and goats.

  16. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species: V. Prolonged antibody titers in Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) and domestic goats (Capra hircus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, Robin O; Frank, Kimberly M; Wallace, Roberta; Lamberski, Nadine; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP. Of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park animals, the 4 comparison species demonstrated the typical 1-yr pattern of anti-PZP antibodies, whereas the Armenian sheep and Himalayan tahr showed prolonged (2-3 yr) antibody responses after a single primer and booster dose. The Dall sheep and domestic goats had significantly longer durations of antibody titers (3 yr) from a single year's treatment (primer plus booster). Analysis of the data indicates that Armenian sheep, Himalayan tahr, Dall sheep, and domestic goats have prolonged responses, and are more sensitive to PZP in that they produce a protracted antibody response.

  17. Haplotype affinities resolve a major component of goat (Capra hircus MtDNA D-loop diversity and reveal specific features of the Sardinian stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Piras

    Full Text Available Goat mtDNA haplogroup A is a poorly resolved lineage absorbing most of the overall diversity and is found in locations as distant as Eastern Asia and Southern Africa. Its phylogenetic dissection would cast light on an important portion of the spread of goat breeding. The aims of this work were 1 to provide an operational definition of meaningful mtDNA units within haplogroup A, 2 to investigate the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of diversity by considering the modes of selection operated by breeders and 3 to identify the peculiarities of Sardinian mtDNA types. We sequenced the mtDNA D-loop in a large sample of animals (1,591 which represents a non-trivial quota of the entire goat population of Sardinia. We found that Sardinia mirrors a large quota of mtDNA diversity of Western Eurasia in the number of variable sites, their mutational pattern and allele frequency. By using bayesian analysis, a distance-based tree and a network analysis, we recognized demographically coherent groups of sequences identified by particular subsets of the variable positions. The results showed that this assignment system could be reproduced in other studies, capturing the greatest part of haplotype diversity.We identified haplotype groups overrepresented in Sardinian goats as a result of founder effects. We found that breeders maintain diversity of matrilines most likely through equalization of the reproductive potential. Moreover, the relevant amount of inter-farm mtDNA diversity found does not increase proportionally with distance. Our results illustrate the effects of breeding practices on the composition of maternal gene pool and identify mtDNA types that may be considered in projects aimed at retrieving the maternal component of the oldest breeds of Sardinia.

  18. Brief Note Low diversity of the major histocompatibility complex class II DRA gene in domestic goats (Capra hircus) in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L P; E, G X; Zhao, Y J; Na, R S; Zhao, Z Q; Zhang, J H; Ma, Y H; Sun, Y W; Zhong, T; Zhang, H P; Huang, Y F

    2015-01-01

    DRA encodes the alpha chain of the DR heterodimer, is closely linked to DRB and is considered almost monomorphic in major histocompatibility complex region. In this study, we identified the exon 2 of DRA to evaluate the immunogenetic diversity of Chinese south indigenous goat. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in an untranslated region and one synonymous substitution in coding region were identified. These data suggest that high immunodiversity in native Chinese population. PMID:26125900

  19. Teste de pele em caprinos vacinados e infectados com Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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    Francisco Selmo Fernandes Alves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Dez caprinos foram vacinados com toxóide a 3%, outros dez com uma bacterina e mais dois grupos-controle de cinco animais cada, submetidos à inoculação de infusão de cérebro e coração e solução salina, respectivamente. Todos os animais foram examinados e avaliados com um teste de pele. Tanto o toxóide quanto a bacterina foram produzidos a partir de amostra de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Todos os caprinos foram desafiados com C. pseudotuberculosis, trinta dias após as vacinações. Nenhuma das vacinas induziu reação de hipersensibilidade na pele dos caprinos antes do desafio. Após o desafio, todos os animais desenvolveram reações mensuráveis na primeira, quinta e décima semana em resposta ao teste de pele. Os diâmetros da reação dérmica aumentaram do décimo dia à quinta semana após o desafio. As medidas alcançaram tamanho maior na décima semana. O resultado deste estudo indica que antígeno específico do C. pseudotuberculosis pode ser utilizado em caprinos no diagnóstico da linfadenite caseosa como teste de pele ou como instrumento experimental para monitorar o desenvolvimento da doença.

  20. Intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var.weirii em caprinos

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    Welden Panziera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Baccharis representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção. Baccharis coridifolia e Baccharis megapotamica são as espécies mais comuns e importantes. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em caprinos. Onze caprinos jovens, de um total de 152, foram afetados por uma doença aguda fatal. Os casos ocorreram em uma pequena propriedade rural no município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em estágio de floração, foram encontrados onde os caprinos estavam. As plantas cresceram em áreas úmidas e alagadas. Os caprinos afetados tinham entre seis meses a um ano de idade e todos apresentaram sinais clínicos caracterizados por apatia, anorexia, prostração, diarreia, desidratação, desconforto abdominal, timpanismo, decúbito e morte. O curso clínico variou aproximadamente de 12 a 24 horas. Dos onze caprinos acometidos, três foram necropsiados. As alterações presentes em todas as necropsias incluíam desidratação, conteúdo líquido no rúmen, avermelhamento, erosões e úlceras da mucosa dos pré-estômagos, e avermelhamento na mucosa do abomaso e intestino. Um dos caprinos apresentou marcada hemorragia dos linfonodos mesentéricos. As lesões histológicas de todos os caprinos necropsiados incluíam hiperemia, hemorragia, alterações degenerativas, necróticas e ulcerativas variadas no revestimento epitelial do rúmen, retículo e omaso, e na mucosa do abomaso e de alguns segmentos do intestino delgado. Necrose do tecido linfoide foi observada em linfonodos mesentéricos e em agregados linfoides no intestino e folículos do baço.

  1. Social Encounters between Frank Capra and Steven Spielberg

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    Beatriz Peña Acuña

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about a social and human issue.Historically, film critics have recognized Frank Capra as a humanistfilmmaker. The findings will attempt to show how Steven Spielberg works also evidence his humanistic spirit after an almost finished PH.D research. This study illustrates the interest of both authors comparative. The body of this exhibition exposes in a general point of view that which is synonymous to both filmmakers and that which is unique in each of these master filmmakers.This study also presents a comparative analysis of the subjectsaround three general aspects: human excellence, individual ethicalbehaviour and the privilege of individual freedom before the submission to another being or State. Great human subjects compose the conclusion of this paper whereas the common themes and the original and unique characteristics of each director are underlined. In conclusion, the research tries to prove that Spielberg is also worried about social issues and creates a humanist culture.

  2. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  3. Intoxicação por Portulaca elatior (Portulacaceae em caprinos

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    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Portulaca elatior foi diagnosticado no município de Aroeiras, Paraíba, na época das chuvas. Entre os meses de fevereiro e abril, em um rebanho de 316 caprinos, 16 adoeceram, sendo 15 de um lote de 16 caprinos que tinham sido introduzidos recentemente na fazenda e um animal do rebanho já existente na fazenda. Os caprinos apresentaram intensa salivação, relutância em se movimentar, tremores de lábios, marcha incoordenada, diarreia, timpanismo, dor abdominal, gemidos, desidratação e berros constantes. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 2 a 48 horas; 13 caprinos morreram e três se recuperaram. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizavam-se por mucosa ruminal e do retículo avermelhadas, serosa do rúmen hemorrágica, mucosa abomasal avermelhada com áreas ulceradas e mucosa do intestino delgado com equimoses. No exame histopatológico observou-se degeneração e necrose das células epiteliais dos pré-estômagos com formação de vesículas e infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico. Suspeita de ter causado o surto, Portulaca elatior foi administrada a três caprinos nas doses de 40, 20 e 10 gramas de planta fresca por kg de peso animal (g/kg. Esses caprinos apresentaram sinais semelhantes aos casos espontâneos. Os animais que ingeriram 20 e 40g/kg morreram e o que ingeriu 10g/kg se recuperou. Microscopicamente foram observadas lesões do sistema digestivo semelhantes às dos casos espontâneos. A reprodução experimental da intoxicação, com sinais clínicos e lesões histológicas semelhantes às dos casos espontâneos, comprova que a doença foi causada por Portulaca elatior. P. elatior apresentou níveis de oxalatos de 6,37% e outra planta, identificada como Blutaparon vermiculare e que ocorria em grande quantidade nas pastagens, apresentou níveis de oxalatos de 5,29%. B. vermiculare foi administrada experimentalmente a um caprino na dose de 40g/kg, sem que o animal apresentasse sinais cl

  4. Intoxicação experimental por Indigofera suffruticosa em caprinos e ovinos

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    Anna P.M. de Figueiredo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa é uma planta invasora, ção. Em um caprino e um ovino foram realizados os testes que causa anemia hemolítica com hemoglobinúria em bo-de fragilidade osmótica, determinação de hemoglobina e vinos e, experimentalmente, anemia sem hemoglobinúria metemoglobina e pesquisa de corpúsculos de Heinz. Foi em cobaios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a comprovado que em caprinos e ovinos, I. suffruticosa cautoxicidade de I. suffruticosa para caprinos e ovinos. Par-sa anemia hemolítica sem hemoglobinúria com formação tes aéreas da planta foram administradas a seis caprinos de corpúsculos de Heinz. Os animais recuperaram-se da e quatro ovinos em doses diárias de 10, 20 e 40g por kg anemia, total ou parcialmente, mesmo com a continuidade de peso vivo, durante períodos de 2 a 24 dias. Foram ava-da administração da planta. Oito a 12 horas após a coleliados os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, níveis ta observa-se pigmento azulado na urina. Sugere-se que o de hemoglobina e contagem de hemácias e foi coletada pigmento seja anilina ou algum metabolito dessa substânurina para urinálise e observação de variações na coloracia e que a anilina seja o princípio ativo responsável pela hemólise causada por I. suffruticosa.

  5. Evaluación microbiológica de embutidos de ovino y caprino

    OpenAIRE

    Estevinho, Leticia M.; Silva, Cátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Teixeira, A.

    2013-01-01

    Los embutidos son, por sus características nutricionales y organolépticas, productos alimenticios de alta calidad que interesa preservar. Para aumentar el rendimiento de las explotaciones agrícolas,industrias de productos cárnicos y principalmente para reutilizar carnes procedentes de animales que no se encuadran en marcas de calidad, son desarrollados nuevos productos, como embutidos de carne de ovino y caprino, utilizando materias-primas de segunda categoría. Su calidad pu...

  6. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en ganado caprino en hatos del Callao, Perú, 2003

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    Norma Taboada E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2000-2002 la provincia de Callao presentó las tasas más elevadas de infección humana por Brucella mellitensis en el Perú, además la crianza de caprinos representa una actividad económica local importante. Con el objetivo de conocer la seroprevalencia de Brucelosis en el ganado caprino analizamos una muestra de 175 animales de nueve hatos de los distritos del Callao y Ventanilla, usando la prueba de Rosa de Bengala (RB para descarte y el 2-mercapto-etanol para confirmación. El 53,7% (94 de las cabras fue mayor de seis meses; el antecedente de vacunación fue de 38,3% y 81,9%, respectivamente. Con RB se obtuvo 10/148 cabras positivas en Callao y 0/27 en Ventanilla; finalmente sólo siete fueron confirmadas. Persiste el riesgo de Brucelosis humana en el Callao ante la presencia de ganado caprino infectado con dicho mal.

  7. Intoxicação experimental por Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae em caprinos

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    Fabrício K. de L. Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora foetida é mencionada por produtores da região Nordeste como causa de intoxicação espontânea em animais. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a toxicidade de P. foetida em caprinos e determinar seu princípio ativo e a época do ano em que a mesma é tóxica. Inicialmente a planta administrada em duas doses diárias de 40g por kg de peso animal (g/kg coletada dois dias antes da administração não resultou tóxica. Posteriormente a planta administrada imediatamente após a coleta resultou tóxica nas doses que variaram de 4 a 8 g/kg, em quatro caprinos. O animal que recebeu 8g/kg apresentou sinais clínicos graves e recuperou-se após a administração de tiossulfato de sódio. Os demais caprinos apresentaram sinais menos graves e se recuperaram espontaneamente. Posteriormente, a planta foi administrada em diferentes épocas a 23 caprinos na dose de 10g/kg. A planta foi significativamente mais tóxica (P<0,05 na época seca; no total, dos 14 caprinos que receberam a planta na época seca, 11 apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação e dos 13 caprinos que receberam a planta na época das chuvas, apenas 3 apresentaram sinais clínicos. Todos os animais que apresentaram sinais clínicos, se recuperaram após a administração de tiosulfato de sódio. Os sinais clínicos caracterizavam-se por apatia, pulso venoso positi-vo, ataxia, berros, taquicardia e taquipneia, midríase e decúbito esternal seguido por decúbito lateral. Antes de cada administração era feito o teste do papel picrosódico para estimar o teor de cianeto na planta, classificando a reação em discreta, leve, moderada e acentuada. As amostras com reação discreta não apresentaram toxicidade, as com reação leve induziram sinais leves e as com reação moderada causaram sinais graves ou moderados de intoxicação. Não foram observados testes com reação acentuada. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que P. foetida é uma planta cianogênica que causa

  8. Intoxicação natural e experimental por Metternichia princeps (Solanaceae em caprinos

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    Juliana da Silva Prado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre os anos de 2007 e 2009 ocorreu uma doença nefrotóxica de evolução subaguda com alta mortandade em caprinos em uma propriedade no município de Itaguaí, estado do Rio de Janeiro. Levantou-se a suspeita de que Metternichia princeps, planta pertencente à família Solanaceae, seria a causa. Através de experimentação em caprinos o quadro clínico-patológico de intoxicação por esta planta e a dose letal foram estabelecidos. Na experimentação foram utilizados 12 caprinos de diferentes raças, de ambos os sexos, jovens a adultos, com pesos acima de 15 kg. Os animais que receberam as doses de 30g/kg em 5 dias, 15g/kg em 3 dias, doses únicas de 10g/kg e de 5g/kg, morreram. Dos três animais que receberam as doses únicas de 2,5g/kg, dois morreram e um não apresentou sinais clínicos e o animal que recebeu a dose única de 1,25g/kg, também não apresentou sinais clínicos. O início dos sinais clínicos após a administração da planta variou entre 7h e 46h45min. A evolução variou entre 3h6min e 126h40min. Os primeiros sinais clínicos apresentados foram inapetência, adipsia, apatia e relutância ao movimento. Em seguida os animais entravam em decúbito esternal e ao serem colocados em estação, mantinham os membros anteriores flexionados, apoiavam apenas os posteriores no chão até evoluírem para flexão dos quatro membros e seguia-se o decúbito lateral. À necropsia destacaram-se o edema de tecido adiposo perirrenal, rins pálidos e, ao corte, com estriação esbranquiçada desde o córtex até a região medular. À histopatologia foi verificada acentuada necrose coagulativa das células epiteliais dos túbulos uriníferos. Comparativamente aos casos naturais, os caprinos intoxicados experimentalmente por M. princeps apresentaram quadro clínico-patológico semelhante. Desta maneira foi comprovado que Metternichia princeps é responsável pela doença nefrotóxica em caprinos no Rio de Janeiro; a menor dose que causou a

  9. Identificação molecular de Mycoplasma mycoides subesp. mycoides tipo SC ioslado do conduto auditivo externo de caprinos clinicamente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Lucieri Olegário

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata a presença de Mycoplasma mycoides subesp. mycoides Tipo SC, biótipo bovino, em caprinos clinicamente saudáveis no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, identificado por PCR.

  10. Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Brasil Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata, pela primeira vez no Brasil, no Estado da Paraíba, paratuberculose em dois rebanhos com criação conjunta de caprinos e ovinos. Na Fazenda 1, de um rebanho de 33 caprinos e 13 ovinos, uma cabra adulta apresentou emagrecimento progressivo por aproximadamente um ano e fezes pastosas um mês antes da morte. Todos os animais do rebanho foram tuberculinizados com a prova comparativa. Um ovino (2,2% teve resultado positivo à tuberculina aviar e em dois o teste foi inconclusivo. Na Fazenda 2, com 200 ovinos e 80 caprinos, foi afetada uma ovelha adulta que apresentou emagrecimento progressivo por aproximadamente um ano e fezes pastosas por aproximadamente 20 dias. Todos os ovinos com mais de 4 meses de idade e 23 caprinos foram tuberculinizados com tuberculina aviar; em 47 (25,4% o resultado foi positivo, em 115 (61,5% inconclusivo e em 25 (13,4% negativo. Entre as cabras não houve nenhuma positiva à tuberculina aviar, mas em 11 (47,8% o teste foi inconclusivo e em 12 (52,2% foi negativo. Na necropsia dos dois animais com sinais clínicos os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de tamanho e edemaciados. O ovino afetado da Fazenda 2, apresentou espessamento e enrugamento da mucosa do intestino, principalmente no íleo e válvula íleo-cecal. Microscopicamente o caprino e o ovino com sinais clínicos apresentaram lesões semelhantes, caracterizadas por granulomas com predominância de macrófagos espumosos, na lâmina própria e submucosa do intestino e linfonodos mesentéricos. O ovino positivo à tuberculina e um caprino negativo na Fazenda 1 foram eutanasiados e apresentaram discreto espessamento da mucosa do íleo. Na histologia foi observado infiltrado preferentemente linfocítico. Em todos os casos dentro de macrófagos e linfócitos havia bacilos ácool-ácidos resistentes, positivos na imunohistoquímica para Mycobacterium spp. Sugere-se a necessidade de estudar a prevalência de paratuberculose em rebanhos de

  11. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Colodel Edson Moleta; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Correia André Mendes; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  12. Utilização de vagens de Prosopis juliflora na alimentação de ovinos e caprinos

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    Franklin Riet-Correa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sinais nervosos associados à ingestão de vagens de Prosopis julilora tem sido descritos em aprinos adultos pastejando continuamente em áreas invadidas por esta planta. A doença não tem sido constatada em ovinos, mas nesta espécie o pastejo em áreas invadidas por P. julilora tem sido associado à ocorrência de malformações. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a toxicidade sobre o sistema nervoso e o efeito teratogênico de vagens de P. julilora (algaroba em ovinos e avaliar a sua toxicidade em caprinos. Para isso foram realizados três experimentos. No Experimento 1, grupos de quatro ovinos receberam vagens na concentração de 0, 60% e 90% da alimentação durante um ano. No Experimento 2, sete ovelhas ingeriram vagens, em quantidades equivalente a 2,1% do peso corporal (pc durante toda a gestação. No Experimento 3, três caprinos receberam vagens em quantidade equivalente a 1,5% do pc por periodos de 264, 474 e 506 dias. Nenhum animal experimental apresentou sinais nervosos e no Experimento 2 todas as ovelhas pariram cordeiros normais. Esses resultados sugerem que as vagens de algaroba podem ser utilizadas sem restrição na alimentação de ovinos. Em um trabalho anterior as vagens de algaroba, nas concentrações de 60% e 90% da alimentação, causaram intoxicação em caprinos apos 210 dias de ingestão o que sugere que ocorrem variações na toxicidade das vagens. Recomenda-se que caprinos não permaneçam em áreas invadidas por algaroba por mais de um periodo de frutificação da planta.

  13. Análise qualitativa de compostos voláteis do headspace de carne cozida de ovinos e caprinos

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    Jossiê Zamperetti Donadel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar qualitativamente os compostos voláteis (CV do headspace de diferentes músculos de carne cozida de ovinos e caprinos da região do Alto Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Os CV do headspace dos músculos cozidos, L. dorsi e V. lateralis de cinco ovinos machos (idade de 6 meses e cinco cabritos machos castrados (idade de 8-9 meses foram analisados pela técnica de microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME e cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (GC/MS. Foram encontrados 73 compostos voláteis, dentre eles aldeídos, cetonas e compostos sulfurados, característicos de carne processada termicamente. A partir da fração volátil, foi possível encontrar marcadores que discriminassem as espécies animais estudadas, caracterizando os caprinos por apresentarem, entre outros compostos, terpenos (β-pineno, α-gurjuneno, α-muuroleno, ausentes em ovinos. Alguns compostos discriminaram V. lateralis e L. dorsi de ovinos, como álcool isopropílico, α-pineno, o-xileno, porém não foi possível obter uma diferenciação entre os músculos de caprinos.

  14. Toxoplasmose em ovinos e caprinos: estudo soroepidemiológico em duas regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Silva Aristeu Vieira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar variáveis epidemiológicas na toxoplasmose em ovinos e caprinos, amostras de soro de animais de propriedades localizadas em duas regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, foram testadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii. Dos 173 soros ovinos testados, em 35,3% foram encontrados resultados positivos, enquanto 40,4% dos 213 soros caprinos foram positivos à RIFI. Em ovinos, associações significativas foram encontradas para sexo e raça, mas não para região, tipo de manejo ou falha reprodutiva. Os resultados da RIFI para os caprinos foram significativamente associados ao sexo, raça, região, tipo de manejo e de exploração, mas não com a ocorrência de falhas reprodutivas.

  15. Invasion Fosters Change: Independent Evolutionary Shifts in Reproductive Traits after Oxalis pes-caprae L. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sílvia; Castro, Mariana; Ferrero, Victoria; Costa, Joana; Tavares, Daniela; Navarro, Luis; Loureiro, João

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions offer optimal scenarios to study evolutionary changes under contemporary timescales. After long-distance dispersal, exotic species have to cope with strong mate limitation, and shifts toward uniparental reproduction have been hypothesized to be selectively advantageous. Oxalis pes-caprae is a clonal tristylous species native to South Africa, and invasive in Mediterranean regions worldwide. It reproduces sexually and asexually but the importance of each strategy differs between ranges. Native populations reproduce mostly sexually while in invasive ones asexual reproduction is the prevailing strategy due to the dominance of pentaploid monomorphic populations. Nevertheless, two contrasting scenarios have been observed after introduction: transition toward clonality, and re-acquisition of sexuality fueled by multiple introductions of compatible mates. Here, we aimed to assess evolutionary changes of reproductive traits in O. pes-caprae invasive populations and evaluate whether these traits could be related with invasion success and prevalence of certain forms in the western Mediterranean basin. Sexual and asexual reproduction traits were quantified under optimal conditions in a common garden experiment including native and invasive sexual, predominately asexual, and obligated asexual individuals. Different reproductive, ecological, and genetic constraints created by long-distance dispersal seem to have generated different selective pressures in sexual and asexual traits, with our results supporting evolutionary changes in invasive populations of O. pes-caprae. Native plants had higher sexual fitness, while a transition toward clonality was clear for invasive forms, supporting clonal reproduction as a major trait driving invasion. Differences were also observed among invasive plants, with sexual forms having increased dispersal potential; thus, they are expected to be in advantage in comparison with predominantly asexual and obligated asexual plants

  16. Nematódeos resistentes a anti-helmíntico em rebanhos de ovinos e caprinos do estado do Ceará, Brasil

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    Melo Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle do parasitismo por nematódeos gastrintestinais é feito basicamente com a utilização de anti-helmínticos. Falhas no controle são o primeiro sinal do aparecimento de resistência anti-helmíntica. A real situação da prevalência da resistência anti-helmíntica, em fazendas comerciais de criação de ovinos e caprinos no Brasil, é desconhecida. Esse experimento teve como objetivo, estimar a ocorrência de resistência ao oxfendazol, levamisol e ivermectina em propriedades comerciais de criação de ovinos e caprinos, na região do médio e baixo Jaguaribe, através do teste de redução na contagem de ovos nas fezes acompanhados de coproculturas. O trabalho foi realizado em 25 criações, sendo 16 de ovinos, 7 de caprinos e uma de ovinos e caprinos. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo programa estatístico RESO (1989. A prevalência de nematódeos resistentes ao oxfendazol, levamisol e ivermectina em ovinos foi de 88%, 41% e 59%, e em caprinos de 87,5%, 75% e 37,5%, respectivamente. Observou-se que o gênero Haemonchus foi o mais prevalente na população resistente a todos os anti-helmínticos, tanto em ovinos quanto em caprinos, seguido de Trichostrongylus e Oesophagostomum.

  17. OCORRÊNCIA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESTACIONAL DE HELMINTOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS NO MUNICÍPIO DE TERESINA, PIAUÍ

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    Eneide Santiago Girão

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva verificar a ocorrência e distribuição estacional de helmintos gastrintestinais parasitas de caprinos durante as estações seca e chuvosa visando o estabelecimento de medidas adequadas para o controle da verminose. O experimento foi conduzido na base física da EMBRAPA/UEPAE de Teresina, no município de Teresina. Em um piquete de Brachiaria humidicola medindo dois hectares, foram colocados oito caprinos machos, entre seis a oito meses de idade. Cinco animais ficaram permanentes no piquete e não receberam tratamento anti-helmíntico durante todo o período (Testemunhas e três (incorporados ao trabalho a cada mês, após receberem três tratamentos anti-helmínticos, ficaram expostos à infecção helmíntica durante 30 dias no piquete (traçadores. Mensalmente, após 14 dias de estabulação, eram abatidos e necropsiados três caprinos traçadores e no final do experimento, os testemunhas para coleta, contagem e identificação dos helmintos. De janeiro/88 a fevereiro/90 foram necropsiados 70 caprinos traçadores e cinco testemunhas. Os helmintos identificados foram: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Strongyloides papillosus, Moniezia expansa, Cooperia punctata, C. curticei, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichuris spp (T. ovis, Trichuris sp., T. skrjabini, Skrjabinema ovis, Cysticercus tenuicollis e Paramphistomum spp. As necropsias nos caprinos traçadores indicaram que ocorreu transmissão de helmintos durante o ano todo sendo em intensidades mais elevadas na época chuvosa e início da época seca e que o helminto de maior intensidade nos caprinos traçadores foi H. contortus, e nos testemunhas T. colubriformis.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15950-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 protein; ... 105 7e-21 EU573210_2( EU573210 |pid:none) Capra hircus breed Jamunapari stea... 105 1e-20 AY...inskii var. intermed... 67 4e-09 EU573210_1( EU573210 |pid:none) Capra hircus breed Jamunapari stea... 67 4e

  19. Enterotoxemia em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Edson M. Colodel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos surtos de enterotoxemia em caprinos em cinco propriedades no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais afetados eram, normalmente, encontrados mortos ou apresentavam evolução aguda de 2 a 3 horas com acentuada depressão, cólicas abdominais e diarréia profusa com fibrina. Em duas propriedades relataram-se casos com a evolução de até 12 horas. Em treze animais necropsiados observaram-se aumento de líquidos nas cavidades abdominal, torácica e pericárdica, congestão e hiperemia da serosa e mucosa do intestino, conteúdo do cólon líquido com fibrina além de hemorragias de serosa e fibrina. Em um animal constatou-se microangiopatia cerebral caracterizada por acúmulo de material homogêneo e eosinofílico no espaço perivascular. No conteúdo intestinal, colônias com bastonetes morfológica e bioquimicamente sugestivos de Clostridium perfringens foram caracterizadas no estudo bacteriológico. A soroneutralização em camundongos com conteúdo intestinal dos animais afetados, revelou a presença da toxina épsilon. Estes achados evidenciam a enterotoxemia como doença de importância para criação de caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul.Five outbreaks of caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied. The animals were found dead or had a clinical course that usually lasted 2-3 hours. From two farms a clinical manifestation period of 12 hours was reported. Clinical signs were characterized by depression, marked abdominal discomfort, profuse watery diarrhea with fibrin clots, and death. Thirteen necropsies were performed and hydropericardium, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum were commonly found. The mucosa and serosa of the colon were congested, and its contents was watery with multiple fibrin clots. Serosal hemorrhages and fibrin clots in the gallbladder were also seen. Fibrinous colitis and thyphilitis were the most frequent histological changes. Cerebral microangiopathy was observed in one case, which was

  20. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos

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    Traverso Sandra Davi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.

  1. CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0: software de controle de custos para a caprinocultura de corte CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0: a cost control software for beef goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com objetivo de desenvolver um software para auxiliar os técnicos e caprinocultores na determinação do custo de produção de caprinos de corte. O software CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0 é composto de um plano de contas, no qual o usuário pode cadastrar todas as despesas e receitas referentes ao sistema de produção de cabras de corte. O software permite o cadastramento de todos os bens móveis e benfeitorias do sistema de produção, visando os cálculos de depreciação e remuneração do capital. O CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0 calcula e apresenta ao usuário as seguintes variáveis: total das receitas, total dos custos operacionais, custo total, margem bruta, margem líquida, lucro, custo operacional e custo total por kg de carne, ponto de equilíbrio do sistema de produção, quantidade total de carne produzida, valor do patrimônio, remuneração do capital, lucratividade e rentabilidade. O software permite ao usuário diversas simulações envolvendo diversos parâmetros e variáveis, mostrando os pontos de estrangulamento e auxiliando o técnico e o pecuarista na determinação do custo de produção de caprinos de corte com precisão e considerável rapidez.The objective of this work was to develop a software to help both technicians and raisers in determining the production cost for beef goat. The CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0 software is made up of an account plan in which the user can input all the expenses and incomes concerning the beef goat production. The software allows to register all the movables and immovables of the production system aiming at the calculations of depreciation and remuneration of capital. The CU$TO CAPRINO CORTE 1.0 calculates and presents to the user the following variables: total of the operational costs, total costs, total of the incomes, coarse margin, net margin, profit, operational cost and total cost per weight unit of meat, break even point of production system, total amount of the meat

  2. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ipinza-Regla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B. La metodología incluyó siembras en medios de cultivos nutritivos, selectivos y diferenciales. Posteriormente y según el microorganismo a seguir se continuó con algunas pruebas bioquímicas específicas correspondientes a cada caso. En el presente estudio se decidió investigar la presencia de seis agentes patógenos importantes por su frecuencia en caso de infección en humanos: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Pseudomona aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Campylobacter jejuni. En los resultados de este estudio se detectaron cuatro potenciales patógenos: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., P. aeruginosa y E. coli. Además se encontraron otros agentes microbianos: Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia vulneris, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcencens biog.1, Ewingella americana, Providencia rettgeri, Bacillus spp., Enterobacter aglomerans, Stomatococcus spp., Morganella morganii. Las muestras Control A resultaron negativas. Las muestras de hormigas fueron positivos en 95,23%, en cambio, las muestras controles B presentaron desarrollo bacteriano en 90,47% de los casos, siendo ambos estadísticamente mayores al control A (P < 0,05. Se logró confirmar que L. humile es capaz de transportar agentes microbianos en una lechería de cabras.

  3. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    J Ipinza-Regla; D González; Figueroa, G

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B). La metodolo...

  4. Bócio congênito em caprinos no Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Welden Panziera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de bócio congênito em caprinos são descritos. A etiologia dessa condição foi associada à ausência de suplementação mineral com iodo para as cabras prenhes, e constituiu o fator responsável pela natimortalidade nesse surto. Clinicamente, todos os natimortos apresentaram marcado aumento de volume na região cervical ventral cranial e alopecia difusa. Na necropsia de um dos cabritos natimortos, observou-se acentuado aumento de volume simétrico de ambos os lobos da glândula tireoide, que eram firmes, compactos e vermelho-escuros. Histologicamente, as lesões eram características de bócio hiperplásico difuso e consistiam de: 1 marcada hiperplasia e hipertrofia do epitélio folicular; 2 formação de folículos tireoidianos marcadamente heterogêneos, devido principalmente à quantidade variável de coloide intraluminal; e 3 presença de vacúolos endocíticos, que representam a endocitose do coloide e demonstram a atividade da glândula tireoide

  5. Efectos negativos y positivos del consumo de forrajes ricos en taninos en la producción de caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Felipe J. Torres-Acosta; Miguel Ángel Alonso-Díaz; Hervé Hoste; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos A; Aguilar-Caballero, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    El uso del agostadero es uno de los elementos que hacen posible la producción caprina en muchas partes de México. Los caprinos cuentan con adaptaciones anatómicas y fisiológicas, así como una flora ruminal e intestinal adaptada, que les permiten hacer un uso más eficiente de las plantas disponibles en el agostadero nativo. Estas plantas contienen una gama de compuestos secundarios que les han permitido defenderse de la herbivoría. Uno de los compuestos secundarios importantes son los taninos....

  6. Intoxicação aguda por triclorfon em caprinos tratados com a dose terapêutica

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O presente estudo descreve um surto de intoxicação por triclorfon em caprinos, que receberam pela via oral, a dosagem terapêutica do princípio ativo em questão (100mg/kg), provenientes da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, campus de Umuarama, PR. Cinquenta e três ovinos foram tratados com a mesma formulação/solução e não se observou nenhum efeito colateral nos animais referente ao tratamento com triclorfon. Das 20 cabras medicadas, cerca de 40 minutos após a administração do triclorfon, oito a...

  7. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane D.C.C. Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi reproduzir a intoxicação por Ipomoea verbascoidea em caprinos e descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e histopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por essa planta no Estado de Pernambuco. Para isso, realizou-se o acompanhamento da epidemiologia da doença em sete municípios do semiárido pernambucano. Três caprinos espontaneamente intoxicados foram examinados e, em seguida eutanasiados e necropsiados (Grupo I. Para reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, as folhas secas de I. verbascoidea contendo 0,02% de swainsonina, foram fornecidas na dose de 4g/kg (0,8mg de swainsonina/kg a dois grupos de três animais. Os caprinos do Grupo II receberam a planta diariamente por 40 dias e foram eutanasiados no 41º dia de experimento. Os caprinos do Grupo III receberam a planta diariamente por 55 dias e foram eutanasiados no 120º dia de experimento. Outros três caprinos constituíram o grupo controle (Grupo IV. Nos grupos experimentais, as lesões encefálicas foram avaliadas por histopatologia e adicionalmente avaliaram-se as lesões cerebelares por morfometria, mediante mensuração da espessura da camada molecular, do número de neurônios de Purkinje e da área dos corpos celulares dessas células. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões microscópicas foram semelhantes aos previamente reportados em animais intoxicados por plantas que contem swainsonina. Nos caprinos do GII e GIII, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados entre o 22º e 29º dia de experimento; clinicamente a doença desenvolvida por esses animais foi semelhante aos casos espontâneos. Nenhum dos caprinos do GIII se recuperou dos sinais neurológicos. Esse resultado evidencia que o consumo da planta por 26-28 dias após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos é suficiente para provocar lesões irreversíveis. Pela análise morfométrica, a camada molecular do cerebelo dos caprinos do Grupo I e III eram mais delgadas que

  8. Efect of verminosis on goat immune response/ Efeito da verminose na resposta imune em caprinos

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    Maurício Garcia

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the immune response in goats with different degrees of gastrintestinal nematode infection. Ninety adult animals naturally infected were grouped according to the total egg count per feces gram (EPG: group I from zero to 500 EPG, group II from 501 to 2000 and group III above 2000. The parameters studied were serum total protein (STP, evaluated by biuret method; globulin (Glob, calculated by the difference between STP and serum albumin; gammaglobulin (Gglob, estimated throughout electrophoresis; immunoglobulin (Ig, estimated by turbidometry test with ZnSO4 and absolute lymphocyte count (Lymp / ml. It was found statistically decrease in three parameters (STP, Ig and Lymp / ml for group III. For Glob and Gglob, the decrease found was not statistically significant. These results show a depressor effect of nematode infection on humoral immune system. The intense dispersion of Glob and Gglob data can explain the not significant decrease found in those parameters. It was concluded that goats with intense nematode infection (above 2000 EPG can show immunedepression, with impairment of lymphocyte count and serum antibody level.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta imunológica em caprinos com vários graus de verminose gastrintestinal. Foram utilizados 90 animais adultos, naturalmente infectados, divididos em três grupos de 30 animais cada e separados segundo a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG: grupo I de zero a 500 OPG; grupo II de 501 a 2.000 OPG e o grupo III maior que 2.000 OPG. As variáveis estudadas foram: a dosagem de proteínas séricas totais (PST, avaliada pelo método do biureto; globulinas (Glob, calculada pela diferença entre a proteína total e a albumina sérica; gamaglobulinas (Gglob, medidas pela eletroforese; imunoglobulinas (Ig, dosadas pelo teste da turbidimetria com ZnSO4 e a contagem absoluta de linfócitos (Linfo/mL. Observou-se que em três destes parâmetros (PST, Ig e

  9. Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos

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    Nassu Renata Tieko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05 entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos.

  10. Population estimates, density–dependence and the risk of disease outbreaks in the Alpine ibex Capra ibex

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli, C.; Sarasa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife monitoring and the identification of factors associated with disease outbreaks are major goals in wildlife conservation. We reviewed demographic and epidemiological data for the Alpine ibex Capra ibex from 1975–2013 to characterize the species’ abundance and distribution dynamics on a large scale. We also explored methodological bias in monitoring and analyzed the factors potentially associated with the risk of disease outbreaks. Our results revealed that the overall abundance and di...

  11. Sexual reproduction of the pentaploid, short-styled Oxalis pes-caprae allows the production of viable offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; Ferrero, V; Loureiro, J; Castro, M; Navarro, L; Castro, S

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is a key factor for the successful establishment and spread of introduced species. Oxalis pes-caprae is a tristylous species with a self- and morph-incompatibility sexual system that, in the invaded range of the western Mediterranean Basin, has been found to reproduce asexually because only the pentaploid, short-styled morph (5x S-morph) was introduced. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the 5x S-morph of O. pes-caprae to produce viable offspring in the absence of compatible mates, exploring the hypothesis that new morphs could have emerged by sexual reproduction events of the initially introduced morph. Pollen germination, pollen tube development, fruit and seed production, seed germination and offspring ploidy levels were analysed after controlled hand-pollinations to assess self- and morph-incompatibility and production of viable gametes by the 5x S-morph. The self-incompatibility system is still operating, but a partial breakdown in the morph-incompatibility system combined with the production of viable gametes was observed, allowing sexual reproduction of the 5x S-morph in the invaded range. The ability of the 5x S-morph to reproduce sexually may have major consequences for the dynamics of invasive populations of O. pes-caprae and could be one of the factors involved in the occurrence of new floral morphs in this invaded range. PMID:23594049

  12. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos Spontaneosu poisoning by Trema micrantha in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Edson Moleta Colodel; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; André Mendes Correia; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  13. Efectividad cualitativa del ganado caprino en la dispersión de especies de frutos secos y carnosos

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    J. M. Mancilla-Leytón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se ha evaluado la capacidad de dispersión endozoócora del ganado caprino (raza Payoya de ocho especies de matorral mediterráneo:Cistus salviifolius, C. libanotis, Halimum halimifolium H. calycinum, Myrtus communis, Phillyrea angustifolia, Pistacia lentiscus y Rhamnuslycioides. Frutos de estas especies fueron ofrecidos a seis cabras estabuladas individualmente. Tras la ingestión, se procedió a recoger las hecesa intervalos de 24 horas. En las heces recuperadas, se determinó el porcentaje de pérdida de semillas (masticación y digestión, distribución de larecuperación de las semillas en el tiempo y la eficacia germinativa tras el paso por el tracto digestivo. Menos del 30% de las semillas ingeridasfueron recuperadas, con diferencias significativas entre las especies. C. salviifolius presentó el mayor porcentaje de recuperación (casi 30% y P.lentiscus el menor (0%. Esta tasa de recuperación estuvo significativamente relacionada positivamente con la dureza de las semillas. En la mayoríade las especies, la máxima tasa de recuperación se dio entre las 24-72 horas tras la ingestión. El paso por el intestino de las cabras aumentó significativamentela germinación de C. salviifolius, H. halimifolium, H. calycinum y P. angustifolia. Los resultados de este estudio pusieron de manifiestoque el ganado caprino puede favorecer la dispersión de la mayoría de las semillas de especies cistáceas estudiadas e inhibir la dispersión desemillas de frutos carnosos. El conocimiento de los mecanismos de dispersión por ungulados generalistas son aspectos importantes a tener encuenta en los planes de gestión, restauración y conservación de los ecosistemas Mediterráneos.

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae in goats

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    Sara Lucena Amorim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras das folhas frescas, murchas e dessecadas de Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. foram administradas manualmente por via oral a caprinos da raça Moxotó, em dosagens únicas de até 12g/kg de peso do animal. O teste do papel picrosódico foi realizado para determinar a presença do ácido cianídrico nas amostras de planta. A colheita da planta foi realizada no período de janeiro a junho de 2004. Os animais que apresentaram sinais clínicos foram tratados após apresentarem queda e permanência em decúbito lateral, com uma solução aquosa de tiossulfato de sódio a 20% na dose de 50ml/100kg por via endovenosa. O presente trabalho foi dividido em três experimentos. No Experimento 1, a planta recém colhida foi fornecida a 6 caprinos, sendo que 4 receberam a planta não triturada e 2 a planta triturada. A planta foi triturada em uma forrageira, sem peneira. No Experimento 2, a planta não triturada permaneceu na sombra, em local ventilado, acondicionada fora e dentro de saco plástico, os quais eram trocados todos os dias. A planta armazenada dentro de sacos plásticos foi administrada a 18 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após a colheita e a armazenada fora de saco plástico foi administrada a 13 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 24, 48, 72 horas e 9, 10, 23 e 30 dias após a colheita. No Experimento 3, a planta triturada e conservada dentro e fora de saco plástico foi administrada em diferentes períodos após a colheita (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Foram utilizados 33 animais (Exp. 3, 17 para a planta conservada dentro do saco plástico e 16 animais para a planta conservada fora do saco plástico. Nos Experimentos 2 e 3 foram utilizados um ou dois caprinos por cada período de administração. Foram utilizados 40 caprinos como controle, nos quais foram avaliadas a temperatura e as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória. No Experimento 1, as amostras da planta triturada e não triturada

  15. Impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Fabio da Silva do Espírito Santo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae, espécie endêmica da Caatinga. Os estudos de campo foram desenvolvidos na localidade de Caboclo (8º28'56,4"S, 40º56'6,9"W, 588 m alt., Município de Afrânio, Pernambuco. Essa área é considerada de alta importância biológica e, portanto, prioritária para a conservação. A análise quantitativa desse impacto foi realizada a partir do inventário de 10 parcelas com 2.000 m², ao longo de uma trilha pré-existente na área de estudo, e consistiu em contabilizar os indivíduos de B. laciniosa em floração e o porcentual de indivíduos que tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas pelos caprinos. Adicionalmente, também foram obtidas informações referentes à fenologia, à morfologia floral e às taxas de formação de frutos e sementes dessa Bromeliaceae. Verificou-se que, dos 246 indivíduos inventariados, 65,8% tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas por esses animais. A estimativa do número de flores consumidas foi de 8.748 e o número provável de frutos e sementes que deixaram de ser produzidos, de aproximadamente 7.227 e 252.945, respectivamente. O forrageamento das inflorescências diminuiu as taxas de formação de frutos e sementes, podendo, desse modo, interferir diretamente na conservação dessa bromélia.

  16. Resistência anti-helmíntica em rebanhos caprinos nos biomas Caatinga e Mata Atlântica

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    Simone L. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A utilização de anti-helmínticos por longos períodos como principal medida de controle das parasitoses gastrintestinais de ruminantes levou a ineficácia aos levamisol, benzimidazóis e avermectinas. Este estudo descreve a atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo em populações naturais de nematoides trichostrongilídeos de caprinos. Foram selecionados 18 rebanhos provenientes dos biomas Caatinga (n=12 e Mata Atlântica (n=6, do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, criados em pastagens comunais em região semiárida. Grupos de oito a 10 animais foram tratados com albendazol (ABZ, ivermectina (IVM, levamisol (LEV, moxidectina (MOX e closantel (CLOS. Os resultados do Teste de Redução da Contagem de Ovos nas Fezes indicaram resistência simultânea dos gêneros Haemonchus sp. e Trichostrongylus spp. para o ABZ, IVM, LEV, MOX e CLOS. As percentagens de eficácia variaram de 0-92%, 0-75%, 0-91%, 69-97% e 0-85% para o ABZ, IVM, LEV, MXD e CLOS, respectivamente, no bioma Caatinga e 0-59% para o ABZ e 9-59% para o IVM no bioma Mata Atlântica. Verificou-se nos rebanhos eficácia inferior a 95% para estes anti-helmínticos, com exceção de um único rebanho no qual a eficácia para MOX foi de 97%, o que sugere a presença de NGIs resistentes aos principais classes de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos destes biomas.

  17. Development of conditioned taste aversion to Mascagnia rigida in goats Desenvolvimento de condicionamento aversivo ao sabor de Mascagnia rigida em caprinos

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    Raquel Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether goats could be averted from consuming Mascagnia rigida, a toxic plant found in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Fourteen male goats not previously familiarized to M. rigida were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: control (treated with 5.5mL water orally by a drenching gun and lithium group (treated with 100mg LiCl/kg body weight orally by a drenching gun. For conditioning, goats were allowed to feed on M. rigida leaves for 15 min, followed by LiCl or water administration. The time spent on eating M. rigida leaves was measured. The conditioning was repeated daily until the LiCl-treated goats stopped eating M. rigida. On the 10th, 17th, and 24th day after conditioning, extinction trials of the M. rigida aversion were performed in goats by using single-choice tests. There was no difference between the two treatment groups with respect to the consumption of M. rigida on the first day of aversion conditioning, however, controls ingested increasing amounts of the plant on consecutive conditioning days. On the second day, five out of the seven goats in the lithium group did not eat the leaves, but on the third day, all the goats in the lithium group did not ingest M. rigida. This aversion persisted throughout all evaluated days. This indicates that goats can be easily conditioned by using lithium chloride to avoid eating M. rigida temporarily.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se os caprinos podem desenvolver aversão ao consumo de Mascagnia rigida, uma planta tóxica encontrada na região semi-árida do nordeste brasileiro. Catorze caprinos machos não familiarizados com M. rigida foram separados ao acaso em dois grupos de tratamento: controle (tratados com 5,5mL de água por via oral por meio de uma seringa dosadora e grupo tratado lítio (tratados com 100mg de LiCl/kg de peso corpóreo por via oral por meio de uma seringa dosadora. Para o condicionamento, os caprinos

  18. Sinais clínicos e patologia da intoxicação crônica experimental de caprinos por Palicourea marcgravii

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    Edson de F.G. Barbosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Palicourea marcgravii é considerada a principal planta tóxica de interesse pecuário no Brasil, porém, até o momento, é conhecido apenas o quadro agudo da intoxicação. Esse estudo avaliou as alterações clínico-patológicas de 10 caprinos cronicamente intoxicados por P. marcgravii. Os animais receberam, diariamente, 0,2g/kg de peso corporal da planta fresca por 6 a 38 dias. Os caprinos apresentaram como principais sinais clínicos anorexia, apatia, taquicardia, arritmia, pulso venoso jugular positivo e decúbito. Nas necropsias, os achados macroscópicos foram hidropericárdio, palidez dos rins e do miocárdio, atrofia gelatinosa da gordura cardíaca, evidenciação do padrão lobular hepático e edema pulmonar. Os principais achados microscópicos foram tumefação e vacuolização de cardiomiócitos, necrose de fibras cardíacas e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear no miocárdio. Nos rins foi encontrada marcante degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar difusa. Os achados demonstraram nos caprinos cronicamente intoxicados, quadro clínico-patológico com características distintas do observado na forma aguda da intoxicação por P. marcgravii. Essas observações comprovam o risco para caprinos da ingestão da planta, mesmo que em pequenas doses, resultando no surgimento de quadro clínico e graves lesões ainda pouco conhecidas, e que poderiam ser confundidas com outras enfermidades.

  19. Experimental poisoning by Callaeum psilophyllum in rabbits and goatsIntoxicação experimental por Callaeum psilophyllum em coelhos e caprinos

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    Amélia Lizziane Leite Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callaeum (Mascagnia psilophyllum is found in the same regions than Amorimia (Mascagnia rigida, a sodium monofluoroacetate containing plant that cause sudden death associated with exercise in ruminants. With the objective to determine the toxicity of C. psilophyllum, leaves of the plant were administered to rabbits and goats. In rabbits doses of 6-12 g.kg-1 body weight caused tachycardia, dyspnea, and mydriasis. One rabbit, that ingested 10 g/kg, showed clinical signs similar to those caused by A. rigida in rabbits. Four goats showed diarrhea after the ingestion of green or dry leaves of the plant. Three died and one recovered. The results in rabbits suggest that C. psilophyllum contains fluoroacetate. However, clinical signs in goats suggest that C. psilophyllum contains another substance responsible for the digestive signs. Callaeum (Mascagnia psilophyllum é encontrada nas mesmas regiões que Amorimia (Mascagnia rigida, uma planta que contêm monofluoroacetato de sódio e causa morte súbita associada ao exercício em ruminantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a toxicidade de C. psilophyllum, folhas desta planta foram administradas a coelhos e caprinos. Em coelhos, doses de 6-12 g.kg-1 de peso corporal causaram taquicardia, dispneia e midríase. Um coelho, que ingeriu 10 g.kg-1, apresentou sinais clínicos semelhantes aos causados por A. rigida em coelhos. Em caprinos, quatro animais apresentaram diarreia após a ingestão de folhas verdes ou secas da planta. Três caprinos morreram e um se recuperou. Os resultados em coelhos sugerem que C. psilophyllum contêm fluoroacetato. No entanto, os sinais clínicos em caprinos sugerem que C. psilophyllum contêm outra substância responsável pelos sinais digestivos.

  20. NDVI from Landsat 8 Vegetation Indices to Study Movement Dynamics of Capra Ibex in Mountain Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotti, F.; Parraga, M. A.; Stuaro, E.; Dubbini, M.; Masiero, A.; Ramanzin, M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyse the correlation between the spatial positions of Capra ibex (mountain goat) on an hourly basis and the information obtained from vegetation indices extracted from Landsat 8 datasets. Eight individuals were tagged with a collar with a GNSS receiver and their position was recorded every hour since the beginning of 2013 till 2014 (still ongoing); a total of 16 Landsat 8 cloud-free datasets overlapped that area during that time period. All images were brought to a reference radiometric level and NDVI was calculated. To assess behaviour of animal movement, NDVI values were extracted at each position (i.e. every hour). A daily "area of influence" was calculated by spatially creating a convex hull perimeter around the 24 points relative to each day, and then applying a 120 m buffer (figure 4). In each buffer a set of 24 points was randomly chosen and NDVI values again extracted. Statistical analysis and significance testing supported the hypothesis of the pseudo-random NDVI values to be have, in average, lower values than the real NDVI values, with a p value of 0.129 for not paired t test and p value of accounted for, such as the behaviour of animals when not feeding (e.g. resting) and the statistical significance of daily distributions, which might be improved by analysing broader gaps of time.

  1. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  2. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Fuente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4 and one M. caprae (MB2 field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant

  3. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  4. Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae in goats

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    Diego M. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae, com nome popular de favela, é uma planta normalmente espinhosa comum na caatinga. É considerada como forrageira e os animais, principalmente durante a seca, consomem as folhas que estão ao seu alcance ou as folhas secas caídas. A intoxicação espontânea por esta planta é relatada por fazendeiros no semi-árido quando animais têm acesso a plantas ou ramos recentemente cortados. Diferentes partes da planta moídas e secas, diluídas em água, são utilizadas por caçadores para matar pássaros. Para determinar a toxicidade de C. phyllacanthus, folhas verdes de plantas sem espinhos foram administradas a uma cabra em pequenas quantidades por via oral. Após o consumo de 4,7g por kg de peso do animal (g/kg a cabra apresentou taquicardia, taquipneia, dispnéia, nistagmo, opistótono e decúbito esterno abdominal seguido de decúbito lateral. A morte ocorreu 30 minutos após o começo dos sinais. Folhas frescas de plantas sem espinho foram administradas a 8 caprinos em doses de 0,5-2,5g/kg sem que causassem sinais clínicos. Três animais apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg. Os sinais clínicos foram similares aos observados na intoxicação por ácido cianídrico e dois animais tratados com uma solução de tiossulfato de sódio a 20%, na dose de 0,5ml/kg se recuperaram rapidamente em seguida ao tratamento. O terceiro recuperou-se espontaneamente. Folhas das mesmas plantas foram secadas ao sol durante períodos varáveis de 8-30 dias. O caprino que ingeriu a planta que tinha sido secada por 8 dias morreu após a ingestão de 3g/kg. O caprino que ingeriu a planta secada por 9 dias apresentou sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 1,13g/kg e se recuperou. Os caprinos que ingeriram a planta exposta ao sol por 10-29 dias apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg e se recuperaram espontaneamente ou mediante tratamento com tiossulfato de sódio. O caprino que ingeriu a

  5. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host.

  6. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded.

  7. SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN A PEQUEÑA ESCALA DE DULCE DE LECHE CAPRINO EN COSTA RICA

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    David Mora Valverde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistema de producción a pequeña escala de dulce de leche caprino en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar un estudio de factibilidad para la diversifi cación productiva y comercial de un sistema caprino a través de la producción de dulce de leche. Éste incluyó el estudio de factibilidad, el desarrollo del proceso de producción y el diseño de producto para la elaboración a pequeña escala. Fue desarrollado en la provincia de San José, Costa Rica, en el cantón de Mora entre los meses de agosto del 2009 hasta enero del 2010. Se cuantifi caron datos por concepto de inversión, costos de producción, e índices fi nancieros. El estudio obtuvo una inversión de US $1360 (¢685 000* para una unidad con capacidad de transformación de 50 litros diarios. Se defi nió con un costo de producción por litro de dulce de leche de US$ 6,46 (¢3265, por presentación de 275 ml un costo de US$ 2,54 (¢1284. Con una tasa de actualización de 12% la proyección del proyecto generó un valor actual neto (VAN de US$ 24 530 (¢12 388 000 (US$ 0,41 ó ¢209 por unidad de venta, con un periodo de vida útil del mismo estimado en diez años. Conjuntamente se determinó un valor de Tasa interna de retorno (TIR de 226%. Respecto a los costos productivos anuales, el rubro de mayor importancia representó la compra de leche, con un 35% del costo total de producción, seguido por el envasado (18% y etiquetado (16%. El dato de rentabilidad fi nanciera correspondió a un 17,9%.

  8. Intoxicação aguda por triclorfon em caprinos tratados com a dose terapêutica

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    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descreve um surto de intoxicação por triclorfon em caprinos, que receberam pela via oral, a dosagem terapêutica do princípio ativo em questão (100mg/kg, provenientes da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, campus de Umuarama, PR. Cinquenta e três ovinos foram tratados com a mesma formulação/solução e não se observou nenhum efeito colateral nos animais referente ao tratamento com triclorfon. Das 20 cabras medicadas, cerca de 40 minutos após a administração do triclorfon, oito apresentaram os clássicos sinais clínicos de ataxia, decúbito externo-lateral, sialorreia, tremores, constrição das pupilas, dispneia com ruídos, micção e defecação involuntária, paresia espástica, timpanismo e lacrimejamento. Quase que imediatamente após a detecção destes sinais, as oito cabras foram medicadas com sulfato de atropina 1% 0,5mg/kg mais fluidoterapia. Cinco destes animais tiveram de receber nova dosagem de sulfato de atropina uma hora após a primeira aplicação, em função de alguns sinais clínicos, como tremores musculares, ainda estarem presentes. De 48 a 72 horas após a administração do triclorfon, três destes cinco animais vieram a óbito. Na necropsia, foi possível observar mucosas cianóticas, congestão de fígado, baço e rins, vasos mesentéricos congestos, vesícula biliar repleta, enfisema pulmonar, parênquima pulmonar avermelhado. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho chamam atenção que o surto aconteceu em cabras adultas, que apresentavam boas condições clínicas e acima de tudo, receberam a dosagem terapêutica recomendada em bula pelo fabricante. Talvez isso possa indicar alguma sensibilidade mais elevada desta espécie animal à dosagem recomendada em bula do triclorfon (100mg/kg para caprinos.

  9. Avaliação do sistema integrado de controle parasitário em uma criação semi-intensiva de caprinos na região de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschmidt, J; Bier, D.; F.S. Fortes; P. Warzensaky; A.M. Bainy; A.A.S. Macedo; M.B. Molento

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi subsidiar um programa sustentável de controle parasitário em um rebanho caprino em São Francisco do Sul, SC, aplicando o Sistema Integrado de Controle Parasitário (SICOPA). Foram utilizados 63 caprinos, distribuídos em nove grupos para teste de eficácia de anti-helmínticos, exames de contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), coprocultura, grau Famacha, micro-hematócrito, escore corporal e contagem de larvas no pasto. A redução da OPG 15 dias pós-tratamento com c...

  10. Estudo sobre a sensibilidade dos caprinos à toxidez de crotalárias tóxicas para bovinos visando a sua utilização na profilaxia

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    Ana Paula C. Pires

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A intoxicação por plantas é sabidamente uma das principais causas de morte de bovinos adultos no Brasil. Uma vez que pouco pode ser feito no que diz respeito ao tratamento destas intoxicações, os esforços devem se concentrar na adoção de medidas profiláticas alternativas, como a utilização de uma espécie menos sensível no local de ocorrência de determinadas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a sensibilidade de caprinos às crotalárias (Crotalaria spectabilis e Crotalaria juncea para que estes possam ser utilizados na profilaxia da intoxicação por essas plantas em bovinos. Sementes de C. spectabilis e C. juncea foram fornecidas em doses únicas ou diárias a oito caprinos adultos jovens, de ambos os sexos, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de quatro animais (um grupo para cada planta. Dos quatro caprinos que receberam as sementes de C. juncea, nenhum desenvolveu sinais clínicos de intoxicação ou apresentou alterações significativas no exame bioquímico. Entre os quatro caprinos que receberam sementes de C. spectabilis três morreram. Um animal recebeu uma dose única de 20g/kg de sementes da planta e desenvolveu sinais de intoxicação aguda, caracterizadas macro e microscopicamente por necrose hemorrágica centrolobular. Os outros dois caprinos desenvolveram um quadro de intoxicação crônica pela administração de doses diárias de 2g/kg de sementes da planta por 35 e 150 dias respectivamente. Um animal apresentou uma marcada pneumonia intersticial e lesões hepáticas leves, enquanto no outro caprino observaram-se apenas lesões hepáticas crônicas. Ambos os animais apresentaram alterações transitórias ao exame bioquímico. O quarto caprino recebeu a dose única de 10g/kg, sobreviveu e não apresentou alterações clínicas ou da bioquímica sanguínea significativas. Os resultados do trabalho mostraram que não se deve usar caprinos como medida profilática na intoxicação por C

  11. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae Intoxicação experimental por swainsonina em caprinos ingerindo Ipomoea sericophylla e Ipomoea riedelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossemberg C. Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    albumin, and the serum activities of gamma glutamyl transferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Swainsonine concentration of 0.05% in I. sericophylla and 0.01% in I. riedelii are different from samples of these plants used in previous experiments, which contained 0.14% and 0.5% swainsonine, respectively, demonstrating a wide variation in the toxicity of different samples.Ipomoea sericophylla e Ipomoea riedelii causam uma doença de armazenamento de glicoproteínas em caprinos. Este trabalho relata a intoxicação experimental em caprinos por I. sericophylla e I. riedelii contendo 0,05% e 0,01% de swainsonina, respectivamente. Foram utilizados três grupos de quatro animais. O Grupo 1 recebeu doses diárias de 2g/kg peso vivo (pv de I. sericophylla dessecada (150mg de swainsonina/kg. Os caprinos deste grupo apresentaram sinais clínicos 36-38 dias após o início da ingestão. O Grupo 2 ingeriu diariamente 2g/kg de I. riedelii dessecada (30mg de swainsonina/kg por 70 dias. Como não foram observados sinais clínicos a dose de suainsonina foi aumentada para 60mg/kg por outros 70 dias. Os caprinos do Grupo 2 apresentaram sinais clínicos 26-65 dias após o aumento da dose de swainsonina para 60mg/kg. O Grupo 3 foi utilizado como controle. Neste experimento, a menor dose tóxica de swainsonina foi de 60mg/kg, que representa 0,0004% da matéria seca, em caprinos ingerindo 1,5% pv de matéria seca. Para caprinos ingerindo 2%-2,5% pv de matéria seca essa dose corresponderia a 0,00024%-0,0003 % da matéria seca. Após o final do experimento dois caprinos foram eutanasiados e outros seis foram observados para conferir a recuperação dos sinais clínicos. Quatro caprinos que continuaram ingerindo as plantas contendo suainsonina por 39-89 dias após os primeiros sinais clínicos permaneceram com sinais clínicos irreversíveis, enquanto que dois caprinos que ingeriram as plantas por 15 e 20 dias após os primeiros sinais clínicos se recuperaram totalmente. Estes resultados e os

  12. Paratuberculosis en rebaños caprinos chilenos Paratuberculosis in Chilean dairy goat herds

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    J Kruze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis caprina está ampliamente distribuida a nivel mundial y recientemente la enfermedad ha sido oficialmente reportada en Chile. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el estado de infección de algunos rebaños caprinos lecheros en diferentes regiones del país y bajo dos sistemas de manejo, intensivo y extensivo. Se analizaron muestras de material fecal de 383 animales > 2 años de edad provenientes de 8 rebaños lecheros ubicados en la Región Metropolitana (2, IX Región (5 y X Región (1. Para la selección de los rebaños no se consideraron diferencias en las rutinas de manejo. Las muestras de materia fecal se recolectaron por vía rectal y, previa descontaminación con HPC y antibióticos, se cultivaron en medio de Herrold con yema de huevo y micobactina J, por un período máximo de 9 meses. Las colonias sospechosas de Map fueron confirmadas por PCR (IS900 utilizando partidores específicos para este patógeno (P90+ y P91+. Del total de animales muestreados, 35 (9,1% resultaron positivos al cultivo fecal, provenientes todos de sólo 4 rebaños cuya característica común era que no practicaban medidas de manejo para prevenir la infección de los animales jóvenes y habían importado animales de alta producción y selección genética. Por el contrario, los rebaños no infectados se caracterizaban por un manejo más extensivo, formado sólo por razas criollas con un núcleo de reproductores cerrado y están ubicados en áreas geográficas donde no se explotan otras especies de animales rumiantes susceptibles a Map. El presente estudio permite confirmar que la paratuberculosis caprina está presente en Chile, especialmente en aquellos rebaños que han introducido al país animales de alta genética lechera. Por lo tanto, es necesario evaluar el riesgo de introducir la infección en un área libre antes de comprar animales para mejorar la producción del rebaño, realizando un diagnóstico previo en los planteles de

  13. Population estimates, density–dependence and the risk of disease outbreaks in the Alpine ibex Capra ibex

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    De Danieli, C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife monitoring and the identification of factors associated with disease outbreaks are major goals in wildlife conservation. We reviewed demographic and epidemiological data for the Alpine ibex Capra ibex from 1975–2013 to characterize the species’ abundance and distribution dynamics on a large scale. We also explored methodological bias in monitoring and analyzed the factors potentially associated with the risk of disease outbreaks. Our results revealed that the overall abundance and distribution of Alpine ibex appeared to be increasing at both national and international scales, in agreement with the IUCN’s ‘Least Concern’ conservation status on the international scale and on the national scale for Italy, Switzerland and France. Our comparative analysis of common monitoring methods highlights the fact that abundance values from counts are underestimated and suggests that the Alpine ibex is more abundant than is usually reported. The appearance and persistence of disease outbreaks (e.g. sarcoptic mange, keratoconjunctivitis or brucellosis are related to local ibex density and abundance. The observed correlation between the demographic growth of ibex populations and disease outbreaks suggests that the risk of epizooties may be increasing or might already be high in several populations of Capra ibex.

  14. SAZONALIDADE DA PRODUÇÃO ESPERMÁTICA DE REPRODUTORES CAPRINOS EFFECT OF SEASONAL CHANGE ON GOAT SPERMATIC PRODUCTION

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    Benedito Dias de Oliveira Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Caprinos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de janeiro a dezembro de 1989. Foram utilizados quatro animais da raça parda, com idade variando de 12 a 18 meses. Os animais permaneceram em piquetes de capim Brachiaria decumbens e foram suplementados com concentrado protéico e energético de forma a suprir as exigências nutricionais dos mesmos, segundo o NRC. As estações climáticas foram determinadas utilizando como parâmetros as variações de temperatura mínima, precipitação pluvial e umidade relativa. As estações ficaram assim divididas: A (janeiro, fevereiro e março, B (abril, maio e junho, C (julho, agosto e setembro e E (outubro, novembro e dezembro. O sêmen foi coletado pelo método da eletroejaculação e analisado quanto ao volume, motilidade, concentração e morfologia. Os valores de volume nas quatro estações definidas foram: 0,91; 1,04; 1,07 e 0,96 ml, respectivamente, sendo as diferenças estatisticamente não significativas entre si (p < 0,05. A concentração espermática apresentou para as estações A, E, C e D os seguintes valores, respectivamente: 1.201,5; 1.018,2; 1.161,2 e 1.015,5 milhões por ml, não sendo diferentes entre si (p < 0,05. A motilidade foi de 80,25; 63,5; 76,0 e 73,75% para as estações A, B, C e D, respectivamente, não apresentando diferenças entre si (p < 0,05. A patologia em coloração giensa apresentou os valores de 0,5; 0,38; 0,12 e 0,64%, respectivamente para as estações A, B, C e D, não sendo estatisticamente diferentes (p < 0,05. A patologia em contraste de fase apresentou diferenças significativas (p < 0,05, com a porcentagem média para as estações A, B, C e D, sendo de 0,5; 0,5; 0,12 e 1,23, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a estação de maior umidade relativa do ar foi mais prejudicial à espermatogênese dos caprinos, sendo que

  15. O antagonismo com acetamida em experimentos com ovinos, caprinos e coelhos indica monofluoroacetato como princípio tóxico de Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae

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    Michel A Helayel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito protetor da acetamida nas intoxicações experimentais por Pseudocalymma elegans em ovinos, caprinos e coelhos, com a finalidade de comprovar indiretamente que o monofluoroacetato (MF é responsável pelos sinais clínicos e a morte dos animais que ingerem essa planta. Foram realizados experimentos para determinar a dose letal da planta coletada em Rio Bonito, RJ, em diferentes épocas do ano para ovinos e caprinos e ajustar a dose de acetamida a ser administrada. - No primeiro experimento, dois ovinos e dois caprinos receberam 1,0g/kg de P. elegans fresca e um animal de cada espécie foi tratado previamente com 2,0g/kg de acetamida. Nenhum animal apresentou alterações clínicas ou morreu. Ao que tudo indica a planta poderia estar menos tóxica, já que foi coletada no fim da estação das águas. - No segundo experimento, dois ovinos e dois caprinos receberam 0,67 e 1,0g/kg da planta dessecada, após tratamento prévio, com 2,0 e 3,0g/kg de acetamida, respectivamente. Todos os animais morreram, pois administramos doses muito altas de P. elegans. - No terceiro experimento, dois ovinos e dois caprinos receberam 0,333g/kg de P. elegans dessecada, após administração prévia de 2,0 g/kg de acetamida. Uma semana depois, o protocolo acima foi repetido, porém sem o antídoto. Nos experimentos com coelhos, foram administradas doses de 0,5 e 1,0g/kg de elegans dessecada após a administração de 3,0g/kg de acetamida. Sete dias depois, repetiu-se o protocolo, com exceção da administração de acetamida. Esta, quando administrada previamente, evitou o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos e a morte dos ovinos, caprinos e coelhos, já os animais não tratados com acetamida apresentaram sintomatologia e morreram. Clinicamente, os ovinos e caprinos manifestaram taquicardia, jugulares ingurgitadas, pulso venoso positivo, decúbito esternal e tremores musculares. Na "fase dramática", os animais ca

  16. Teste de pele em caprinos vacinados e infectados com Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Skin test of goats vaccinated and infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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    Francisco Selmo Fernandes Alves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Dez caprinos foram vacinados com toxóide a 3%, outros dez com uma bacterina e mais dois grupos-controle de cinco animais cada, submetidos à inoculação de infusão de cérebro e coração e solução salina, respectivamente. Todos os animais foram examinados e avaliados com um teste de pele. Tanto o toxóide quanto a bacterina foram produzidos a partir de amostra de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Todos os caprinos foram desafiados com C. pseudotuberculosis, trinta dias após as vacinações. Nenhuma das vacinas induziu reação de hipersensibilidade na pele dos caprinos antes do desafio. Após o desafio, todos os animais desenvolveram reações mensuráveis na primeira, quinta e décima semana em resposta ao teste de pele. Os diâmetros da reação dérmica aumentaram do décimo dia à quinta semana após o desafio. As medidas alcançaram tamanho maior na décima semana. O resultado deste estudo indica que antígeno específico do C. pseudotuberculosis pode ser utilizado em caprinos no diagnóstico da linfadenite caseosa como teste de pele ou como instrumento experimental para monitorar o desenvolvimento da doença.Ten goats were vaccinated with a 3% toxoid, ten vaccinated with a bacterin and two control groups (five animals each inoculated with brain heart infusion and saline solution, respectively. All animals were skin tested with a crude antigen of formalin-killed Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacterial cells. All goats were challenged with a virulent C. pseudotuberculosis thirty days after vaccination. Neither the vaccinated nor control goats responded to the skin test prior to infection. After the challenge, dermal reactions were demonstrated in all animals at one week, five and ten weeks. The diameters increased from the first week, five and ten weeks. The reactions were more proeminent at ten weeks. The results of this study indicate that skin testing with a specific bacterial antigen of C. pseudotuberculosis may be useful

  17. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Colodel Edson M.; Driemeier David; Loretti Alexandre P.; Gimeno Eduardo J; Traverso Sandra D.; Seitz Anderson L.; Zlotowski Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, postura...

  18. Caracterización social y comercial de los sistemas ovinos y caprinos de la región noroeste de República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Daniel; García Martínez, Antón Rafael; Perea Muñoz, José Manuel; Acero de la Cruz, Raquel; Gómez-Castro, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    A fin de estudiar los aspectos sociales y comerciales que caracterizan al sistema de producción de ovinos y caprinos de la región noroeste de República Dominicana, se muestrearon 94 explotaciones (24% de la población), aplicando el método de encuesta directa mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado con asignación proporcional. Las explotaciones que conforman este sistema ganadero son en un 82% familiares, con antigüedad en torno a 16 ±1,3 años. El 93% de los propietarios...

  19. - Evaluación de la capacidad fecundante del semen caprino congelado. Aplicación actual (Evaluation of the fecundante capacity of semen goat congealed. Present application)

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, R .; Ceiro, F ; .; Maria Grimon; Odelin Brea; Sara Neira

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó en las provincias de Santiago de Cuba y Holguín apoyados por cada una de las unidades estatales y productores particulares, en él se evaluó la capacidad fecundante del semen caprino congelado, para el cual las muestras fueron obtenidas del Centro de (I.A.) de Cerca Blanca y del Centro de (I.A.) provincial de Bayamo, los trabajos de fecundación artificial fueron llevado a cabo por técnicos de las distintas empresas, a través del método cervical superficial, se anali...

  20. Caracterización microecologica de nemátodos parásitos presentes en caprinos de zonas áridas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Morales; Luz A. Pino; Elis Aldana; Luis Perdomo; Emilia Molina

    1986-01-01

    Se determinó que los caprinos de las zonas áridas de Venezuela son parasitados por lassiguientes especies de nemátodos: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia curticei, Oesophagostomun columbianum, Skrjabinema ovis y Trichuris globulosa. Los valores del índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver oscilaron entre 0,045 y 1,73 bits (X = 1,15 ± 0,24 bits). La diversidad máxima por mes presenta valores que van desde 1 a 2,80 bits (X = 2,49 ± 0,28 bits) y la equitabilid...

  1. Resistência à intoxicação por Amorimia septentrionalis em caprinos, induzida pela inoculação ruminal das bactérias Pigmentiphaga kullae e Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A.N. Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, estima-se que as intoxicações por plantas tóxicas que contém monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA causam a morte de aproximadamente 500.000 bovinosao ano. A inoculação ruminal de bactérias que degradam MFA tem sido proposta como uma forma de prevenir a intoxicação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em caprinos, a resistência ao MFA presente em Amorimia septentrionalis, induzida por inoculação ruminal das bactérias Pigmentiphaga kullae e Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus. Doze caprinos, que nunca tiveram contato prévio com plantas que contêm MFA, foram divididos em dois grupos, com seis animais cada. No grupo 1, 60 mL de uma mistura das duas bactérias foi inoculada, diariamente, durante 10 dias em cada caprino. No grupo 2, os caprinos não receberam as bactérias. A partir do 10º dia de inoculação, A. septentrionalis foi administrada, diariamente, na dose de 5g/kg de peso vivo, sendo interrompida em cada animal após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Os caprinos do grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos 5,83±2,56 dias após a administração da planta o que diferiu significativamente (p=0,037 dos caprinos do grupo 2, que apresentaram sinais clínicos aos 2,67±0,52 dias. A quantidade de planta ingerida pelos caprinos inoculados (28,83±12,97g/kg e os não inoculados (12,03±3,65g/kg para desencadear os sinais clínicos foi, também, estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos (p=0,025. Conclui-se que a administração intraruminal de Pigmentiphaga kullae e Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus induz resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA.

  2. Efeitos do suco de alho (Allium sativum Linn. sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos Effects of garlic juice (Allium sativum Linn. on gastrintestinal nematodes of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Moreira Batatinha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do suco de alho sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos. Foram utilizados 20 animais, distribuídos em dois grupos tratados com o suco de alho, um grupo tratado com ivermectina e um grupo controle sem tratamento. Os percentuais de redução do número de ovos e larvas de Strongyloidea foram inferiores a 95% para todos os grupos. O tratamento de caprinos com o suco de alho não foi eficiente no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the garlic juice on goat gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty animals were alocated into two groups and treated with garlic juice. One group was treated with ivermectin and one control group was not treated. The percentage reductions in egg and larvae counts of the Strongyloidea were under 95% for all groups. The treatment of goats with garlic juice was not an effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. Fatores ambientais e genéticos sobre a curva de crescimento de caprinos mestiços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Silva Figueiredo Filho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar a curva de crescimento, por meio de modelos nãolineares, de 399 caprinos mestiços Boer x Anglonubiana criados extensivamente na microrregião de Teresina, PI, nascidos entre 2006 e 2010, e estudar fatores ambientais e genéticos que influenciam a curva de crescimento. Os modelos ajustados foram Gompertz, Logístico, Von Bertalanffy, Brody e Richards. Após ajuste dos modelos procedeu-se estudo dos efeitos ambientais sobre a curva decrescimento, sendo considerados os efeitos de ano, estação, tipo de nascimento, sexo e rebanho. As médias dos pesos foram baixas, indicando reflexo do sistema de criação extensivo adotado. O modelo de Gompertz apresentou melhor ajuste, de acordo com os critérios QMR, R², percentual de convergência, comportamento gráfico e DMA. Constatou-se influência significativa (p<0,05 dos efeitos de ano e estação de nascimento, tipo de nascimento, sexo e rebanho sobre os parâmetros A, B e k da curva de crescimento ajustada e sobre os pesos estimados a partir da curva ajustada. A Taxa de Crescimento Absoluta máxima foi observada precocemente aos 35 dias de idade, indicando que os animais sofreram déficit nutricional que refletem no crescimento, principalmente na fase pós desmama. As herdabilidades estimadas para os parâmetros da curva foram de baixa magnitude, resultando em pequena alteração do padrão de crescimento dos animais estudadospor meio de seleção individual. A baixa variância genética para os parâmetros da curva ajustada é conseqüência das limitações amostrais do banco de dados.

  4. Desempenho produtivo em caprinos mestiços no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Francisco Luiz Ribeiro da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado para avaliar as características produtivas dos caprinos mestiços submetidos às condições climáticas do semi-árido nordestino. Foram utilizadas 657 cabras, as quais foram mantidas em pasto nativo, no período seco, e alimentadas com milho e farelo de soja, e 945 crias mestiças, que foram aleitadas com leite de vaca até 24 horas de vida. As médias das cabras para prolificidade e peso ao parto foram respectivamente 1,69+0,03 e 36,38+0,03 kg, para ½ Pardo Alpina (PA + ½ Moxotó (MO; 1,59+0,05 e 36,24+0,58 kg, para ¾ PA + ¼ MO; e 1,78+0,04 e 37,25+0,46 kg, para ½ Anglo Nubiana (NA + ¼ PA + ¼ MO (Tricross. As médias de peso das crias ao nascer, aos 28, 56 e 84 dias de idade, foram respectivamente 2,26+0,04; 4,02+0,07; 6,93+0,14; e 10,97+0,03 kg, para ½ PA + ½ MO, 2,46+0,03; 4,32+0,05; 7,85+0,10 kg; e 12,18+0,19 kg, na mesma ordem de peso, para ¾ PA + ¼ MO e 2,46+0,03; 4,30+0,04; 7,48+0,09; e 11,86+0,17 kg, também na mesma ordem de peso, para Tricross. As cabras mestiças apresentaram prolificidade semelhante às nativas. As crias ¾ Pardo Alpina e as Tricross foram mais pesadas que as crias ½ Pardo Alpina + ½ MO, provavelmente em função do maior percentual de sangue exótico observado nestes dois grupos genéticos.

  5. Characteristics of the Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica hispánica of Madrona and Sierra Quintana (Spain). The success of private management

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Hernández, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Real Club de Monteros, an association of Spanish hunters, has been supporting research on the Madrona Iberian wild goat. This is one of the least studied populations of Capra pyrenaica in Spain and was nearly exterminated from the Madrona range in the middle of the 20th' century, when there were possibly less than 20 individuals. Our aim was to determine the distribution area of the goat, estimate its relative density and population structure, and...

  6. A Two-Years' Survey on the Prevalence of Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium caprae in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Tyrol, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Karl; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Glawischnig, Walter; Hofer, Erwin; Revilla-Fernandez, Sandra; Hofrichter, Johannes; Fritz, Johannes; Köfer, Josef; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 143 hunter-harvested red deer for tuberculosis was conducted in an Alpine area in Western Austria over two subsequent years. There, single tuberculosis cases caused by Mycobacterium caprae had been detected in cattle and red deer over the preceding decade. The area under investigation covered approximately 500 km(2), divided into five different hunting plots. Lymph nodes of red deer were examined grossly and microscopically for typical tuberculosis-like lesions and additionally by microbiological culturing. Executing a detailed hunting plan, nine M. caprae isolates were obtained. Six out of nine originated from one single hunting plot with the highest estimated prevalence of tuberculosis, that is, 23.1%. All isolates were genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing of 24 standard loci plus VNTR 1982. All nine isolates belonged to a single cluster termed "Lechtal" which had been found in cattle and red deer in the region, demonstrating a remarkable dominance and stability over ten years. This is the first report on a systematic prospective study investigating the prevalence and strain variability of M. caprae infection in red deer in Austria and in the Alpine countries.

  7. Avaliação "in vivo" da composição corporal e da carcaça de caprinos: uso de ultrasonografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Teixeira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Atendendo ao crescente interesse na produção e consumo de carne de caprinos e à cada vez maior necessidade de recorrer a metodologias rápidas que proporcionem a predição da composição corporal e qualidade da carcaça, realizamos uma revisão dos últimos trabalhos realizados com recurso à técnica dos ultra-sons. Após uma breve resenha histórica sobre a evolução do uso do método na caprinicultura, são referidos os princípios da técnica e a sua aplicação aos caprinos (operador, identificação de pontos anatómicos de medida, diferentes medidas corporais e na carcaça, tipos de aparelhos e sondas e acondicionamento animal. São posteriormente analisados os resultados das principais pesquisas recentemente efectuadas. Finalmente são discutidas as expectativas futuras para o uso da técnica de ultra-sons na avaliação in vivo de caprinos, com referência a diferentes procedimentos para a obtenção de modelos de predição.Considering the increasing interest in the production and meat goat consumption and the necessity to appeal the rapid methodologies that provide to predict the body composition and quality of the carcass, we carry through a revision of the last works using ultrasound technology. After a brief history description about the evolution of the use of ultrasound methods in goats, the main important principles of the technique and its application in goats are refereed (operator, anatomical point's identification for measurements, different body and carcass measures, types of probes and equipment and animal handling. The most recent results of works in goats to predict carcass composition were mentioned. Finally the future expectations for the use of ultrasound technology to evaluate in vivo goats are discussed with a reference of different procedures to obtain the prediction models.

  8. Gestión del conocimiento: mayor producción y competitividad. Perspectivas para los sistemas de producción ovino-caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Ospina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ovinos se presentan hoy día en Colombia como una de las especies promisorias para el sector pecuario, con un despertar en la actividad que se manifiesta con un incremento del inventario, que según Faostat (datos debatibles, ha pasado de 2’400.000 cabezas en el año 2000 a 3’400.000 para el 2008; por su lado, las cabras han pasado de 1’200.000 a 1’300.000 cabezas en el mismo periodo, creciendo, aunque con un ritmo menor que el de las ovejas. Según esta base de datos, la misma tendencia se observa en el consumo per cápita de carne ovino-caprina que partiendo de 270 g/persona/año para el 2000 llega a 370 g/persona/año para el 2008. Este crecimiento en el inventario y el consumo per cápita del ovino-caprino impulsa la necesidad de aprovechar no solo las ventajas comparativas, sino también la generación de ventajas competitivas que lleven a la ovino-cultura y la caprino-cultura colombiana por el camino de la competitividad y la globalización, aprovechando las oportunidades en el mercado nacional y de exportación. El eficaz aprovechamiento de dichas ventajas implica la incorporación de los datos, la información y el conocimiento como factores de producción dentro de un proceso ordenado, bajo el marco de un sistema de “gestión de conocimiento”. El presente documento trata los fundamentos teóricos sobre los cuales se discute la manera como los datos, la información y el conocimiento se transforman en productividad y competitividad; se tratan los temas del “Big-Bang”, la entropía y neguentropía, la complejidad, la teoría de sistemas, la teoría del conocimiento, la epistemología, el management, la economía del conocimiento, la planeación estratégica, la espiral del conocimiento en las organizaciones, y la gestión del conocimiento, procurando algunas aproximaciones al sector agropecuario y la contextualización de la gestión del conocimiento en la ovino-cultura y caprino-cultura colombiana.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites in goats from Monte Castelo, Santa Catarina, Brazil Parasitas gastrintestinais em caprinos de Monte Castelo, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Perito Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of estimating the degree of gastrointestinal helminth infection in goats on the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina. Twelve young females and 11 adult females were used. Every 28 days, feces samples were taken to quantify the nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Larval culturing was performed on a pool of positive samples from the same group. The fecal egg counts (FECs ranged from zero to 10,400 EPG in the young group and zero to 7,600 EPG in the adult group. The mean FECs were between 583.3 and 4441.7 in the young group and between 418.2 and 2181.8 in the adult group. Eggs of the order Strongylida and genera Moniezia and Toxocara, and oocysts of Coccidia, were observed. The young animals were more affected and Haemonchus was the most prevalent genus in the samples.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar o grau de infecção dos helmintos gastrintestinais em um rebanho caprino criado no Planalto Norte Catarinense. Foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas jovens e 11 adultas, das quais, a cada 28 dias, foram coletadas amostras de fezes diretamente do reto, totalizando 12 coletas, para quantificação de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e cultivo de larvas através de "pool" das amostras positivas do mesmo grupo. A contagem de OPG variou de zero a 10.400 nos animais jovens e de zero a 7.600 nos adultos. As médias do OPG entre as coletas foram de 583,3 a 4.441,7 no grupo jovem e de 418,2 a 2.181,8 nos adultos, sendo observados ovos da ordem Strongylida, dos gêneros Moniezia e Toxocara, bem como oocistos de coccídeos. Os animais mais jovens foram os mais acometidos, sendo o gênero Haemonchus o mais prevalente.

  10. Seed germination of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) Sweet%厚藤种子萌发特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建强; 胡军飞; 欧丹燕; 胡冬冬; 金水虎

    2011-01-01

    以厚藤Ipomoea pes-caprae种子为试验材料,测定其种子的大小、千粒质量、硬实率、生活力以及在不同处理条件下的发芽势和发芽率.结果表明:机械处理下的效果最好,其种子平均发芽势和发芽率均提高到95.3%;其次为980 g·kg-1硫酸处理90min较好,平均发芽势达到91.2%,发芽率达93.5%;氢氧化钠处理也可明显提高厚藤种子萌发能力,400g·kg-1氢氧化钠处理36 h的平均发芽率可达79.4%;不同温度处理以25~30℃的萌发能力最强,其发芽势为24.6%,发芽率为43.4%.实际工作中,可以采用机械处理或酸碱处理的方法以提高厚藤种子的萌发能力.图2表4参18%In this research the influence of different treatments on seed germination characteristics of Ipomoea pes-caprae were studied to determine effective measures for enhancing the germination rate and germination potential. Treatments included a mechanical treatment, 98% H2SO4 solution for 90 min, 40% NaOH solution for 36 h, and a temperature treatment between 15 - 20, 20 - 25 and 25 - 30 ℃. Results showed that the mechanical treatment was best with both the average germination potential and average germination rate of 95.3%. Also, with the H2O4 solution, the average germination potential was 91.2%, and the average germination rate was 93.5%. The NaOH solution treatment improved the average germination potential to 79.4% and the average germination rate to 40%. For the temperature treatment, germination was highest when temperatures were between 25 - 30 ℃ with the average germination potential reaching 24.6% and the average germination rate attaining 43.4%. Thus, the mechanical, the 98% H2SO4, or the NaOH solution treatments could improve seed germination of I. pes-caprae.

  11. UTILIZAÇÃO DO TESTE HIPOSMÓTICO PARA AVALIAR A EFICÁCIA DE DIFERENTES PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DO SÊMEN CAPRINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Freitas Vasconcelos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar a eficácia de quatro protocolos de congelação do sêmen caprino (glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA, através da utilização do teste hiposmótico (HOST. O sêmen foi colhido de dois machos da raça Alpina, sexualmente maduros, diluído nos diferentes meios, congelado e armazenado em nitrogênio líquido. Após a colheita, 20ìL do sêmen fresco foram incubados com 01mL de solução hiposmótica (combinação de citrato de sódio e frutose em água destilada com osmolaridade de 125mOsmol, em banho-maria a 370C por 30 minutos. Este procedimento foi repetido após a descongelação e, em seguida, uma amostra foi colocada sobre lâmina/lamínula e avaliada em contraste de fase com mil vezes de aumento. Um total de 100 células foi contado, e as médias percentuais de espermatozóides com edema ou dobramento de cauda, após o HOST, foram – para o sêmen fresco, glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA –, respectivamente, 53,89; 16,90; 10,25; 52,64 e 57,54. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caprinos, criopreservação, sêmen, teste hiposmótico

  12. Avaliação genética de caprinos da raça Saanen nascidos no Brasil de 1979 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar herdabilidades, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e tendências genéticas das características morfológicas e de tipo de caprinos da raça Saanen nascidos no Brasil de 1979 a 2009. Dados de 1243 caprinos, 197 machos e 1046 fêmeas, foram utilizados para estimar parâmetros genéticos e tendência das características: perímetro torácico, comprimento corporal, altura na cernelha, altura, largura e comprimento da garupa, bem como as principais características que definem o padrão racial e a aptidão do animal (paleta e linha superior, membros e pés, tipo leiteiro, capacidade de corpo, úbere, ligamento traseiro e dianteiro, textura do úbere, tetos e nota. Os componentes de variância foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita em análise multicaracterística. A tendência genética foi obtida por meio da regressão dos valores genéticos médios por ano de nascimento. As estimativas de herdabilidade das características morfofuncionais variaram de 0,08 a 0,45, as correlações genéticas de -0,58 a 0,89 e fenotípicas de -0,11 a 0,87. A tendência foi de um leve declínio ao longo dos anos para a maior parte das características avaliadas, o que evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética aditiva entre os animais, mas demonstra que a seleção praticada tem sido pouco efetiva.

  13. Uso de própolis e ácido ascórbico na criopreservação do sêmen caprino Use of propolis and ascorbic acid on goat semen cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Fonseca Castilho; José Domingos Guimarães; Leonardo Franco Martins; Rogério Oliveira Pinho; Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães; Cláudio José Borela Espeschit

    2009-01-01

    Os objetivos neste estudo foram verificar se a própolis e o ácido ascórbico têm efeito sobre a integridade da membrana plasmática dos espermatozoides de caprinos e investigar o potencial desses antioxidantes no uso de meios diluidores de criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Foram utilizados cinco bodes adultos das raças Alpina (n = 2) e Saanen (n = 3). Após a coleta de sêmen, realizaram-se o exame físico do sêmen e morfológico dos espermatozoides, o teste supravital e o teste hiposmótico. Em seg...

  14. Soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em rebanhos caprinos no Estado de São Paulo Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dairy goats in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Soares Mainardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi colhido um total de 442 soros em rebanhos caprinos de sete regiões do Estado de São Paulo e testados para anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Em todos os rebanhos, foram encontrados caprinos reagentes, totalizando 64 (14,5% animais com sorologia positiva em diferentes capris.Four hundred forty-two serum samples were collected from dairy goats in seven regions of São Paulo State. These were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Sixty-four (14,5% serologically positive animals were found from all these goat farms studied.

  15. Soroprevalência e fatores associados à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos de propriedades rurais do município de Mossoró, RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V.A. Nunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O município de Mossoró/RN, no Nordeste do Brasil, tem como destaque a criação de caprinos. A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose que é mais patogênico para os caprinos do que para os demais animais de abate. Em caprinos, o protozoário frequentemente é responsável por problemas reprodutivos e perdas econômicas. Com o objetivo de identificar a soroprevalência e os fatores de risco da toxoplasmose em caprinos de propriedades rurais do Município de Mossoró, amostras de soro de 338 animais (320 fêmeas e 18 machos de 15 unidades produtoras foram testados pelo Ensaio Imunoenzimático (ELISA. Das 15 propriedades, 14 apresentaram animais soropositivos para toxoplasmose, e nestas o total de animais positivos foram de 125 (123 fêmeas e 2 machos, obtendo uma prevalência de 37,0%. Houve uma relação significativa (p<0,05 entre a prevalência e o sexo, e entre a prevalência e raça dos animais. As chances de ocorrer (OR mais importantes associados à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii foram: fonte de água (OR=2,635, vasilhames para a água dos animais localizado fora das instalações da propriedade (OR=3,121 e a exploração do tipo leiteira (OR=2,546. Pela análise do ELISA de avidez, foram encontradas fêmeas em idade reprodutiva na fase aguda da infecção.

  16. Genetic Characterization of a Novel Mutant of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated from Capra ibex in China during 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zixiang; Zhang, Xiaocui; Adili, Gulizhati; Huang, Jiong; Du, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiangle; Li, Pengfei; Zheng, Xueguang; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue; Xue, Qinghong

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). The spread of PPR often causes severe economic losses. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the surveillance of PPR emergence, spread, and geographic distribution. Here we describe a novel mutant of PPRV China/XJBZ/2015 that was isolated from Capra ibex in Xinjiang province in China 2015. The sequence analysis and phylogenetic assessment indicate that China/XJBZ/2015 belongs to lineage IV, being closely related to China/XJYL/2013 strain. Interestingly, the V protein sequence of China/XJBZ/2015 showed lower homology with other Chinese PPRVs isolated during 2013 to 2014 (94%~95%), whereas it shared 100% identity with three Tibet strains isolated in China 2007. The 3' UTR, V gene, and C gene were determined to be highly variable. Besides, 29 PPR genomic sequences available in GenBank were analyzed in this study. It is the first time to use PPRV genomic sequences to classify the different lineages which confirmed the lineage clustering of PPRVs using N gene 255 bp fragments and F gene 322 bp fragments. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the PPRVs continue to evolve in China, and some new mutations have emerged. PMID:26998489

  17. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

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    Daniela Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  18. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

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    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  19. Protection of Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 8 in a Subclinical Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Pujols, Joan; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Granados, José Enrique; Solanes, David; Fandos, Paulino; Galindo, Iván; Domingo, Mariano; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Many wild ruminants such as Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) are susceptible to Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection, which causes disease mainly in domestic sheep and cattle. Outbreaks involving either BTV serotypes 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) are currently challenging Europe. Inclusion of wildlife vaccination among BTV control measures should be considered in certain species. In the present study, four out of fifteen seronegative Spanish ibexes were immunized with a single dose of inactivated vaccine against BTV-1, four against BTV-8 and seven ibexes were non vaccinated controls. Seven ibexes (four vaccinated and three controls) were inoculated with each BTV serotype. Antibody and IFN-gamma responses were evaluated until 28 days after inoculation (dpi). The vaccinated ibexes showed significant (P<0.05) neutralizing antibody levels after vaccination compared to non vaccinated ibexes. The non vaccinated ibexes remained seronegative until challenge and showed neutralizing antibodies from 7 dpi. BTV RNA was detected in the blood of non vaccinated ibexes from 2 to the end of the study (28 dpi) and in target tissue samples obtained at necropsy (8 and 28 dpi). BTV-1 was successfully isolated on cell culture from blood and target tissues of non vaccinated ibexes. Clinical signs were unapparent and no gross lesions were found at necropsy. Our results show for the first time that Spanish ibex is susceptible and asymptomatic to BTV infection and also that a single dose of vaccine prevents viraemia against BTV-1 and BTV-8 replication. PMID:22666321

  20. Intoxicação por Mascagnia rigida (Malpighiaceae em ovinos e caprinos Poisoning by Mascagnia rigida (Malpighiaceae in sheep and goats

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    Jackson S. de Vasconcelos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mascagnia rigida é a planta tóxica mais importante para bovinos na região Nordeste, causando morte súbita associada ao exercício. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos descrever três surtos de intoxicação por M. rigida em ovinos e um surto em caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba, reproduzir experimentalmente a intoxicação em ovinos e caprinos, e comprovar a passagem do princípio ativo de M. rigida pelo colostro destes pequenos ruminantes. Os surtos ocorreram no início do período chuvoso, quando a planta brota antes do que outras forrageiras ou após o final desse período, quando após secarem algumas forrageiras, M. rigida permanece verde. Na reprodução experimental da intoxicação por M. rigida, doses de 10 e 20g/kg de peso animal, com as planta proveniente de duas regiões diferentes, foram letais para três caprinos e três ovinos. Um caprino que ingeriu 20g/kg da planta um ovino que ingeriu 10g/kg, se recuperaram. Dois ovinos e dois caprinos que ingeriram 5g/kg tiveram sinais discretos e se recuperaram. Tanto os casos experimentais quanto os espontâneos apresentaram ingurgitamento das veias jugulares, relutância em caminhar, decúbito externo abdominal, incoordenação, respiração ofegante, depressão, instabilidade e tremores musculares. A morte ocorreu após um curso clínico de alguns minutos a 27h40 min. As principais lesões foram edema pulmonar e vacuolização e necrose de células epiteliais dos túbulos renais. Para testar se o princípio ativo de M. rigida é eliminado pelo leite causando morte súbita nas crias foi realizado um experimento com duas cabras e cinco ovelhas que ingeriram, diariamente, 2g/kg de M. rigida, nos 15 dias anteriores ao parto. Uma ovelha que tinha gestação gemelar abortou depois de ter ingerido a planta por 10 dias. Os cordeiros das demais ovelhas mamaram normalmente o colostro sem aprestar sinais clínicos. O cabrito de uma cabra mamou o colostro e 5 minutos após morreu subitamente

  1. Characterization and cryopreservation of semen from endangered markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri) with evaluation of reproductive seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezjian, Marisa; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Parks, John E; Cheong, Soon Hon; Beltaire, Katherine A

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the reproductive seasonality of four captive markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri), to characterize semen collected by electroejaculation, and to compare extenders and processing techniques for semen cryopreservation. Over the course of 1 yr, mean monthly scrotal circumference, serum testosterone, and fecal testosterone were measured and found to be inversely associated with day length. Maximum scrotal circumference (25.2 +/- 0.9 cm), serum testosterone (521.0 +/- 103.4 ng/dl), and fecal testosterone (382.5 +/- 90.3 ng/g) occurred in November, when day length was short (9.7 +/- 0.1 hr). Once a month for 3 mo (December, January, and February), bucks were anesthetized for electroejaculation and semen evaluation. Semen samples were divided into six aliquots for extension and cryopreservation in soy-based Bioxcell or Tris-based extender with 5 or 15% egg yolk, with and without centrifugation. Samples were then thawed for repeat evaluation 1-3 mo later. Postthaw evaluation revealed no significant differences between centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples. Sperm in Tris 5% and 15% egg yolk displayed higher total motility at 0, 3, and 6 hr postthaw and higher progressive motility postthaw compared with sperm in Bioxcell (P < 0.05). Sperm in Bioxcell displayed higher viability than sperm in both Tris-egg yolk extenders (P < 0.01), more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-15% egg yolk (P < 0.05), and a tendency for more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk (P < 0.10). Sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk tended to have a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm compared with Bioxcell (P < 0.10). This study provides evidence that markhor goats exhibit seasonality in scrotal circumference and testosterone levels and that centrifugation may be eliminated from the processing of markhor semen. PMID:24063096

  2. Habitat preference of the endangered Ethiopian walia ibex (Capra walie in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

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    Ejigu, D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Walia ibex (Capra walie is an endangered and endemic species restricted to the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Recent expansion of human populations and livestock grazing in the park has prompted concerns that the range and habitats used by walia ibex have changed. We performed observations of walia ibex, conducted pellet counts of walia ibex and livestock, and measured vegetation and classified habitat characteristics at sample points during wet and dry seasons from October 2009 to November 2011. We assessed the effect of habitat characteristics on the presence of pellets of walia ibex, and then used a spatial model to create a predictive map to determine areas of high potential to support walia ibex. Rocky and shrubby habitats were more preferred than herbaceous habitats. Pellet distribution indicated that livestock and walia ibex were not usually found at the same sample point (i.e. 70% of quadrats with walia pellets were without livestock droppings; 73% of quadrats with livestock droppings did not have walia pellets. The best model to describe probability of presence of walia pellets included effects of herb cover (β = 0.047, shrub cover (β = 0.030, distance to cliff (β = –0.001, distance to road (β = 0.001, and altitude (β = 0.004. Walia ibexes have shifted to the eastern, steeper areas of the park, appearing to coincide with the occurrence of more intense, human–related activities in lowlands. Our study shows the complexities of managing areas that support human populations while also serving as a critical habitat for species of conservation concern.

  3. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul

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    Colodel Edson M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose

  4. 内蒙古白绒山羊翻译控制肿瘤蛋白(TCTP)基因克隆及组织表达特性分析%Cloning and Tissue-specific Expression of TCTP Gene in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat(Capra hircus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立敏; 姚睿原; 郭志新; 朝格图; 其布日; 郑旭; 鲍文蕾; 王志钢

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at cloning the CDS fragment of Translationally controlled tumor protein(TCTP)gene cDNA in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat and analyzing its expression pattern. TCTP gene cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence was analyzed by BLAST, while amino acid sequence was analyzed by online softwares. The tissue-specific expression pattern of TCTP was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The cloned TCTP gene cDNA was 519 bp in length, including a complete ORF encoding 172 amino acids. The full cDNA nucleotide sequence has an identity from 99%to 95%with Ovis aries, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta and Rattus norvegicus. Bioinformatics analysis showed that theoretical molecular mass of encoded protein was 19.6 kD, isoelectric point(pI)was 4.673. It contained a N-glycosylation sites, a protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and three casein kinaseⅡphosphorylation sites and most probably is localized in cytoplasm. The results of quantitative RT-PCR showed that TCTP gene is expressed in kidney, muscle, pancreas, liver, testis and brain. The expression was higher in liver, whereas lower in brain.%旨在克隆内蒙古白绒山羊翻译控制肿瘤蛋白(Translationally controlled tumor protein,TCTP)基因并分析其表达模式。采用RT-PCR技术扩增TCTP基因编码区cDNA序列,将得到的基因cDNA序列及其编码的氨基酸序列进行生物信息学分析,利用定量RT-PCR方法检测TCTP基因在绒山羊不同组织中的表达特异性。获得的内蒙古白绒山羊TCTP基因编码区cDNA序列全长519 bp,包含了完整的ORF,编码172个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白质。核苷酸序列与绵羊、牛、猪、人、猴及大鼠的同源性在99%-95%之间。生物信息学分析表明,编码的蛋白质理论分子质量19.6 kD,等电点(pI)4.673,含有一个N端糖基化位点,一个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,3个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,定位于细胞质中。定量RT-PCR方法检测表明,TCTP基因在绒山羊肾脏、肌肉、胰腺、肝脏、睾丸和脑组织中均有表达,其中在肝脏中的表达量较高,在脑中表达量较低。

  5. Producción del primer lote de conjugado antirrábico de origen caprino en el Perú

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    Ricardo Lopez I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la producción y evaluación del primer lote de conjugado antirrábico de origen caprino producido en el Perú. La globulina antirrábica conjugada con fluoresceína fue preparada en el Laboratorio de Referencia de Rabia y la vacuna utilizada para la inmunización de los animales fue producida en el Laboratorio de Rabia del Centro Nacional de Producción de Biológicos del Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, Perú. Para la inmunización se utilizó una vacuna hecha a base de cultivo de células VERO con los adyuvantes de Freundt completo e incompleto. La vacunación se hizo semanalmente por cuatro semanas con descarga de virus vivo a la quinta y dos revacunaciones más posteriormente. El conjugado producido en el laboratorio obtuvo una intensidad (4+ en tinción especifica, (3+ en calidad de inclusiones y (1+ de fluorescencia no especifica. Sin embargo, el conjugado comercial obtuvo una intensidad más baja (3+ en tinción específica, mayor cantidad de inclusiones (4+ y menos tinción inespecífica (0+.

  6. Intoxicação experimental por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae em caprinos e ovinos Experimental poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae in goats and sheep

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    José A.S. Araújo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia causa uma síndrome tremorgênica em ovinos, caprinos, bovinos e búfalos. Este experimento teve como objetivos determinar a toxicidade para caprinos de I. asarifolia verde, colhidas nas épocas de chuva e de estiagem, e da planta seca triturada, determinar a toxicidade da planta para ovinos, e determinar se o princípio ativo da planta é eliminado pelo leite em doses tóxicas para os cordeiros. No primeiro experimento a planta fresca colhida na época de estiagem e na época de chuvas foi administrada a 16 caprinos. A planta colhida na estiagem foi tóxica na dose diária de 5 e 10g por kg de peso animal (g/kg. A planta colhida na época de chuva foi tóxica na dose diária de 20 e 30g/kg, demonstrando que a planta é mais tóxica durante o período seco. A planta seca, colhida na época de estiagem foi administrada a 9 caprinos em doses diárias de 1.7, 2, 3.4 e 5.1g/kg. Doses de 3, 4 e 5.1g/kg causaram sinais clínicos, demonstrando que a planta mantém a toxicidade após a secagem. A planta fresca colhida na época de estiagem e na época de chuvas foi administrada a 10 ovinos. A planta colhida na estiagem foi tóxica na dose diária de 5g/kg e na época de chuva foi tóxica nas doses de 10 e 20g/kg. Estes resultados sugerem a maior susceptibilidade dos ovinos à intoxicação do que os caprinos. Como alguns produtores mencionam que cordeiros lactentes que não estão pastando se intoxicam através do leite, I. asarifolia foi administrada diariamente nas doses de 2.5, 5 e 10g/kg a 5 ovelhas, a partir do dia do parto (2 ovelhas, do último dia de prenhez (1 ovelha e 60 dias antes da parição (2 ovelhas. As ovelhas, mas não os cordeiros, apresentaram sinais clínicos, sugerindo que o princípio ativo da planta não é eliminado no leite ou colostro em doses tóxicas para os cordeiros. Em um ovino eutanasiado não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas nem histológicas. Os achados ultra-estruturais mais significativos

  7. Estudio de prevalencia serológica de hidatidosis en caprinos de Til Til y Colina, Santiago de Chile 2005 (Seroprevalence of hidatidosis in goats from Til Til and Colina, Santiagode Chile 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorca Myriam:; Diaz Ximena:; Alvarez Cristian

    2006-01-01

    ResumenLa hidatidosis es una enfermedad parasitaria de distribución mundial que es causada por el cestodo Echinococcus granulosus, en Chile es considerada una enfermedad endémica, importante en problema de Salud Pública. En los últimos años se ha observado una baja en la hidatidosis animal a nivel de mataderos, a excepción de los caprinos que han aumentado su porcentaje de infección. Esta especie es una importante fuente de recursos económicos para la población ruralen muchas regiones del paí...

  8. Doenças de caprinos diagnosticadas na região Central no Rio Grande do Sul: 114 casos Diseases of goats diagnosed in the Central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 114 cases

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    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos arquivos do LPV-UFSM e examinados os laudos de necropsias de caprinos realizadas num período de 48 anos (1964 a 2011. Foram analisados 114 laudos de necropsias de caprinos. Deste total, 95 (83,33% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo e 19 (19,66% tinham diagnóstico inconclusivo. Dos 95 casos conclusivos, as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias foram as mais prevalentes, seguidas em ordem decrescente de prevalência, pelas doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, intoxicações e toxi-infecções e alterações do desenvolvimento. Outras alterações de diferentes naturezas e etiologias que não se enquadravam nos grupos de doenças acima afetaram cerca de 10% dos caprinos examinados. A hemoncose foi a principal causa de morte de caprinos na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM. Eimeriose e listeriose também foram causas importantes de morte. Dentre as doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, urolitíase, osteoporose, toxemia da prenhez, desnutrição e doença dos músculos brancos foram as mais prevalentes. Principalmente as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias e as metabólicas e nutricionais ocorreram muitas vezes na forma de surtos, acarretando maiores perdas econômicas associadas.A retrospective study of the goat necropsies performed over a period of 48 years (1964 to 2011 at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS state, Brazil, was performed. A total of 114 reports of goat necropsies were analyzed. Ninety five necropsies (83.33% had a conclusive diagnosis and 19 (19.66% had inconclusive diagnosis. Out of the conclusive cases, infectious and parasitary diseases were the most prevalent, followed, in decreasing order of prevalence, by metabolic and nutritional diseases, poisonings and toxi-infections, and developmental diseases. Other conditions or lesions that did not fit any of the above groups of diseases affected about 10% of the necropsied

  9. Avaliação de programas hormonais para a indução e sincronização do estro em caprinos Evaluation of hormonal programs to induce and synchronize estrus in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Machado; Aurino Alves Simplício

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer alternativas para indução e sincronização do estro em cabras leiteiras manejadas semi-intensivamente. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos com 411 cabras na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa deCaprinos, Sobral, CE. No protocolo básico, utilizaram-se esponjas intra-vaginais com 50 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP) por dez dias e aplicação intra-muscular de 100 mig de cloprostenol e 200 UI de gonadotropina coriônica eqüina (eCG) no 8º dia; a ...

  10. Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação in vitro de alimentos incubados com inóculo microbiano de diferentes espécies de ruminantes Kinetic parameters of the ruminal in vitro degradation of feedstuffs given to different ruminant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.G.F. Bezerra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alguns alimentos utilizados para ruminantes de zoológicos foram estimados mediante incubação in vitro com líquido ruminal de audade (Ammotragus lervia, cervo sambar (Cervus unicolor, elande (Taurotragus oryx, bovino (Bos taurus, bubalino (Bubalus bubalis, caprino (Capra hircus e ovino (Ovis aries. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram estimados pela técnica da produção de gás, cujos dados foram ajustados pelos modelos de um e de duplo compartimento. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos parâmetros cinéticos que permitissem agrupar os alimentos (fibrosos × não fibrosos e os animais (domésticos × silvestres. O modelo de duplo compartimento foi o mais adequado para a estimação dos parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal. Inóculo microbiano oriundo de ruminantes domésticos não é recomendado para estimar parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alimentos utilizados para ruminantes silvestres de zoológicos.The estimation of the ruminal kinetic parameters of pumpkin, potato-sweet, beet, broccoli, carrot, alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellet and bean, currently used for feeding wild and domestic ruminants raised in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo, was made through in vitro incubation of the feedstuffs together with ruminal fluid obtained from aoudad (Ammotragus lervia, sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, eland (Taurotragus oryx, cattle (Bos taurus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, goat (Capra hircus and sheep (Ovis aries. The gas production technique was used to obtain gas profiles, and the data were fitted by the mono or double compartmental model. The kinetic parameters were discrepant among both, animals and feedstuffs, and the double compartmental model gave the best estimation. Ruminal inocula from domestic ruminants can not be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of feedstuffs for wild ruminants.

  11. Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Victoria; Barrett, Spencer C H; Castro, Sílvia; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Navarro, Luis; Loureiro, João; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Genetic diversity in populations of invasive species is influenced by a variety of factors including reproductive systems, ploidy level, stochastic forces associated with colonization and multiple introductions followed by admixture. Here, we compare genetic variation in native and introduced populations of the clonal plant Oxalis pes-caprae to investigate the influence of reproductive mode and ploidy on levels of diversity. This species is a tristylous geophyte native to South Africa. Invasive populations throughout much of the introduced range are composed of a sterile clonal pentaploid short-styled form. We examined morph ratios, ploidy level, reproductive mode and genetic diversity at nuclear microsatellite loci in 10 and 12 populations from South Africa and the Western Mediterranean region, respectively. Flow cytometry confirmed earlier reports of diploids and tetraploids in the native range, with a single population containing pentaploid individuals. Introduced populations were composed mainly of pentaploids, but sexual tetraploids were also found. There was clear genetic differentiation between ploidy levels, but sexual populations from both regions were not significantly different in levels of diversity. Invasive populations of the pentaploid exhibited dramatically reduced levels of diversity but were not genetically uniform. The occurrence of mixed ploidy levels and stylar polymorphism in the introduced range is consistent with multiple introductions to the Western Mediterranean. This inference was supported by variation patterns at microsatellite loci. Our study indicates that some invasive populations of Oxalis pes-caprae are not entirely clonal, as often assumed, and multiple introductions and recombination have the potential to increase genetic variation in the introduced range. PMID:25604701

  12. Conformação de úbere de caprinos da raça Saanen: parâmetros estéticos ou funcionais?

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    D. S. Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMODiversos fatores predisponentes são descritos para as afecções mamárias ou distúrbios secundários que comprometem a qualidade e produtividade de leite de fêmeas nas diferentes espécies. As características fenotípicas do úbere são consideradas na avaliação econômica de uma fêmea caprina, tanto pelo potencial de produção como pelo registro genealógico dessa fêmea. A limitação de estudos correlacionando essas características com a saúde do úbere gera a dúvida a respeito do significado da conformação do mesmo à saúde e produtividade da glândula mamária. Sendo assim, este estudo teve como objetivo relacionar os parâmetros da conformação do úbere com a celularidade da glândula mamária aferida pelo teste California Mastitis Test (CMT e contagem de células somáticas (CCS em 80 cabras da raça Saanen sem alterações no exame clínico da glândula mamária nem no teste de Tamis. Observou-se que a maioria dos parâmetros fenotípicos de úbere não influenciou a CCS, sendo considerados puramente estéticos. A circunferência e profundidade de úbere demonstraram correlação negativa com a celularidade e, por serem características de herdabilidade moderada a alta, podem ser parâmetros considerados para seleção genética de caprinos.

  13. - Evaluación de la capacidad fecundante del semen caprino congelado. Aplicación actual (Evaluation of the fecundante capacity of semen goat congealed. Present application

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    Batista, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó en las provincias de Santiago de Cuba y Holguín apoyados por cada una de las unidades estatales y productores particulares, en él se evaluó la capacidad fecundante del semen caprino congelado, para el cual las muestras fueron obtenidas del Centro de (I.A. de Cerca Blanca y del Centro de (I.A. provincial de Bayamo, los trabajos de fecundación artificial fueron llevado a cabo por técnicos de las distintas empresas, a través del método cervical superficial, se analizó estadísticamente el índice de fertilidad por sementales en las provincias con un análisis de varianza (p< 0.05, la confirmación fue mediante exámenes clínicos, pruebas de comportamiento frente a un semental vasectomizado y análisis sexológicos. This work was made in the counties of Santiago from Cuba and Holguín supported by each one of the units they are and particular producers, in the same one the capacity fecundant of the semen frozen caprine was evaluated, for which the samples were obtained of the Center of I.A. Cerca Blanca and of the Center of I.A. province of Bayamo, the works of artificial fecundation were carried out by technicians of the different companies, through the superficial cervical method, it was analyzed the index of fertility statistically by sires in the counties with a variance analysis (p < 0.05, the confirmation was by means of clinical exams, behavior tests in front of a sire vasctomize and serologic analysis.

  14. Estudo anatômico das artérias coronárias em caprinos Anatomic study of coronary arteries in goats

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    Paulo César Moura Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de artérias coronárias de caprinos em pesquisas experimentais com objetivos de futuras aplicações em coronárias humanas motivou o interesse em verificar semelhanças ou diferenças morfológicas das artérias coronárias de caprinos com os citados na literatura para humanos. Foram utilizados 31 corações de caprinos SRD pesando de 76,5-107,7g fixados em formalina a 10%. As artérias coronárias e seus ramos eram dissecados até as ramificações visíveis sob o pericárdio. A artéria coronária esquerda presente em todos os corações era única. Seu comprimento situou-se entre 8 mm e 17mm, terminava formando os ramos: interventricular paraconal e circunflexo (90,3% ou interventricular paraconal, circunflexo e angular (9,7%. O ramo interventricular paraconal, presente em todos os corações era único. Seu comprimento variou de 80 a 140mm, emitia média de 12 ramos. O ventrículo direito recebia 49,5% dos ramos e o ventrículo esquerdo, 50,5%, dos ramos. Essa artéria podia terminar antes de atingir o ápice do coração (22,5%, no próprio ápice (22,5% ou então passava pelo ápice e terminava no sulco interventricular subsinuoso (55%. O ramo circunflexo era único, comprimento variou de 61 a 106mm, emitia média de 8,2 ramos. O ventrículo esquerdo recebia 53,4% dos ramos e o átrio esquerdo, 46,6%. Em todos os casos essa artéria chegava e ultrapassava a Crux cordis. A artéria coronária direita, presente em todos os corações, era única. Seu comprimento variou de 35 a 86mm, emitia a média de 8,6 ramos. O ventrículo direito recebia 56,1%, dos ramos e o átrio direito 43,9%. Em geral era a própria artéria que se comportava como ramo marginal direito. A artéria coronária direita não atingia a Crux cordis em 93,5%. O ramo interventricular subsinuoso da artéria circunflexa podia ser: a ramo longo ocupando a maior parte do sulco; b ramo curto ocupando apenas a parte superior do sulco; c dois ramos ocupando o sulco

  15. Características físico-mecânicas de couros caprinos e ovinos no Cariri Paraibano Goat and sheep leather physical-mechanical characteristics in the Cariri Paraibano

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    Robson José Freitas Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características físico-mecânicas de couros de um genótipo ovino e de três genótipos caprinos. Utilizaram-se 43 peles curtidas ao cromo, provenientes de 9 ovinos Santa Inês, 12 caprinos ½ Anglo Nubiano, 16 ½ Boer, todos mestiços com animais Sem Raça Definida (SRD, e 6 caprinos nativos denominados SRD. No período pré-experimental, todos os animais foram desmamados aos 90 dias de idade aproximadamente e criados em sistema de produção semi-intensivo utilizando pastagem cultivada. O período experimental iniciou quando os caprinos (5 meses de idade e os ovinos (4 meses de idade, alcançaram o peso médio de 18,3 kg. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 30 kg e idades de 180 e 270 dias, para ovinos e caprinos, respectivamente. O genótipo e a direção amostrada influenciaram o resultado do teste de resistência ao rasgamento progressivo, apesar de todos os valores terem sido inferiores aos valores de referência recomendados para um couro de boa qualidade. Nas determinações da medida de distensão e resistência da flor, não foram detectadas diferenças entre os genótipos, no entanto, no teste de resistência à tração e ao alongamento, observaram-se diferenças entre os genótipos ou a direção da amostra. Todos os resultados foram superiores aos recomendados para um produto de qualidade industrial.This work had as objective to evaluate the physical-mechanic characteristics of the leather from one genotype of sheep and three genotypes of goat. Forty three tanned chrome skins were used: 9 Santa Inês sheep, 12 ½ Anglo Nubiano, 16 ½ Boer, all crossbed with animals of non-defined breeds (NDB and six NBD native goats. In the pre-experimental period, all animals were weaned at 90 days of age approximately and raised under semi-intensive production systems using cultivate pasture. The experimental phase began when the goat (5 moths of age and sheep (4 moths of age reached 18.3 kg

  16. Imunofluorescência utilizando isolados brasileiros no diagnóstico sorológico de infecção por lentivírus em caprinos Immunofluorescence using Brazilian isolates for serological diagnosis of lentivirus infection in goats

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    Dilmara Reischak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (SRLV têm distribuição mundial e causam infecções persistentes em ovinos e caprinos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFA, utilizando isolados brasileiros de SRLV, para o diagnóstico sorológico de infecção por estes agentes em caprinos. A técnica de IFA foi comparada, quanto à sensibilidade e à especificidade, ao teste de AGID com antígeno do vírus Maedi-Visna WLC-1. Cultivos celulares secundários de membrana sinovial ovina infectadas com dois isolados de SRLV de origem caprina (CAEV Br/UFRGS-2 e CAEV Br/UFRGS-5 foram utilizados para o teste de IFA. Duzentas e trinta e nove amostras de soro caprino foram submetidas aos dois testes. O teste de AGID detectou 129 (53.9% amostras de soro caprino com anticorpos para SRLV. O teste de IFA detectou mais amostras reagentes, sendo que resultados diferentes foram observados de acordo com o isolado de SRLV empregado. Quando o isolado CAEV Br/UFRGS-2 foi utilizado como antígeno, 216 (90.3% amostras de soro caprino foram reagentes, enquanto que o isolado CAEV Br/UFRGS-5 detectou 213 (89.1% amostras de soro positivas. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre esses dois isolados. O teste de IFA desenvolvido teve sensibilidade de 94.6% e 96.9% e especificidade 14.5% e 20%, quando os isolados CAEV Br/UFRGS-2 e CAEV Br/UFRGS-5 foram usados como antígeno, respectivamente. O aprimoramento da técnica, assim como sua comparação com um teste mais sensível, ainda se fazem necessários. No entanto, os resultados demonstraram que a técnica de IFA, utilizando isolados brasileiros de SRLV como antígeno, apresenta potencial como um teste alternativo e complementar para o diagnóstico sorológico de infecção por estes agentes.Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV are distributed worldwide and cause persistent infections in sheep and goats. The purpose of this work was to develop an indirect

  17. Diferenciación del aparato digestivo de los rumiantes: comparación entre oveja (Ovis aries), rebeco (Rupricapra Pyrenaica) y cabra montés (Capra pyrenaica)

    OpenAIRE

    Mantecón, Ángel R.; Frutos, Pilar; Lavín, Santiago; De Marco, I.; Lavín, Paz

    1993-01-01

    [ES] Se han utilizado los datos correspondientes a 11 ovejas (Ovisaries), l0 cabras monteses (Capra pyrenaica) y 24 rebecos (Rupicapra pyrenaica). El aparato digestivo, una vez separada la grasa omental y mesentérica, ss fraccionó en los siguientes compartimentos: retículo-rumen, omaso, abomaso, intestino delgado, intestino grueso y ciego. El peso total del aparato digestivo vacío y de todos sus compartimentos fue mayor en las ovejas que en los rebecos, ocupando la ...

  18. Comparative sequence analysis in the exon 5 of growth hormone gene in the various livestock species of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Sharma, Anurodh; Kumari, Namita; Kaur, Navneet; Jayakumar, S; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) gene locus of six different livestock species using PCR-Direct DNA sequencing method. In exon 5 of GH gene, 10 SNPs variants were identified in all livestock species studied, namely Bubalus bubalis, Bos indicus, Bos frontalis, Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, and Capra hircus. Four SNPs were observed in Bubalus bubalis, two SNPs in Bos indicus, one SNP in Ovis aries, and three SNPs in Capra hircus. No changes were observed in Bos grunniens and Bos frontalis when compared with the template sequence and the SNPs observed in the present investigation may be useful in the marker assisted selection.

  19. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

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    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  20. Estudio de prevalencia serológica de hidatidosis en caprinos de Til Til y Colina, Santiago de Chile 2005 (Seroprevalence of hidatidosis in goats from Til Til and Colina, Santiagode Chile 2005

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    Lorca Myriam:

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa hidatidosis es una enfermedad parasitaria de distribución mundial que es causada por el cestodo Echinococcus granulosus, en Chile es considerada una enfermedad endémica, importante en problema de Salud Pública. En los últimos años se ha observado una baja en la hidatidosis animal a nivel de mataderos, a excepción de los caprinos que han aumentado su porcentaje de infección. Esta especie es una importante fuente de recursos económicos para la población ruralen muchas regiones del país, entre ellas los municipio de Til Til y Colina, , donde se encuentra la mayor cantidad de ejemplares caprinos dentro de la de la Región Metropolitana En la actualidad existe poca información de estudios para hidatidosis en animales vivos, por esta razón se decidió determinar la prevalencia serológica en caprinos de la Región Metropolitana. Se estudiaron 524 animales, 262 correspondientes a Colina y 262 de Til Til, los animales fueron escogidos completamente al azar y el total de ejemplares fué estimado estadísticamente. Las muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas en papel filtro, siendo analizadas mediante la técnica de ELISA IgG caprina y bajo los estándares establecidos. La prevalencia para hidatidosis caprina en los sectores estudiados fue de un 4,38 % en total en elsector. Las diferencias en la seropositividad entre los predios estudiados se deberían, probablemente, a las diferencias en losmanejos sanitarios respectivos. Estos resultados son ignificativamente menores con respecto a los observados en otras regiones ( Ej.Coquimbo, 40,9%, a pesar de ello, es una significativacontribución al conocimiento de la hidatidosis en una importante especie animal de la Región Metropolitana, los que viven en estrecho contacto con perros y el hombre aumentando así las posibilidadesde transmisión de la enfemedad.

  1. Perdas reprodutivas associadas com infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos no sul do Brasil Reproductive losses linked to Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in southern Brazil

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    Caroline A. Pescador

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por Toxoplasma gondii foi associada com perdas reprodutivas em um rebanho caprino no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões macroscópicas foram observadas em dois de seis produtos caprinos enviados para diagnóstico e incluíram linfonodos mesentéricos pálidos e aumentados e pulmões com consistência firme e áreas claras intercaladas com vermelhas. Lesões histológicas, especialmente caracterizadas por infiltrados linfoplasmocitários no cérebro e pulmões, foram observadas em todos os fetos. Nefrite intersticial linfoplasmocitária, linfadenite necrosante e hepatite periportal linfoplasmocitária também foram observadas. Enquanto tanto o exame bacteriológico quanto o teste de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foram negativos em todos os casos, a PCR e a imunoistoquímica resultaram positivamente para T. gondii em quase todas as amostras testadas. Anticorpos anti-T.gondii, em titulações de 1:512 a 1:2048, foram detectados nas amostras de soro sangüíneo das cabras que pariram natimortos (3, abortaram (1 ou cujos neonatos morreram (2. Este trabalho descreve os achados clínicos, patológicos, sorológicos, imunoistoquímicos e de PCR observados em um rebanho caprino infectado por T. gondii.Toxoplasma gondii was implicated with reproductive losses in a goat herd in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gross changes were present in 2 out of 6 fetuses/offsprings submitted for diagnosis and included enlarged, pale mesenteric lymph nodes, and edematous, mottled red and tan lungs. Microscopic changes were observed in most fetuses and were especially characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the brain and lungs. Other histological changes included lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis, necrotizing lymphadenitis and periportal lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrates. While bacteriological and direct immunofluorescent antibody tests for Leptospira sp. were negative in samples from all cases, immunohistochemical and PCR

  2. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats in the State of Paraíba, Brazil Fatores de risco associados à soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%. Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7% tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045 and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014 were identified as risk factors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified risk factors in the epidemiology of the infection.Foi conduzido um estudo transversal baseado em amostragem planejada com o objetivo de determinar fatores de risco associados com a prevalência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii, em rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de soro de 975 caprinos leiteiros adultos, procedentes de 110 propriedades, foram examinadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se como ponto de corte a diluição 1:64. Das 110 propriedades, 77 apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 60,5-78,4%. Dos 975 animais, 177 (18,1%; IC 95% = 15,8-20,7% foram positivos. Apesar da presença de plantas tóxicas (OR = 5,11; P = 0,045 e da caprinocultura não ser a principal atividade na propriedade (OR = 3,34; P = 0,014, foram identificados como fatores de risco. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram uma evid

  3. Caracterización microecologica de nemátodos parásitos presentes en caprinos de zonas áridas de Venezuela

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    Gustavo Morales

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó que los caprinos de las zonas áridas de Venezuela son parasitados por lassiguientes especies de nemátodos: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia curticei, Oesophagostomun columbianum, Skrjabinema ovis y Trichuris globulosa. Los valores del índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver oscilaron entre 0,045 y 1,73 bits (X = 1,15 ± 0,24 bits. La diversidad máxima por mes presenta valores que van desde 1 a 2,80 bits (X = 2,49 ± 0,28 bits y la equitabilidad varió de 0,045 a 0,67 (X = 0,44 ± 0,09. Los valores obtenidos con los datos agrupados en un solo bloque son de 1,25 bits, 2,80 bits y 0,40 para el índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver, la diversidad máxima y la equitabilidad respectivamente. En lo referente a las asociaciones parasitarias, se encontró un primer grupo conformado por T. axei, T. colubriformis y H. contortus, un segundo grupo por T. colubriformis, H. contortus y O. columbianum, y un tercero integrado por T. colubriformis, S. ovis y T. globulosa. Los resultados obtenidos permiten además, sugerir em torno al control químico que en los meses en los cuales el valor del índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver se aproxime al de la diversidad máxima y el del índice de equitabilidad se aproxime a la unidad, se pueden utilizar antihelmínticos de amplio espectro.Goats from the Venezuelan northem arid zones were found infested by the following nematodes: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia curticei, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Skrjabinema ovis y Trichuris globulosa. The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity values oscillated between 0.045 and 1.73 bits (X = 1.16 ± 0.24 bits. The maximum value of montly diversity ranged from 1 to 2.80 bits (X = 2.49 ± 0.28 bits and the equitability ranged from 0.045 to 0.67 (X = 0.44 ± 0.09. Parasitic associations were found among 1 T. axei, T. colubriformis and H. contortus, 2 T. colubriformis, H. contornus and O

  4. Avaliação hematologica de caprinos exóticos e nativos no semi-árido paraibano Hematological evaluation of exotic and native goats in Paraiba's Semi-arid

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva; Bonifácio Benício de Souza; Gustavo de Assis Silva; Marcílio Fontes Cézar; Marta Maria Soares Freitas; Talicia Maria Alves Benício

    2008-01-01

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Pendência, pertencente à Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA), localizada no município de Soledade -PB, na microrregião do Curimataú Ocidental, Semi-árido da Paraíba. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar uma avaliação hematológica de caprinos exóticos e nativos criados no Semi-árido paraibano. Foram utilizadas 40 fêmeas das raças Boer, Savana, Anglo-Nubiana e Moxotó, sendo 10 de cada raça, com idad...

  5. Exigências nutricionais de caprinos da raça Alpina em crescimento: 1. Exigência nutricional de fósforo para mantença: perdas endógenas e abate comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz Augusto César de; Gouveia Leonardo José de; Pereira José Carlos; Rodrigues Marcelo Teixeira; Resende Kleber Tomás De; Sousa Heloisa Maria Holtz

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a exigência dietética de fósforo (P) para mantença de caprinos da raça Alpina em crescimento pelo método das perdas endógenas e pela técnica do abate comparativo. Foram usados 21 animais, machos, castrados, com idade média de quatro a seis meses e 18 kg PV. Destes, três foram abatidos no início do experimento, como referência, e os 18 restantes, distribuídos em tratamentos com dietas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, em um delineamento inteiramente casual...

  6. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF GOAT GRAZING IN ARUANA AND HEMARTRIA PASTURES PREFERÊNCIA DE CAPRINOS EM PASTEJO: EFEITO DA ALTURA DE DOSSÉIS DAS FORRAGEIRAS ARUANA E HEMÁRTRIA

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    Carina Simionato de Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Goats behavior in pastures is not so known but it is very important for goats performance. Structural characteristics of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana and Hemarthria altissima cv. Flórida pastures and preference of goats in grazing were evaluated. The experiment was performed in Campo Largo – PR, at March, 2004. Two grasses were studied Aruana (A and Hemartria (H at two canopy heights Lower (1 and Higher (2, placed in randomized blocks in factorial arrangement and three replications. Nine goats were distributed in three experimental blocks of 672m2. Height, forage dry matter and leaf, stem and dead material dry matter from pastures were taken. Grazing preference, bite rate and bite depth from animals were studied. Taller patches and higher tillers were significantly more grazed (p<0.05. Relation between tiller height and bite depth was linear and positive (p<0.01 for treatments A1, H1 and H2 Increase of Hemarthria grass height caused bite rate decreasing of goats (p<0.05. It was concluded that preference of goats was determined by structural characteristics of grass and not by forage species.  

    KEY WORDS: Bites, grasses, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum maximum, tillers.
    O comportamento alimentar dos caprinos em pastagens cultivadas é pouco estudado, mas tem grande importância no desempenho dos animais. Avaliaram-se a estrutura das forrageiras Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana e Hemarthria altissima cv. Flórida e a preferência de caprinos em pastejo. Desenvolveu-se o experimento no município de Campo Largo, PR, em março de 2004. Utilizaram-se aruana (A e hemártria (H em duas alturas, menor (1 e maior (2, alocadas em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial com três repetições. Foram utilizados nove caprinos distribuídos em três piquetes de 672 m2. No pasto, procedeu-se à determinação da altura, das massas de forragem e dos componentes folha, colmo e material senescente. A prefer

  7. Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate

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    Marta Suely Madruga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a final a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage

  8. Aspectos clínicos da intoxicação experimental pelas favas de Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae em caprinos Clinical aspects of the experimental poisoning by the pods of Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae in goats

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    Fábio S. Mendonça

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o quadro clínico da intoxicação por Stryphnodendron fissuratum Mart. (Leg. Mimosoideae em caprinos, administraram-se as favas dessa planta a oito caprinos, por via oral forçada em doses únicas e a outros dois caprinos, em doses fracionadas. A menor dose que causou sinais clínicos e morte foi a de 10g/kg. Doses de 20g/kg e 40g/kg causaram sinais acentuados e doses únicas de 5g/kg não provocaram sinais. Doses fracionadas de 5g/kg durante quatro dias, totalizando 20g/kg provocaram sinais acentuados e morte. Em ambos os grupos, os primeiros sinais de intoxicação foram observados a partir do primeiro dia de experimento e a evolução variou de 4-25 dias. A doença caracterizou-se principalmente por alterações digestórias e nervosas que consistiram em anorexia, desidratação, hipomotilidade e atonia ruminal, timpanismo, gemidos constantes, dor à percussão abdominal, fezes com muco, ranger de dentes, apatia, ataxia, dismetria, tremores de cabeça, tremores musculares, fraqueza com o andar cambaleante e trôpego, acentuada depressão e decúbito esternal ou lateral prolongado e morte. Alguns animais apresentaram acentuada queda de pêlos na região dorsal; apenas um caprino apresentou fezes líquidas, marrom-escuras e fétidas. Outros sinais incluíram perda de fluido ruminal durante a ruminação, sialorréia, exsudato nasal seroso e lacrimejamento. As provas de função hepática e renal revelaram alterações discretas. As concentrações séricas de aspartato aminotransferase encontraram-se levemente aumentadas e as de creatinofosfocinase muito aumentadas.In order to confirm the susceptibility of goats to the poisoning by Stryphnodendron fissuratum Mart. (Leg. Mimosoideae and to characterize the clinical disease, the pods of the plant were given orally to each of eight young goats and in fractioned doses to other two. The lowest lethal dose was 10g/kg. The same dose was the lowest that induced disease

  9. Cambio de peso vivo de caprinos en agostadero y consumo voluntario del suplemento semilla de jamaica (hibiscus saddariffa - Change weight live of kids in tropical forest and voluntary intake of the supplement jamaica seed (hibiscus saddariffa

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    Olivares Pérez, Jaime: nick: olivaares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizo en el 2004, en la época de estiaje en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México, el objetivo fue evaluar el cambio de peso en caprinos suplementados con semilla entera de Jamaica bajo pastoreo en agostadero. El experimento fue un diseño completamente al azar, se utilizaron 18 caprinos machos híbridos Pelibuey con Nubia, distribuidos en dos grupos, un testigo y un experimental a los que se les aplicaron los tratamientos T1= pastoreo en agostadero y T2= pastoreo en agostadero mas semilla entera de Jamaica a libre acceso por media hora previa al pastoreo. Las variables de estudio fueron el cambio de peso vivo y el consumo voluntario de semilla de Jamaica. A los datos que registro la variable cambio de peso vivo, se les aplico un análisis de varianza y la prueba de Tukey para comparación de medias entre grupos (Steel y Torrie, 1988. El grupo de animales experimentales presentaron en promedio, una mayor ganancia de peso total y diario por animal (P<0.05 con 1.44ª kg y 0.024ª kg respectivamente y la menor ganancia fue para el grupo de animales testigo con 0.27b kg y 0.004b kg respectivamente para ganancia de peso total y diario por animal. El consumo voluntario de semilla entera de jamaica fue en promedio de 0.116 kg MS por animal por día. Se concluye que la semilla de jamaica representa un recurso nutritivo empleado como suplemento para el ganado caprino bajo pastoreo en agostadero en época de estiaje en ambientes tropicales. The study one carries out in the 2004, in the low water time in the tropic of Guerrero, Mexico, the objective was to evaluate the change of weight in kids suplementation with whole seed of Jamaica under in tropical forest shepherding. The experiment was a complete randomized design, 18 male hybrid kids Pelibuey with Nubia, distributed in two groups, a witness and an experimental one to those that were applied the treatments T1 = shepherding in agostadero and T2 = shepherding in agostadero but whole

  10. Cambio de peso vivo de caprinos en agostadero y consumo voluntario del suplemento semilla de jamaica (hibiscus saddariffa (Change weight live of kids in tropical forest and voluntary intake of the supplement jamaica seed (hibiscus saddariffa

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    Olivares Pérez, Jaime: nick: olivaares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El estudio se realizo en el 2004, en la época de estiaje en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México, el objetivo fue evaluar el cambio de peso en caprinos suplementados con semilla entera de Jamaica bajo pastoreo en agostadero. El experimento fue un diseño completamente al azar, se utilizaron 18 caprinos machos híbridos Pelibuey con Nubia, distribuidos en dos grupos, un testigo y un experimental a los que se les aplicaron los tratamientos T1= pastoreo en agostadero y T2= pastoreo en agostadero mas semilla entera de Jamaica a libre acceso por media hora previa al pastoreo. Las variables de estudio fueron el cambio de peso vivo y el consumo voluntario de semilla de Jamaica. A los datos que registro la variable cambio de peso vivo, se les aplico un análisis de varianza y la prueba de Tukey para comparación de medias entre grupos (Steel y Torrie, 1988. El grupo de animales experimentales presentaron en promedio, una mayor ganancia de peso total y diario por animal (P<0.05 con 1.44ª kg y 0.024ª kg respectivamente y la menor ganancia fue para el grupo de animales testigo con 0.27b kg y 0.004b kg respectivamente para ganancia de peso total y diario por animal. El consumo voluntario de semilla entera de jamaica fue en promedio de 0.116 kg MS por animal por día. Se concluye que la semilla de jamaica representa un recurso nutritivo empleado como suplemento para el ganado caprino bajo pastoreo en agostadero en época de estiaje en ambientes tropicales. The study one carries out in the 2004, in the low water time in the tropic of Guerrero, Mexico, the objective was to evaluate the change of weight in kids suplementation with whole seed of Jamaica under in tropical forest shepherding. The experiment was a complete randomized design, 18 male hybrid kids Pelibuey with Nubia, distributed in two groups, a witness and an experimental one to those that were applied the treatments T1 = shepherding in agostadero and T2 = shepherding in agostadero but

  11. Avaliação do sistema integrado de controle parasitário em uma criação semi-intensiva de caprinos na região de Santa Catarina

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    J. Hammerschmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi subsidiar um programa sustentável de controle parasitário em um rebanho caprino em São Francisco do Sul, SC, aplicando o Sistema Integrado de Controle Parasitário (SICOPA. Foram utilizados 63 caprinos, distribuídos em nove grupos para teste de eficácia de anti-helmínticos, exames de contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG, coprocultura, grau Famacha, micro-hematócrito, escore corporal e contagem de larvas no pasto. A redução da OPG 15 dias pós-tratamento com closantel, albendazole, nitroxinil, levamisole, ivermectina+levamisole+albendazol, moxidectina, ivermectina, abamectina e sulfóxido de albendazol foi de 89, 83, 65, 63, 57, 37, 31, 0 e 0%, respectivamente. A média de graus Famacha 1 e 2 no estudo foi de 81%, e de graus 3, 4 e 5 foi de 19%, e não se observou correlação com os valores do micro-hematócrito em razão da prevalência de Trichostrongylus sp. (92%. A contagem de larvas infectantes (L3 na pastagem apresentou valores abaixo de 1000 L3/kg/MS, predominando Trichostrongylus sp. Nenhuma das drogas testadas foi considerada eficaz, evidenciando resistência parasitária múltipla. A aplicação de ferramentas do SICOPA e a adoção de estratégias de manejo e nutrição adequados são fundamentais para estabelecer um programa sanitário sustentável.

  12. Impacto do estresse térmico sobre a fisiologia, reprodução e produção de caprinos Impact of heat stress on the physiology, reproduction and production of goats

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    Priscila Teixeira de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos caprinos serem considerados animais rústicos, do ponto de vista bioclimático, a associação entre elevadas temperaturas, umidade e radiação solar pode acarretar alterações fisiológicas, hematológicas, hormonais, reprodutivas e produtivas. Portanto, informações que possam esclarecer o impacto do estresse térmico sobre a eficiência desses aspectos em caprinos, analisando o ambiente em que estão inseridos, e como se comportam frente às adversidades impostas pelo clima, darão uma grande contribuição para a caprinocultura e o fortalecimento de sua cadeia produtiva. Assim, para aumentar a produtividade nas regiões tropicais, deve ser ressaltada a criação de raças que apresentem maior potencial genético de adaptabilidade para uma condição climática adversa, sendo capazes de sobreviver, reproduzir e produzir em situações de estresse térmico.Even though goats are considered rustic animals, regarding the bioclimatic aspect, the association of high temperature, humidity and solar radiation may cause physiological, hematological, hormonal, reproductive and productive changes. Therefore, information explaining the impact of heat stress on the efficiency of these aspects on goats by analyzing the surrounding environment and how these animals behave themselves before the adversities imposed by the climate, will give a great contribution to goat breeding and the strengthening of this productive chain. Thus, to increase the productivity in tropical regions, the breed of animals presenting a major genetic potential of adaptability to adverse climatic conditions must be emphasized breeds that may be able to survive, reproduce and produce efficiently in a situation of heat stress.

  13. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of liquid waste of Agave sisalana (sisal in goats Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica do resíduo líquido de Agave sisalana (sisal em caprinos

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    Luciana Ferreira Domingues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Agave sisalana (sisal juice against gastrointestinal nematodes and its potential toxic effects in goats. In vitro tests showed more than 95% reduction in larval counts of the genus Haemonchus spp. at concentrations between 86.5 and 146.3 mg.mL-1. In vivo the percent reduction of larvae of the fourth (L4 and fifth (L5 stages of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus was less than 95% in groups GI and GII, and between 80 and 90% in group GIII. A. sisalana juice at the concentrations tested in vitro was effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in goats; however, its anthelmintic efficacy was reduced when administered to animals.Foi avaliada a atividade anti-helmíntica do suco de Agave sisalana (sisal contra nematódeos gastrintestinais e possíveis efeitos tóxicos em caprinos. Nos testes in vitro, encontrou-se redução superior a 95% na contagem de larvas do gênero Haemonchus spp. nas concentrações entre 86,5 e 146,3 mg.mL-1. In vivo, o percentual de redução de larvas de quarto (L4 e quinto (L5 estágios de Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum e Trichostrongylus foi inferior a 95% para o GI e GII, e entre 80 e 90% para o GIII. O suco de A. sisalana nas concentrações testadas in vitro foi efetivo contra nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos, apresentando, no entanto, reduzida eficácia anti-helmíntica quando administrado nos animais.

  14. Respostas fisiológicas de caprinos de diferentes grupos genéticos no semi-árido paraibano Fisiological responses of the caprines from different genetic groups in the semi-arid of Paraíba

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    Bonifácio Benicio de Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento na Estação Experimental de Pendência pertencente à EMEPA-PB, localizada no Município de Soledade-PB, com o objetivo de avaliar os parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos de caprinos de diferentes grupos genéticos sob as condições do semi-árido. Foram utilizados 30 caprinos machos inteiros, com peso médio de 25,17 kg, sendo seis animais de cada grupo genético: ½ Boer + ½ SRD (BO, ½ Anglo-Nubiana + ½ SRD (AN, ½ Savana + ½ SRD (SA, ½ Kalarari + ½ SRD (KA e ½ Moxotó + ½ SRD (MO. Verificou-se efeito significativo (PThis experiment was realized in Pendencia's experimental station of EMEPA-PB in Soledade- PB city. It aimed to avaliate the fisiological and hematological parameters of caprines from diferent genetic groups in the semi-arid conditions. Thirty males weithing about 25,17 kg were used, being six animals from each genetic group: ½ Boer + ½ SRD (BO, ½ Anglo-Nubiana + ½ SRD (AN, ½ Savana + ½ SRD (SA, ½ Kalarari + ½ SRD (KA e ½ Moxotó + ½ SRD (MO. It was verified significative effect (P<0,05 among the genetic groups for breathing frequency and hematocrit. The BO presented breathing frequency more elevated (P<0,05 than the AN and MO; and its hematocrit was less elevated (P<0,05 than the MO. The period affects sifgnificatively (P<0,05 the rectal temperature and breathing frequency, being the superior averages in the afternoon period. For the other parameters there were not significative differences among the genetic groups studied. Besides this, it can be concluded that the studied animals are adaptaded to the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  15. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

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    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  16. Elementos para una filogeografía de la cabra montés ibérica (Capra pyrenaica schinz, 1838

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    García-González, Ricardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide some issues for a future study of Capra pyrenaica phylogeography I review classic and recent works considering data of genetic studies known to date, as well as recent findings related to paleontology and biometrics. C. pyrenaica has experienced several population bottlenecks throughout its history that have led to a loss of genetic diversity. In addition, numerous recent translocations and population reinforcements can complicate the clarification of intraspecific genetic differentiation. I review current theories about the evolution of the species. One of them establishes a recent evolution (past 18,000 years from ancestors related to C. caucasica. I analyze in some detail the morphological characters (mainly teeth and horns on which this theory is based, showing their high variability. Present genetic studies show a clear relationship between C. pyrenaica and Alpine ibex (C. i. ibex. They also show a north-south genetic differentiation between Iberian goats, occupying the Pyrenean goats (C. p. pyrenaica an intermediate position between Alpine ibex and southern Iberian goats. Recent paleontological findings evidence an ancient presence (Lower Pleistocene of Capra in the Iberian Peninsula. I propose the hypothesis that the descendants of these ancient goats, may have come into contact with C. ibex in the Pyrenees and southern France, one or more times during the Upper Pleistocene. Intermediate characteristics, both genetic and biometric, of the extinct Pyrenean goats, would agree with this hypothesis. New paleontological records and more genetic studies (including fossil and recent materials are necessary, to elucidate both the phylogeny of C. pyrenaica and its intraspecific diversification.En este trabajo se realiza una revisión sintética de los trabajos clásicos y recientes que conciernen a la filogeografía de Capra pyrenaica, aportando datos de los estudios genéticos conocidos hasta la fecha, así como de nuevos

  17. First Report of Helminth Parasites of Walia Ibex (Capra walie at Simen Mountains National Park, Natural World Heritage Site, Northern Ethiopia

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    Basaznew Bogale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Walia ibex (Capra walie is critically endangered ungulate which is found in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP, northern Ethiopia. This study was conducted from February to August, 2011to determine the prevalence of helminth parasites of this animal. A total 167 faecal samples were collected and examined by floatation, sedimentation and Baermann techniques. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 85.63% (143/167. Of this, 85.03% were nematodes and 7.18% cestodes. The eggs of trematode species (spp were not encountered. The helminth parasites detected were strongyle spp. (78.44%, Nematodirusspp. (14.97%, Moniezia pp. (7.19%, Strongyloides spp. (5.39%, Trichuris spp. (4.19%, Ascaris spp (2.99% and lungworms (26.35%. The genera of lungworms encountered were Dictyocaulus, Muellerius and Protostrongylus. Of all positive animals, 78.43% were infected with two or more type of parasites whereas 11.76% were harbouring only one parasitic species. The present results indicated that the infections caused by helminth pasites are significantly common in Walia ibex which necessitates further studies to design appropriate worm control strategies.

  18. Prolificidade de caprinos mestiços leiteiros no semiárido nordestino Litter size of crossbreed dairy goats in the northeastern semi-arid

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    José Lindenberg Rocha Sarmento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 526 registros de parições de cabras mestiças com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de alguns efeitos de ambiente sobre a prolificidade. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas por meio de modelos lineares generalizados, empregando-se a função de distribuição binomial e a função de ligação logística. As probabilidades de ocorrência de partos múltiplos foram calculadas por meio de um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de ano e mês de cobertura, ordem de parto, idade ao primeiro parto, peso à cobertura, produção de leite, duração da lactação e intervalo de partos. A prolificidade média do rebanho foi de 1,49 cabrito. Os efeitos de mês de cobertura, ordem de parto, peso na cobertura, idade ao primeiro parto e intervalo de partos foram significativos. As chances de partos múltiplos tenderam a aumentar com o avanço da idade da fêmea (ordem e do peso à cobrição. Fêmeas cobertas no período de disponibilidade de alimentos apresentaram maior probabilidade de partos múltiplos. A idade ao primeiro parto foi outra variável importante, pois fêmeas com maior idade apresentaram maior probabilidade de partos múltiplos. As fêmeas com maior intervalo de parto tenderam a apresentar maiores probabilidades de parir mais de uma cria. A prolificidade de caprinos mestiços é altamente afetada pela variação de ambiente, maturidade fisiológica, condição corporal e idade de início da vida reprodutiva.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some environmental effects on the litter size, using 526 records of kidding of dairy crossbreed goats. The statistical analyses were carried out through generalized linear models, using a binomial distribution function and the logistic link function. The probabilities of occurrence of multiple kidding were calculated by a model that included the effects of year and month of mating, order of kidding, age at first kidding, weight at mating, milk yield, lactation

  19. Compostagem e vermicompostagem de dejetos de caprinos: efeito das estações do ano Composting and vermicomposting caprine dejections: effect of season

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    Ana C. Amorim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A caprinocultura brasileira cresceu consideravelmente nos últimos anos, elevando a produção de resíduos, fato que justifica o estudo de práticas de reciclagem, tais como a compostagem e a vermicompostagem, pois, além da agregação de valor com a produção do composto, representa um meio de saneamento na área rural. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, foram utilizados dejetos coletados de caprinos em diferentes faixas etárias, mantidos em sistema de semiconfinamento e com regime alimentar único. O objetivo principal foi avaliar os efeitos das estações do ano sobre os processos de compostagem e vermicompostagem. As reduções na quantidade de matéria seca (MS foram de 53,7; 53,4; 51,4 e 47,8% para a compostagem e 57,4; 51,0; 41,4 e 53,6% para a vermicompostagem nas estações de verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Observaram-se maiores reduções na relação C/N durante o verão e outono, em relação à primavera e ao inverno, para ambos os processos. As equações de redução de volume, na compostagem, foram: y = -0,0512x + 1,0233; y = -0,0552x + 1,1766; y = -0,0521x + 1,1656 e y = -0,0558x + 1,3227, para as estações primavera, outono, inverno e verão, respectivamente, (x = número de semanas e y = volume, em m³.Brazilian caprine raising has grown considerably in the last years and has elevated the waste production, what justifies the study of recycling practices of composting and vemicomposting because their aggregation values with the fertilizers production, and also represent a sanitation way in the rural zone. In this study, caprines of different ages, maintained in semi confinement system and with the same diet feeding were used. The main objective was evaluating the effect of the season on the composting and vermicomposting process. The dry matter reduction was of 53.7; 53.4; 51.4 and 47.8% for composting process and 57.4; 51.0; 41.4 and 53.6% for vermicomposting in Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring

  20. Descriptive analysis of sperm head morphometry in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica): optimum sampling procedure and staining methods using Sperm-Class Analyzer ®.

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    Esteso, M C; Rodríguez, E; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Pradiee, J; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-04-01

    Sperm morphology has been identified as one characteristic which can be useful in prediction of fertility in a species. The development of computer automated sperm morphometry analysis allows for objective analysis of sperm head dimensions. The aim of the current study was to develop an optimum sampling procedure to characterize the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) sperm head morphometrically. Fresh semen from 11 males was collected using transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of accessory sex glands and electroejaculation and prepared on slides for morphometric analysis to evaluate technical variation and standardize automated sperm morphometry analysis procedures by Sperm-Class Analyzer(®). Three staining methods (Diff-Quik(®), Hemacolor(®), Spermblue(®)), number of sperm cells necessary to sample and repeatability of the staining technique were assessed. There were significant differences in size of sperm head depending on stain used. Hemacolor(®) was stain most suitable for sperm head morphometry evaluation (length=8.42 μm; width=4.21 μm; area=29.37 μm(2); perimeter=21.93 μm; elongation=0.33; elipticity=2.01; regularity=0.95; rugosity=0.77). Morphometric values obtained from samples of 50, 100, 150, 175 and 200 sperm heads were compared. The most efficient method of analyzing sperm morphometry was to evaluate 100 sperm cells at 60× objective magnification. Thus, this study has allowed for description of optimal sample processing to determine morphometric parameters of sperm heads (size and shape) in Iberian ibex by Sperm-Class Analyzer(®) and provides a basis for future studies on the relationship with freezability and fertility in this species. PMID:25721563

  1. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion.

  2. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates. PMID:27346588

  3. A mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shu Qing; Yang, Ying Zhong; Zhou, Jun;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate genetic mechanisms of high altitude adaptations of native mammals on the Tibetan Plateau, we compared mitochondrial sequences of the endangered Pantholops hodgsonii with its lowland distant relatives Ovis aries and Capra hircus, as well as other mammals. The complete mitochondrial...

  4. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  5. Pattern of ancient goat migration revealed by AFLP molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECONOGENE Consortium

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic goat (Capra hircus is a very adaptable and geographically spread livestock species. Recent studies on mitochondrial DNA diversity suggest that goats have been the most widely transported and traded livestock species. For this reason it is thought to have played a central role in the demic spread of agriculture during the Neolithic agricultural revolution (Luikart et al. 2001.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii in goats from Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil: risks factors and epidemiology Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil: fatores de risco e epidemiologia

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    Guilherme Garcia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan with wide geographical distribution and minimal parasitic specificity that affects many species of wild and domestic animals. In livestock, especially in small ruminants like goats, toxoplasmosis can cause abortion and the birth of weak animals, leading to economic losses to farmers, and is a major source of human infection. This is a seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in goats in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Sera from 405 goats from the metropolitan mesoregion of Curitiba, eastern state, were tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Information on properties and goat characteristics was also collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 39.41 and 35.96% by ELISA and IFAT, respectively. T. gondii antibody prevalence increased with age. The risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats were: age over one year; exposure to cats, type of management and purpose of breeding. Other epidemiological factors and relevant control measures are discussed in the current study.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii, um protozoário com vasta distribuição geográfica e pouca especificidade parasitária, que pode afetar muitas espécies de animais selvagens e domésticos. Em animais de produção, especialmente pequenos ruminantes, como caprinos, pode provocar abortos e nascimento de crias fracas, causando perdas econômicas para os criadores, além de ser uma importante fonte de infecção humana. Este é um estudo soroepidemiológico para toxoplasmose caprina no Estado do Paraná. Soros de 405 caprinos da mesorregião metropolitana de Curitiba, no leste paranaense foram avaliados pelas técnicas de imunoensaio enzimático (ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, além da avaliação de questionários com dados das propriedades e animais estudados. A preval

  7. Fasciola hepatica infection and association with gastrointestinal parasites in Creole goats from western Argentina Fasciola hepatica infecção e associação com parasitas gastrintestinais em caprinos crioulos do oeste da Argentina

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    Pablo Cuervo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Goats, called “the cow of the poor”, are the livestock species with the most significant population growth worldwide in recent years. Gastrointestinal parasitism constitutes one of the main constraints to its outdoor and extensive breeding in temperate and tropical countries. Despite a Creole goat population of nearly 4 million heads, local reports on parasitological prevalence are scarce, and while Fasciola hepatica infection is spread all over Argentina, the goat is usually neglected as a reservoir and economic losses are not considered. To evaluate gastrointestinal parasitism prevalence and associations between parasite genera and species, with emphasis on fascioliasis, Creole goats from the plateau and Andean regions from western Argentina were investigated by coprological techniques, and associations were statistically assessed. Eighty-five percent (85% of the animals harbored one or more parasite types, while 46% showed mixed infections. Significant positive associations between F. hepatica + Strongyle eggs, Eimeria sp. + Nematodirus sp. and Nematodirus sp. + Trichuris ovis were detected. Further studies are required to define the causality of these associations and their relevance in epidemiology. F. hepatica is rarely considered as goat parasite in the country, but a 33% prevalence poses an interrogation on the role goats play on the transmission and dissemination of this zoonotic trematode.As cabras, nomeadas como “a vaca dos pobres”, são as espécies de gado com o crescimento populacional mais significativo nos últimos anos em todo o mundo. O parasitismo gastrintestinal constitui uma das principais limitações à sua criação extensiva em clima temperado e tropical. Na Argentina, apesar de uma população de caprinos crioulos de cerca de quatro milhões de cabeças, são escassos os relatórios locais de prevalências parasitológicas. Embora a infecção por Fasciola hepatica esteja espalhada em todo o país, as cabras s

  8. Immunoprophylactic strategies against enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in goats Estratégias imunoprofiláticas contra enterotoxemia causada por Clostridium perfringens tipo D em caprinos

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    Josir Laine A. Veschi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The serological response to an experimental vaccine against Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia was evaluated in four groups of goats. Group 1 received colostrum from unvaccinated cows and no vaccine. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received colostrum from vaccinated cows. In addition, Groups 3 and 4 received a vaccine dose at 80 days of age, and Group 4 received a second vaccine dose at 120 days of age. Serum antibody levels were determined by ELISA in cows before and after calving, and in goats at 3, 80, 120 and 160 days of age. No significant difference in serum antibody levels was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated cows, or between the four groups of goats evaluated at 3 days of life. Groups 3 and 4 presented mean antibody titers of 0.6 and 1.1 IU/ml, respectively, 40 days after first vaccination. The vaccine response of Group 4 was 1.8 IU/ml 40 days after the booster dose and was higher than that observed for Group 3 (0.2 IU/ml. Thus, in the proposed regimen the use of heterologous colostrum did not induce passive immunization in goat kids. However, first vaccination and a booster dose after 40 days triggered satisfactory antibody levels.Foi avaliada a resposta sorológica de vacina experimental contra a enterotoxemia em quatro grupos de caprinos. O Grupo 1 recebeu colostro de vacas não vacinadas e nenhuma dose de vacina. Os Grupos 2, 3 e 4 receberam colostro de vacas vacinadas, e uma dose de vacina aos 80 dias de idade nos Grupos 3 e 4. O Grupo 4 recebeu a segunda dose de vacina aos 120 dias de idade. Os níveis de anticorpos séricos foram avaliados pelo ELISA nas vacas antes e depois do parto e nos caprinos aos 3, 80, 120 e 160 dias de idade. Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de anticorpos séricos das vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas, assim como entre os quatro grupos de caprinos avaliados aos três dias de vida. Os Grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram títulos médios de anticorpos de 0,6 UI/mL e 1,1 UI/mL, respectivamente

  9. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

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    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  10. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

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    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1

  11. Características físico-mecânicas e químicas do couro de caprinos abatidos em idades diferenciadas Physical and mechanical characteristics quality of goats leather at different ages

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Brito L. Dal Monte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se analisar as características físico-mecânicas do couro de caprinos, após o curtimento, utilizaram-se 16 animais machos mestiços Alpinos, com idades a partir dos 180 dias de vida, abatidos em intervalos de 45 dias (quatro animais por abate. As peles foram curtidas e recurtidas e dos couros retiraram-se três corpos-de-prova das regiões dorsal, paleta, ventral, anca e lateral, nas direções paralelas e perpendicular ao eixo crânio-caudal, para realização dos ensaios físico-mecânicos: distensão da "flor" no lastrômetro, rasgamento progressivo, resistência à tração, análises químicas de extração de lipídios, óxido de cromo, pH e cifra diferencial. A idade do animal exerceu efeito positivo no ensaio de resistência à tração, com superioridade para os caprinos de 315 dias de vida. A região e a posição em todos animais estudados apresentaram efeito significativo no ensaio de resistência ao rasgamento progressivo, nas quatro idades, atingindo o valor de referência mínima de 80 kgf/cm. A resistência do couro à distensão da "flor" dos caprinos estudados foi superior ao mínimo de 7 mm, demonstrando grande elasticidade dos couros, sem influência de idade ou região.This paper focuses on the analysis of goats leather to identify the physical and mechanical characteristics after toning. Sixteen male crossbred Alpine goats, with four animals from 180 days old by slaughter, were used. Slaughter intervals of 45 days were used. The skins were tanned and re-tanned, and from the breather the proofs from the dorsal, palette, ventral, hind and lateral regions, were taken, in the following directions: parallel and perpendicular to the tail-skull axis, so that the physic-mechanic studies could be performed: distention of the "flower" in the lastometer, progressive tearing; resistance to traction and chemical analyses of fat, chrome, pH and differential code. Animal age showed positive effect on traction resistance

  12. Aproximación a los factores de diseño de las edificaciones destinadas a albergue de ganado caprino lechero de la provincia de Almería

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    Peña Fernández, Ana Araceli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article are shown the results of a work of investigation centered in fixing the main factors that condition the design of the buildings dedicated lo lodgings of mi/k goals livestock in Almería province, and considering the conceptual principles of the planning of industrial facilities. For that, it has been carried out the characterization of the lodgings of mi/k goats ' livestock of the A1mería province in an integral way. by a sampling of the referred explotations. For that, a questionnaire has been made which includes all the parameters 01' variables of design that can characterize this explitatíons, and later on it has been carried out an multivariate statistical analysis that has allowed lOreduce the number of original variables by a Factorial Analysis, and that it has borne lo establish groups of exploitations with homogeneous characteristics together with the realization of a cluster analysis. By means of this methodology five grollps of f arms with homogeneous characteristics have been obtained. andfive descriptive axes that summarize the entirety of the original quantitative variables have been determined, and that they represent the main design fa ctors that condition the construction of the lodgings. Finally a mathematical model has been formulated that allows discriminating against among each one of the homogeneous groups of farms . allowing to classify any new farm of mi/k goats 'Livestock, and thus lo know which are the design parameters that characterize it and those on which is neccessary to act.En el 'presente artículo se presentan los resultados de un trabajo de investigación centrado en fijar los factores principales más significativos que condicionan el diseño de los edificios destinados a alojamientos de caprino de leche de la provincia de A1mería. considerando los principios conceptuales de la planificación de instalaciones industriales. Para conseguir este objetivo se ha realizado la caracterizaci

  13. Avaliação de programas hormonais para a indução e sincronização do estro em caprinos Evaluation of hormonal programs to induce and synchronize estrus in goats

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    Rui Machado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer alternativas para indução e sincronização do estro em cabras leiteiras manejadas semi-intensivamente. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos com 411 cabras na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa deCaprinos, Sobral, CE. No protocolo básico, utilizaram-se esponjas intra-vaginais com 50 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por dez dias e aplicação intra-muscular de 100 mig de cloprostenol e 200 UI de gonadotropina coriônica eqüina (eCG no 8º dia; a inseminação artificial (IA, com sêmen congelado foi feita 38 horas após remoção da esponja. No experimento1 substituiu-se a e CG pelo "efeito macho"; no experimento 2 substituiu-se a dose de MAP para 60 mg; no experimento3 compararam-se diferentes momentos de IA: 38, 44 e 50 horas e no experimento 4 substituiu-se a eCG pela gonadotropina humana (hCG. Nenhuma das alternativas testadas modificou (P>0,05 a prolificidade. A IA em cio natural gerou maior (PThe objective of this study was to establish alternatives to induce and synchronize estrus in dairy goats managed under semi-intensive conditions. Four experiments were carried out using 411 goats at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Caprinos, Sobral, CE, Brazil. In the basic protocol, intra-vaginal sponges were used with 50 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP over ten days, associated with intra-muscular shots of cloprostenol, and equine corionic gonadotropin (eCG at the 8th day. Artificial insemination (AI with frozen semen took place 38 hours after sponge withdrawal. In the first experiment, eCG was replaced by "buck effect"; in the second experiment, 60 mg MAP replaced the usual dose; the third experiment compared different pre-fixed time for AI: 38, 44 and 50 hours and in the fourth experiment, hCG (human corionic gonadotropin given at different moments, replaced eCG. Prolificacy was not influenced (P>0.05 by any changes of basic protocol.After natural estrus, AIprovided higher (P

  14. Restrição alimentar em caprinos: rendimento, cortes comerciais e composição da carcaça Feed restriction in goats: carcass yield, commercial cuts, and carcass composition

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    Enrique Alejandro Yáñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre as características da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros, realizou-se um experimento utilizando 27 cabritos castrados da raça Saanen. Os animais (PV inicial de 20 kg foram distribuídos nos tratamentos alimentação à vontade e 30 e 60% de restrição, sendo abatidos aos 35 kg de PV. Foram avaliados o rendimento comercial e biológico, os cortes comerciais, a área de olho-de-lombo e a composição tecidual da perna. O rendimento biológico não foi afetado pela restrição alimentar, mas o comercial diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. A elevação no nível de restrição alimentar promoveu diminuição do lombo e da 6ª a 13ª costelas e aumento da paleta e do pescoço, proporcionalmente à meia-carcaça. A proporção de ossos aumentou e a de gordura total diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. O tecido muscular não foi afetado pela restrição. A restrição alimentar de até 30% não prejudicou a qualidade da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros.Twenty-seven Saanen male kids averaging 20 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the trial were used to study the effects of feed restriction on carcass characteristics. Animals were assigned to one of the following three treatments: control (fed ad libitum, 30 or 60% of feed restriction. A completely randomized design was used and data were submitted to regression analysis; animals were slaughtered when they reached 35 kg of BW. The following traits were measured in this trial: carcass commercial and biological yields, commercial cuts, tissue composition of hind leg, rib eye area (REA, and carcass compactness. Increasing feed restriction reduced carcass and commercial cut weights as well as loin and fat proportions in the carcass. Conversely, proportions of bone, neck, and shoulder clod all increased when the feed restriction went from 0 to 60%. Muscle tissue proportion was not changed by feed restriction in this study. It can be

  15. Alterações oftálmicas associadas à intoxicação experimental por closantel em caprinos Ophthalmic changes associated with the experimental poisoning by closantel in caprine

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    R. Ecco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterações oftálmicas foram experimentalmente induzidas em caprinos após superdosagem com o anti-helmíntico closantel. Foram usados cinco caprinos com sete a oito meses de idade, produtos do cruzamento da raça Saanen com a Pardo Alpino. Os animais mostraram sinais de intoxicação entre quatro e cinco dias após a administração do closantel. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se principalmente por distúrbios neurológicos centrais e cegueira. Ao exame clínico, observaram-se midríase bilateral, perda do reflexo pupilar à luz e cegueira bilateral. À oftalmoscopia indireta, foram observadas degeneração aguda de retina e papiledema. As alterações crônicas mostravam disco óptico acinzentado, atrofia de vasos e da retina. Nos fundos tapetal e não-tapetal notavam-se áreas de despigmentação e lesões irregulares castanho-amareladas. As alterações histológicas consistiam em perda dos neurônios da camada ganglionar e das células da camada nuclear interna e externa da retina. As alterações agudas no nervo óptico e na substância branca do encéfalo foram de degeneração espongiforme. As alterações crônicas do nervo óptico caracterizavam-se por extensa necrose e infiltração de células Gitter.Ophthalmic alterations were experimentally induced after overdose with the anthelmintic closantel. Five seven to eight- months-old, Saanen x Alpine caprine were used. The animals showed clinical signs of toxicosis four to five days after the administration of closantel. Clinical signs were primarily characterized by central nervous disturbances and blindness. Clinically, bilateral mydriasis, loss of pupillary light reflex, and blindness were observed. At indirect ophthalmoscopic examination, there was acute retinal degeneration and papilledema. Chronic ocular changes consisted of paleness of the optic disc, vascular atrophy, and retinal atrophy. Areas of pigment loss and irregular yellowish-brown foci were present in the tapetal

  16. Características químicas e sensoriais de cortes comerciais de caprinos SRD e mestiços de Bôer Chemical and sensorial characteristics of commercial meat cuts of "mesticos" and Boer goats

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    Marta Suely Madruga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados o efeito dos fatores genótipos (F1 SRD x Bôer e SRD e cortes comerciais (paleta, perna, lombo, costela e pescoço na qualidade físico-química (pH, atividade de água, qualidade química (composição centesimal, colesterol, cálcio, fósforo e ferro e qualidade sensorial (aparência, aroma caprino, aroma de carne assada, textura, maciez, sabor, suculência e qualidade total da carne caprina. Os fatores genótipos e cortes comerciais influenciaram de forma significativa a composição química da carne caprina. A perna foi o corte que apresentou o maior valor nutricional, com alto teor de proteína e a baixa concentração de lipídeos. No entanto, os atributos sensoriais sofreram pouca influência destes fatores, observando-se uma tendência pela preferência, por parte dos provadores, pela carne dos caprinos da raça F1 - SRD x Bôer. A carne caprina, seja de animais mestiços de Bôer ou de animais SRD, apresentou-se como alimento de excelente valor nutricional, com baixos teores de gordura e elevados percentuais protéicos, associados às excelentes características sensoriais.The effect of the factor genotypes (F1 - SRD x Bôer and SRD and type of cuts (pallet, leg, loin, rib and neck were studied on the physic-chemical (pH, water activity, chemical (proximate composition, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus and iron contents and sensory quality (appearance, goaty aroma, roasted meat aroma, texture, tenderness, flavour, juiciness, overall palatability of goat meat. Both genotype and commercial cuts had significant influence (p<0,05 on the chemical composition of the goat meat. The leg portion had the best nutritional value, presenting high protein and low lipid contents. However, the sensory parameter had low influence of them, the panel members had a preference for goat meat from F1 - SRD x Bôer animals. The goat meat either of F1 - SRD x Bôer or of SRD breeds was considered as a food of excellent nutritional quality

  17. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes Avaliação do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos

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    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO. The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL-1 EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL-1 EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg-1, for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.Fitoterapia pode ser uma estratégia alternativa para o controle de parasitas gastrintestinais. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia anti-helmintica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora (OeEc. Os efeitos in vitro do OeEc foram determinados através do teste de eclosão de ovos e inibição do desenvolvimento larvar de Haemonchus contortus. O OeEc foi submetido ao teste de toxicidade aguda oral e intraperitoneal, em camundongos. Os efeitos in vivo do OeEc foram avaliados através do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (FECRT com caprinos infectados com nematóides gastrintestinais. Os resultados mostraram que 5,3 mg.mL-1 OeEc inibiram 98,8% a eclosão de ovos e 10,6 mg.mL-1 OeEc inibiram 99,71% o desenvolvimento larvar de H. contortus. As doses letais para 50% dos camundongos foram de 4153 e 622,8 mg.kg-1 pela via oral e intraperitoneal. No FECRT, a eficácia de OeEc e ivermectina foi de 66,25 e 79,16%, respectivamente, em caprinos 8 dias

  18. Meat quality characteristics of exotic and SPRD crossbred goats from the semiarid region Qualidade da carne de caprinos exóticos e mestiços SPRD da região semiárida

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    Ertha Janine Lacerda de Medeiros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two intact male goats from four genetic groups (eight pure-bred Boers, eight ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD crossbreeds, eight ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds, and eight ½ Anglo Nubian + ½ SPRD crossbreeds were evaluated for meat quality. The goats were reared in confinement and slaughtered at the average live weight of 29 kg. Temperature and pH decrease in the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined for 24 hours, and analyses of colour, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, and sensory attributes were also performed. Genotype significantly (P Trinta e dois caprinos machos não castrados de quatro grupos genéticos, oito da raça Boer Puro, oito mestiços de ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD, oito mestiços de ½ Boer + ½ SPRD e oito mestiços de ½ Anglo Nubiano + ½ SPRD, foram utilizados para caracterizar a sua qualidade de carne. Os caprinos foram criados em confinamento e abatidos com o peso vivo médio de 29 kg. Em conjunto com as análises de cor, foram determinados o decréscimo da temperatura e do pH durante 24 horas no músculo longissimus dorsi, a perda de peso por cocção, a capacidade de retenção de água e sensoriais. O genótipo (p < 0,05 influenciou significativamente o período de confinamento: mestiços de ½ Boer + ½ SPRD apresentaram maior número de dias em confinamento, enquanto os Boer Puro alcançaram o peso final no menor período de dias. O genótipo também influenciou significativamente (p < 0,05 os parâmetros de perda de peso por cocção, força de cisalhamento e cor (intensidade de amarelo e luminescência e os atributos sensoriais de sabor, odor e cor de carne crua. O cruzamento das raças Boer e Anglo Nubiana com os nativos SPRD resultou em carne caprina de elevada qualidade.

  19. Determinação de cobre e outros minerais em caprinos e ovinos criados no sertão do vale do rio São Francisco, Pernambuco

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    Salvador S. Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Para a determinação dos teores de cobre e de seus antagonistas, foram utilizadas 160 amostras de soro e de fígados, de caprinos e ovinos enviados ao matadouro municipal de Petrolina. As amostras de fígado e soro foram correlacionadas para o mesmo animal, a fim de evitar erros na obtenção dos dados. No soro a atividade da ceruloplasmina foi determinada por método colorimétrico. Para a determinação dos minerais, as amostras foram diluídas de seis a vinte vezes com água Milli-Q. Para determinação das concentrações dos elementos minerais no fígado, as amostras foram digeridas até que se obtivesse uma solução que mantivesse os minerais da amostra inicial e que fosse totalmente liquida, sem a presença de partículas sólidas que pudessem obstruir os capilares de sucção do espectrômetro e assim impedir as leituras das amostras. As concentrações de cobre, molibdênio, ferro e zinco foram determinadas através de espectrometria óptica por emissão de plasma (ICP. Desta forma, foi conduzido o experimento objetivando determinar a ocorrência e distribuição da carência de cobre no território do sertão do vale do rio São Francisco em Pernambuco. Foi observado que não houve carência de cobre nesta região do estado de Pernambuco, quando se avaliou os níveis médios de cobre hepático,. Os níveis de zinco estavam dentro de um padrão de normalidade, enquanto que os níveis de ferro foram mais elevados em ovinos, e os níveis de molibdênio mais reduzidos em caprinos. Verificou-se também que a atividade de ceruloplasmina foi um indicador dos níveis séricos de cobre.

  20. Luteal dynamics in goats: morphological and endocrine features Dinâmica luteal em caprinos: características morfológicas e endócrinas

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    Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro

    2010-09-01

    árias dos ovários durante 21 dias, utilizando-se um aparelho portátil (5 MHz. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para dosagem de progesterona (P4 no plasma. Os corpos lúteos foram detectados pela primeira vez no D5 e aumentaram progressivamente de tamanho até o D9 (1,26 ± 0,08 cm², não havendo variação nos dias subsequentes. Nas fêmeas com uma ovulação, a primeira visualização do corpo lúteo foi mais precoce que naquelas com ovulação múltipla (4,54 ± 0,18 vs 5,74 ± 0,25 dias. No momento da primeira visualização, a área luteal foi menor nos animais com uma ovulação. A concentração plasmática de P4 aumentou progressivamente até o D9 e não apresentou aumento significativo até o momento da luteólise, caracterizada por uma acentuada queda da concentração de P4, atingindo valores inferiores a 1 ng/mL em um intervalo de 24 horas. A área luteal diminuiu de forma lenta e gradual. Foi observada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a área e a concentração de P4 durante a lutegêonese e a luteólise (r = 0,63 e r = 0,50; respectivamente. No dia em que o corpo lúteo atinge sua área máxima (D9, as fêmeas com mais de um corpo lúteo, com maior área de tecido luteal, não apresentaram concentração de P4 superior à daquelas com uma ovulação (5,92 ± 0,59 vs 7,04 ± 0,79 ng/mL. Esses resultados indicam que a dinâmica luteal em caprinos da raça Toggenburg segue padrões semelhantes aos observados em outras raças e em outras espécies e que o crescimento de tecido luteal refletiu positivamente na funcionalidade do corpo lúteo.

  1. Comparación entre las comunidades de nematodos parasitos de ovinos y caprinos criados en zonas áridas de Venezuela Comparison between the communities of parasite nematoda of sheep and goats bread in arid zones of Venezuela

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    Gustavo Morales

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available La estructura y composición de la comunidad de nemátodos parásitos de ovinos es similar a la de los caprinos (r**s = 0,90 P Under the studied conditions, the structure and composition of community of parasitic nematodes observed in both sheeps and goats, is similar (r**s = 0,90 P <= 0,05 y C**ss = 93,33%, the Shannon-Weaver index of diversity was 1.23 more or less 0.15 bits and 1.15 more or less 0.24 bits for sheeps and goats, respectively. The equitability index resulted in 0.49 more or less 0.06 for sheep-nematodes and 0.44 more or less 0.09 for goats-nematodes. However, no significant difference was observed when the means of these indexes, were compared. Not withstanding, a greater homogenity was observed in the ovine parasitic nematodes.

  2. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

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    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture. O experimento foi realizado em Campo Largo, PR, para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo de caprinos diante das espécies forrageiras azevém e aveia-preta em cultivo puro e consorciado, no período de 4 julho a 5 de agosto de 2004. As forrageiras foram aplicadas em piquetes com 630 m2 cada, alocadas em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com três tratamentos e três repetições. Nas avaliações de pastejo utilizaram-se doze cabras, distribuídas em três piquetes experimentais com quatro animais cada. Previamente às avaliações de pastejo, procedeu-se a medições na pastagem, como altura, massa total de forragem e dos componentes lâmina foliar e colmo com bainha. Fez-se a avaliação dos animais pela preferência e velocidade de ingestão. Os tratamentos azevém e consorciado mostraram-se superiores (p<0,05 à aveia-preta na altura média da pastagem, sendo que nas demais avaliações da pastagem o azevém foi superior (p<0,05 aos demais tratamentos. O tempo de pastejo dos caprinos no tratamento azevém e aveia-preta foi superior (p<0,05 ao consorciado. A taxa de bocados por minuto foi maior (p<0,05 no tratamento aveia-preta. Os caprinos apresentaram preferência pelos tratamentos azevém e aveia-preta em cultivo puro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Avena strigosa Schreb, bocado, caprinos, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preferência.

  3. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in goats and sheep in western Maranhão, Brazil Ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos e ovinos do oeste do Maranhão, Brasil

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    Larissa Martins de Brito Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are parasitic diseases which can cause reproductive problems in goats and sheep. The current study aimed to determine the occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in goats and sheep from the districts of Amarante do Maranhão and Buritirana, Imperatriz microregion, western area of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, and to assess factors associated to infection by these etiologic agents. Blood samples from 110 animals (46 goats and 64 sheep from five herds were collected, and indirect immunofluorescence assay was used for serological testing. Of 46 goat samples, 17.39% (n = 8 showed anti-N. caninum antibodies and 4.35% (n = 2 anti-T. gondii, while of 64 sheep samples 4.69% (n = 3 and 18.75% (n = 12 showed anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies, respectively. No significant difference regarding the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs on the property and veterinary care was seen for both etiologic agents studied. However, food supplementation and animal reproductive failure were significantly (p A neosporose e a toxoplasmose são doenças parasitárias que podem causar problemas reprodutivos em caprinos e ovinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos e ovinos dos municípios de Amarante do Maranhão e Buritirana, microrregião de Imperatriz, Oeste maranhense, Nordeste do Brasil, bem como avaliar fatores associados à infecção por esses agentes etiológicos. Amostras de sangue de 110 animais (46 caprinos e 64 ovinos, provenientes de cinco propriedades, foram coletadas, e a reação de imunofluorescência indireta utilizada para o diagnóstico sorológico. Das 46 amostras de caprinos, 17,39% (n = 8 apresentaram anticorpos anti-N. caninum e 4,35% (n = 2 anti-T. gondii, enquanto das 64 amostras de ovinos, 4,69% (n = 3 e 18,75% (n = 12 apresentaram anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti

  4. Evaluación de dos pruebas de inmunoblot con antígeno hidatídico de caprino y ovino para el diagnóstico de equinococosis humana Evaluation of two immunoblot tests with goat and sheep hydatid antigen for human echinococcosis diagnosis

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    Eduardo Miranda; franko Velarde; José Somocurcio; Eduardo Ayala

    2010-01-01

    Para estimar el valor diagnóstico del antígeno hidatídico de caprino y de ovino en la prueba de inmunoblot para echinococosis quística, se usó 135 sueros, de los cuales 70 procedían de pacientes con hidatidosis confirmada por el hallazgo de protoescólices y membrana en el estudio anatomopatológico con la pieza quirúrgica; 45 a pacientes con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 a personas aparentemente sanas. La sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo y negativo de la prue...

  5. Infection by Mycoplasma agalactiae in dairy goat herds in the microregions of Cariri in Paraíba State, Brazil Infecção por Mycoplasma agalactiae em rebanhos caprinos leiteiros nas microrregiões do Cariri na Paraíba

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    D.A. Bandeira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de Mycoplasma agalactiae, com o uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, em 30 rebanhos caprinos leiteiros nas microrregiões do Cariri Ocidental e Oriental do estado da Paraíba. Das 120 amostras de leite testadas, nove (7,5% apresentaram amplificação de apenas um fragmento com 360pb. As amostras que amplificaram este fragmento estavam presentes em 6/30 (20% fazendas localizadas nos municípios de Amparo, Santo André e Gurjão.

  6. Substituição do milho por casca de soja: consumo, rendimento e características de carcaça e rendimento da buchada de caprinos = Replacing corn with soybean hull: intake, carcass yield and characteristics, and yield of “buchada” of goats

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    Guilherme Lyra Amorim; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho; Adriana Guim; Ana Maria Duarte Cabral; Anidene Christina Alves de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Foram utilizados, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 32 caprinos mestiços de anglo-nubiano, machos castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do milho por casca de soja nos níveis de 0, 33, 66 e 100%, em dietas baseadas em palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck) sobre o consumo e rendimento decarcaça. A elevação no nível de casca de soja aumentou linearmente (p < 0,05) o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro e diminuiu o consumo de carboidratos não-fi...

  7. Nematóides resistentes a alguns anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano Nematode resistant to some anthelmintics in dairy goats in Cariri Paraibano, Brazil

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    Wagner C. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência de nematódeos a alguns anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano. Foram utilizados 144 animais no período seco e 120 animais no período chuvoso, fêmeas com idade acima de oito meses de vida e lactantes, distribuídos em 4 grupos: Grupo I não tratado, Grupo II tratado com albendazole a 10%, Grupo III tratado com ivermectina a 1% e Grupo IV tratado com fosfato de levamisole a 18,8%, nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes. Para avaliar a resistência, aplicou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (RCOF e o cultivo de larvas de helmintos. As amostras fecais foram coletadas no dia do tratamento (dia base e 7, 14 e 21 dias após o tratamento. No grupo tratado com Albendazole, observaram-se eficácias de 61%, 11% e 24% no período seco e de 55%, 14% e 12% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14, e 21 dias, respectivamente. No grupo tratado com Ivermectina, a eficácia foi de 14%, 70% e 66% para o período seco, e de 76%, 34% e 71% para o período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. O grupo tratado com fosfato de Levamisole apresentou percentuais de eficácia de 89%, 79% e 73% no período seco e de 76%, 69% e 67% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os nematódeos gastrintestinais de alguns rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano não são sensíveis aos princípios ativos Albendazole, Levamisole e Ivermectina. Durante o período de estudo foi identificada a presença de parasitas dos gêneros Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum e Strongyloides.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the resistance of nematodes to some anthelmintics in dairy goats in Cariri Paraibano, Brazil. A total of 144 female goats, over 8 months of age, were used in the dry season and 120 ones during the rainy season, divided into four groups: Group I untreated, Group II treated with albendazole 10%, Group III treated with ivermectin

  8. Respostas fisiológicas de caprinos nativos mantidos em temperatura termoneutra e em estresse térmico Physiological responses of native goats maintained in thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress

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    Luiz F. de A. Lucena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, analisar as respostas fisiológicas de duas raças de caprinos nativos do semiárido brasileiro submetidos a ambiente com temperatura e umidade relativa controladas; utilizaram-se 12 animais machos, 6 Canindés e 6 Moxotós, com pesos médios iniciais de 19,6 ± 1,9 kg e 20,4 ± 1,6 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (2 x 4, duas raças e quatro níveis de temperatura (20,6, 24,8, 27,8 e 31,6°C, com 6 repetições, e umidade relativa média do ar de 60 ± 5% e velocidade do vento de 0,5m s-1. Na temperatura entre 20,6 e 27,8°C a média da frequência respiratória (25,7 mov min-1 e frequência cardíaca (76,7 mov min-1 dos animais ficaram dentro da normalidade, sendo que a 31,6°C ocorreu elevação da frequência respiratória (134,5 mov min-1 e da frequência cardíaca (104,3 mov min-1. A temperatura retal foi semelhante em todas as temperaturas com média de 39,5°C, dentro da faixa de normalidade para a espécie. A temperatura superficial elevou-se com o aumento da temperatura ambiente. A faixa de temperatura de 20,6 a 27,8 °C pode ser considerada a zona de conforto térmico para caprinos nativos Moxotó e Canindé.The objective of this study was to determine the physiological response of two caprine races from the Brazilian semiarid, submitted to a controlled thermal conditions in a climatic chamber. Twelve male animals were used, 6 Canindés e 6 Moxotós, with mean weight of 19,6 ± 1,9 kg and 20,4 ± 1,6 kg distributed in a completely randomized design, in factorial scheme (2 x 4, two races and four temperature levels (20.6, 24.8, 27.8 and 31,6°C, with six repetitions, with mean relative air humidity of 60 ± 5% and wind speed of 0.5 m s-1. In the temperature between 20.6 and 27.8°C the mean respiratory frequency (25.7 mov min-1 and cardiac frequency (76.7 mov min-1 of the animals were within normality, however, at 31.6°C, occurred elevation to 134.5 and

  9. Características físico-mecânicas do couro de caprinos mestiços Boer e Anglo Nubianos Physical-mechanic characteristics of leather from crossbred Boer and Anglo Nubiano goats

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    Arturo Bernardo Selaive Villarroel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As características físico-mecânicas de 22 couros de caprinos mestiços Boer e Anglo Nubianos foram avaliadas para determinação da qualidade quanto à resistência à tração e ao rasgamento. Os animais foram abatidos com idade média de 260 dias e peso corporal de 22,0 kg. Após a esfola, as peles foram pesadas, conservadas por salmouragem e salga e curtidas com sulfato de cromo. Para determinação da resistência à tração e ao rasgamento progressivo, foram retirados das regiões paleta, anca e ventre dos couros semi-acabados seis corpos-de-prova nas posições paralela e perpendicular à linha dorsal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de parcelas subdivididas, tendo como parcelas dois grupos genéticos e como subparcelas o fatorial 2 x 3 (duas posições e três regiões, com três repetições, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey. Não houve diferenças significativas de resistência entre os couros de ambos os grupos genéticos para os ensaios de tração e de rasgamento progressivo. Entretanto, observaram-se diferenças significativas entre as regiões paleta, anca e ventre em todos os parâmetros estudados nos ensaios de tração e de rasgamento progressivo, com os maiores valores de espessura, resistência e alongamento encontrados na paleta. Concluiu-se que o uso de reprodutores exóticos da raça Boer ou Anglo Nubiano em cruzamentos, para melhorar a produção de carne dos caprinos da região nordeste, não influencia a qualidade do couro dos animais.The physical-mechanic industry characteristics of 22 crossed goat leathers from native does mated with Anglo Nubian (AG and Boer (BO bucks were studied to evaluate the leather quality by analysis of tension and tear resistance. Animals were slaughtered at average of 260 days of age and 22.0 kg of live body weigth. After skinning, the pelts were weighed, conserved in brine and salted and classified by quality before the chromium-tanned. To evaluate the tension and

  10. Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba Contagious echtyma in sheep and goats in the semiarid of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Jandui E. Nóbrega Jr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dez surtos de ectima contagioso em caprinos e dois em ovinos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Os animais jovens foram os mais afetados, mas em oito surtos animais adultos também foram afetados, principalmente cabras lactantes que apresentavam lesões no úbere. Em nenhum dos rebanhos afetados havia antecedentes de vacinação contra ectima contagioso. Histologicamente a epiderme apresentava acantose com hiperplasia pseudoepiteliomatosa e com múltiplos focos de degeneração hidrópica formando vesículas ou pústulas. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas eosinofílicas foram observadas em queratinócitos. Havia restos celulares necróticos formando crostas, hiperqueratose e microabscessos intracorneais ou extensas áreas ulceradas. Na derme observou-se infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear difuso. Também foi registrado um caso humano em um pesquisador que tinha administrado planta por via oral a um caprino que, posteriormente, apresentou lesões de ectima contagioso. Neste caso, também foram observadas lesões características em uma biopsia e o vírus foi identificado por microscopia eletrônica. Conclui-se que a doença é endêmica no semi-árido e que é necessária a vacinação sistemática dos rebanhos para diminuir os prejuízos econômicos causados pela mesma. A utilização de luvas para o manuseio de animais afetados é necessária para evitar casos humanos da enfermidade.Ten outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in goats and two in sheep in the semiarid of Paraíba State are reported. Young animals were more frequently affected, but in 8 outbreaks adult animals were also affected, mainly lactating goats which developed udder lesions. None of the affected flocks had been vaccinated. Upon histologic examination the epidermis showed acanthosis with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and multifocal ballooning degeneration forming vesicles or pustules. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in keratinocytes. Crust of necrotic cells

  11. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estações do ano Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons

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    Ana C. Amorim

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dejetos produzidos por caprinos, em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e submetidos ao mesmo regime alimentar, nas quatro estações do ano. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito das estações do ano sobre a digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de caprinos em biodigestores modelo batelada com volume útil de 60 L de substrato em fermentação e mantidos sob temperatura ambiente. Foram avaliadas as produções de biogás, as reduções de sólidos voláteis (SV, os potenciais de produção (m³ de biogás/kg de substrato, de estrume, de sólidos totais (ST ou sólidos voláteis, os números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, e a composição do biogás. As reduções de SV foram de 38; 34; 33 e 39% para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Os totais de biogás produzidos foram de 1,06 m³ no verão, 0,88 m³ no outono, 0,88 m³ no inverno e 0,99 m³ na primavera, e os potenciais de produção médios foram de 0,02 m³ de biogás/kg de substrato e 0,2 m³ de biogás/kg de estrume para todas as estações. As reduções médias de coliformes totais e fecais foram de 99,99% em todas as estações, e os teores máximos de CH4 no biogás foram 88,3; 84,6; 80,6 e 79,2%, para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente.The dejections produced by caprines were used, in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year.This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS reduction, the potential production (m³ of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS or VS, the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38; 34; 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m³ in Summer

  12. Comportamento ingestivo em caprinos alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Ingestive behavior in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tratamento da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio (CaO sobre o comportamento ingestivo em caprinos. Foram utilizados oito caprinos da raça Saanen, machos castrados, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg e 4 meses de idade, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais de 1,2 m², com piso ripado de madeira, providas de comedouros e bebedouros individuais. As dietas foram formuladas para ser isoproteicas e conter 14% de proteína bruta (PB e apresentaram 70% de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 0; 0,75; 1,5 ou 2,25% de óxido de cálcio (com base na matéria natural corrigida com 1% de ureia e 30% de concentrado fornecidas a vontade. A cana-de-açúcar com a adição das doses de óxido de cálcio, foi triturada em desintegradora estacionária, pesada e acondicionada em baldes plásticos de 50 L, tratada com o óxido de cálcio e fornecida aos animais após 24 horas de armazenamento. Os tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação (min/dia, min/kg MS e min/kg FDN e ócio (min/dia não foram afetados pela adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar. A adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar não influenciou a eficiência em alimentação e ruminação, mas provocou redução do tempo médio despendido por período de alimentação. O comportamento ingestivo de caprinos em crescimento não é afetado pela utilização de dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com até 2,25% de óxido de cálcio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO on ingestive behavior in goats. It was used eight castrated male Saanen goats, with 22.6 kg average body weight and at four months of age, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day experimental periods. The animals were kept in individual 1.2-m² stalls, with wood battened floor, provided with

  13. Uso de própolis e ácido ascórbico na criopreservação do sêmen caprino Use of propolis and ascorbic acid on goat semen cryopreservation

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    Erick Fonseca de Castilho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste estudo foram verificar se a própolis e o ácido ascórbico têm efeito sobre a integridade da membrana plasmática dos espermatozoides de caprinos e investigar o potencial desses antioxidantes no uso de meios diluidores de criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Foram utilizados cinco bodes adultos das raças Alpina (n = 2 e Saanen (n = 3. Após a coleta de sêmen, realizaram-se o exame físico do sêmen e morfológico dos espermatozoides, o teste supravital e o teste hiposmótico. Em seguida, o sêmen fresco foi diluído com o diluidor Bioxcell® (controle; Bioxcell® + 0,25% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,5% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,05% de ácido ascórbico; ou Bioxcell® + 0,25% de ácido ascórbico. Após as diluições finais, foram avaliados a motilidade e o vigor espermático obtidos com cada diluidor e posteriormente o sêmen foi submetido a envase, resfriamento e congelamento. No sêmen fresco, os aspectos físicos e morfológicos e os resultados dos testes supravital e hiposmótico não diferiram entre os animais nem entre raças. As médias gerais de motilidade e vigor espermático e dos testes supravital e hiposmótico obtidos logo após o descongelamento e após 3 horas de teste de termorresistência diferiram entre si, de modo que o diluidor contendo ácido ascórbico e o controle foram similares e superiores àqueles contendo própolis. O ácido ascórbico mantém a integridade estrutural da membrana dos espermatozoides durante o processo de criopreservação, bem como sua viabilidade após o teste de termorresistência, e pode ser uma alternativa na composição de diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen caprino; a própolis não é eficaz na manutenção da integridade e da viabilidade espermática pós-descongelamento e é tóxica aos espermatozoides nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%.The objectives of this study were to verify whether propolis and ascorbic

  14. 新疆托木尔峰国家级自然保护区北山羊分布调查%Distribution of the Ibex(Capra ibex) in Tomur National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马呜; 吴逸群; Raghunandan Singh Chundawat

    2007-01-01

    北山羊作为国家Ⅰ级保护动物,目前对其研究仍然较少.2004年10-11月、2005年7月以及2005年10-12月三次对新疆托木尔峰国家级自然保护区北山羊(Capra ibex)的分布进行调查.通过定点搜寻、样线调查以及访问调查,其结果显示北山羊在保护区5个主要区域中的3个有分布,这3个区域是:琼台兰河谷地区、克其克台兰河谷地区、木扎特河谷地区;在托木尔河谷和库孜巴依河谷两个区域中,定点搜寻和样线调查均没有发现北山羊分布,但访问调查该区域有北山羊.通过此次调查得出托木尔峰自然保护区的大部分地区是北山羊分布区,说明该保护区在北山羊保护中的确起了重要作用,但北山羊在保护区中的不均匀分布现状值得注意,这种现象可能与人为活动干扰有关.%Ibex (Capra ibex), a first grade protected animal, has not been well studied in China. Surveys were conducted to investigate the distribution of the ibex in the Tomur National Nature Reserve during October-November Kuzbayi Valley in our surveys, but interview investigations indicated that they may be found here as well. Our results indicated that the nature reserve as a whole is in the distribution range of ibex and it plays an important role in protecting ibex and the alpine biodiversity. However, the uneven distribution pattern can be due to human activities. Therefore, the management of the reserve needs to be improved in the future.

  15. Evaluación de dos pruebas de inmunoblot con antígeno hidatídico de caprino y ovino para el diagnóstico de equinococosis humana Evaluation of two immunoblot tests with goat and sheep hydatid antigen for human echinococcosis diagnosis

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    Eduardo Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el valor diagnóstico del antígeno hidatídico de caprino y de ovino en la prueba de inmunoblot para echinococosis quística, se usó 135 sueros, de los cuales 70 procedían de pacientes con hidatidosis confirmada por el hallazgo de protoescólices y membrana en el estudio anatomopatológico con la pieza quirúrgica; 45 a pacientes con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 a personas aparentemente sanas. La sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo y negativo de la prueba de inmunoblot, con antígeno hidatídico de caprino fue de 92,8%, 100%, 100% y 92,8%, respectivamente; mientras que de ovino fueron 91,4%, 95,3%, 95,5% y 91,1 %, respectivamente. El índice kappa fue de 0,93 para el antígeno caprino y de 0,86 con el ovino en relación con el estudio anatomopatológico. Se recomienda el uso de ambos antígenos para el diagnóstico serológico de la equinococosis quística humana.To estimate the diagnosis value of goat and ovine antigen for echinococcosis immunoblot test, 135 serums were used, of which 70 were coming from patients with hydatid disease confirmed by the finding of proto scolex and membrane in the pathology study of surgical piece, 45 from patients with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparently healthy people. The sensitivity, the specificity, positive and negative predictive value of immunoblot test, with hidatyd antigen of goat was of 92.8%, 100%, 100%, 92.8%, respectively, than for ovine antigen was 91.4%, 95.3%, 95.5%, 91.1%, respectively. Kappa index was 0.93 for goat antigen and 0.86 with sheep in relation to the pathological study. We recommended the use of both antigens for the serologic diagnosis of human echinococcosis.

  16. Controle bacteriológico de carne caprina para elaboração de hambúrguer caprino defumado Bacteriological control of goat meat to elaboration of smoked goat hamburger

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    J.C. Metri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações bacteriológicas da matéria-prima utilizada na elaboração de um produto cárneo caprino tipo hambúrguer defumado, antes e após sanitização. A carne foi tratada por aspersão, com uma solução de ácidos orgânicos contendo 2% de ácido acético, 1% de ácido lático, 0,25% de ácido cítrico e 0,1% de ácido ascórbico, e armazenada sob refrigeração. As análises bacteriológicas foram realizadas no dia 0 e aos 7 e 14 dias após defumação. Na carne, no dia 0, a contagem de coliformes fecais estava acima do limite permitido pela legislação vigente, mas sete dias após a sanitização, esse parâmetro estava dentro dos limites permitidos. No produto final todos os parâmetros bacteriológicos encontraram-se dentro dos padrões higiênico-sanitários.In order to obtain a safe goat smoked hamburger, bacteriological analysis of the raw material was performed before and after sanitation. Meat was sprayed with a solution of organic acids containing 2% acetic acid, 1% lactic acid, 0.25% citric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid and, after that, stored under refrigeration. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on days 0, 7 and 14 after goat smoked hamburger processing. In meat, on day 0, the fecal coliform count was above legal limits, but on day 7 after sanitation this parameter was these limits. In the final product, all the results of the bacteriological parameters were according to the sanitary-hygienic standards.

  17. FREQÜÊNCIA DE AGLUTININAS ANTI-Brucella abortus EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS DO SERTÃO DO ESTADO DE PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL FREQUENCY OF ANTI-Brucella abortus AGGLUTININS IN GOATS AND sheep OF THE “SERTÃO” (BACKLANDS OF THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

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    Vânia Lúcia de Assis Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a freqüência de aglutininas anti-Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos do Sertão do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram processadas 700 amostras de soros sangüíneos, das quais 340 eram da espécie caprina (115 machos e 225 fêmeas e 360 (136 machos e 224 fêmeas ovina. Empregou-se a técnica do antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT corado com rosa bengala (RB. Das 340 amostras de caprinos avaliadas, duas (0,6% foram reagentes ao AAT. Não se observaram associações significativas para as variáveis faixa etária (p= 0,430, raça (p= 0,936 e sexo (p= 0,562. Das 360 amostras de ovinos, nove (2,5% foram reagentes. Também não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis analisadas e a soropositividade para brucelose: faixa etária (p= 0,522; raça (p= 0,576 e sexo (p= 0,461. Verificou-se associação significativa (p= 0,042 entre as espécies estudadas e soropositividade para brucelose nos animais investigados. A soropositividade para Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos foi descrita pela primeira vez no Sertão de Pernambuco, fato que pode dificultar o sucesso do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose, tendo em vista que nessa região é comum a criação consorciada de pequenos ruminantes com bovinos, além de representar riscos à Saúde Pública.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brucelose, ovinos, caprinos, pequenos ruminantes, sorodiagnóstico. The objective was to investigate the frequency of anti-Brucella abortus agglutinins in goats and sheep of the backlands of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. 700 samples of sanguine serums were processed, of which 340 were of the goat (115 males and 225 females and 360 (136 males and 224 females sheep. The technique of the Tamponed Acidified Antigen (AAT dyed with Bengalese Rose (BR was used. Of the 340 samples of goat evaluated two (0.6% were reactive to AAT. Significant associations were not observed for the variable age group (p = 0.430; race (p = 0

  18. Quantitative characteristics of the carcasses of Moxotó and Canindé goats fed diets with two different energy levels Características quantitativas da carcaça de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé recebendo dietas com dois níveis de energia

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    Ana Cristina Chacon Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of carcasses of Moxotó and Canindé goats finished in feedlots and fed diets of two levels of energy. It was used 40 castrated young goats, 20 from Moxotó breed and 20 from Canindé breed, each one with an average body weight of 15.2 kg. The animals were fed with diets containing 2.20 and 2.71 (Mcal/kg DM. The experimental period lasted 86 days. There was no difference among the barometric measures of Moxotó and Canindé kids. Canindé goats showed higher final weight, higher weight after fasting and higher hot and cold carcass weights when compared to the Moxotó animals. Animals that consumed diets with higher energy level had higher final weight and conformation as well as higher carcass yield. Considering the percentage values of the commercial meat cuts, no difference among treatments was observed. The diet was the factor that most influenced the non-constituent components of the carcass of Moxotó and Canindé goats. In general, animals belonging to the Canindé breed presented higher quantitative characteristics than the Moxotó breed. Supply of diets with higher energetic level (2.71 Mcal/kg DM for goats from Moxotó and Canindé breeds, in feedlots, favors the production of carcass with higher yields and heavier commercial meat cuts.Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas da carcaça de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé terminados em confinamento e recebendo dietas com dois níveis de energia. Foram utilizados 40 cabritos castrados, com peso médio de 15,2 kg, sendo 20 da raça Moxotó e 20 da raça Canindé, suplementados com dietas contendo 2,20 e 2,71 (Mcal/kg MS. O período experimental consistiu de 86 dias. Não se constatou distinções entre as medidas barimétricas de cabritos Moxotó e Canindé. Os cabritos da raça Canindé caracterizam-se por apresentar maior peso final, peso vivo pós-jejum e peso de carcaça quente e fria, que animais da

  19. Descrição histológica do escroto de caprinos nativos do Estado do Piauí, segundo o grau de bipartição escrotal Scrotum histological description in native goats from Piaui State, according to scrotal bipartition level

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    Aline Soares Nunes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar as características histológicas do escroto de caprinos com diferentes graus de divisão escrotal. Foram utilizados 15 caprinos distribuídos em três grupos (GI, escroto não bipartido; GII, escroto bipartido até 50% do comprimento testicular; e GIII, escroto bipartido superior a 50% do cumprimento do testículo. Fragmentos do escroto foram submetidos a processamento histológico e analisados em microscópio de luz. Na pele do escroto, a epiderme apresentava-se composta por epitélio pavimentoso estratificado queratinizado, organizado nos estratos basal, espinhoso, granuloso e córneo. Sua espessura, independentemente da divisão escrotal, aumentou gradativamente da região proximal à distal, sendo mais espessa nos caprinos do GIII (68,91µm e mais fina na região da rafe escrotal do grupo GI. A derme apresentava-se escassa em tecido adiposo e possuía uma maior quantidade de glândulas sudoríparas apócrinas nos animais do GIII (18,12GS mm-2, quando comparado com os do GI (16,14GS mm-2 e GII (14,82GS mm-2. Com relação às glândulas sebáceas, não foi encontrada diferença numérica significativa entre os animais pesquisados. Concluiu-se que os caprinos que apresentam bipartição escrotal mais acentuada (GIII podem apresentar uma maior produção de suor, pois contém maior quantidade de glândulas sudoríparas no escroto, fato que pode favorecer a perda de calor por evaporação, colaborando no processo de termorregulação testicular.Among male goats in tropical regions, a bipartition in scrotum happens frequently Studies have shown that goats with bigger accented division in scrotum have reproductive advantages in relation to those that had not presented this characteristic, giving them a better thermoregulation for testis in the animals with bipartite scrotum. This research aimed to evaluate histological characteristics of the scrotum, in 15 goats, distributed in three groups, according to

  20. Perdas endógenas e coeficientes de absorção aparente e real do magnésio em caprinos Endogenous losses and coefficients of apparent and true absorption of magnesium in goats

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    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a absorção aparente, estimar as perdas endógenas fecais e a absorção real do Mg e determinar a ingestão ad libitum da água de beber e a concentração de Mg no soro sangüíneo de caprinos da raças Anglonubiana (AN e Saanen (SN. Foram usados doze caprinos, seis de cada raça, com 19,8 kg PV médio. Dietas semipurificadas (baixo teor de Mg à base de quirera de arroz, glúten de milho e celulose foram suplementadas com MgO, para se obterem os níveis de 0,05 (sem supplementação 0,20 e 0,35% Mg (%MS. Os níveis de Mg influenciaram os coeficientes de absorção aparente de Mg e Ca, com valores médios de 57,8; 73,9; e 73,2% para Mg e 55,7; 39,6; e 49,5% para Ca, para dietas com níveis 0,05; 0,20; e 0,35% de Mg, respectivamente. Entretanto, para os coeficientes de absorção aparente de P, Na e K, não houve efeito de níveis de Mg na dieta. Os resultados de absorção real de Mg apresentaram interação de níveis de Mg e raças. A média para raça NA, no nível 0,05% Mg, foi de 61,0% e para os níveis 0,20 e 0,35% Mg, 77,2 e 73,2%, respectivamente. Entretanto, para a raça SN, as médias foram 73,3; 75,5; e 76,0%, para os mesmos níveis, sem diferenças. A digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato não-nitrogenado diminuiu com os níveis crescentes de Mg nas dietas. As excreções fecais (7,0; 20,8; e 34,4 mg/kg PV0,75.d e urinárias (3,9; 30,8; e 44,6 mg/kg PV0,75.d de Mg elevaram-se com o aumento dos níveis crescentes de Mg nas dietas. Houve, também, influência dos níveis de Mg dietético sobre as concentrações de Mg do soro sangüíneo (1,74; 2,23; e 2,80 mg/dL para níveis de 0,05; 0,20; e 0,35% de Mg, respectivamente.The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent absorption, to estimate the endogenous fecal losses and the true absorption of Mg and to determine the ad libitum drinking water ingestion and the Mg serum concentration for Anglonubian

  1. Substituição do milho por casca de soja: consumo, rendimento e características de carcaça e rendimento da buchada de caprinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606 Replacing corn with soybean hull: intake, carcass yield and characteristics, and yield of “buchada” of goats - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Guilherme Lyra Amorim; Adriana Guim; Ana Maria Duarte Cabral; Anidene Christina Alves de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Foram utilizados, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 32 caprinos mestiços de anglo-nubiano, machos castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do milho por casca de soja nos níveis de 0, 33, 66 e 100%, em dietas baseadas em palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck) sobre o consumo e rendimento de carcaça. A elevação no nível de casca de soja aumentou linearmente (p < 0,05) o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro e diminuiu o consumo de carboidratos não-f...

  2. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  3. Nuevos hospedadores para las garrapatas Amblyomma tigrinum y Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae en Chile New hosts for the ticks Amblyomma tigrinum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae in Chile

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    D González-Acuña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez en Chile, ninfas de garrapata café del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus parasitando dos ejemplares de cabras (Capra hircus y adultos (un macho y una hembra gravida de la garrapata de listas blancas (Amblyomma tigrinum parasitando a un bovino (Bos taurus. La importancia de los presentes reportes, hechos en la provincia de Ñuble, son discutidos.For the first time in Chile, cases of nymphs of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus being found on two goats (Capra hircus, and adult (one male and a gravid female white stripped ticks (Amblyomma tigrinum being found on cattle (Bos taurus have been reported. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of these findings.

  4. Contradiction in conservation of island ecosystems: Plants, introduced herbivores and avian scavengers in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoso, Laura; Donázar, José A.; Scholz, Sonja; Palacios, César J.; Hiraldo, F.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of alien herbivores in sensitive island systems has resulted in massive effects on vegetation cover, floristic richness and composition of communities; some species can be even totally extirpated by grazing pressure. Goats Capra hircus and wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus were introduced in the Canary Islands around 500 B.C. Barbary ground squirrels Atlantoxerus getulus were introduced in 1967. Traditional extensive livestock exploitations have been maintained to the present bu...

  5. Composição corporal e exigências de proteína para ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó em crescimento Body composition and protein requirements for weight gain of growing Moxotó kids

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    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição corporal e as exigências de proteína para ganho de peso de caprinos da raça Moxotó. Utilizaram-se 26 animais machos não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável. Ao início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência para estimativa da composição corporal e do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. Posteriormente, formaram-se grupos homogêneos de quatro animais, distribuídos ao acaso em dois programas de alimentação (tratamentos: alimentação à vontade (AV; e restrição alimentar de 85, 70 e 55% do consumido pelo grupo com alimentação à vontade. Os animais com AV foram abatidos no momento em que o PV se aproximou de 25 kg. As equações do logaritmo (log dos conteúdos corporais de proteína (CCP foram ajustadas considerando o log do PCVZ. Derivando-se essa equação, obteve-se a equação de predição do conteúdo de proteína por kg de ganho de PCVZ. Os conteúdos protéicos dos animais experimentais mantiveram-se praticamente constantes e variaram de 205,60 para 201,69 g/kg de PCVZ (redução de 1,9% e de 15 para 25 kg com o aumento do PV. Apesar da pouca variação corporal das exigências líquidas protéicas (19,86 para 19,49, a relação gordura:proteína aumentou com o aumento do PV de 15 para 25 kg.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated male kids (initial mean 15 kg LW and 7-8 month old fed a diet with 2.6 Mcal ME were used to evaluate the body composition and protein requirements for weight gain. At the beginning of the experiment, six animals were slaughtered as reference to estimate initial body composition and initial empty body weight (EBW. Subsequently, homogeneous groups of four animals were distributed a complete randomized experimental design into two feeding regimes: ad libitum feeding (AL and feed restriction of 85, 70 and 55% of that consumed by the AL feeding

  6. Nutritional management to improve sheep and goat performances in semiarid regions Manejo nutricional para melhorar o desempenho de ovinos e caprinos em regiões semiáridas

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    Hichem Ben Salem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant production is the main source of income of farmers living in arid and semiarid regions. Sheep and goats raised in these areas are generally confronted with severe nutritional deficits during food scarcity period which exacerbate disease and health problems and consequently low productive and reproductive performances. These areas are characterized by rainfall seasonality and scarcity resulting in a low fodder potential. Therefore, native rangelands are degrading due to overgrazing, high stocking rates and mismanagement. Options to improve small ruminant-based production systems include i innovative technologies targeting the increase of feed resources availability, rumen manipulation using natural compounds to boost microbial activity, improving diets' quality, alleviation of feeding cost, and better control of livestock watering. Although this paper is focussing on the benefits from these technical options, we should bear in mind that i the organization of local institutions for better adoption of these technologies and for protecting the main natural resources (rangelands and water and ii the participatory approach involving all partners concerned with the improvement of farmer's income and livelihood are key tools for promoting livestock sector in the target areas. A set of simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly options that could ameliorate small ruminant production in the semiarid regions are discussed in this paper.A produção de pequenos ruminantes é a principal fonte de renda dos agricultores que vivem em regiões áridas e semiáridas. Ovinos e caprinos criados nessas áreas geralmente enfrentam severas deficiências nutricionais durante o período de escassez de alimentos, que comprometem a sua saúde e, conseqüentemente, resultam em baixo desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo. Estas áreas são caracterizadas pela sazonalidade e escassez das chuvas, que resultam em baixo potencial forrageiro. Além disso, as

  7. Silagem de maniçoba associada a fontes energéticas na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade = Manioc silage associated with energy sources on feeding goats: intake and digestibility

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    Fernando Thomaz Medina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em caprinosconfinados, que recebem dietas com 54% de silagem de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. Et. K. Hoffman e 46% de concentrados energéticos: grão de milho moído (Zea mays (T1; raspa de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriquecida com 1,8% de ureia (T2 efarelo de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica enriquecido com 1,1% de ureia (T3. Foram utilizados 15 caprinos SRD, inteiros, com peso vivo de 21,0 kg e distribuídos em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os maiores consumos observadosforam para os tratamentos T3 e T1, respectivamente, com valores para MS de 96,92 e 67,26 g kg-0,75 dia-1; PB 157,72 e 78,54 g dia-1 e NDT 593,29 e 515,35 g dia-1 e para dieta composta de silagem de maniçoba com raspa de mandioca que apresentou menores ingestões com valores para MS de 52,78 g kg-0,75 dia-1 e NDT 347,10 g dia-1. As igestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram de 70,74; 54,66 e 58,08; 59,58; 58,75 e 47,04; 62,49; 64,24; 51,60%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Os resultados obtidos para o consumo e para a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes revelam bom potencial para a combinação da silagem de maniçoba a fontes energéticas disponíveis regionalmente.In order to evaluate the diet combination of manioc silage withdifferent energy sources, intake and apparent digestibility were determined in feedlot goats. The diets consisted of 54% manioc silage and 46% energy concentrates: corn meal (Zea mays (T1, cassava meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriched with 1.8% urea (T2, and cactus meal (Opuntia ficus indica, enriched with 1.1% of urea (T3. Fifteen male goats were mixed-breed, initially weighting 21.0 kg, distributed in randomized blocks with three treatments and five repetitions. The greatest intake were observed for the treatments T3 and T1, with values for DM of 96.92 and 67.26 g kg-0, 75 day-1; CP 157.72 and 78.54 g day-1 and TDN 593

  8. Efecto de la heparina en la capacidad fecundante in vitro de espermatozoides caprinos Effect of heparin on the in vitro fertilizing ability of goat spermatozoa as assessed by heterologous solubilized zona pellucidae

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    J.F. COX

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio está destinado a establecer la etapa del proceso de fecundación en que la heparina ejerce el efecto estimulatorio de la fecundación en caprinos. Oocitos bovinos fueron madurados en medio 199 y alternativamente utilizados para la producción de zonas pelúcidas solubilizadas o para estudios de fecundación. Las zonas pelúcidas, colectadas eliminando mecánicamente al oocito, fueron solubilizadas en ácido acético, liofilizadas y almacenadas a -20° C, hasta su reconstitución. Los espermatozoides fueron colectados con vagina artificial, lavados y capacitados por incubación en medio Talp con suero y heparina. En el Experimento 1, los espermatozoides fueron suspendidos en Talp más heparina, Talp más heparina y zonas pelúcidas o en condiciones no capacitantes y fueron incubados por 90 min a 39° C y 5% de CO2 en aire. En el Experimento 2, los espermatozoides agrupados como en el experimento anterior fueron coincubados por 18 h con oocitos. En el Experimento 3, los espermatozoides fueron suspendidos en plasma seminal y Talp con y sin heparina e incubados por 90 min a los 0, 45 y 90 min, muestras de suspensión fueron expuestas a zonas solubilizadas e incubadas por otros 30 min. En los experimentos 1 y 3, el daño acrosomal fue evaluado usando la tinción PI/PSA y en el Experimento 2, la fecundación fue verificada por la presencia de pronúcleos y cola espermática en el oocito. Los resultados en el Experimento 1 muestran que a los 90 min de incubación el daño acrosomal aumenta en los espermios tratados con zonas en relación a los controles (PHeparin has been shown to improve the fertilizing ability of goat spermatozoa in a dose-dependent manner. The present study assessed the mechanism involved in the stimulatory effect by using solubilized zona pellucidae from bovines. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in 199 plus serum and insuline. Thereafter, oocytes were denuded from granulosa cells and used either to

  9. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita = Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding

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    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamentointeiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentaisobservadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do dia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotóand Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  10. Comparative screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-casein and κ-casein gene in different livestock breeds of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, Anurodh; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2015-06-01

    The most polymorphic milk protein gene is β-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of β-casein and exon 4 of κ-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the κ-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of κ-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds.

  11. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 on in vitro survival of caprine preantral follicles Efeito da proteína morfogenética óssea 7 (BMP-7 para a sobrevivência in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos

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    Valdevane R. Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to verify the effect of different concentrations of BMP-7 in the in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles. Fragments of caprine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ supplemented with different concentrations of BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 or 100ng/ml. Non-cultured fragments or those cultured for 1 or 7 days were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Parameters such as follicular survival, activation and growth were evaluated. The results showed that, after 1 or 7 days of culture, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly reduced in all treatments when compared with fresh control, except at 1ng/ml of BMP-7 for 1 day. In addition, the concentration of 10ng/ml of BMP-7 significantly increases follicular diameter from day 1 to 7 of culture. There was no influence of the other concentrations of BMP-7 regarding to the follicular and oocyte diameter. Ultrastructure studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in 1ng/ml BMP-7. In conclusion, small concentrations of BMP-7 can improve the survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles during in vitro culture.O presente trabalho foi conduzido de modo a se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da BMP-7 no desenvolvimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos. Fragmentos de tecido cortical ovariano caprino foram cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias em Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 ou 100ng/ml. Os fragmentos não cultivados ou aqueles cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM, sendo avaliados parâmetros morfológicos indicativos de viabilidade, ativação e crescimento. Os resultados mostraram que o percentual de folículos morfologicamente normais diminuiu significativamente em

  12. Efeito do ambiente térmico e níveis de suplementação nos parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó Effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiologic parameters of Moxotó goats

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    Carlos A. V. Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar o efeito do ambiente térmico e de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó, criados em confinamento no semi-árido nordestino. Utilizaram-se 16 animais machos, que receberam duas dietas compostas de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziowii e dois níveis de suplementação (0,5 e 1,5% do peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em regime de subparcelas, com 2 tratamentos e 8 repetições. No interior do aprisco os índices de conforto ambiental ficaram elevados a partir das 11 h e, no período da tarde, esses índices ficaram acima do ideal para os animais, ou seja, fora da zona de conforto térmico, porém, os caprinos da raça Moxotó conseguiram manter a temperatura retal dentro dos limites normais; entretanto, com aumento dos batimentos cardíacos. Ocorreu aumento da freqüência respiratória como uma forma de dissipação de calor para manter a homeotermia. Uma percentagem maior de suplementação provocou aumento da temperatura retal.This research was carried out to determine the effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiological parameters of Moxotó goats in confinement in the northeastern semi-arid. Sixteen males were used, which were fed with two diets composed of forage cactus, 'maniçoba' (Manihot glaziowii hay and two supplementation levels (0.5 and 1.5% of live weight with 18% of crude protein. A completely randomized design was used in sub-plots with two treatments and eight replicates. Inside the housing the ambient comfort parameters were high starting from 11 am, but during the afternoon period they were characterized as thermally uncomfortable. However, Moxotó goats had their rectal temperature maintained inside the normal limits with an increase of heart beat. An increase of respiratory frequency occurred as a form of heat

  13. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

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    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  14. Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain

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    Alasaad Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a the parental species don’t share alleles, and b one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis, then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management.

  15. Composição corporal e exigências de energia para ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó em crescimento Body composition and energy requirements for weight gain of growing Moxotó goat kids

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    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 26 animais da raça Moxotó, machos não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição corporal e as exigências de energia para ganho de peso. Ao início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência na estimativa da composição corporal e do peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (alimentação à vontade - AV; e 85, 70 ou 55% do consumo observado no grupo com AV e cinco repetições. Quando o PV dos animais com AV se aproximava de 25 kg, um animal de cada tratamento com restrição alimentar era abatido. Ajustaram-se as equações do logaritmo (log dos conteúdos corporais de gordura (CCG e energia (CCE em função do log do PCVZ. A concentração de água no corpo dos animais experimentais foi baixa, entretanto, as deposições de gordura, proteína e cinzas aumentaram com a maturidade dos animais. Foram observados aumentos de 78,55 para 125,38 g/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e de 1,90 para 2,34 Mcal/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de energia com o aumento de 15 para 25 kg no PV dos animais. Verificou-se relação linear positiva entre a composição em energia do ganho em PCVZ (GPCVZ (Mcal/kg GPCVZ e o PCVZ. Resposta semelhante foi constatada para os conteúdos de gordura no ganho. Os conteúdos corporais de gordura (g e energia (Mcal de caprinos Moxotó aumentam de 14,33 para 22,87 e 0,26 para 0,32 por 100 g de GPCVZ, respectivamente, à medida que aumenta o PCVZ.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated males kids, with average 15 kg BW and 7 to 8 mo old, were fed a diet containing 2.6 Mcal/kg ME were used to evaluate the body composition and energy requirements for weight gain. At the beginning of the experiment, six animals were slaughtered as a reference to

  16. Avaliação hematologica de caprinos exóticos e nativos no semi-árido paraibano Hematological evaluation of exotic and native goats in Paraiba's Semi-arid

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    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Pendência, pertencente à Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA, localizada no município de Soledade -PB, na microrregião do Curimataú Ocidental, Semi-árido da Paraíba. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar uma avaliação hematológica de caprinos exóticos e nativos criados no Semi-árido paraibano. Foram utilizadas 40 fêmeas das raças Boer, Savana, Anglo-Nubiana e Moxotó, sendo 10 de cada raça, com idade média de cinco meses, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, criadas em sistema semi-intensivo. Foram registradas as variáveis ambientais na sombra e no sol às 9:00 e às 15:00 horas, com auxílio de termômetros de máxima e mínima temperaturas, bulbo seco e bulbo úmido e de globo negro, e determinado o índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade (ITGU, na sombra e no sol. Para a realização da hematimetria e leucometria foram coletadas amostras de 5 mL de sangue de cada animal, em tubo à vácuo com anticoagulante. A análise de variância revelou efeito de raça para os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: eritrócitos, hematócrito e hemoglobina. Para o número de eritrócitos houve diferença significativa entre as raças Savana, Anglo-Nubiana e Moxotó, mas a raça Boer não diferiu em relação às raças Savana e Anglo-Nubiana. Houve efeito significativo para a variável leucócitos, tendo as raças Savana e Moxotó diferido das raças Boer e Anglo-Nubiana. Embora fatores como raça e ambiente influenciem sobre os parâmetros hematológicos, todas as raças apresentaram médias dentro dos limites normais para a espécie, demonstrando estarem bem adaptadas às condições climáticas do semi-árido.The present experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station of Dispute, belonging to the State Company of Agricultural Research of Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA, located in the municipal

  17. Flutuação das variáveis séricas em cabras e estudo comparativo da absorção de anticorpos em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostro bovino e caprino Fluctuation of serum variables in goats and comparative study of antibody absorption in new-born kids using cattle and goat colostrum

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    Anali Linhares Lima

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a flutuação no nível de anticorpos séricos em cabras nos períodos pré e pós-parto e a eficiência do processo de aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostros bovino e caprino, visando à avaliação de uma alternativa de manejo de colostro. Foram utilizadas 18 cabras e suas respectivas crias, num total de 33 animais. A coleta de sangue das cabras foi iniciada 45 dias antes da data prevista para o parto e foi realizada em intervalos de cinco dias até o 5º dia após o parto. Os cabritos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: um grupo recebeu colostro caprino e o outro colostro bovino. As coletas de sangue foram feitas às 0, 12, 24 e 48 horas e aos 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 e 60 dias de vida. Foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de proteína total e imunoglobulinas, além da concentração de imunoglobinas no colostro. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado e as variáveis séricas analisadas como medidas repetidas. A ausência de queda na concentração sérica de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas no período pré-parto indica que a mobilização de anticorpos para glândula mamária ocorre em concentrações que permitem o animal manter essas variáveis sem grandes alterações. No grupo que recebeu colostro bovino, a data de concentração máxima de proteínas totais (7,16 ± 0,28 g/dL foi verificada às 48,68 ± 0,70 horas de vida e a de imunoglobinas, às 48,75 ± 0,73 horas, com média de 37,56 ± 2,38 unidades ZST (turvação por sulfato de zinco. No grupo que recebeu colostro caprino, os valores máximos de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas séricas ocorreram mais tardiamente, aos 20,05 ± 1,36 e 20,11 ± 1,72 dias de vida, com médias de 5,91 ± 0,22 g/dL e 28,17 ± 2,05 unidades ZST, respectivamente. O colostro caprino pode ser substituído pelo colostro bovino, que promove melhor aquisição inicial de imunoglobulinas aos neonatos

  18. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

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    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  19. Occurrence and risk factors associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii in goats in the State of Alagoas, Brazil Ocorrência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado de Alagoas

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    Giulliano Aires Anderlini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Goats are considered very susceptible to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and when this occurs during pregnancy, it may cause fetal death with subsequent fetal resorption, abortion, mummification, stillborn or the birth of weak goats. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of and identify risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats in different mesoregions in the State of Alagoas. METHODS: The research was conducted on 24 goat breeding farms in 10 municipalities. A total of 454 blood samples were examined for anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. To evaluate the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, questionnaires were applied analyzing the farm's production system and nutritional, reproductive and sanitary management. RESULTS: Disease occurrence was 39% with 95.8% of farms presenting seropositive animals. Significant associations were observed for mesoregion (OR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.57, age (OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.20 - 0.64, semi-intensive herd management (OR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.87 - 40.43, access of cats to water provided for goats (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.89-6.02 and cats feeding on placental remnants (OR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.38 - 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection is disseminated in the State of Alagoas and the adoption of a program that monitors infection foci is required to reduce the risk factors identified in the present study.INTRODUÇÃO: Caprinos são considerados susceptíveis à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii que quando ocorre durante a gestação pode causar morte fetal com subsequente reabsorção, aborto, mumificação, natimortos ou nascimento de cabritos fracos. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a ocorrência e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção por T. gondii em caprinos nas diferentes mesorregiões do Estado de Alagoas. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em 10 municípios, sendo analisadas 24 propriedades de produ

  20. Silagem de maniçoba associada a fontes energéticas na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5228 Manioc silage associated with energy sources on feeding goats: intake and digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5228

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    Maria Cláudia Soares Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em caprinos confinados, que recebem dietas com 54% de silagem de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. Et. K. Hoffman e 46% de concentrados energéticos: grão de milho moído (Zea mays (T1; raspa de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriquecida com 1,8% de ureia (T2 e farelo de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica enriquecido com 1,1% de ureia (T3. Foram utilizados 15 caprinos SRD, inteiros, com peso vivo de 21,0 kg e distribuídos em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os maiores consumos observados foram para os tratamentos T3 e T1, respectivamente, com valores para MS de 96,92 e 67,26 g kg-0,75 dia-1; PB 157,72 e 78,54 g dia-1 e NDT 593,29 e 515,35 g dia-1 e para dieta composta de silagem de maniçoba com raspa de mandioca que apresentou menores ingestões com valores para MS de 52,78 g kg-0,75 dia-1 e NDT 347,10 g dia-1. As digestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram de 70,74; 54,66 e 58,08; 59,58; 58,75 e 47,04; 62,49; 64,24; 51,60%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Os resultados obtidos para o consumo e para a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes revelam bom potencial para a combinação da silagem de maniçoba a fontes energéticas disponíveis regionalmente.In order to evaluate the diet combination of manioc silage with different energy sources, intake and apparent digestibility were determined in feedlot goats. The diets consisted of 54% manioc silage and 46% energy concentrates: corn meal (Zea mays (T1, cassava meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriched with 1.8% urea (T2, and cactus meal (Opuntia ficus indica, enriched with 1.1% of urea (T3. Fifteen male goats were mixed-breed, initially weighting 21.0 kg, distributed in randomized blocks with three treatments and five repetitions. The greatest intake were observed for the treatments T3 and T1, with values for DM of 96.92 and 67.26 g kg-0, 75 days-1; CP 157.72 and 78.54 g day-1 and

  1. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

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    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  2. FORMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO CONCEPTUAL PARA LA GESTIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE OVINOS Y CAPRINOS: 1. ANÁLISIS DE LOS SISTEMAS DE GESTIÓN Y DEFINICIÓN DE LAS FRONTERAS DEL MODELO

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    C. A. González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un proyecto de desarrollo de un modelo de gestión tecnológica parasistemas de producción de ovinos y caprinos en Colombia, utilizando un abordajeinterpretativo y mediante la realización de un estudio de caso múltiple descriptivo, seevaluaron conductas, actitudes, percepciones y experiencias de productores de ovejasy cabras asociadas con la producción y utilización de la información, como base parala formulación de un modelo conceptual de la gestión de la información ajustado alas diversas necesidades y características socio-económicas, tecnológicas y culturales deestos sistemas de producción animal. Utilizando la Metodología de Sistemas Blandos(MSB, se identificaron los elementos que describen el ámbito y los límites del Sistemade Gestión de la Información (SGI en los sistemas de producción animal citados. Seencontró que el productor es el cliente, actor y propietario principal del SGI y que,por lo tanto, el modelamiento conceptual de dicho sistema debe tener en cuenta lascaracterísticas individuales de los productores, tales como su personalidad, experiencia,edad, educación y visión de su negocio, entre otras, las cuales determinan la forma comoéstos manejan la información y toman decisiones. Se identificó que el manejo de lainformación solamente cubre los aspectos operativos y transaccionales, sin alcanzar losniveles administrativos y estratégicos. El ejercicio ha demostrado que la MSB constituyeuna herramienta flexible y eficaz en el diseño de sistemas de gestión de la informaciónal tener en cuenta las visiones y perspectivas de los usuarios.

  3. Balanço de nitrogênio, concentrações de ureia e síntese de proteína microbiana em caprinos alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Nitrogen balance, urea concentrations and microbial protein synthesis in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da hidrólise da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio (CaO sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, as concentrações de ureia na urina e no plasma e a síntese na proteína microbiana em caprinos. Foram utilizados oito caprinos da raça Saanen, machos castrados, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg e 4 meses de idade, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 õ 4, em quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias. As rações, formuladas para ser isoproteicas, com 14% de proteína bruta (PB, foram compostas de 70% de cana-de-açúcar (tratada com 0; 0,75; 1,5 ou 2,25% de óxido de cálcio na matéria natural e corrigida com 1% de ureia e 30% de concentrado e fornecidas à vontade. A cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio foi picada em desintegrador estacionário, pesada, acondicionada em baldes plásticos de 50 litros e tratada com o óxido de cálcio para ser fornecida aos animais após 24 horas de armazenamento. O balanço de nitrogênio, as concentrações de ureia na urina e no plasma e as excreções de ureia na urina não foram influenciadas pelo tratamento da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio. A concentração de alantoína (% das purinas totais foi maior e a de ácido úrico menor nas dietas com cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com óxido de cálcio em relação à cana in natura. A produção e a eficiência microbiana não foram afetadas pela adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar em dietas para caprinos em crescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane hydrolysis with calcium oxide (CaO on nitrogen balance, concetrations of urea in the urine and in the plasma and synthesis in microbial protein in goats. Eight castrated male Saanen breed goats, with 22.6 kg average body weight and at four months of age were used distributed in two 4 õ 4 Latin squares, during four 14-day experimental periods. The rations which were formulated to be isoprotein, with 14% crude protein (CP

  4. Avaliação da ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, em soros de caprinos do estado de São Paulo, e associação com variáveis epidemiológicas, problemas reprodutivos e riscos à saúde pública Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in goat sera in the state of São Paulo, and its association with epidemiological variables, reproductive problems and risks on public health

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    José R. Modolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, em caprinos leiteiros do estado de São Paulo, e verificar possíveis associações com idade, sexo, presença de gatos, problemas reprodutivos e potenciais riscos à saúde pública, foram considerados soros de 923 caprinos, de ambos os sexos e idade acima de três meses, provenientes de 17 propriedades de diferentes municípios. Para o diagnóstico, utilizou-se a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFIe"16 e, também, um inquérito sobre saúde, a fim de se coletarem informações epidemiológicas e de esfera reprodutiva de todos os capris. Os resultados foram discutidos no nível de 5% de significância. Do total das 17 propriedades, foram diagnosticados 15 focos de T. gondii, com positividade entre 2,70% e 81,25%. Não foram verificadas associações entre freqüência de soropositividade e sexo dos animais nem ocorrência de falhas reprodutivas, nos capris. Constatou-se influência positiva na taxa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii pelo aumento da idade dos caprinos e presença de gatos, nos capris. Além de a enfermidade encontrar-se amplamente difundida no estado de São Paulo, o risco eminente de transmissão de T. gondii à saúde pública também deve ser considerado, uma vez que se encontraram focos onde se comercializavam produtos "in natura", como leite e carne.The study evaluated the anti-Toxplasma gondii antibodies occurrence in dairy goats in São Paulo State, and also verified likely associations with age, sex, presence of cats, occurrence of reproductive problems, and potential risks to public health. Serum was obtained from 923 animals of both sex, over three months of age from 17 properties in different cities. For the diagnosis, the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (RIFIe"16 and a questionnaire about health to collect epidemiological information and the reproductive cycle of every goat were used. Among all properties, 15 foci of T. gondii were

  5. Feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, F; Bacigalupo, A; Quiroga, J F; Ferreira, A; Cattan, P E; Ramírez-Toloza, G

    2016-10-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus). Our data indicate the most frequent feeding source in this area was P. darwini, followed by O. degus, O. cuniculus, M. musculus, G. gallus, T. elegans, C. familiaris, F. catus and C. hircus. Mixed food sources were also identified. PMID:27349188

  6. Suplementação dietética com Selênio uplementação e Vitamina E nos parâmetros seminais de caprinos induzidos à insulação escrotal = Effect of diet supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E on the seminal parameters of goats induced to scrotal insulation

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    Guadalupe de Carvalho Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação alimentar com Selênio e Vitamina E sobre os parâmetros seminais de caprinos submetidos à insulação escrotal (IE. Utilizaramse 12 animais distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em grupos-controle (G1 e Selênio e Vitamina E (G2. Dois meses após o início da suplementação alimentar nos animais do G2, realizou-seIE durante 18 dias. Após este período (IE, a suplementação foi mantida por mais 42 dias (fase pós-insulação escrotal, PIE. Para análise seminal, foram efetuadas seis colheitas de sêmen (antes, durante e após a IE. Não foi observado efeito da suplementação com Selênio e Vitamina E nas características quanti-qualitativas do sêmen. Com exceção do volume seminal, foi observada diferença significativa (p This study evaluated the effect of Selenium and Vitamin E supplementation on the semen parameters of goats induced to scrotal insulation (SI. Twelve animals were used, distributed randomly in twogroups (G1 = Control; G2 = Selenium and Vitamin E. Two months after the start of diet supplementation on G2 animals, it was realized SI was induced during 18 days. After this period (SI, supplementation was maintained during 42 days, corresponding to the postinsulationphase (PSI. For semen analysis, six semen collections were performed (before, during and after SI. There was no effect of Selenium and Vitamin E supplementation on the quanti-qualitative characteristics of the semen. With the exception of semen volume, a significant effect (p < 0.05 was observed between collection days for both groups (G1 and G2, with reduction in motility, vigor, sperm concentration, acrosome and DNA integrity. After 42 days of SI, normal values were observed for motility and sperm vigor, acrosomeand DNA integrity in one animal per group. It can be concluded that the high temperature of the testes of goats subjected to SI alters semen parameters; Selenium and Vitamin E supplementation on goats, in a concentration of

  7. Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos do óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos In vitro evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. seed oil effects on larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep

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    M.P.O Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar in vitro a ação do óleo da semente da Carapa guianensis (Andiroba no cultivo de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de animais das espécies caprina e ovina, foram testadas cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba (100, 50, 30, 25 e 10%, com três repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante, formando-se ainda três grupos controle, um controle negativo (água destilada, outro controle negativo (água destilada + tween 80 e um controle positivo (Doramectina. A atividade da andiroba sobre os ovos de nematóides gastrintestinais foi determinada pelo cálculo dos percentuais de redução de larvas por gramas de fezes. Os resultados revelaram na espécie caprina redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais para os tratamentos 100, 50 e 30% com médias nulas para todos os gêneros de nematóides. Na espécie ovina observou-se redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais em todos os tratamentos, com médias nulas nos tratamentos 100, 50 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos neste experimento demonstram que o óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis possui atividade in vitro contra larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro action of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba seed oil on the cultivation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep. Five andiroba oil dilutions (100, 50, 30, 25, and 10% were assayed, with three replicates per treatment, using Tween 80 as surfactant. Three control groups were formed: a negative control (distilled water, another negative control (distilled water + Tween 80 and a positive control (Doramectin. The activity of andiroba on the eggs from gastrointestinal nematodes was obtained by calculating larva reduction percentages per gram of feces. In goats, a highly effective reduction in the total number of larvae was detected for treatments 100, 50 and 30%, with null means for all nematode genera

  8. Identification of novel and differentially expressed MicroRNAs of dairy goat mammary gland tissues using solexa sequencing and bioinformatics.

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    Zhibin Ji

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although most microRNAs expression profiles studies have been performed in humans or rodents, relatively limited knowledge also exists in other mammalian species. The identification of the full repertoire of microRNAs expressed in the lactating mammary gland of Capra hircus would significantly increase our understanding of the physiology of lactating mammary glands. In this study, two libraries were constructed using the lactating mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats (Capra hircus during peak and late lactation. Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics were used to determine the abundance and differential expression of the microRNAs between peak and late lactation. As a result, 19,044,002 and 7,385,833 clean reads were obtained, respectively, and 1,113 conserved known microRNAs and 31 potential novel microRNA candidates were identified. A total of 697 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed with a P-value<0.01, 272 microRNAs were up-regulated and 425 microRNAs were down-regulated during peak lactation. The results were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. 762,557 annotated mRNA transcripts were predicted as putative target gene candidates. The GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that differentially expressed microRNAs were involved in mammary gland physiology, including signal transduction, and cell-cell and cell-extracellular communications. This study provided the first global of the microRNA in Capra hircus and expanded the repertoire of microRNAs. Our results have great significance and value for the elucidation of complex regulatory networks between microRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of mammary gland physiology and lactation.

  9. Utilização de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola associado à palma forrageira na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes Addition of urea to dehydrated vineyards residue, associated with forage cactus in goats feeding: intake and nutrient digestibility

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    Manuela Silva Libanio Tosto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da adição de 0; 0,5; 1 ou 1,5% de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícolas - utilizado em associação a palma forrageira na alimentação de caprinos - no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Foram utilizados 24 caprinos machos castrados, sem padrão racial definido, com peso vivo médio de 18 kg, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso vivo. O período experimental foi de 20 dias: 15 para adaptação e 5 para coleta. A adição de teores crescentes de uréia ao resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola possibilitou aumento do consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, expressos em kg/dia, %PV e em g/kgPV0,75. Observou-se consumo linear crescente de nutrientes digest��veis totais (NDT, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, em %PV e g/kgPV0,75. Não houve diferença significativa nos consumos de NDT, CT e CNF expressos em kg/dia, cujos valores médios foram 0,363; 0,575 e 0,258, respectivamente. Entretanto, a adição de uréia ao resíduo não influenciou os coeficientes de digestibildade de MS, MO e FDN (médias de 48,13; 46,08 e de 20,37%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de CNF apresentaram crescimento linear, enquanto os de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo de 48,93%, com a adição de 1,3% de uréia ao resíduo. O uso de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola elevou linearmente o consumo de nutrientes, contudo, o nível de 1,3% é o mais indicado, pois promove melhor digestibilidade da proteína bruta de dietas contendo esse alimento alternativo.The effect of the addition of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of urea to dehydrated vineyards residue, associated to forage cactus palm in the feeding of goats on intake and nutrient digestibility was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated crossbred goats, without defined breed, with average 18 kg of BW were

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.

  11. Effects of Condensed Tannin-Rich Pine Bark Diet on Experimentally Infected With Haemonchus Contortus in Meat Goats

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Min; Wilson, E A; Solaiman, S; Miller, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of a novel condensed tannin-rich pine bark (PB) mixture diet on an in vitro gas production, in vivo animal performance, internal parasites, carcass production, and plasma metabolites in meat goats. Fifteen Kiko-cross meat goats (Capra hircus; body weight (BW) = 28.0 ± 1.0 kg) were randomly assigned to two experimental diets (control vs. PB supplementation): 1) control diet (70% grain mixture and 30% wheat straw (W...

  12. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal...

  13. Nuevos hospedadores para las garrapatas Amblyomma tigrinum y Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) en Chile New hosts for the ticks Amblyomma tigrinum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña, D.; Valenzuela, G; Moreno, L.; K Ardiles; A Guglielmone

    2006-01-01

    Se registran, por primera vez en Chile, ninfas de garrapata café del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) parasitando dos ejemplares de cabras (Capra hircus) y adultos (un macho y una hembra gravida) de la garrapata de listas blancas (Amblyomma tigrinum) parasitando a un bovino (Bos taurus). La importancia de los presentes reportes, hechos en la provincia de Ñuble, son discutidos.For the first time in Chile, cases of nymphs of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) being found on two goats...

  14. Water consumption when exposed to sun and shade for native goats in the semiarid of the State of Paraiba, Brazil Consumo de água quando exposta ao sol e à sombra por caprinos nativos no Semiárido Paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the preference and water consumption of native goats in the semiarid of Brazil. The water was freely supplied, in individual buckets, one exposed to the sun and the other in the shade. The experiment was realized using 18 animals of Moxotó, Graúna and Azul breeds, with average weight of 16,6 ± 2,4 kg, kept in confinement in individual stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers, during the period from January to February of 2009. The water temperature was measured by sensors (thermocouples type T - copper/constantan, which were coupled to a system of data acquisition. It was observed that the average water temperature exposed to the sun was 29.02 ºC, and 23.85 ºC in the shade. For all breeds there was a preference for the water exposed to the sun, corresponding to an average consumption of 64.71% of the total. Among the breeds, the greatest preference for water exposed to the sun was the Azul (71.18%, followed by the Moxotó (65.95% and the Graúna (57.00%. The animals consumed more water during the day, and the average water consumption was 1.15 grams day-1, corresponding to 6.9 % of body weight of the animals.O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a preferência e o consumo de água por caprinos nativos no semiárido brasileiro, fornecida à vontade, em baldes individuais, sendo um exposto ao sol e outro à sombra. O experimento foi realizado, utilizado-se de 18 animais das raça Moxotó, Graúna e Azul, com peso vivo médio de 16,6 ± 2,4 kg, mantidos em confinamento, em baias individuais, providas de comedouro e bebedouro, durante o período de janeiro a março de 2009. A temperatura da água foi medida através de sensores (termopares tipo T - cobre/constantan, que estavam acoplados a um sistema de aquisição de dados. Observou-se que a temperatura média da água exposta ao sol foi de 29,02 ºC, e à sombra, de 23,85 ºC. Para todas as raças, houve preferência pela água exposta ao sol, correspondendo a um

  15. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Verônica Schmidt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  16. The effect of supplementation on the tissue composition of the commercial cuts of cross-bred F1 (Boer × SPRD finished in native pasture Efeito da suplementação na composição tecidual dos cortes comerciais de caprinos mestiços F1 (Boer × SPRD terminados em pastagem nativa

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    Rayana de Medeiros Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of levels of supplementation with concentrate on the tissue composition of commercial cuts of goats finished in native pasture. It was used 24 non-castrated cross-bred F1 (Boer × SPRD goats at the age of 120 days, with initial average body weight (BW of 15.52 kg distributed in four levels of supplementation with concentrated feed (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of body weight in dry matter and slaughtered at 25.12 kg; 26.62 kg; 28.56 kg and 29.19 kg, respectively, corresponding to 218 days of life. The carcass was sectioned in the half, and from the left half of the carcass, the following cuts were separated: leg, loin, ribs, shoulder and neck, which were dissected into muscle, bone and fat, with the results expressed in weight and yield of the tissues in relation to the weight of the cut. Supplementation incresead the muscle weight, as well as the fat weight and yield and decreased the muscle:fat relationship; however there was no influence on the proportion of muscle in the five studied cuts. Therefore, in order to obtain better finished commercial meat cuts, supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of body weight is recommended. Nevertheless, supplementation is unnecessary for obtaining lighter meat cuts with a good proportion of muscle.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos níveis de suplementação com concentrado na composição tecidual dos cortes comerciais de caprinos terminados em pastagem nativa utilizaram-se 24 animais, não-castrados, mestiços F1 (Boer × SPRD, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15,52 kg e 120 dias de idade, distribuídos em quatro níveis de suplementação com concentrado (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% do PV em matéria seca e abatidos aos 25,12 g; 26,62; 28,56 e 29,19 kg, respectivamente, correspondentes a 218 dias de idade. A carcaça foi seccionada ao meio e da meia-carcaça esquerda, foram separados os cortes perna, lombo, costilhar, paleta e pescoço, os quais foram dissecados em m

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50 Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50

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    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentais observadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do diaThe aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotó and Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  18. Cloned goats (Gapra hircus) from foetal fibroblast cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cloning has been one of the most active research topics in the world.Cloning with in vitro culured foetal fibroblast cells,in comparison with embryonic cells,can be used not only to theoretically study the embryonic or cellular development and differentiation in mammals,but also to utilize the unlimited fibroblast cells to produce large numbers of clonings.The preliminary results are as follows:(i) The division and development of the cloned embryos with embryonic donor cells and goat foetal fibroblast donor cells were 55%,77% and 35%,31%,respectively.There is no significant statistical difference between them.(ii) These studies result in the birth of two cloned goats derived from two 30-day foetal fibroblast cell lines,which are the first cloned mammals from somatic cells in China.This project has established a technological data base for the furture research on adult mammalian somatic cloning and nucleocytoplasmic interactions in animal development,and a novel technique for the cloning of animals with a high-level expression of transgene(s).

  19. Goats challenged with different members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex display different clinical pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, J; Casal, C; Díez-Delgado, I; Romero, B; Liandris, E; Álvarez, J; Sevilla, I A; Juan, L de; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C

    2015-10-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) in goats (Capra hircus) is due to infection with members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), mainly Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. We report a comparative experimental infection of goats with M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis strains. We hypothesized that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC would display different clinical pictures. Three groups of goats were challenged with either M. bovis SB0134 (group 1, n=5), M. caprae SB0157 (group 2, n=5) and M. tuberculosis SIT58 (group 3, n=4). The highest mean total lesion score was observed in M. bovis challenged goats (mean 15.2, range 9-19), followed by those challenged with M. caprae (10.8, 2-23). The lowest score was recorded in goats challenged with M. tuberculosis (3, 1-6). Culture results coincided with the lesion scores in yielding more positive pools (7/15) in M. bovis challenged goats. By contrast, only three pools were positive from goats challenged M. tuberculosis (3/12) and with M. caprae (3/15), respectively. Differences in the performance of the intradermal and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) tests depending of the group were observed since all goats from group 1 were diagnosed using intradermal test and these goats reacted earlier to the IFN-γ assay in comparison to the other groups. This study confirmed that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC display different clinical pictures and this fact may have implications for MTC maintenance and bacterial shedding.

  20. Goat ovarian follicles express different levels of mRNA for inhibin-ßA subunit and activin-A stimulates secondary follicle growth in vitro Folículos ovarianos caprinos expressam diferentes níveis de RNAm para subunidade ßA da inibina e ativina-A promove o crescimento de folículos secundários in vitro

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    Cintia Camurça Fernandes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA for inhibin-ßA subunit in goat primordial, primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs and mural granulosa / theca cells of antral follicles. The effects of activin-A (100ng mL-1 and/or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 50ng mL-1 on growth and expression of mRNA for activin-A and FSH receptor (FSH-R in secondary follicles cultured for six days were evaluated. The data showed that the expression of inhibin-ßA is lower in secondary follicles than in primary follicles and is higher in large antral follicles than in small antral follicles. After culture, activin-A and/or FSH promoted growth of secondary follicles, while FSH increased the levels of mRNA for inhibin-ßA, and activin-A increased the levels of FSH-R mRNA. In conclusion, mRNA for inhibin-ßA is expressed at different levels in pre-antral and antral follicles and activin-A acts as a stimulator of the FSH-R expression in goat follicles. On its turn, the expression of inhibin-ßA is stimulated by FSH, which together with activin-A promotes secondary follicle growth in-vitro.Este estudo investigou os níveis de ácidos ribonucleicos (RNAm para a subunidade ßA da inibina em folículos primordiais, primários e secundários caprinos, bem como em complexos cumulus-oócitos (CCOs e células da granulosa mural/teca de folículos antrais. Além disso, avaliaram-se os efeitos da ativina-A (100ng mL-1 e/ou hormônio folículo estimulante (FSH, 50ng mL-1 sobre o crescimento e a expressão do RNAm para inibina-ßA e receptores de FSH (FSH-R em folículos secundários cultivados por seis dias. Os dados mostraram que a expressão de inibina-ßA é menor em folículos secundários do que em folículos primários e é maior em grandes folículos antrais que nos pequenos folículos antrais. Após o cultivo, ativina-A e/ou FSH promoveram o crescimento de folículos secundários. Enquanto o FSH

  1. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

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    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  2. Substituição do milho por casca de soja: consumo, rendimento e características de carcaça e rendimento da buchada de caprinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606 Replacing corn with soybean hull: intake, carcass yield and characteristics, and yield of “buchada” of goats - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606

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    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 32 caprinos mestiços de anglo-nubiano, machos castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do milho por casca de soja nos níveis de 0, 33, 66 e 100%, em dietas baseadas em palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck sobre o consumo e rendimento de carcaça. A elevação no nível de casca de soja aumentou linearmente (p Thirty-two Anglo-Nubian crossbred castrated male goats were utilized in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with soybean hull in diets based on cactus forage (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck at levels of 0, 33, 66 and 100%, measured for intake and carcass yield. The rise in soybean hull levels increased neutral detergent fiber intake linearly (p < 0.05 and reduced the intake of non-fiber carbohydrates. However, live slaughter weight, empty body weight, freezing losses, hot carcass weight and yield, cold carcass and “buchada” (gut were not influenced. Fasting losses presented quadratic behavior (p < 0.05 while true and freezing yields increased linearly (p < 0.05. The carcass compactness index, the cuts and their respective yields were not influenced by the replacement of corn with soybean hull level, except for the shoulder cut, which presented quadratic behavior (p < 0.05. Total replacement of corn reduced feeding costs by 15.4%. Soybean hull can represent an alternative in the feeding of goats in confinement fed a cactus forage-based diet.

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF KEJOBONG GOAT BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP SEQUENCE

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    M. F. Harlistyo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find out the diversity of mtDNA D-loop at Kejobong goat. The completemtDNA D-loop sequence of 12 goat blood samples were analyzed from 4 different location inPurbalingga Regency, Central Java province, sub-districts Kejobong, Pangadegan, Bukateja, andKaligondang. The mtDNA D-loop was extracted from blood sample. DNA obtained were amplified byPCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction method using primers (5’-tcactatcagcacccaaagc-3’ as forward and(5’-ggcattttcagtgccttgct-3’ as reverse and subsequently sequenced. After nucleotide sequencing analysisconducted, 548 bp along was obtained. Nucleotides were then aligned with Capra hircus (GenBankAccess No.: KF952601.1 and apparently there were 11 different sites on the segment of mtDNA Dloop.Five sites could be used as a specific marker to distinguish between the Capra hircus andKejobong goat, namely at the site of 317 (A-G, 403 (T-C, 434 (T-C, 537 (C-T, and 553 (A-G.Nucleotide sequence analysis also contained seven different haplotypes. It was concluded that thedistribution of the different sites showed different haplotype patterns in Kejobong goat.

  4. Implicaciones sanitarias del manejo del calostro en el ganado caprino

    OpenAIRE

    Paterna, A.; Gómez-Martín, A.; Amores Iniesta, Joaquín; Prats-van der Ham, M.; Tatay-Dualde, J.; Corrales Romero, Juan Carlos; De la Fe, C.; Contreras de Vera, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    El calostro supone la primera fuente de inmunidad para los rumiantes y por tanto determina su resistencia a enfermedades durante las primeras horas de vida. No obstante, la ingesta de calostro puede suponer en sí misma una vía de transmisión de diversas enfermedades, como la paratuberculosis, la artritis-encefalitis caprina o la agalaxia contagiosa. Este riesgo puede evitarse siguiendo un régimen de lactancia artificial con unas adecuadas pautas de manejo del calostro. Entre dicha...

  5. Efeito de medicamentos indicados para a prevenção da mastite bovina no período seco sobre a função fagocítica in vitro de leucócitos do leite de caprinos Effect of dry cow therapy products on the in vitro phagocytic function of goat milk leukocytes

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    Alexandre Q. Benesi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O uso de medicamentos antimamíticos específicos para vacas no período seco é indicado para prevenção de infecções na lactação seguinte. Não obstante, a ação das células envolvidas no período de secagem tem fundamental importância para a involução da glândula mamária e seu restabelecimento para a lactação subseqüente. A indisponibilidade de tais medicamentos para uso em cabras tem resultado na extrapolação do uso de produtos recomendados para vacas sem que se considerem as particularidades e diferenças anátomo-fisiológicas entre as espécies bovina e caprina. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de cinco antimamíticos específicos para vacas secas sobre a função dos fagócitos provenientes de leite caprino. Para tal, fez-se o isolamento de células somáticas de 20 amostras de leite provenientes de 10 cabras lactantes, sem antecedentes de tratamento de mamite nos últimos 30 dias, sob condições higiênico-sanitárias de colheita e com resultados negativos ao cultivo microbiológico do leite. As células aderidas a lamínulas de vidro foram confrontadas com formulações contendo princípios ativos disponíveis no mercado como Gentamicina (M1, Cefalônio Anidro (M2, Ampicilina (M3, Cloxacilina Benzatínica (M4 e Cefapirina Benzatínica (M5. Avaliou-se, por microscopia, a fagocitose de partículas de Zymosan. As médias dos índices de fagocitose das células submetidas ao tratamento com M2 (15,12% ± 16,22, M3 (6,02% ± 7,96, M4 (4,54% ± 5,45 e M5 (2,47% ± 4,64 foram menores (pThe use of specific anti-mastitis drugs is indicated in dry cow therapy to prevent infections in the following lactation. Nonetheless, cells active in the dry period are of fundamental importance for the involution of the mammary gland and its recovery for the following lactation. Since there are no specific drugs for dry goat therapy, the dry cow therapy drugs tend to be misused in goats despite of the anatomical and

  6. Lights and shadows of sustainable development and combat against desertification: economic rationalities in the eye of the storm. Case study involving goat producers in drylands (Mendoza, Argentina Claroscuros del desarrollo sustentable y la lucha contra la desertificación: las racionalidades económicas en el ojo de la tormenta: Estudio de caso con productores caprinos de tierras secas [Mendoza, Argentina

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    Laura Torres

    2010-01-01

    subsistence.El trabajo analiza la situación de conflicto que se presenta en las tierras secas de Mendoza, entre productores caprinos y programas de lucha contra la desertificación, a propósito de las prácticas productivas y el uso de los recursos naturales.Se aborda un caso de estudio situado en el extremo noreste de la provincia de Mendoza, polo hiperárido de la región, gravemente afectado por procesos de desertificación, con una extensión de 10.007km2 y poblado por 3015 habitantes, donde dominan las pequeñas explotaciones caprinas. Estudios previos señalan que las principales causas de la desertificación de la zona son la tala de bosque nativo y el sobrepastoreo que ocasionan las inadecuadas prácticas de producción ganadera. En respuesta a ello, las acciones de lucha contra la desertificación se orientan a "concientizar" y "capacitar" a los productores e impulsan procesos de cambio productivo. Las propuestas en curso insisten en que, de mantenerse los actuales niveles de presión sobre los recursos, en el futuro se amplificarán las ya graves condiciones de pobreza y desertificación. Sin embargo, a pesar de los esfuerzos y fondos invertidos los productores parecen obstinados en sus actuales estrategias de producción y en la dinámica de uso de los recursos naturales que de ellas derivan. ¿Cómo explicar que no tomen otras opciones productivas que impliquen mayores beneficios económicos y mejores equilibrios ambientales? ¿Cómo explicar que actúen, al menos en apariencia, en contra de sus propios beneficios? Haciendo crítica de las explicaciones que ubican en el epicentro del problema "la cultura" de los productores, este trabajo busca realizar un aporte a través del análisis de tres dimensiones: 1- La oferta ambiental que es soporte de las actividades productivas, 2- Los ingresos que las unidades de producción alcanzan y 3- Los egresos que enfrentan en concepto de subsistencia. El trabajo se despliega haciendo uso de una metodología mixta que

  7. Desempenho ponderal, aspectos econômicos, nutricionais e clínicos de caprinos submetidos a dois esquemas de suplementação mineral Daily weight gain, economic, nutritional and clinical aspects of goats receiving two types of mineral supplements

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    Pedro Malafaia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho ponderal, os custos e os aspectos nutricionais e clínicos foram avaliados em 16 caprinos (8 pequenos e 8 maiores submetidos a dois tipos de suplementação mineral por 148 dias. Um grupo recebeu uma mistura mineral comercial e outro, uma mistura mineral (sal seletivo formulado apenas com cloreto de sódio (239 gNa/kg, superfosfato simples (34 gP/kg e sulfato de cobre (1244 mgCu/kg. Não houve diferença estatística no ganho de peso diário entre os grupos de animais que receberam o suplemento mineral comercial ou o sal seletivo. O menor consumo do sal seletivo (66% do verificado na mistura mineral comercial, observado no lote de animais maiores, deveu-se ao teor mais alto de NaCl na composição desse suplemento; essa menor ingestão representou um gasto 3,9 menor na suplementação mineral desses animais. Em relação aos animais pequenos, houve um consumo exagerado do sal seletivo, durante os primeiros 3 meses e, depois dessa fase, o consumo de ambos os suplementos foi idêntico. Esse maior consumo pode estar associado ao fato de que os animais eram lactentes antes do experimento e, quando tiveram acesso ao sal seletivo contendo mais cloreto de sódio, possivelmente tiveram maior apetite para esse suplemento. Todos os animais que receberam os dois tipos de suplementação mineral apresentaram evidente melhora da qualidade da pelagem geral e aumento da pigmentação na pelagem periocular, o que foi atribuído à correção da moderada deficiência de cobre existente nos solos da região; pois o rebanho não recebia suplemento mineral antes do início do experimento. Nos animais maiores, ambos os suplementos foram capazes de aumentar o número de hemácias, a concentração de hemoglobina e o hematócrito. Pela análise mineral do capim e da ração, bem como da quantificação do consumo diário desses alimentos, demonstrou-se que apenas o consumo do volumoso foi capaz de fornecer o cálcio e o cobalto necessário aos animais

  8. Genome-Wide Survey and Analysis of Microsatellite Sequences in Bovid Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Qi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs have become the most popular source of genetic markers, which are ubiquitously distributed in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. This is the first study examining and comparing SSRs in completely sequenced genomes of the Bovidae. We analyzed and compared the number of SSRs, relative abundance, relative density, guanine-cytosine (GC content and proportion of SSRs in six taxonomically different bovid species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Bos mutus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Pantholops hodgsonii. Our analysis revealed that, based on our search criteria, the total number of perfect SSRs found ranged from 663,079 to 806,907 and covered from 0.44% to 0.48% of the bovid genomes. Relative abundance and density of SSRs in these Bovinae genomes were non-significantly correlated with genome size (Pearson, r 0.05. Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di- > tri- > penta- > tetra- > hexanucleotide SSRs. Generally, the number of SSRs, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the motif repeat length increased in each species of Bovidae. The most GC-content was in trinucleotide SSRs and the least was in the mononucleotide SSRs in the six bovid genomes. The GC-contents of tri- and pentanucleotide SSRs showed a great deal of similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus. SSR number of all chromosomes in the B. taurus, O.aries, and C. hircus is closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r > 0.980, p 0.05. Relative abundances of the same nucleotide SSR type showed great similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus.

  9. Successful ultrarapid cryopreservation of wild Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradiee, J; Esteso, M C; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Carrizosa, J A; Urrutia, B; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-12-01

    A method for cryopreserving wild ibex sperm at high cooling rates was developed. To design a freezing solution based on Tris, citric acid, and glucose (TCG), two preliminary experiments were performed using glycerol (GLY) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20%). The 10% GLY + 10% DMSO combination reduced (P TCG egg yolk (ey)-based extender with 100-mM sucrose, either alone or with 5% GLY with or without BSA. Two warming procedures (37 °C vs. 60 °C) were also evaluated. The TCG ey with 100-mM sucrose but without GLY/BSA returned the best sperm quality variables. Slow warming at 37 °C strongly affected (P TCG-ey + 100 mM sucrose), with warming undertaken at 60 °C. Inseminations of domestic goats resulted in three pregnancies (3 of 16, 18.7% fertility). In conclusion, ibex spermatozoa are strongly sensitive to high concentrations of permeable cryoprotectants and sucrose. However, the combination of ultrarapid cooling, using TCG-ey + 100-mM sucrose, and fast warming at 60 °C, followed by sperm selection by density gradient centrifugation to collect the motile sperm, has a positive effect on sperm viability. PMID:26316218

  10. A complete mitochondrial genome of Youzhou black-skin goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangxin; Chen, Li-Peng; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Youzhou black-skin goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous breed of Chinese southwest. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:26702472

  11. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  12. COWS AND GOATS AS SENTINELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LEAD (Pb BURDEN IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udiba Udiba Ugumanim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLLs is considered as a good indicator of current body burden of the toxic metal. Assessment of BLLs of white Fulani cattle(Bos primigenius indicusand red Sokoto goats (Capra aegagrus hircus grazed freely on open pastures in Zaria was carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry using Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (model AA-6800, Japan after wet digestion to evaluate the potential effects of the metal on the animals, the toxicological implication of consuming this major source of animal protein by humans and most importantly as an indirect measure of the lead pollution status of Zaria ecological geochemical environment. The blood lead levels of Bos primigenius indicus ranged from a minimum of 0.62 mg/l to a maximum of 2.28 mg/l with a mean value of 1.36±0.48 mg/l. On the other hand, blood lead levels of Capra aegagrus hircus ranged between 0.26 mg/l and 1.56 mg/l with a mean value of 0.89±0.43mg/l. The BLLs of both cows and goats were found to exceed the allowable limit for the elements in blood of food animals indicating that cows and goats grazed freely on open pastures in Zaria metropolis are not safe for human consumption. Routine monitoring of the heavy metal in plant and animal products is therefore recommended to safeguard human health. Most importantly, the study indicates the presence of elevated levels of environmental lead in Zaria ecological geochemical environment.

  13. DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Diet Overlap between the Endangered Walia Ibex and Domestic Goats - Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berihun Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp. were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex.

  14. DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Diet Overlap between the Endangered Walia Ibex and Domestic Goats - Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Berihun; Flagstad, Øystein; Bekele, Afework; Chala, Desalegn; Bakkestuen, Vegar; Boessenkool, Sanne; Popp, Magnus; Gussarova, Galina; Schrøder-Nielsen, Audun; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Epp, Laura S

    2016-01-01

    Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp.) were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex. PMID:27416020

  15. A dig into the past mitochondrial diversity of Corsican goats reveals the influence of secular herding practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Hughes

    Full Text Available The goat (Capra hircus is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus, still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Capra_aegagrus_L.png Capra_aegagrus_NL.png Capra_aegagrus_S.png Capra_aegagrus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagru...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=NS ...

  17. Avaliação microbiológica de enchidos de ovino e caprino

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cátia; Leticia M. Estevinho; Teixeira, A

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos de salsicharia portuguesa são, pelas suas características nutricionais c organoléticas, produtos alimentares da mais alta qualidade que interessa preservar. Recentes mudanças sociais, nomeadamente alteração dos hábitos dos consumidores, diversificação da ofet1a, crescimento da concorrência, aumento das expectativas e do nível de exigência dos consumidores, obrigaram ao investimento cm novas tecnologias c novos produtos estratégicos de mercado.

  18. CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DO FENO DE SABIÁ POR CAPRINOS E OVINOS SUPLEMENTADOS COM POLIETILENOGLICOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDIVAN RODRIGUES ALVES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of daily supplementation with 10 g of polyethyleneglycol (PEG associated with Sabiá shrub hay (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the intake and digestibility of in goats and sheep. Twenty animals, ten sheep and ten goats were allocated in a randomized block design, with two treatments and two species: PEG group (supplemented with 10 g of PEG and control group (without supplementation. Significant differences were not observed between treatments and species regarding the intake and digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. Nevertheless, PEG supplementation enhanced the crude protein digestibility of Sabiá shrub hay from 33.96% to 38.74% in sheep and from 43.29% to 54.41% in goats, showing that the supplementation with PEG could become a good feeding strategy against the antinutritional effects of tannin of the forage plants.

  19. Nueva ruralidad en territorios periféricos: los productores caprinos del noreste de Mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura María Torres

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, several authors have been analyzing the changes in rural areas triggered by globalization. The concepts of new rurality and pluriactivity have allowed progress along these lines, highlighting the new difficulties facing the most vulnerable sectors. This study explores the transformation of peripheral rural territories in Mendoza (Argentina, particularly those that have been thought of as isolated and traditional. This research develops from a case study, combines quantitative and qualitative methods, and takes the production undertakings happening in those lands as units of analysis. Production and economic situations of the past are compared to those in the present. The tendency toward pluriactivity is here considered as a response to the new conditions, and also as an expression of the process of articulation with the capitalist system.

  20. Viabilidade de produção intensiva de gado caprino

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mário Miguel Gamito Tojinha

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the viability of an intensive farm of goat herds. For this was created a standard farm, in intensive system, whose main production is the milk but the product, goat meat, will also be appreciated. Were defined farm’s operating conditions, bearing in mind that a deeper study, or the practice, could come to put in question some of the technical options taken, and make clear the need for change. The goats are permanently closed into a stable, wh...

  1. Low-dose prednisone chronotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised clinical trial (CAPRA-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Buttgereit, Frank; Mehta, Daksha; Kirwan, John; Szechinski, Jacek; Boers, Maarten; Alten, Rieke E; Supronik, Jerzy; Szombati, Istvan; Romer, Ulrike; Witte, Stephan; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose prednisone chronotherapy using a new modified-release (MR) formulation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with active RA (n=350) were randomised 2:1 to receive MR prednisone 5 mg or placebo once daily in the evening in addition to their existing RA disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment. The primary end point was the percentage of patie...

  2. First birth of an animal from an extinct subspecies (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) by cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, J; Cocero, M J; Chesné, P; Alabart, J L; Domínguez, V; Cognié, Y; Roche, A; Fernández-Arias, A; Martí, J I; Sánchez, P; Echegoyen, E; Beckers, J F; Bonastre, A Sánchez; Vignon, X

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments have been performed to clone the bucardo, an extinct wild goat. The karyoplasts were thawed fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies, obtained and cryopreserved in 1999 from the last living specimen, a female, which died in 2000. Cytoplasts were mature oocytes collected from the oviducts of superovulated domestic goats. Oocytes were enucleated and coupled to bucardo's fibroblasts by electrofusion. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 36h or 7d and transferred to either Spanish ibex or hybrid (Spanish ibex malex domestic goat) synchronized recipients. Embryos were placed, according to their developmental stage, into the oviduct or into the uterine horn ipsilateral to an ovulated ovary. Pregnancy was monitored through their plasmatic PAG levels. In Experiment 1, 285 embryos were reconstructed and 30 of them were transferred at the 3- to 6-cells stage to 5 recipients. The remaining embryos were further cultured to day 7, and 24 of them transferred at compact morula/blastocyst stage to 8 recipients. In Experiment 2, 154 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 44 recipients at the 3- to 6-cells stage. Pregnancies were attained in 0/8 and 7/49 of the uterine and oviduct-transferred recipients, respectively. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term, displaying very high PAG levels. One morphologically normal bucardo female was obtained by caesarean section. The newborn died some minutes after birth due to physical defects in lungs. Nuclear DNA confirmed that the clone was genetically identical to the bucardo's donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first animal born from an extinct subspecies.

  3. First birth of an animal from an extinct subspecies (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) by cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, J; Cocero, M J; Chesné, P; Alabart, J L; Domínguez, V; Cognié, Y; Roche, A; Fernández-Arias, A; Martí, J I; Sánchez, P; Echegoyen, E; Beckers, J F; Bonastre, A Sánchez; Vignon, X

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments have been performed to clone the bucardo, an extinct wild goat. The karyoplasts were thawed fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies, obtained and cryopreserved in 1999 from the last living specimen, a female, which died in 2000. Cytoplasts were mature oocytes collected from the oviducts of superovulated domestic goats. Oocytes were enucleated and coupled to bucardo's fibroblasts by electrofusion. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 36h or 7d and transferred to either Spanish ibex or hybrid (Spanish ibex malex domestic goat) synchronized recipients. Embryos were placed, according to their developmental stage, into the oviduct or into the uterine horn ipsilateral to an ovulated ovary. Pregnancy was monitored through their plasmatic PAG levels. In Experiment 1, 285 embryos were reconstructed and 30 of them were transferred at the 3- to 6-cells stage to 5 recipients. The remaining embryos were further cultured to day 7, and 24 of them transferred at compact morula/blastocyst stage to 8 recipients. In Experiment 2, 154 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 44 recipients at the 3- to 6-cells stage. Pregnancies were attained in 0/8 and 7/49 of the uterine and oviduct-transferred recipients, respectively. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term, displaying very high PAG levels. One morphologically normal bucardo female was obtained by caesarean section. The newborn died some minutes after birth due to physical defects in lungs. Nuclear DNA confirmed that the clone was genetically identical to the bucardo's donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first animal born from an extinct subspecies. PMID:19167744

  4. 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA and internal transcribed spacers ribosomal DNA as differential markers of Trichuris discolor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Halajian, A; de Rojas, M; Marrugal, A; Guevara, D; Cutillas, C

    2012-05-25

    Comparative morphological, biometrical and molecular studies of Trichuris discolor isolated from Bos taurus from Spain and Iran was carried out. Furthermore, Trichuris ovis isolated from B. taurus and Capra hircus from Spain has been, molecularly, analyzed. Morphological studies revealed clear differences between T. ovis and T. discolor isolated from B. taurus but differences were not observed between populations of T. discolor isolated from different geographical regions. Nevertheless, the molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 ribosomal DNA and 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA showed clear differences between both populations of T. discolor from Spain and Iran suggesting two cryptic species. Phylogenetic studies corroborated these data. Thus, phylogenetic trees based on ITS1, ITS2 and 16S partial gene sequences showed that individuals of T. discolor from B. taurus from Iran clustered together and separated, with high bootstrap values, of T. discolor isolated from B. taurus from Spain, while populations of T. ovis from B. taurus and C. hircus from Spain clustered together but separated with high bootstrap values of both populations of T. discolor. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study has been carried out with the ITS1and ITS2 sequences of Trichuris species from different hosts. Three clades were observed: the first clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing herbivores (T. discolor, T. ovis, Trichuris leporis and Trichuris skrjabini), the second clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing omnivores (Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis) and finally, the third clustered species of Trichuris parasitizing carnivores (Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae and Trichuris vulpis).

  5. Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2014-03-14

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine.

  6. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

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    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  7. Investigation of genetic diversity of domestic C. hircus breeds reared within an early goat domestication area in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vahidi, Farhad; Tarang, Ali Reza; Naqvi, Arif-un-Nisa; Anbaran, Mohsen Falahati; Boettcher, Paul; Joost, Stéphane; Colli, Licia; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Iran is an area of particular interest for investigating goat diversity. Archaeological remains indicate early goat domestication (about 10 000 years ago) in the Iranian Zagros Mountains as well as in the high Euphrates valley and southeastern Anatolia. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data of domestic goats and wild ancestors (C. aegagrusor bezoar) suggest a pre-domestication management of wild populations in southern Zagros and central Iranian Plateau. In this study genetic diversity was asse...

  8. Enzyme-free detection and quantification of double-stranded nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime Mohamad; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Hänni, Catherine; Daniel, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a fully enzyme-free SERRS hybridization assay for specific detection of double-stranded DNA sequences. Although all DNA detection methods ranging from PCR to high-throughput sequencing rely on enzymes, this method is unique for being totally non-enzymatic. The efficiency of enzymatic processes is affected by alterations, modifications, and/or quality of DNA. For instance, a limitation of most DNA polymerases is their inability to process DNA damaged by blocking lesions. As a result, enzymatic amplification and sequencing of degraded DNA often fail. In this study we succeeded in detecting and quantifying, within a mixture, relative amounts of closely related double-stranded DNA sequences from Rupicapra rupicapra (chamois) and Capra hircus (goat). The non-enzymatic SERRS assay presented here is the corner stone of a promising approach to overcome the failure of DNA polymerase when DNA is too degraded or when the concentration of polymerase inhibitors is too high. It is the first time double-stranded DNA has been detected with a truly non-enzymatic SERRS-based method. This non-enzymatic, inexpensive, rapid assay is therefore a breakthrough in nucleic acid detection. PMID:22695500

  9. The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G B; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkiz, Ozge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre

    2008-11-18

    The emergence of farming during the Neolithic transition, including the domestication of livestock, was a critical point in the evolution of human kind. The goat (Capra hircus) was one of the first domesticated ungulates. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic goats to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestor, the bezoar, by analyzing 473 samples collected over the whole distribution range of the latter species. This partly confirms and significantly clarifies the goat domestication scenario already proposed by archaeological evidence. All of the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups found in current domestic goats have also been found in the bezoar. The geographic distribution of these haplogroups in the wild ancestor allowed the localization of the main domestication centers. We found no haplotype that could have been domesticated in the eastern half of the Iranian Plateau, nor further to the east. A signature of population expansion in bezoars of the C haplogroup suggests an early domestication center on the Central Iranian Plateau (Yazd and Kerman Provinces) and in the Southern Zagros (Fars Province), possibly corresponding to the management of wild flocks. However, the contribution of this center to the current domestic goat population is rather low (1.4%). We also found a second domestication center covering a large area in Eastern Anatolia, and possibly in Northern and Central Zagros. This last domestication center is the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. This finding is consistent with archaeological data identifying Eastern Anatolia as an important domestication center.

  10. Anatomical study of animal remains from Phoenician-Punic amphorae found in the Santa Giusta Pond, Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Portas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the underwater excavations carried out in the Santa Giusta Pond, near Oristano, Sardinia, a significant amount of Phoenician- Punic materials was brought to light including amphorae (dating back to 7th-2nd century BC and vegetal and animal remains. All of these archaeological finds may come from Othoca, an important Phoenician- Punic city on the eastern shore of the pond, geographically corresponding with the modern-day town of Santa Giusta. Animal materials consist of more than 3000 very well-preserved remains, belonging to sheep (Ovis aries, goat (Capra hircus and cattle (Bos taurus. Bone analyses allowed reconstructing the slaughtering methods, as well as manipulation procedures carried out to preserve meat in order to be exported overseas. Although pig (Sus scrofa played an important economical role in other Sardinian Phoenician-Punic settlements, in this archaeological context this species is absent, suggesting that the meat contained in the amphorae was probably destined to other areas of the Mediterranean basin, where people did not eat pork.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582

  12. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, JZ; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans. PMID:27551520

  13. Differentiation of Adulterated Meat Products through Molecular Technique: PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Verma, Bhoomika Saluja and Rina Rani Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat adulterations of different species are undetectable and it is common practice globally. In the field of food analysis, species determination is mostly sufficient, but simultaneous detection of several species in a single food product is desirable. The aim of the study was to distinguish between meats of two different species through PCR-RFLP analysis. The meat of two species were used include domestic pig (Sus scrofa; Porcidae and domestic goat (Capra hircus; Bovidae. DNA was isolated from these samples , followed by amplification through PCR and further species was differentiated by RFLP using five different restriction endonuclease (RE enzymes. The DNA sequences of different species are different, hence does not digest by same enzyme. The number and position of bands obtained after digestion were different in two species. In case of meat adulteration, the specific number and position of bands of DNA of a particular species will not be obtained, rather bands will be formed at intermediate positions and number of bands may vary. Thus, PCR-RFLP method is a potential tool for forensic identification and to differentiate specific meat sample and this molecular technique is an important tool to examine adulteration in meat food products.

  14. Remarkable evolutionary conservation of SOX14 orthologues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jelena Popovic; Milena Stevanovic

    2009-04-01

    SOX proteins constitute a large family of diverse, well-conserved transcription factors present in vertebrates and invertebrates, and also implicated in control of many developmental processes. Our objectives have been to identify Sox14 gene of goat (Capra hircus), cow (Bos taurus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus), and to perform comparative analyses and mapping of SOX14 orthologues from numerous vertebrate species. PCR based approach was used to identify Sox14 of goat, cow and rat, while nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments and mapping were performed using information currently available in public database. Comparative sequence analysis revealed remarkable identity among Sox14 orthologues and helped us to identify highly conserved motifs that represent molecular signatures of SOX14 protein that might have structural or functional significance. Further, we determined chromosomal locations of numerous predicted group B Sox genes and their neighbouring genes using currently available genome database. In conclusion, our study has not only supported the proposed model of group B Sox genes evolution in chicken and mammals, but has also revealed that additional evolutionary events split Sox B genes into different chromosomes in some mammals. Mapping data presented in this study could help in refining the understanding of the evolution of group B Sox genes in vertebrates.

  15. Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its criticial habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Hess, Steven C.; Scowcroft, Paul G.; Farmer, Chris; Jacobi, James D.; Stephens, Robert M.; Camp, Richard J.; Leonard, David L.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Juvik, J.O.; Juvik, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Under the multiple-use paradigm, conflicts may arise when protection of an endangered species must compete with other management objectives. To resolve such a conflict in the Critical Habitat of the endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, palila (Loxioides bailleui), federal courts ordered the eradication of introduced ungulates responsible for damaging the māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) forest on which palila depend. During 1980–2011, a total of 18,130 sheep (Ovis aries and O. gmelini musimon) and 310 goats (Capra hircus) were removed from Palila Critical Habitat (PCH) primarily by public hunters (54%) and secondarily by aerial shooting. Nevertheless, our analysis indicates that ungulates have increased over time. Palila numbers have declined sharply since 2003 due to long-term habitat degradation by ungulates and drought. Although culling ungulate populations has allowed some habitat improvement, their complete removal is necessary for palila to recover, especially given the potential for continued drought. Introduced predators are being controlled to reduce palila mortality, māmane and other native trees are being planted to restore some areas, and fencing is being constructed to prevent ungulate immigration. Funds are recently available for more effective eradication efforts, which are urgently needed to eliminate browsing damage in PCH and protect the palila from extinction.

  16. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Baciadonna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social, according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus, in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning.

  17. Altered galectin glycosylation: potential factor for the diagnostics and therapeutics of various cardiovascular and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Perveen, Asma; Tabrez, Shams; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Banu, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside binding mammalian proteins characterized by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain, expressed in almost all taxa of living organisms and involved in broad range of significant biological and physiological functions. Previously, we reported the purification and extensive characterization of galectin-1 from goat (Capra hircus) heart. Interestingly, the purified protein was found to have significant level of glycosylation. This intrigued us to evaluate the involvement of glycosylation in relation to protein's structural and functional integrity in its purified form. In the present study, an extensive comparative physicochemical characterization has been performed between the glycosylated and deglycosylated form of the purified protein. Deglycosylation resulted in an enhanced fluorescence quenching and marked reduction in pH and thermal stability of the purified galectin. Exposure to various biologically active chemicals showed significant differences in the properties and stability profile, causing significant deviations from its regular secondary structure in the deglycosylated form. These results clearly indicated enhanced structural and functional stabilization in the glycosylated galectin. The data revealed herein adds a vital facet demonstrating the significance of galectin expression and glycosylation in causation, progression, and possible therapeutics of associated clinical disorders. Our approach also allowed us to define some key interactions between the purified galectin and carbohydrate ligands that could well serve as an important landmark for designing new drug protocols for various cardiovascular and neurological disorders. PMID:25416978

  18. Lungworm (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from Małopolska region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Nosal, Paweł; Basiaga, Marta; Wajdzik, Marek; Skalska, Marta; Wyrobisz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. The post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (Dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (Ovis aries) (14) and cattle (Bos taurus) (18). Some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. The faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red deer (36) and moose (Alces alces) (10) were collected from the environment, while from sheep (10) and goat (Capra hircus) (10)--per rectum. Based on the obtained results the following values were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and intensity range. The post mortem examination did not reveal pulmonary nematodes neither in domestic nor in wild ungulates, however, the larvae of aforementioned parasites were often stated in the stool samples taken from the environment. All wild species, except fallow deer were infected. Consequently, six species of lungworms have been identified. The first stage larvae of Varestrongylus capreoli occurred in 11 samples of roe deer and Varestrongylus alces in one moose. The larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi were found in 19 red deer and Varestrongylus sagittatus in 3. Furthermore, Elaphostrongylus alces larvae were noted in 6 moose. Within domestic ruminants only one sheep and two goats were infected by Muellerius capillaris. PMID:27262959

  19. Domestication process of the goat revealed by an analysis of the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Nomura

    Full Text Available Goats (Capra hircus are one of the oldest domesticated species, and they are kept all over the world as an essential resource for meat, milk, and fiber. Although recent archeological and molecular biological studies suggested that they originated in West Asia, their domestication processes such as the timing of population expansion and the dynamics of their selection pressures are little known. With the aim of addressing these issues, the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes were determined from East, Southeast, and South Asian populations. Our coalescent time estimations suggest that the timing of their major population expansions was in the Late Pleistocene and significantly predates the beginning of their domestication in the Neolithic era (≈10,000 years ago. The ω (ratio of non-synonymous rate/synonymous substitution rate for each lineage was also estimated. We found that the ω of the globally distributed haplogroup A which is inherited by more than 90% of goats examined, turned out to be extremely low, suggesting that they are under severe selection pressure probably due to their large population size. Conversely, the ω of the Asian-specific haplogroup B inherited by about 5% of goats was relatively high. Although recent molecular studies suggest that domestication of animals may tend to relax selective constraints, the opposite pattern observed in our goat mitochondrial genome data indicates the process of domestication is more complex than may be presently appreciated and cannot be explained only by a simple relaxation model.

  20. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  1. Semen molecular and cellular features: these parameters can reliably predict subsequent ART outcome in a goat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mereu Paolo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, the assessment of sperm function in a raw or processed semen sample is not able to reliably predict sperm ability to withstand freezing and thawing procedures and in vivo fertility and/or assisted reproductive biotechnologies (ART outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate which parameters among a battery of analyses could predict subsequent spermatozoa in vitro fertilization ability and hence blastocyst output in a goat model. Ejaculates were obtained by artificial vagina from 3 adult goats (Capra hircus aged 2 years (A, B and C. In order to assess the predictive value of viability, computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA motility parameters and ATP intracellular concentration before and after thawing and of DNA integrity after thawing on subsequent embryo output after an in vitro fertility test, a logistic regression analysis was used. Individual differences in semen parameters were evident for semen viability after thawing and DNA integrity. Results of IVF test showed that spermatozoa collected from A and B lead to higher cleavage rates (0

  2. Unprecedented tools of animal origin in the prehistoric copper mines of La Profunda (León and their C14 dating (AMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel de BLAS CORTINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La Profunda mine, in Leon, has been acknowledged for decades as a prehistoric mining, site generally attributed to the Bronze Age on account of the appearance of several copper axes (never duly described and which have now disappeared, a strange piece of the same metal and the characteristic, though chrono-culturally ambiguous pebble hammers. The recent finding of tools made from animal material, namely deer antler and tibia (Cervus elaphus as well as goat horn (Capra hircus, provide knowledge not only of a type of instrument well-documented in the significant copper mines of nearby Asturias (prehistoric workings at El Aramo and El Milagro, but also radiocarbon dating that situates the mining works of La Profunda in the second half of the third millennium B.C. This rich copper vein was to provide ore and metal to societies of a much greater scope than that corresponding to the mountainous area where the mines were opened, reaching Copper Age village communities (the so-called “Horizonte las Pozas” in the sedimentary lands of the northern plateau of Castile and also, probably, the authors of the Chalcolithic walled settlements that existed at the time in the south-eastern sector of the extensive Duero River Basin.

  3. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites.

  4. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Genetic Diversity of 10 Goat Breeds%10个山羊品种线粒体DNA的遗传多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艳平; 关伟军; 赵倩君; 何晓红; 浦亚斌; 马月辉

    2008-01-01

    用PCR-SSCP分析了10个山羊(Capra hircus)品种的线粒体DNA编码区变异情况,这些品种分别来自我国9个省和自治区,1个国外品种安哥拉山羊,共计465个个体.根据PCR-SSCP的结果挑选出118个个体进行D-loop第1高变区测序,并截取测定序列的481 bp进行分析,系统建树显示,10个山羊品种很明显地分成了4个支系A、B、C和D.对所有样本进行分子差异等级分析(AMOVA),品种内的方差组分占77.77%,表明10个山羊品种间没有出现显著的遗传分化,品种间表现弱的遗传结构.对118条序列进行歧点分布分析表明,整个山羊群体曾经历过2次群体扩张事件.

  6. Ensayos para la investigación: importancia del control lechero caprino (Tests for research: the importance of goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotillo-Mesanza, Juan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl control de la producción lechera caprina es importante por dos razones, una que permite al ganadero alimentar a los animales de acuerdo con su producción, y otra que proporciona a la administración establecer líneas de mejora de la cabaña caprina.La Región de Murcia tiene un núcleo de control lechero oficial que agrupa unas 22000 cabras de raza Murciano-Granadina, el objetivo del núcleo es obtener de manera objetiva y fiable los valores de producción cuantitativos y cualitativos de cada una de las cabras integradas en el núcleo. De esta forma se hace una excelente selección genética en función de los litros de leche producidos y de la calidad de la misma. Se ha realizado un ensayo de investigación añadiendo a la dieta de cabras de raza Murciano-Granadina un aditivo con el probiótico: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, y cuyo objetivo es valorar si existe un aumento de la producción total de leche, un aumento en la calidad de la misma y una mejora sanitaria del animal. Se ha utilizado un rebaño formado por 60 cabras, todas al inicio de la lactación, y se analiza: la producción total de leche, proteína, grasa, lactosa, recuento de células somáticas y valores de urea en leche. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que la adición de lalevadura provoca un aumento del 7% en la producción de leche y unincremento en el porcentaje de grasa en la misma. A su vez se produce un aumento del nivel de urea en leche y una mejora de la condición corporal. También se observa un descenso en los valores del recuento de células somáticas, indicativo de un mejor estado sanitario de los animales.SummaryControl of goat milk production is important because of two reasons: 1 it alows the farmer to feed animals according to their production, 2 it provide Aministration with reliable breed improvement objectives. The Murcia Region has an official dairy control nucleus with 22.000 Murciano-Granadina bred goats. The aim of this nucleus is to obtain objective and reliable data of cuantitative and qualitative production values for each goat of the nucleus. In this way it is possible to carry out a high-qualitygenetic selection process related to the amount and quality of milkproduction. The probiotic aditive (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was administered to the diet of Murciano-Granadina goats in order to evaluate potential increases of milk production, quality, and health improvement of the animals. A 60 goats flock was evaluated at the initial stage of milking for the following parameters: total milk production, proteins, fat, lactose and urea content in milk.A 7% increase in milk production and a higher fat content were observed. An increase of urea content and a better body condition were also seen. Besides a decrease of milk somatic cell content was found, wich indicates a health improvement of animals

  7. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  8. Ensayos para la investigación: importancia del control lechero caprino (Tests for research: the importance of goat milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Sotillo-Mesanza, Juan; Gutierrez-Panizo, Cándido; Carrizosa-Durán, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl control de la producción lechera caprina es importante por dos razones, una que permite al ganadero alimentar a los animales de acuerdo con su producción, y otra que proporciona a la administración establecer líneas de mejora de la cabaña caprina.La Región de Murcia tiene un núcleo de control lechero oficial que agrupa unas 22000 cabras de raza Murciano-Granadina, el objetivo del núcleo es obtener de manera objetiva y fiable los valores de producción cuantitativos y cualitativos de ...

  9. VERMINOSE EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGENS DE Panicum maximum Jacq. NO PERÍODO CHUVOSO DO ANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the worm disease on goats and sheep kept on Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, in the rainy season of the year. The dry matter density (DM of different layers (0-15, 15-30 and above 30 cm of Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, and the forage contamination by gastrintestinal nematode infective larvae (L3 were quantified. Forty animals were submitted monthly to coproparasitological examinations (ECG and coproculture during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out in Barreiras-Bahia-Brazil, in a split-plot design, with 10 replications on pastures and 20 replications on animals, from October of 2003 to March of 2004, and samples were taken from December to February. The number of infective larvae per kg/DM did not change with the grass layer, with average of 22.2 L3/kg DM. On the forage, Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. L3 larvae were indentified, reflecting the coproculture results. Goats showed higher ECG counting (2602 than Sheep (865, demanding more sanitary care.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons; Biodigestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estacoes do ano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Ana C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Programa de Producao Animal]. E-mail: amorim@fcav.unesp.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural]. E-mail: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br; Resende, Kleber T. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Zootecnia

    2004-04-01

    The dejections produced by caprine were used in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year. This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS) reduction, the potential production (m{sup 3}) of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS) or (VS), the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38: 34: 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m{sup 3} in summer, 0.88 m{sup 3} in autumn, 0,88 m{sup 3} in winter and 0.99 m{sup 3} in spring and the mean potential production were of 0.02 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of substrate and 0.2 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of manure for all seasons. The batch digesters reduced total and fecal coliforms densities in 99.99% and the CH{sub 4} contents in biogas were 88.3; 84.6; 80.6 and 79.2% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring respectively. (author)

  11. Ovis/Capra, It’s what’s for Dinner; Preliminary Analysis of Faunal Material from a Minoan Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dysart, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The processing, cataloguing, and preliminary analyses of faunal material from the Minoan settlement of Gournia began during the 2012 excavation season. This included backlogged material from the two previous seasons. Excavations during the past three seasons, under Prof. L.V. Watrous and Ph.D. student D.M. Buell from the University at Buffalo SUNY, have revealed a thriving Middle/Late Minoan Period settlement complete with industry, trade, and faunal material. A specific deposit consisting of faunal material, hundreds of stacked conical cups with other assorted shallow bowls and ceramics found within the palace suggest the practice of a specific ritual event that is not unique to Gournia, but compares favorably to similar deposits from across the island. The goal of this project is to examine this ritual practice through the analyzation of the faunal material in context with the other ceramics in order to extrapolate Minoan cultural practices from ritual activity.

  12. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA, Appendix 2: LaCapra Financial Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    The financial analysis and summary results presented in this document represent a first cut at an economic assessment of the proposed Hull Offshore Wind Project. Wind turbine price increases have outpaced the materials and labor price pressures faced by nonrenewable power plant developers due to increased demands on a limited pool of turbine manufacturers and offshore installation companies. Moreover, given the size of the proposed offshore facility, it may be difficult to contract with turbine manufacturers and/or foundation companies given the size and scope of competing worldwide demand. The results described in this report assume that such conditions will not significantly impact the prices that will have to be received from the output of the project; rather, the project size may require as a prerequisite that Hull be able to piggyback on other offshore efforts. The financial estimates provided here necessarily feature a range due to uncertainty in a number of project assumptions as well as overall uncertainty in offshore wind costs. Nevertheless, taken together, the analysis provides a ballpark revenue requirement of approximately $157/MWh for the municipal financing option, with higher estimates possible assuming escalation in costs to levels higher than assumed here.

  13. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  14. Group-living herbivores weigh up food availability and dominance status when making patch-joining decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan Stears

    Full Text Available Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus. When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits. However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual's patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions.

  15. Trace metal accumulations in tissues of goats fed silage produced on sewage sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, B.J.; Dowdy, R.H.; Goodrich, R.D.; Pamp, D.E.

    Studies were conducted to document the impact of sewage sludge-fertilized corn (Zea mays L.) on the feed and food chain under controlled experimental conditions that eliminated any direct ingestion of sewage sludge by animals. Accumulations of trace metals were measured in various tissues of dairy goats (Capra hircus) consuming corn silage that contained up to 5.3 mg Cd/kg and 113 mg Zn/kg, for 3 consecutive years. The Cd concentrations in goat livers increased as the amount of silage-borne Cd increased and reached a high concentration of 2.94 mg/kg. Kidney Cd concentrations were approximately 10 times greater than those observed in liver, ranging from 3 mg/kg for animals fed control corn silage to 22 mg/kg for those consuming silage grown on soil amended with the highest rate of sewage sludge. However, this concentration is an order of magnitude less than the critical level suggested for induction of renal dysfunction. Kidney Zn ranged from 76.6 to 91.8 mg/kg with animals fed control silage having less Zn than animals fed sludge-fertilized corn silage. Concentrations of Zn in livers did not differ among treatments. Copper concentrations in livers and kidneys were significantly lower (approximately 2 mg/kg) in animals receiving sludge-fertilized silage than in animals fed control silage. The reduced Cu absorption may have been caused by a Cd and/or Zn metabolic interference. The elemental concentrations of 12 other metals and minerals in goat liver and kidney were not affected by treatment. Similarly, elemental concentrations in heart and muscle were not affected by treatment.

  16. Histological Observation on the Uvula of Goat%山羊悬雍垂组织学结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦喜兰; 章月凯; 杨玉荣

    2011-01-01

    The structure of goat uvula was observed and analysed by conventional paraffin section, H. E staining and Toluidine blue staining, and compared to that of human uvula. The results showed that goat uvula goat was mainly consisted of mucosa and submucosa. The mucosa was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, and beneath the epithelium was lamina propria. There were large mucous glands, elastic cartilage,skeletal muscle and fat tissue in the submucosa. Muscle and fat tissues were mainly distributed at the root 2/3 of oral surface in the uvula. Compared to the human uvula, goat uvula had almost the same structure but contained elastic cartilage.%应用常规石蜡切片,H.E和甲苯胺蓝染色技术,对健康山羊(Capra hircus)的悬雍垂组织结构进行观察与分析,并与人(Homo sapiens)悬雍垂的组织结构进行比较.结果表明,山羊悬雍垂主要由黏膜层和黏膜下层组成.其中,黏膜层由未角化复层鳞状上皮和固有层构成;黏膜下层含有大量的腺体、弹性软骨、骨骼肌纤维和脂肪细胞,骨骼肌和脂肪组织主要分布在悬雍垂后2/3处的口咽面.山羊与人悬雍垂组织结构的主要区别是山羊含有弹性软骨.

  17. Homosexual behavior in male goats is more frequent during breeding season and in bucks isolated from females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Giriboni, Julia; Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Lacuesta, Lorena

    2014-05-01

    Male homosexual behavior is observed in many ruminant species; seasonality and isolation from females may affect the display of male-male sexual behavior. Our objectives were to determine whether: 1) homosexual behavior has a seasonal pattern in male goats (Capra hircus); 2) isolation from female goats influences the frequency of the display of homosexual behavior; and 3) the frequency of homosexual behaviors is related to testosterone concentration. Bucks were housed in a pen adjacent to another pen with 3 estrous goats (FC group) or in complete isolation from females (IF group). Homosexual behaviors and testosterone concentrations were recorded in October, December, February and May. Frequencies of penile display and flehmen increased in May and were observed more frequently in the IF than in the FC group. Ano-genital sniffing was more frequent in February and May and was more frequent in IF than in FC bucks. Lateral approaches were more frequent in May, in which period this was more frequently observed in IF bucks. Mount attempts and mounts were only observed in IF bucks. Testosterone concentrations increased from December to February and decreased in May, although they were still greater than in October and December. In May IF bucks had greater testosterone concentrations than FC bucks. Testosterone concentrations were only related to the number of lateral approaches in IF bucks in December. In conclusion, homosexual behavior was more frequent during the late breeding season than during the early and the non-breeding seasons, and in males isolated from females than in males housed near estrous females. Testosterone concentrations appear to be unrelated to homosexual behavior.

  18. Barriers to seed and seedling survival of once-common Hawaiian palms: the role of invasive rats and ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Aaron B; Drake, Donald R

    2015-05-27

    Mammalian herbivores can limit plant recruitment and affect forest composition. Loulu palms (Pritchardia spp.) once dominated many lowland ecosystems in Hawai'i, and non-native rats (Rattus spp.), ungulates (e.g. pigs Sus scrofa, goats Capra hircus) and humans have been proposed as major causes of their decline. In lowland wet forest, we experimentally determined the vulnerability of seeds and seedlings of two species of Pritchardia, P. maideniana and P. hillebrandii, by measuring their removal by introduced vertebrates; we also used motion-sensing cameras to identify the animals responsible for Pritchardia removal. We assessed potential seed dispersal of P. maideniana by spool-and-line tracking, and conducted captive-feeding trials with R. rattus and seeds and seedlings of both Pritchardia species. Seed removal from the forest floor occurred rapidly for both species: >50 % of Pritchardia seeds were removed from the vertebrate-accessible stations within 6 days and >80 % were removed within 22 days. Although rats and pigs were both common to the study area, motion-sensing cameras detected only rats (probably R. rattus) removing Pritchardia seeds from the forest floor. Captive-feeding trials and spool-and-line tracking revealed that vertebrate seed dispersal is rare; rats moved seeds up to 8 m upon collection and subsequently destroyed them (100 % mortality in 24-48 h in captivity). Surprisingly, seedlings did not suffer vertebrate damage in field trials, and although rats damaged seedlings in captivity, they rarely consumed them. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis generated from palaeoecological studies, indicating that introduced rats may have assisted in the demise of native insular palm forests. These findings also imply that the seed stage of species in this Pacific genus is particularly vulnerable to rats; therefore, future conservation efforts involving Pritchardia should prioritize the reduction of rat predation on the plant recruitment stages

  19. Adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Bacsadi, Árpád; Balogh, Lajos; Schmidt, Susanne; Thuróczy, Julianna; Röszer, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. SVF cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. However, in other mammals, the amount of data on SVF stem cells is negligible and whether the SVF hosts immune cells is unknown. In this study, we show that the SVF is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in cattle (Bos primigenius taurus), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). ATMs of these species are granulated lysosome-rich cells with lamellipodial protrusions and express the lysosome markers acid phosphatase 5 (ACP-5) and Mac-3/Lamp-2. Using ACP-5 and Mac-3/Lamp-2 as markers, we additionally detected ATMs in other species, such as the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Feline and canine ATMs also express the murine macrophage marker F4/80 antigen. In the lean condition, the alternative macrophage activation marker CD206 is expressed by feline and canine ATMs and arginase-1 by feline ATMs. Obesity is associated with interleukin-6 and interferon gamma expression and with overt tyrosine nitration in both feline and canine ATMs. This resembles the obesity-induced phenotype switch of murine and human ATMs. Thus, we show, for the first time, that the presence of ATMs is a general trait of mammals. The interaction between the adipose cells and SVF immune cells might be evolutionarily conserved among mammals. PMID:26239911

  20. Calcium Oxide Decomposed From Chicken’s and Goat’s Bones as Catalyst For Converting Discarded Cooking Oil to be Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of calcium oxide from chicken’s (Gallus gallus domesticus and goat’s (Capra Hircus Aegragus bones was prepared at temperature variations of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 oC respectively. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, FT-IR and SEM were used for calcium oxide characterization. XRD diffraction pattern of the bone’s after thermal decomposition at 1100oC has similarity to the XRD standard diffraction pattern from Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standard (JCPDS. Diffractions of 2q values being used are 34.2o, 37.3o, 58.3o, 64.1o, and 67.3 o.  Ca-O presence in the samples was detected by FT-IR characterization at wavenumber of 354,90 cm-1. SEM profile show reducing size of bones after decomposition in both chicken’s and goat’s bones. Furthermore, the prepared calcium oxide was applied for biodiesel synthesis from discarded cooking oil through transesterification reaction. By applying the catalysts decomposed from chicken’s and goat’s bones, the biodiesel product showed characteristics as follows: biodiesel applied the chicken’s bone catalyst has fatty acid number of 0.56 mg/KOH, iod number of 22.41 g I2/100 g KOH, density of 0.88 g/cm3 and viscosity of 5.91 mm2/s, while biodiesel applied the goat’s bone catalyst has 0.56 mg/KOH, iod number of 21.57 g I2/100 g KOH, density of 0.88 g/cm3 and viscosity of 6.34 mm2/s. Those biodiesel’s characteristic values meet the National Standard of Indonesia (SNI for biodiesel.

  1. 'Goats that stare at men': dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, comparative research on the mechanisms and species-specific adaptive values of attributing attentive states and using communicative cues has gained increased interest, particularly in non-human primates, birds, and dogs. Here, we investigate these phenomena in a farm animal species, the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of different human head and body orientations, as well as human experimenter presence/absence, on the behaviour of goats in a food-anticipating paradigm. Over a 30-s interval, the experimenter engaged in one of four different postures or behaviours (head and body towards the subject-'Control', head to the side, head and body away from the subject, or leaving the room) before delivering a reward. We found that the level of subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the control condition and decreased with a decreasing level of attention paid to the subject by the experimenter. Additionally, goats 'stared' (i.e. stood alert) at the experimental set-up for significantly more time when the experimenter was present but paid less attention to the subject ('Head' and 'Back' condition) than in the 'Control' and 'Out' conditions. In a second experiment, the experimenter provided different human-given cues that indicated the location of a hidden food reward in a two-way object choice task. Goats were able to use both 'Touch' and 'Point' cues to infer the correct location of the reward but did not perform above the level expected by chance in the 'Head only' condition. We conclude that goats are able to differentiate among different body postures of a human, including head orientation; however, despite their success at using multiple physical human cues, they fail to spontaneously use human head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

  2. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  3. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, M. Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W.; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence–the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization, and prokaryotic expression of the GnRH1 gene obtained from Jinghai yellow chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Zhang, G X; Han, K P; Tang, Y; Wang, J Y; Fan, Q C; Chen, X S; Wei, Y; Wang, Y J

    2015-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the control of reproductive functions. Recent studies have reported the occurrence of GnRH molecular variants in numerous species. In this study, the GnRH1 gene from Jinghai yellow chicken was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and transformed into BL21 (DE3) competent cells. The GnRH1 gene and amino acid sequences were subjected to bioinformatic analyses. The GnRH1 gene nucleotide sequence was discovered to be 352 bp long, containing a coding, promoter, and section of the 3'-regions. The GnRH1 gene shared 93, 81, 54, 58, 61, 76, 76, 59, 76, and 66% sequence identity with Meleagris gallopavo, Columba livia, Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, swines, Capra hircus, Ovis aries, Pantholops hodgsonii, Equus caballus, and Rattus norvegicus, respectively. The GnRH1 gene showed conserved domains. The GnRH1 protein was a secreted protein comprising 92 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 10205.6 Da and a theoretical pI of 5.67. Most of the amino acid residues were observed to be hydrophilic, indicating water solubility. The predicted secondary structures of proteins included α-helices (h; 23.08%), β-extensions (e; 10.92%), and random coils (c; 66.0%). The successful construction of prokaryotic expression vector pET32a-GnRH1 was confirmed by restriction and sequence analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the successful expression of recombinant plasmid in Escherichia coli BL21 (molecular weight = 25-28 kDa). Larger quantities of protein were expressed in supernatant, indicating greater expression in soluble form. Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of the target protein. PMID:25867433

  5. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  6. A Microarray-Based Analysis Reveals that a Short Photoperiod Promotes Hair Growth in the Arbas Cashmere Goat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Many animals exhibit different behaviors in different seasons. The photoperiod can have effects on migration, breeding, fur growth, and other processes. The cyclic growth of the fur and feathers of some species of mammals and birds, respectively, is stimulated by the photoperiod as a result of hormone-dependent regulation of the nervous system. To further examine this phenomenon, we evaluated the Arbas Cashmere goat (Capra hircus, a species that is often used in this type of research. The goats were exposed to an experimentally controlled short photoperiod to study the regulation of cyclic cashmere growth. Exposure to a short photoperiod extended the anagen phase of the Cashmere goat hair follicle to increase cashmere production. Assessments of tissue sections indicated that the short photoperiod significantly induced cashmere growth. This conclusion was supported by a comparison of the differences in gene expression between the short photoperiod and natural conditions using gene chip technology. Using the gene chip data, we identified genes that showed altered expression under the short photoperiod compared to natural conditions, and these genes were found to be involved in the biological processes of hair follicle growth, structural composition of the hair follicle, and the morphogenesis of the surrounding skin appendages. Knowledge about differences in the expression of these genes as well as their functions and periodic regulation patterns increases our understanding of Cashmere goat hair follicle growth. This study also provides preliminary data that may be useful for the development of an artificial method to improve cashmere production by controlling the light cycle, which has practical significance for livestock breeding.

  7. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  8. Analysing Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Chinese Goat Breeds by Microsatellite%用微卫星标记分析中国山羊品种的遗传多样性和群体遗传结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 吴建平; 刘丑生; 邱小田

    2010-01-01

    本研究采用联合国粮农组织(FAO)和国际动物遗传学会(ISAG)推荐的9对微卫星标记,结合荧光标记PCR技术,检测了我国39个地方山羊(Capra hircus)品种和1个引进山羊品种的遗传多样性,为中国山羊系统分类和遗传资源保护利用提供科学依据.各山羊群体期望杂合度在0.4346~06951之间,遗传分化处于中等水平,FsT为0.115,GsT为0.112.群体间和群体内的遗传变异率分别为13.3%和86.7%;UPGMA聚类结果、主成分分析结果和贝叶斯分组方法基本一致,40个山羊品种可分为5大支系,波尔山羊单独为一个支系,中国山羊分为4个支系:西南支系、华南支系、华中支系和北方支系.中国山羊遗传多样性丰富,遗传变异主要来源于群体内,育种潜力大.

  9. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  10. Influência do parasitismo por nematódeos sobre o perfil hematológico de caprinos Influence of nematodes on the hematological parameters of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.T. Mattos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between ivermectin-resistant and ivermectin-sensitive nematodes and the effect of this anthelmintic on the hematological status of naturally infected goats was assessed using 36 animals. Of these animals, 12 were infected by ivermectin-sensitive gastrointestinal nematodes of the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea (G1s e G1s 12 were infected by ivermectin-resistant nematodes (G2r e G2r and 12 uninfect goats (G3np. Six infected goats of each group (G1sm e G2rm received oral ivermectin al the dose of 200µg/kg, while six were used as controls (G1sc e G2rc. Blood and fecal samples were collected on the day of medication (day zero, at seven, and at 14 days thereafter. The erythrocyte count and hematocrit levels in goats infected by sensitive strains of Haemonchus was greater than that of the group infected by a resistant strain. These values are lower in comparison to those observed in uninfected goats. The increase in the number of eggs per gram of feces, regardless of the strain, is inversely related to the hematocrit level. The use of ivermectin did not significantly change the hematological parameters of goats.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of goat manure: bio-conversion of energy and bio fertilizer; Digestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos: conversor biologico de energia e biofertilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Teixeira, Adunias dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br, adunias@ufc.com

    2009-07-01

    This research aims at analyzing biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of goat excrements related to energy generation, in addition to analyzing the bio-fertilizer as a byproduct of the process. Therefore, new products are generated from semi-intensive and extensive of goats, increasing its economical and environmental viability of the activity. The biogas was applied as the fuel for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine of 5.5 HP used to drive a hydraulic pump that supplied water to an area of one hectare of pasture. In addition, the spreadsheet GDER was applied to compute the kWh cost of the following electricity sources: biogas from goat excrement, diesel, electrical grid, wind and solar. It was found tat the biogas can substitute 30% of the daily energy requirements, and one can state that 1 m{sup 3} of biogas is equivalent to 740 mL of gasoline. (author)

  12. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven mu¬nicipalities in the semiari...

  13. Estudio farmacocinético de formulaciones poliméricas de liberación controlada para marbofloxacino en caprino

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Palacios O`Connor, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVOS: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: (1) establecer los perfiles concentración plasmática–tiempo y derivar los parámetros farmacocinéticos para marbofloxacino en cabras lactantes tras la administración de fomulaciones IV, SC, SC-P407 y SC-P407-CMC de marbofloxacino; (2) determinar la velocidad y cantidad de penetración de marbofloxacino, así como su eliminación, en la leche de cabra tras la administración de fomulaciones IV, SC, SC-P407 y SC-P407-CMC de marbofloxacino; (3) compar...

  14. Conformação de úbere de caprinos da raça Saanen: parâmetros estéticos ou funcionais?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, D S; M. G. B. Lima; C. F. Noznica; D.M. Lima; C. F. Batista; R. C. Gomes; H. G. Bertagnon; B.P. Santos; A.M.M.P Della Libera

    2015-01-01

    RESUMODiversos fatores predisponentes são descritos para as afecções mamárias ou distúrbios secundários que comprometem a qualidade e produtividade de leite de fêmeas nas diferentes espécies. As características fenotípicas do úbere são consideradas na avaliação econômica de uma fêmea caprina, tanto pelo potencial de produção como pelo registro genealógico dessa fêmea. A limitação de estudos correlacionando essas características com a saúde do úbere gera a dúvida a respeito do significado da c...

  15. PERFIL SANITÁRIO DOS REBANHOS CAPRINOS E OVINOS NO SERTÃO DE PERNAMBUCANO SANITARY PROFILE OF THE GOAT AND SHEEP BREEDING OF THE HINTERLAND OF PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvana Pontual Alencar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever o perfil sanitário da caprinovinocultura do sertão de Pernambuco, sendo visitadas 150 propriedades e descritas as características das instalações, as práticas sanitárias e os achados clínicos mais frequentes. Os resultados mostraram que predominam as instalações com piso de terra batida (74,8% e descobertas (61,7% e reservatórios de água abertos (83%. Em apenas 3,4% das propriedades a água era tratada. O registro das ocorrências era realizado por apenas 26% dos produtores e 47,6% tratavam o umbigo dos recém-nascidos com iodo. No que diz respeito às carcaças, 31,8% dos proprietários davam destino adequado a elas. A higiene diária das instalações era realizada em apenas 14% das propriedades e a desinfecção em 16,9%. A vermifugação foi a prática mais difundida (88,2% e apenas 6,2% dos produtores dispunham de assistência técnica contínua. Os principais achados clínicos foram sugestivos de doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. Conclui-se que a caprinovinocultura do Sertão de Pernambuco é desenvolvida em instalações modestas, o manejo sanitário é deficiente e as tecnologias disponíveis são pouco utilizadas, impossibilitando a prevenção e controle de doenças, principalmente as de origem infecciosa e parasitária.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brasil, epidemiologia, manejo sanitário, sanidade animal, semiárido.
    The objective of this study was to describe the sanitary profile of the caprine-ovineculture from the Hinterland of Pernambuco State. In total 150 properties were visited and the characteristics of the installations, the sanitary practices and the most frequent clinical findings were described. The results show that the installations with beaten soil (74.8% and uncovered soil predominated (61.7%; the water reservoirs were open (83% and in only 3.4% of the properties the water was treated; the register of the occurrences of the flocks was carried out by only 26% of the producers, and 47.6% treated the new-born navels with iodine; only 31.8% of the producers gave adequate destination to the dead animals carcass; the daily cleaning of the installations was done in only 14% of the properties and the disinfection in 16%; the vermifugation was the most known practice (88.2% and only 6.1% of all breeders used continuous technical assistance. The main clinical findings suggested infectious and parasitic illnesses. In conclusion, the caprine-ovineculture from the Hinterland of Pernambuco State is developed in simple installations, the sanitary management is deficient and the available technologies are scarcely used, inhibiting the prevention and control of illnesses, mainly the ones of infectious and parasitic origin.

    KEY WORDS: Brazil, epidemiology, sanitary management, animal health, semiarid region.

  16. Mensurações ultrassonográficas da cisterna da glândula mamária de caprino transgênico

    OpenAIRE

    C.H.S. Melo; F.C. Sousa; A.C.A. Teles Filho; R.R. Moura; E.S. Albuquerque; Pereira, A. F.; L.M. Melo; Freitas, V.J.F.; D.I.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Milk production of transgenic does was evaluated by ultrasound measurements of the mammary gland. Two Canindé goats, which were nine months of age were used in the trial, one non-transgenic or other transgenic for hG-CSF. For hormone-induced lactation, animals were given estradiol (0.25mg/kg, IM), progesterone (0.75mg/kg, IM), and prednisolone (0.4mg/kg, IM). Ultrasonographic exams were carried out during milking, using a Falcon 100 ultrasound equipment with a 5MHz convex probe and were perfo...

  17. Mensurações ultrassonográficas da cisterna da glândula mamária de caprino transgênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.S. Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk production of transgenic does was evaluated by ultrasound measurements of the mammary gland. Two Canindé goats, which were nine months of age were used in the trial, one non-transgenic or other transgenic for hG-CSF. For hormone-induced lactation, animals were given estradiol (0.25mg/kg, IM, progesterone (0.75mg/kg, IM, and prednisolone (0.4mg/kg, IM. Ultrasonographic exams were carried out during milking, using a Falcon 100 ultrasound equipment with a 5MHz convex probe and were performed by the same operator. The results were expressed as mean±standard error. The maximum greater length and shorter length of the cistern were respectively 5.14cm and 1.36cm for the transgenic animal and 7.28cm and 2.25cm for non-transgenic, which is consistent with the maximum milk volume produced. The relationship between the average area of cisterns and milk yield was expressed as a linear correlation curve, with a correlation coefficient significantly positive for both transgenic (Y=-1.1314+10.8538*x; r=0.97 and non-transgenic (Y=-21.7551+18.3634*x; r=0.97 animals. In conclusion, the ultrasound is a practice and appropriate technique to evaluate the cisterns in ruminant udders in transgenic animal.

  18. Estudio de los mecanismos implicados en la estacionalidad reproductiva de caprinos mediterráneos : papel de los opioideos, las catecolaminas y la serotonina

    OpenAIRE

    Celi Mariátegui, Irma del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de la Tesis fue estudiar el papel del fotoperiodo, alimentación y melatonina (MEL) exógena en la regulación de la secreción de LH en cabras mediterráneas, analizando los posibles sistemas neuroendocrinos (SN) implicados. Además, se estudió si las concentraciones plasmáticas del MEL ([MEL]) varían entre venas yugulares y su relación con la estacionalidad reproductiva. En el Exp-1, los resultados demostraron que el fotoperiodo es el principal factor que controla la estacionalidad re...

  19. CONTROL DE LA ACTIVIDAD SEXUAL DE LOS CAPRINOS SIN HORMONAS EXÓGENAS: USO DEL FOTOPERIODO, EFECTO MACHO Y NUTRICIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Delgadillo; Gerardo Duarte; José Alfredo Flores; Jesús Vielma; Horacio Hernández; Gonzalo Fitz-Rodríguez; Marie Bedos; Ilda Graciela Fernández; Minerva Muñoz-Gutiérrez; Ma. del Socorro Retana-Márquez; Matthieu Keller

    2012-01-01

    Algunas razas caprinas originarias o adaptadas a las latitudes subtropicales muestran una marcada estacionalidad de su actividad sexual y/o reproductiva. Esta estacionalidad provoca que la producción de leche, queso y cabrito sea también estacional. Para resolver este problema, es necesario conocer las características del ciclo anual de actividad sexual de los animales e identificar el factor del medio ambiente que controla el desarrollo de este ciclo anual de reproducción. En este artículo d...

  20. PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS DE CAPRINOS DE CORTE SUBMETIDOS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUPLEMENTAÇÃO NO SEMI-ÁRIDO PARAIBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO VINÍCIUS BARBOSA ROBERTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done in the experimental farm NUPEARIDO belonging to the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraiba, Brazil. The objective of the research was to evaluate the hematological parameters as well as the adaptation degree of goats F1 (Boer x SRD created in semi-intensive regime and submitted at different levels of concentrated supplementation in the area or the semi-arid Paraibano. 24 animals were used F1 (Boer x SRD, distributed in a delineation entirely randomized with four levels supplementation (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 % of PV in MS and 6 repetitions. It was evaluated the environmental and hematological parameters aiming at to verify the degree of tolerance of the animals to the atmosphere. In the environmental parameters it was observed that there was significant effect of shifts (P < 0.05 with elevation of the temperatures during the afternoon. Already in the hematological parameters, there was not significant difference among the treatments. It was concluded that the different supplementation levels don't exercise significant effect on the hematological parameters of goats resultants of the crossing of the Boer race and SRD in the area of the semi-arid Paraibano and that the animals demonstrate high capacity of tolerance to the climatic conditions of that area for they maintain the normal sanguine representatives in agreement with the patterns for the species.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DA ADAPTABILIDADE DE CAPRINOS AO SEMIÁRIDO ATRAVÉS DE PARÂMETROS FISIOLÓGICOS E ESTRUTURAS DO TEGUMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISÂNGELA MARIA NUNES DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the adaptability of the breeds goats to Semiárid through physiologic parameters: rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and surface temperature and the structures of the tegument: perspiration glands, fat of glands and hair follicles. 40 female were used goat, of the breeds Anglo-Nubiana, Savana, Boer and Moxotó, being 10 animals of each breed, with medium age of five months. For the physiologic answers, he animals were allocated into a completely randomized design entirely in portions subdivided in the time, with the main treatments constituted by the breeds and the secondary ones by the shifts. For the study steorologic of the tegument was used in a completely randomized design entirely with four treatments and three repetitions. There was in significant teraction (P0.05 of the Boer breed. The breed Anglo-Nubiana it presented larger number of glands perspiration (P<0.05 and the breed Savanna presented the largest average of fat of glands (P<0.05. The studied breeds demonstrated to be physiological well adapted and with characteristics of the favorable tegument to the climatic conditions of semiarid.

  2. Uso de sêmen resfriado e inseminação artificial em caprinos leiteiros na república de cabo verde

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolau Pinto, Pedro Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Este projeto e fruto de um trabalho conjunto entre a Agencia Brasileira de Cooperacao Internacional, CNPq, Embrapa, Governo de Cabo Verde, GOPA, UFF e UFPR. Teve como objetivo treinar tecnicos caboverdianos, para que possam executar todas as etapas envolvidas em um programa de inseminacao artificial (IA); determinar um protocolo de IA com semen resfriado que possibilite a disseminacao de genetica para todas as ilhas do arquipelago; fazer uma primeira disseminacao genetica; estruturar ...

  3. ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ANTIMÉRICA DOS NERVOS FEMORAIS EM CAPRINOS RECÉM-NATOS DA RAÇA SAANEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Medeiros-do-Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The femoral nerves were studied in newborn goats of Saanen breed (22 males and 11 females that were collected after natural death and fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution. In males the femoral nerve arose from the ventral spinal branches of L4 and L5 in eight animals (36%; in six animals (27% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L5 and L6; in five animals (23% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L5; in two animals (9% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L4, L5 and L6 and in one animal (5% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L5 and L6 and the ventral spinal branches of S1. In females the femoral nerve arose from the ventral spinal branches of L4 and L5 in seven animals (64%; in three animals (27% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L5 and L6 and in one animal (9% it arose from the ventral spinal branches of L4, L5 and L6. In all animals, the femoral nerves were distributed in different branches to the major and minor psoas, femoris quadriceps, sartorius and pectinius muscles.

  4. Evolución de la selección de plantas leñosas por caprinos de aptitud lechera en pastoreo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, M.; Gómez-Castro, A.G.; Peinado Lucena, E.; Domenech García, V.; Mata Moreno, C.

    1992-01-01

    The foraging strategy of grazing dairy goat (Florida breed), in mediterranean pastures of Sierra Norte of Sevilla (Spain), was studied. Woody species account for 19 p. 100 of goat selection in autumn-winter, 25 p. 100 in spring and 34 p. 100 in summer. The shrubby species are predominant in autumn-winter and spring (89 p. 100 of woody species), though their contribution decreases in summer (59 p. 100) while the proportion of tree species increases (41 p. 100). Over the whole year, the most fr...

  5. CORRELAÇÕES ENTRE O TESTE HIPOSMÓTICO E A AVALIAÇÃO CLÁSSICA DO SÊMEN DE CAPRINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Rayanne Sousa de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation between the assessment of the functional integrity of the sperm membrane by hypoosmotic swelling tes,t using solutions with different osmolarities, and the conventional assessments of fresh semen in goats. A total of 24 ejaculates from three goats was obtained by artificial vagina and immediately submitted to the classical evaluation. Samples were divided into five aliquots and subjected to hypoosmotic test using distilled water (0 mOsm/L, and sodium citrate and fructose solutions at different osmolarities (50; 100; 150 and 200 mOsm/L. The 100 mOsm/L solution showed the highest percentage of reacted sperm (34.8%, but distilled water was the one with the lowest values (20.8%. No significant correlations were detected between the reacted sperm verified by the hypoosmotic swelling test and other semen characteristics (P> 0.05. Nevertheless, we recommend the carry out of the hypoosmotic test by using a 100 mOsm/L sodium citrate and fructose solution to assess the functional integrity of the sperm membrane in caprine species.

  6. FREQUÊNCIA DE ANTICORPOS ANTI-Toxoplasma gondii EM REBANHOS CAPRINOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO LUÍS, MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Gleyci Soares

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the frequency ofToxoplasma gondii seropotive goat herds in the municipality ofSão Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The detection of anti-T.gondii wasperformed by the serological indirect ELISA method (EnzymeLinked Immunosorbent Assay. The data were analyzed using EpiInfo 3.5.1 and subjected to chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. From92 sera tested, 34 (36.95% were seropositive and 58 (63.05%seronegative. From 10 properties of goat herds surveyed in themunicipality of São Luís, MA, seropositivity was found in eight(80% of them. Regarding the conditions of storage of food, from24 properties considered poor, 14 (15.3% were seropositive forT. gondii, with a significant association (p <0.05. Milk productionalso had significant association (p = 0.0478, and beef productionpresented significant percentage: from 19 animals, 11 (57.89were seropositive. As regards the type of food, (14 58.33% ofseropositivity was verified within the animals fed forage (p <0.05.The aborted material is also a relevant factor found in this study,considering none of the producers gave the appropriate destination for this material. This behavior does not often eliminate thepresence of the risk factor, then seropositivity and association (p<0.05 can be verified. No significant differences were observed inthe frequency of T. gondii, related to gender and age of goats.

  7. EFEITOS DOS EXTRATOS AQUOSO E METANÓLICO DE ALGAROBA SOBRE CULTURAS DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA JOSÉ MOREIRA BATATINHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves and fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C., respectively, on larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of the methanol extract (724.5; 557.3; 428.7; 329.8; 253.7; 195.1mg/mL and one of the aqueous extracts (110.0mg/mL were used for thetreatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Destilled water and doramectin were used to treat cultures considered to be negative and positive control, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 90% of the infective larvae between the concentrations of724.5 up to 253.7 mg/mL for the methanol extract and a low percentage of reduction (59.87% for the aqueous extract. Only the methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. was effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goat.

  8. Caracterização e biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de caprinos Characterization and anaerobic digestion of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. A. Orrico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantificar e caracterizar os dejetos gerados por cabras Saanen em quatro categorias de idade e alimentadas com três dietas e na seqüência, e promover a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos constituíram os objetivos deste trabalho. Para a produção de dejetos, foram utilizadas 36 cabras Saanen, com idades entre 2 e 4 (C1, 4 e 8 (C2, 8 e 12 (C3 e acima de 12 meses (C4, alimentadas com as dietas 1 (D1: 80% volumoso (Vol e 20% concentrado (Con; 2 (D2: 60% Vol e 40% Con e 3 (D3: 40% Vol e 20% Con. Foram quantificadas as produções diárias de fezes e urina e seus teores em N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Com a mistura das fezes e urina de todas as categorias, separadas segundo as dietas, foram abastecidos biodigestores batelada, com capacidade para 4 L de substrato em fermentação. A C1 apresentou menor (PThis study aimed quantify and characterize the manure generated by Saanen goats in four categories of age, fed with three diets and then promote the anaerobic digestion of the manures. Thirty six goats were used with ages between 2 and 4 (C1, 4 and 8 (C2, 8 and 12 (C3 and above 12 months (C4, fed with the diets 1 (D1: 80% forage (Fo and 20% concentrated (Co, 2 (D2: 60% Fo and 40% Co and 3 (D3: 40% Fo and 20% Co. The daily productions of feces and urine and its contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were quantified. A mixture of feces and urine of all the categories of age was used; separated according to the diets, for the supply of batch digesters, with capacity of 4.0 liters of substrate in fermentation. The C1 presented smaller excretion (P<0.05 of feces (164.1 g of MS/animal per day and the smallest food consumption (362.16 g MS/animal per day. The largest concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and K occurred in the feces and urine generated by goats of C4 and fed by D3. The prepared substrate with manures originating from of D3 presented 45% of reduction in the contents of volatile solids (VS. The prepared substrate with manures of animals fed with D3 produced more biogas (P<0.01 for kg of total solids and VS added.

  9. Usefulness of J-CAPRA score for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel risk assessment method, Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment, has been developed based on database of patients receiving primary androgen deprivation therapy. To investigate the usefulness of Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment for non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radio-therapy plus androgen deprivation therapy. Patients with non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer (T3, initial prostate specific antigen level ≥20 ng/ml, and/or Gleason score ≥8) were included. The patients were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (the total dose from 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness)/16 fractions to 66.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness)/20 fractions), and neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy for at least 24 months. Four hundred and twenty-six patients were included with the median follow-up of 68.1 months. Of 426, 210 (49.3%), 270 (63.4%) and 251 (58.9%) had Gleason 8-10, prostate specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml and T3, respectively. The 10-year progression-free and cause-specific survival rates in Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 1-2 group (76.5 and 98.9%) were significantly better than those in Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 3-6 group (52.6 and 93.1%), (P < 0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The median progression-free survivals in the Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 1-2 and 3-6 groups were 158.9 months and 125.9 months (95% confidence interval: 108.6-143.2 months), respectively. For non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy, Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score was useful for predicting the progression-free and cause-specific survivals. (author)

  10. 北山羊杂交改良新疆山羊的效果观察%Study on Improvement Effect of Capra Ibex Crossed on Xinjiang Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰; 高维明; 阿布力孜·阿布力米提; 阿地拉·吐尔逊; 魏佩玲; 何茜; 吕雪峰

    2014-01-01

    为提高新疆山羊生长速度和农民养羊经济效益,用野生北山羊改良本地绒山羊,测定杂交F1代与对照组后代在各个生产时期体尺指数和产绒性能来确定改良效果.结果表明:杂交F1代绒山羊在各个生长时期其体重、体高、体长、胸围、管围各项体尺指数与对照组(本地绒山羊杂交后代)相比,野生北山羊杂交F1代与对照初生时体尺体重差异不显著(P>0.05),2月龄杂交F1代体高和胸围与对照组差异极显著(P<0.01),3月龄开始两种山羊的各项指标差异更加显著,到了周岁时五项体尺体长指标差异均达到了极显著水平(P<0.01).杂交F1代周岁的羊绒细度、长度、单纤维断裂强力、单纤维断裂伸长率、含绒率、产绒量比本地土山羊杂交后代分别增加幅度大小不等.范围在4.47%~23.53%.杂交F1代羊杂交优势明显,效果显著.

  11. Sperm characteristics and heterologous in vitro fertilisation capacity of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) epididymal sperm, frozen in the presence of the enzymatic antioxidant catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saucedo, J; Paramio, M T; Fierro, R; Izquierdo, D; Catalá, M G; Coloma, M A; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of catalase (CAT) on frozen/thawed ibex epididymal sperm recovered post mortem, and to detect any harmful effect this might have on sperm fertilisation capacity. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w/v), 2.2% citric acid (w/v), 0.6% glucose (w/v), 5% glycerol (v/v), and 6% egg yolk (v/v). Sperm masses from the right epididymis were diluted with TCG medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG medium supplemented with 200IU/mL CAT. Heterologous in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was used to assess the fertilisation capacity of this sperm. The addition of CAT to the extender did not improve frozen/thawed sperm variables. Moreover, a reduced fertilisation capacity was detected: sperm diluted with TCG provided 25.5% 2PN zygotes, while just 13.2% was recorded for that diluted with TCG-CAT (PTCG sperm than with the TCG-CAT sperm (16.7% vs. 7.6%). The use of 200IU/mL CAT as an additive cannot, therefore, be recommended for the preservation of ibex epididymal sperm. Other antioxidants should, however, be tested in both this and related wild mountain ungulates. PMID:24699464

  12. Comparación del riesgo de progresión entre factores prequirúrgicos según D'amico y post-quirúrgicos de CAPRA-S en pacientes llevados a prostatectomía radical más linfadenectomía pélvica ampliada por cáncer de próstata

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Ardila, Edgar Ferney

    2015-01-01

    Introducción y Objetivo: El cáncer de próstata supone un problema de salud pública, siendo la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en hombres de países occidentales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es comparar dos herramientas empleadas para predecir riesgo de progresión en pacientes con cáncer de próstata llevados a tratamiento quirúrgico primario. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y descriptivo que incluyó 450 pacientes a quienes se les realizó prostatectomía rad...

  13. Surface modified solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids and Softisan® 142:preliminary characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnamani PO; Ibezim EC; Attama AA; Adikwu MU

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To preliminarily investigate three different lipid matrices consisting of two natural homolipids fromCapra hircus (goat fat) andBovine Spp.(tallow fat) and one semi-synthetic lipid (Softisan® 142) separately structured with Phospholipon® 90G (P90G) as potential delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs.Methods:The structured lipid matrices were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and employed to prepare solid lipid microparticles(SLMs) by the melt homogenization method using gradient concentrations of polysorbate 80 and at different emulsification times of 2, 5 and 10 min using a Silverson mixer. TheSLMs were analyzed for morphology and particle size, thermal properties, stability studies and determination of injectability.Results: The results showed that SLM production was optimum at 5 % of lipid matrices, 1.5 % of polysorbate 80 and emulsification time of 5 min. Increase in polysorbate 80 concentrations decreased the particle size of the SLMs. TheSLMs were well formed, spherical, smooth and non-porous with particle sizes in the ranges of (13.90± 2.10) μm– (0.09 ± 0.01) μm for SLMs produced from the structured - tallow fat; (13.40± 1.30)μm– (0.10 ± 0.01) μm for the structured– goat fat and (13.40±2.00) μm– (2.10± 1.00)μm for the structured Softisan® 142 lipid matrices. DSC traces showed that Softisan® 142 was the most crystalline of all three bulk matrices due to its high enthalpy (-7.962 mW/mg) while tallow fat was the least (-5.067 mW/mg) but addition of P90G to the matrices lowered their enthalpies mostly in the structured goat fat matrices. The SLMs when stored at 4-6 ℃ were most stable and syringeable with 27 G needle.Conclusions:This suggests that structured goat fat matrices with the enthalpy of -2.813 mW/mg will mostly favour drug loading of some poorly soluble drugs more than tallow fat (-4.892 mW/mg) and Softisan® 142 (-5.501 mW/mg).

  14. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characteristics of Sheep C3d Gene%绵羊C3d基因克隆及分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳耀敬; 焦硕; 郭宪; 冯瑞林

    2008-01-01

    从绵羊(Ovis aries)肝脏组织克隆到了补体C3d基因并对其核苷酸序列和推导的氨基酸序列以及蛋白结构进行了分析.绵羊补体C3d基因的编码区含有909个核苷酸,编码303个氨基酸残基(GenBank No.EF681138).绵羊C3d与人(Homo sapiens)、牛(Bos taurus)、山羊(Capra hircus)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、金仓鼠(Mesocricetus auratus)、小鼠(Mus musculus)、褐鼠(Rattus norvegicus)、大袋鼠(Macropus eugenii)、兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)和原鸡(Gallus gallus)推导出的C3d氨基酸序列的一致性分别为80.4%,94.7%,96.9%,82.8%,81.1%,80.6%,80.2%,71.0%,75.2%和60.3%.绵羊与原鸡C3d的一致性最低为60.3%,而与其它动物C3d之间的一致性则较高为71.0%~96.9%.生物学软件分析发现,绵羊C3d蛋白有2个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,1个氨基葡聚糖附着位点,1个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,1个酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点,1个十四(烷)酰化位点.绵羊C3d二级结构中螺旋和转角交替出现,其中α螺旋占55.12%,β折叠为2.31%,转角区域为42.57%,这样的结构有利于其桶状结构的形成.ESyPred3D同源建模预测可知绵羊C3d三级结构与人C3d一样也形成由核心和外层构成的桶状分子结构.

  16. Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent Gongylonema spp. (G. aegypti and G. neoplasticum), with the proposal of G. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Aogu; Da, Nengtai; Hasegawa, Hideo; Behnke, Jerzy M; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. In an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (Bos taurus) and wild mammals in Japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) region of mitochondrial DNA of multiple isolates of different origins. Our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of G. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in Japan. In the present study, we collected G. pulchrum from cattle and goats (Capra hircus) in Alashan League, Inner Mongolia, China; Gongylonema aegypti from spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; and Gongylonema neoplasticum from a black rat (Rattus rattus) in Okinawa Island, Japan, to analyze their genetic relationships with G. pulchrum in Japan. The gullet worms from Alashan League had almost identical rDNA nucleotide sequences and two cox-1 haplotypes as seen in G. pulchrum from the cattle in Japan. The two rodent Gongylonema spp. had distinct rDNA nucleotide sequences compared with those of G. pulchrum; only the 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences showed high identities at 97.2-98.7%, while the remaining sequences were less than 75% identical. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequences of the two rodent Gongylonema spp. showed nucleotide identities of 99.8% (1811/1814), 100% (158/158), and 98.9% (3550/3590), respectively. The cox-1 regions showed 91.6% (338/369)-92.1% (340/369) identities, with completely identical amino acid sequences. The genetic diversities of three distinct Gongylonema spp. and their possible intraspecific genetic variation may allow us to resolve the taxonomic position of Gongylonema spp. which display few obvious morphological differences from their congeners. Consequently, the Gongylonema isolate from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal reported in our previous study is concluded to be a new species, and Gongylonema nepalensis n

  17. Developmental competence and cryotolerance of caprine parthenogenetic embryos cultured in chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Jae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Jang, Goo

    2016-07-15

    In animal reproduction technologies, the in vitro embryo culture system has advanced over the past few decades. However, in vitro cultured embryos still have reduced functional and physiological abilities compared with those from in vivo conditions, and many factors of oviduct and uterine environments have not yet been revealed. Here, we demonstrated the in vitro culture of domestic goat (Capra hircus) embryos using two types of culture media, modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) and a two-step chemically defined medium (DI/II). To obtain parthenogenetic goat embryos, oocytes were matured in vitro in tissue culture media-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for 22 to 24 hours, and activated with 5 μM, Ca(2+) ionomycin for 4 minutes, followed by 1.9 mM, 6-dimethylaminopurine treatment for 4 hours. After 2 days of embryo culture in different culture media, there were no significant differences in cleavage rates (96.6% vs. 95.4% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively). However, the DI/II group showed improved development competence to blastocysts (64.6% vs. 82.3% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively) and the total cell number of blastocysts (144.3 ± 9.2 vs. 264.4 ± 15.2 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively) at Day 7. After the cryopreservation of early-stage blastocysts at Day 6 via the conventional slow-freezing procedure, the surviving embryos were analyzed. The re-expansion rate after freezing and thawing was significantly higher in DI/II (39.66% vs. 67.69% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), but there were no statistical differences in total cell numbers (142.3 ± 12.1 vs. 172.1 ± 11.6 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), apoptotic index (4.9 ± 0.8% vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), and the gene expression levels (BAX, GLUT1, MnSOD, and OCT4) among the re-expanded blastocysts. Overall, our data reported that the defined in vitro culture media for goat embryos were established with high efficiency, which will be very useful for

  18. Anticorpos contra vírus do grupo da língua azul em caprinos e ovinos do sertão de Pernambuco e inferências sobre sua epidemiologia em regiões semiáridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against bluetongue virus was investigated in 41 dairy goats and 40 sheep herds in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco state and the conditions for insect Culicoides maintenance, considering climate dynamics and vector competence, were evaluated. The percents of seropositive herds in agar gel immunodiffusion test for bluetongue virus group were 24 for goats and 27.5 for sheep. The estimated prevalences of seropositive animals were 3.9% for goats (n = 410 and 4.3% for sheep (n = 400. The prevalences of seropositive animals were low in the mesoregion of Sertão Pernambucano (4.8% for goats and 4.1% for sheep and São Francisco Pernambucano (1.0% for goats and 4.5% for sheep. There were no significant differences between species and regions. Considering the social and economic importance of goats and sheep raising in the semi-arid region, it is essential to establish preventive measures to control imports of ruminants from these areas.

  19. Typology and characterization of goat milk production systems in the Cariris Paraibanos Tipologia e caracterização de sistemas de produção de leite caprino nos Cariris Paraibanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to identify the typology and the characteristics of the goat milk production systems. Seventy rural properties were researched. Multivariate data analysis with cluster formation techinique was used, and also the identification of five different groups of production systems. The production systems were classified through technical and economical efficiency, ranking groups 1 and 2 as high technological level, groups 3 and 4 as medium level, and the group 5 as low level. The high technological level systems used practices of more rational handling with larger technological employment becoming better specialized. These systems present the largest revenues of milk and unitary net profit. Medium technological production systems adopt technological recommendations and look for alternatives of handling practices. Production system 1 adopts intensive sanitary practices for the farmyard facilities and stables, but this does not happen in the production system 2. Vermifuge is applied three times a year in system 1 while in the system 2 it is applied twice a year. The producers of the systems 1 and 2 obtain more financial resources through official credit lines, and the producers of the group 2 are more punctual on the pay off deadlines.Objetivou-se identificar a tipologia e as características dos sistemas de produção de leite de cabra. Foram pesquisadas 70 propriedades agrárias. A técnica utilizada foi análise multivariada com a formação de cluster, com identificação de cinco diferentes grupos de sistemas de produção. Os sistemas de produção foram tipificados pela eficiência técnica e econômica, como grupos 1 e 2, considerados de nível tecnológico alto, grupos 3 e 4, de nível médio, e grupo 5, de nível baixo. Os sistemas de nível tecnológico alto adotam práticas de manejo mais racionais com maior emprego tecnológico e são os mais especializados. Esses sistemas conferem as maiores receitas de leite e lucro líquido unitário. Os sistemas de produção de nível tecnológico médio adotam recomendações tecnológicas e buscam alternativas de práticas de manejo. Produtores do sistema de produção 1 utilizam práticas sanitárias intensivas das instalações de apriscos e currais para práticas mais alternadas realizadas no sistema de produção 2. O número de aplicações de vermífugo no sistema 1 é de três vezes ao ano, enquanto no sistema produtivo 2 é de duas aplicações. Os produtores dos sistemas 1 e 2 são os que mais captam recursos monetários por linha de crédito oficial, e os do grupo 2 os que mais se apresentaram com o financiamento quitado ou em dia.

  20. MODELO DE SIMULACIÓN DE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD DE UN REBAÑO CAPRINO EN PASTOREO BAJO DIFERENTES ESCENARIOS DE MANEJO EN LA REGION SUROESTE DE TAMAULIPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Arnulfo Villanueva-Castillo; Juan Carlos Martínez-González; Heriberto Díaz-Solís; W. E. Grant; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdés; José María Tapia-González

    2013-01-01

    Un importante reto para la ganadería contemporánea es satisfacer la demanda de productos alimenticios pecuarios para la población mundial. Los modelos bio-económicos integran la biología animal con la administración de las empresas rurales, lo que los posibilita para estudiar sistemas de producción animal complejos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la simulación del comportamiento productivo de un rebaño en pastoreo bajo diferentes condiciones de manejo. Se construyó un modelo simple de simula...

  1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO SÊMEN CAPRINO DESCONGELADO APÓS A ADIÇÃO DE RINGER LACTATO, CITRATO DE SÓDIO E SOLUÇÃO TRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Oliveira Dias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of semen is of great importance for various reproductive biotechnologies such as artificial insemination (IA, In Vitro Embryo Production (PIV and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability and persistence of motility and strength of sperm, as well as changes in the plasma membrane after the addition of Ringer Lactate, sodium citrate 2.92% or TRIS solution in thawed goat semen. Semen was collected from two Alpine Brown goats, and standard procedures for cryopreservation and seminal analysis were performed. After thawing the semen, the extenders Ringer Lactate, sodium citrate 2.92% and TRIS solution were added and Thermoresistance (TTR, Supravital and Morphology Tests were carried out. In TTR, only the group received TRIS solution presented motility and strength for a longer period (90 minutes; P 0.05. We concluded that the addition of the solutions does not allow a large persistence of motility and strength of thawed sperm, but TRIS solution could be used for expansion of seminal doses used in vitro reproductive biotechnology.

  2. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes Avaliação do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira; Ana Lourdes Fernandes Camurça-Vasconcelos; Luiz da Silva Vieira; Sthenia dos Santos Albano Amóra

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) i...

  3. Utilization of solar electric fence for containment of caprine in familiar production of the Pernambuco semi-arid region; Utilizacao de cerca eletrica solar para confinamento de caprinos na producao familiar do semi-arido pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Costa Neto, Guilherme [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: naper@ufpe.br; Araujo, Kassia; Silva, Gerson Flavio da; Raquel, Karine [ONG NAPER SOLAR, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Projetos], Email: nsolar@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Studies and Projects - Naper Solar is an NGO, which works for the dissemination of use of alternative energies resources in the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast in collaboration with the Federal University of Pernambuco. It has implemented caprine raising systems in the back lands of Pajeu in the State of Pernambuco making use of electrified fences energized by solar energy.This project was executed in a joint effort with the City Halls of Afogados da Ingazeira e Sao Jose do Egito and the NGOs Diaconia and the Northeast Woman House and has benefited 20 families of farmers from 9 rural communities. It is funded by a Technical Cooperation Program established between the National Fund for the Environment - Ministry for the Environment and the Netherlands Government. The implemented system, in opposition to the traditional extensive production system, allow for a more animal sanitary control - minimizing the risks of contamination; a more controlled and balanced feeding system - taking into account the weight gaining factor together with pasture management, leading the a guarantee of food supply for the animals. Other advantages of this system include the reduction of fence cost and less deforesting. Electrical fences used in the contention of caprine are built with only 4 straight wires, fixed with isolators on wood posts spaced 10 m from each other, while the conventional fences use 9 barbed-wire lines fixed with clamps on posts spaced 1 m from each other. Therefore, the use of electrical fences instead of the conventional one represent a cost reduction, which can go as high as 40 % of the total cost. Besides that the electrical fences have low maintenance cost, easier and faster installation and relocation. The fenced areas vary from 0.5 ha to 4 ha for the raising of 5 to 50 animals. In the electrification of a fence one needs one photovoltaic module, one electrifier, a battery, isolators (passage and corner), electric ground rods and a thunderbolt deviator kit. In this work the component of an solar electric fence are described together with its main benefits and installation and maintenance costs. (author)

  4. COMPOSIÇÃO, PERFIL NITROGENADO E CARACTERÍSTICAS DO LEITE CAPRINO (SAANEN: REGIÃO SUDESTE, BRASIL COMPOSITION, NITROGEN FRACTIONS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SAANEN GOAT’S MILK: SOUTHEASTERN REGION, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. PRATA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante um ano, trabalhou-se com o leite de conjunto produzido por três grupos distintos de cabras "Saanen", perfazendo um total variável entre 44 e 56 animais em lactação e um total de 179 amostras analisadas, nas quais determinou-se a composição química, o perfil nitrogenado e as principais características físico-químicas. Para a composição geral, os valores determinados foram: 3,27% para proteína total, 3,74% para gordura, 4,35% para lactose, 0,74% para cinzas e 88,49% para água. O perfil nitrogenado distribuiu-se em: 3,27% para proteína bruta (PB, 2,97% para proteína verdadeira (TP, 2,43% para a fração caseínas (C, e 0,84% para as proteínas do soro (PS, incluindo 0,30% para a fração nitrogenada não protéica (NNP. As características determinadas foram: 1,0324 para a densidade a 15ºC, 6,65 para o pH a 25ºC, 16,11ºD para a acidez, 0,172 g% para o teor de cloretos, -0,574ºH para o ponto de congelamento, 11,51% para sólidos totais (ST, 7,77% para sólidos desengordurados (SD, 12,45% para o extrato seco total (EST calculado e 8,90% para o extrato seco desengordurado (ESD, também calculado.During a year, were collected and analysed 179 samples of milk from three goat’s herds, having between 44 and 56 milking animals, determining their chemical composition, their mainly nitrogen fractions and their physico-chemical properties. The chemical composition was: 3,27% for total nitrogen content, 3,74% for fat, 4,35% for lactose, 0,74% for ashes and 88,49% for water content. Nitrogen fractions were: 2,97% for true protein (TP, 2,43% for casein and 0,84% for serum proteins including 0,30% for non protein nitrogen matter. The values for physico-chemical properties or milk characteristics were: 1,0324 for density at 15ºC, 6,65 for pH at 25ºC, 16,11ºD for acidity, 0,172g% for chloride content, -0,574ºH for freezing point, 11,51% for total solids and 7,77% solids not-fat.

  5. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos e ovinos em reator contínuo de PVC flexível Anaerobic digestion of goat and sheep wastes in a continuous reactor of flexible PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo G. de Quadros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de fontes energéticas e as altas taxas de mortalidade do rebanho são dois grandes problemas para os agricultores familiares no semiárido brasileiro. De setembro de 2006 a abril de 2007 um reator contínuo com gasômetro em PVC flexível, com 33 m³ de volume, instalado na Estação Experimental da EBDA, Jaguarari, Estado da Bahia, foi monitorado quanto aos parâmetros bioquímicos, microbiológicos e parasitários do afluente e efluente, sendo avaliadas a produção e a composição do biogás, além da utilização do biofertilizante em capim-elefante. Com o manejo adequado, o poder poluente dos dejetos foi reduzido significativamente. Microbiologicamente, a eficiência de remoção de coliformes totais e fecais se manteve acima de 98% enquanto os ovos dos principais endoparasitos foram eliminados com o tratamento. A produção de biogás foi de 0,061 m³ kg-1 de esterco. Basicamente, o biogás apresentou, em sua composição, 58 e 34% de metano e gás carbônico, respectivamente. O biofertilizante (pH 7,5 foi uma boa fonte de nutrientes, sobretudo de nitrogênio (64 g 100L-1, 80% na forma amoniacal e potássio (214 g 100L-1, aumentando a produção de forragem sem alterações significativas na composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca e teor de minerais.The scarcity of energy resources and the high livestock mortality rates are perpetual problems for small farmers of the Brazilian semi-arid region. From September 2006 to April 2007 a continuous reactor, of 33 m³ with gasometer in PVC flexible film, was installed at the EBDA Experimental Station, Jaguarari, Bahia State and the affluent and effluent biochemical, microbiological, and parasitological characteristics were monitored, the biogas production and composition being evaluated, as well as the use of the biofertilizer in elephant grass. With adequate management, the pollution power of residues reduced significantly. Microbiologically, the efficiency of total and fecal coliforms remotion was above 98%, when the main endoparasite eggs were eliminated after treatment. The biogas production was 0.061 m³ kg-1 of manure. The biogas showed in its composition basically 58 and 34% of methane and carbonic dioxide, respectively. The biofertilizer (pH 7.5 was a great source of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (64 g 100L-1, 80% ammoniacal form and potassium (214 g 100L-1, increasing forage production, without significant changes in the chemical composition, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, and mineral content.

  6. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  7. Modelli di valutazione ambientale per i Bovidi (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra e i Cervidi (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oppio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La conservazione delle popolazioni di stambecco ha grande rilevanza a livello italiano ed europeo, a causa della distribuzione concentrata in poche aree, mentre le consistenti popolazioni di camoscio hanno importanza economica e gestionale. L?espansione dell?areale di distribuzione dei cervidi in territorio alpino, è un fenomeno ormai consolidato e legato all?abbandono dei territori collinari e montani ma anche alle reintroduzioni e alle azioni di tutela nei confronti delle specie. I modelli d?idoneità ambientale rappresentano un efficace strumento per il confronto a livello qualitativo (numero di specie e quantitativo (abbondanza delle popolazioni tra l?attuale popolamento faunistico dei territori alpini e la loro situazione potenziale. Il Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso si estende per oltre 700 km² sul territorio di Piemonte e di Valle d?Aosta; gli affioramenti rocciosi ne occupano il 37.0%, la vegetazione rada il 20.1% e le praterie sommitali e le brughiere il 17.3%. L?analisi ambientale del Parco è stata effettuata mediante Arcview 3.2 per Windows misurando il valore di 20 variabili ambientali (Corine Land Cover III Liv., 27 fisiche (DTM e 17 di complessità paesaggistica in 2925 Unità Campione di 0,5 km di lato. Per la formulazione dei modelli relativi alla distribuzione (presenza/assenza dello stambecco sono stati utilizzati i dati dei censimenti (1999 effettuati nel Parco; per il camoscio ed il capriolo sono stati utilizzati i dati rilevati nelle province di Vercelli e Biella (1997 e in quella di Verbania (1999, mentre per il cervo sono stati utilizzati quelli relativi alla sola provincia di Verbania (1999. I modelli sono stati formulati mediante Analisi di Funzione Discriminante (Magnusson, 1983; Massolo & Meriggi, 1995 e Analisi di Regressione Logistica (Norusis, 1994. Per lo stambecco i dati sono stati suddivisi in due sets, di cui uno utilizzato per la formulazione del modello e l?altro per la sua validazione. Mediante un test del chi-quadrato sono state confrontate le percentuali di casi classificati nei due sets. Per le altre specie i modelli formulati sono stati applicati al territorio del parco e la validità dei modelli è stata valutata dalla percentuale di casi originali riclassificati correttamente. Per i bovidi il modello a maggior capacità predittiva è stato quello discriminante (classificazioni corrette: 73.0% per stambecco e 82.8% per camoscio. La non significatività del test Χ² (P=0.470 indica che non esistono differenze significative tra la distribuzione reale dello stambecco e quella ottenuta dal modello. L'81.1% del territorio del Parco è idoneo al camoscio alpino e l'area vocata include il 93.6% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Per il capriolo il modello logistico è stato quello a maggior capacità predittiva (88.1% dei casi originali classificati correttamente, individuando il 50.7% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Anche per il cervo quello logistico è preferibile per la maggiore percentuale di casi totali classificati correttamente (AFD: 74.9%; ARL: 76.0%.

  8. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    2013-01-01

    Fritjof Capra's two-part lecture presents the fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability along with the power of an ecologically comprehensive theory to shape education to fit the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Dr. Capra aims for the big picture emphasizing that effective learning is a system embedded in the…

  9. Vasorelaxation of goat mesenteric artery is mediated by endothelial Na+-K+-ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathiskumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the role of Na+-K+-ATPase and K+ channels in mediating vasorelaxation in the superior mesenteric artery of Capra hircus. Materials and Methods: Goat superior mesenteric artery (GSMA was cut into 1.5–2 mm circular rings and mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37°C ± 0.5°C organ bath containing 20 ml of modified Krebs-Henseleit saline (MKHS (pH 7.4, with continuous aeration under 1.5 g tension for 90 min. Endothelium-intact (ED+ or endothelium-denuded (ED− GSMA ring was contracted with phenylephrine (PE or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT (1µM–0.1 mM in the absence or presence of ouabain (0.1 µM. KCl (1µM–10 mM was added cumulatively to K+-free MKHS-pre-contracted (ED+/− rings in the absence or presence of ouabain (0.1µM or barium (1µM or 4-aminopyridine (1µM. Results: Ouabain did not alter the basal tone of the arterial ring. The contractile response induced by PE (Emax: 50.46 ± 2.68, pD2: 5.53 ± 0.04 and 5-HT (Emax: 30.86 ± 1.33, pD2: 6.17 ± 0.03 in ED+ ring was significantly (P < 0.001 augmented in ED− rings (PE: Emax: 93.30 ± 2.11, pD2: 6.41 ± 0.04; 5-HT: Emax: 95.07 ± 0.99, pD2: 6.27 ± 0.03. The contractile response induced by PE and 5-HT in ED+ or ED− rings in the presence of ouabain was almost identical with that of ED− rings. Vasorelaxation of KCl (Emax: 2.90 ± 1.14, pD2: 3.9 ± 0.03 was significantly attenuated in the presence of ouabain (Emax: 73.8 ± 5.16, pD2: 4.3 ± 0.04, Ba2+ (Emax: 16.34 ± 4.7, pD2: 3.22 ± 0.02, 4-AP (Emax: 18.16 ± 2.4, pD2: 3.68 ± 0.03, ouabain and Ba2+ (Emax: 70.09 ± 3.66, pD2: 4.41 ± 0.04, and ouabain and 4-AP (Emax: 66.98 ± 4.61, pD2: 4.13 ± 0.06. Conclusion: The vasorelaxation in GSMA is mediated by the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHFs such as ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+-ATPase, KIRand Kvchannels.

  10. 梅花鹿 LHβ基因的克隆及序列分析%The Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Cervus nippon LHβ Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竭航; 陈彬龙; 吴楠; 李地艳; 雷美艳; 张承露; 曾德军

    2015-01-01

    this protein most probable act as a hormone,which was in agreement with the target gene.The phylogenetic analysis showed that Cervus nippon had close affiliation with ruminant, including Capra hircus ,Ovis aries and Bos taurus ,especially Ovis aries .[Conclusion]The LHβgene CDS of Cervus nippon had the closest affiliation with Ovis aries .

  11. Sequence Comparison of MHC Class Ⅱβ (Exon 2) and Phylogenetic Relationship Between Poultry and Mammalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ri-fu; LI Kui; CHEN Guo-hong; QIANG Ba-yang-zong; MO De-lin; LI Chang-chun; FAN Bin; LIU Bang

    2005-01-01

    A fragment spanning over exon 2 and intron 2 of major histocompatibility complex B-LB Ⅱ genes was amplified using PCR,cloned and sequenced in 13 individuals from eight Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one introduced breed. Another 41 sequences of MHC class Ⅱβ from ten vertebrate species were cited from the NCBI GenBank. Thirteen new B-LB Ⅱ alleles were found in the chicken breeds sampled. Alignment of the exon 2 sequences revealed 91.1-97.8% similarity to each other within the chickens sampled, and the chickens shared 84.1-87.0% homology to Phasianus colchicus, 78.5-81.5% similarity to Coturnixjaponica. The sequences in poultry showed 62.6-68.1% identity to HLA-DRBl, 50-61.5% similarity to DQB (HLA-, SLA- and H2-BB), 53.7-60% to HLA-DPB and 53.3-57.8% similarity to HLA-DOB. The frequency of nonsynonymous substitutions of nucleotide was higher than that of synonymous substitutions, and the frequencies of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions in poultry B-LB Ⅱ genes were lower than those observed in mammalian DRB1 and DQB1 genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of MHC class Ⅱβ1 domain exhibited extreme difference in conversed region and variable region patterns among the various species, but the two conserved cysteines forming disulfide-bond were shown consistent in poultry with that in mammalian species; and the carbohydrate attachment site was found more conserved in chicken, Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Ovis aries and Capra hircus than in Sus scrofa and rodent animals. Compared with exon 2 of DQB1 genes of Homo sapiens, ruminant species and Sus scrofa, the differentia that the deletion of six nucleotides at position195 to 200 of exon 2 of DQB1 genes, and insertion of three nucleotides at position 247 to 249 of the exon 2 existed in rodent species were found, which led to the absence of three AA residues at position 65, 66,and 67 within β1 domain of DQB1 chain, and the insertion of one AA residue at position 85. The difference of the deletion

  12. 山羊Ets-1基因cDNA的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis ofEts-1 Gene in Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 罗军; 许会芬; 胡仕良

    2011-01-01

    According to the highly conservative region of Ets-l gene sequences from bovine (Bos taunts),human (Homo sapiens) and mouse (Mus musculus) in GenBank.the specific primers were designed to clone the cDNA region of Ets-l gene in mammary gland of Xinong Saanen dairy goats using RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification cDNA ends) methods,the sequence analyses of nucleotide sequence,and the deduced amino acid sequence of Ets-l gene were conducted. The results showed that the full length of Ets-l gene was 2 263 bp(GenBank accession No.HQ589338), containing 331 bp of 5'UTR,606 bp of 3"UTR,and 1 326 bp of coding sequences (CDS),which encoded a protein of 441 amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequence alignment indicated that the similarities of coding region of goat Ets-l were 98 %,94 %,92 % and 90 %;the similarities of 5 'UTR were 98 %, 85 %, 82 % and 71 %; the similarities of 31JTR were 96 %, 83 %, 81 % and 77 %, compared to those of bovine,porcine,human and rat,respectively. The AA sequence alignment indicated that the protein sequence of goat Ets-l shared high similarities (more than 95 % )with bovine,porcine,human and rat .respectively. The protein molecular weight was 50 340.8 D and the isoelectric point was 5.08. The protein of Ets-l had a helix-turn-helix structure. No transmembrane structure was speculated and no signal peptide was found in the entire sequence. Thus, it can be concluded that the full length cDNA of goat Ets-l gene has been successively cloned.%根据GenBank已收录的牛(Bos taurus)、人(Homo sapiens)和小鼠(Mus musculus)等物种Ets-1基因序列的同源保守区域,设计特异性引物,采用RT-PCR和RACE技术,分离并克隆了西农萨能奶山羊(Capra hircus)Ets-1基因的cDNA序列.该序列全长2263bp(GenBank登录号HQ589338),包括5UTR331 bp,CDS 1 326bp和3'UTR 606 bp,编码441个氨基酸组成的蛋白质.核苷酸序列分析发现,山羊编码序列与牛、猪、人、小鼠等的相应序列同源性分别为98%、94

  13. Oxidative stress profile in goats supplemented or not with selenium and vitamin E and submitted to scrotal insulation
    Perfil de marcadores do estresse oxidativo em caprinos suplementados ou não com selênio e vitamina E e submetidos à insulação escrotal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Madalena Pessoa Guerra; Carla Lopes de Mendonça; Filipe Aureliano Pedrosa Soares; Alexandre Cruz Dantas; Pierre Castro Soares; Guadalupe de Carvalho Xavier; Janaína Azevedo Guimarães; Valdemiro Amaro Silva Júnior

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E in the diet of goats induced to scrotal insulation (SI) on the profile of biochemical markers of systemic oxidative metabolism 12 animals were randomly divided into two groups: G1 - no supplementation G2 - supplemented with selenium (0.1 mg / kg body weight of sodium selenite) and vitamin E (0.3 IU / kg body weight). At the end of the adjustment period of 30 days, the scrotal insulation (SI) was performed with the placement...

  14. Efeito de medicamentos indicados para a prevenção da mastite bovina no período seco sobre a função fagocítica in vitro de leucócitos do leite de caprinos Effect of dry cow therapy products on the in vitro phagocytic function of goat milk leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Q. Benesi; Melissa Hartman; Milton R. Azedo; Camila F. Batista; Maiara G. Blagitz; Fernando José Benesi; Alice Maria M.P. Della Libera

    2010-01-01

    O uso de medicamentos antimamíticos específicos para vacas no período seco é indicado para prevenção de infecções na lactação seguinte. Não obstante, a ação das células envolvidas no período de secagem tem fundamental importância para a involução da glândula mamária e seu restabelecimento para a lactação subseqüente. A indisponibilidade de tais medicamentos para uso em cabras tem resultado na extrapolação do uso de produtos recomendados para vacas sem que se considerem as particularidades e d...

  15. Mensuração dos custos e avaliação de rendas em sistemas de produção de leite caprino nos Cariris Paraibanos Calculation of the costs and evaluation of incomes in different systems of production of goat milk in Cariris Paraibanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Luiz Beretta Dal Monte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se mensurar o custo de produção do leite e avaliar a renda na atividade caprina por sistemas de produção. Os sistemas de produção estão localizados na microrregião dos Cariris Paraibanos e foram definidos por critérios de eficiência técnica e econômica, com método de agrupamento por análise multivariada e formação de cinco grupos. O método utilizado para o custo de produção foi o custo operacional, e o critério adotado para a conversão do custo da atividade leiteira para o custo do leite foi da participação da renda do leite na renda bruta da atividade. Os critérios adotados de análise de rendas foram margem bruta e margem líquida. No cômputo do custo de produção do leite de cabra, os valores foram de R$ 0,67/L; R$ 0,73/L; R$ 0,80/L; R$ 0,88/L; e R$ 1,21/L para os sistemas de produção 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5. Os sistemas de produção 1 e 2, de alta tecnologia, com margem líquida de R$ 9.147,30 e R$ 3.995,18 na atividade leiteira, foram os que apresentaram os menores custos e economicamente são os mais vantajosos.The study aimed at calculating milk production cost and evaluating the income in goat milk farm activity by production systems. The production systems are located in the sub region of Cariris Paraibanos and they were defined by criteria of technical and economical efficiency, with grouping method by multivariate data analysis and formation of five groups. The method used for production cost was the operational cost, and the criterion adopted for the conversion of the milk activity cost for the cost of the milk was the participation of the milk income in the gross income of the activity. The criteria adopted for analysis of income were gross margin and net margin. In the count of goat milk production cost the values were R$ 0.67/L R$ 0.73/L, R$ 0.80/L, R$ 0.88/L and R$ 1.21/L for the production systems 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Systems of production 1 and 2 with high technology and net margin of R$ 9,147.30 and R$ 3,995.18 in the milk activity, were the ones that showed the lowest costs and they are economically the most advantageous

  16. Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos do óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos In vitro evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. seed oil effects on larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep

    OpenAIRE

    M.P.O. Farias; W.C Teixeira; A.G. Wanderley; Alves, L. C.; Faustino, M.A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Com objetivo de avaliar in vitro a ação do óleo da semente da Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) no cultivo de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de animais das espécies caprina e ovina, foram testadas cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba (100, 50, 30, 25 e 10%), com três repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante, formando-se ainda três grupos controle, um controle negativo (água destilada), outro controle negativo (água destilada + tween 80) e um controle positivo (Doram...

  17. Efeitos do sexo, do grupo racial e da idade ao abate nas características de carcaça e maciez da carne de caprinos Carcass and meat tenderness of goats according to age, breed group and age at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakilane Jacque Leal de Menezes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de quantificar e qualificar a carcaça e os cortes cárneos de cabritos de dois sexos (machos e fêmeas e três grupos raciais - Alpino; ½ Boer + ½ Alpino (½ BA; e ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpino (¾ BA - abatidos em três idades (aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de confinamento, visando avaliar o aproveitamento de cabritos provenientes de rebanhos leiteiros. As carcaças foram avaliadas pelas características de peso, rendimento, conformação, gordura de cobertura, comprimento interno e externo, comprimento da perna, perímetro da garupa, profundidade torácica, largura da garupa, compacidade, rendimento dos cortes cárneos e proporção dos tecidos. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial incompleto 2 X 3 X 3 (2 sexos X 3 grupos raciais X 3 idades de abate. O aumento da idade dos animais promove aumento do peso e das medidas da carcaça, assim como dos componentes comestíveis da carcaça e do rendimento comercial. Mestiços Boer apresentam maior compacidade de perna e menos osso em relação aos Alpinos. O grupo racial, a idade de abate e o sexo não influenciam a maciez da carne.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the yield and quality of the carcass and meat cuts from kids of both sexes, slaughtered at three different ages, aiming to use animals from dairy herds. Forty-one kids were used, from three breed groups: Alpine, ½ Boer ½ Alpine (½ BA and ¾ Boer ¼ Alpine (¾ BA, which were slaughtered at 60, 90 or 120 days of slaughter age. The animals were raised in a feedlot system. The following carcass traits were evaluated: carcass weight, commercial yield, conformation, subcutaneous fat, internal and external length, leg length, rump perimeter, thoracic depth, rump width, compactness, meat cut yield and tissue proportion. Meat tenderness was evaluated by means of the Warner-Bratzler shear force. Data were analyzed as an incomplete factorial arrangement (2 sexes X 3 breed groups X 3 slaughter ages, in a complete randomized design. As age increased, so did carcass weight and characteristics, as well as the weight of edible carcass components and commercial yield. The Boer crossbreds showed higher leg compactness and less bone compared to the Alpines. No difference in meat tenderness was observed for breed group, age or sex.

  18. Características da carcaça de caprinos mestiços Anglo-Nubiano, Boer e sem padrão racial definido Evaluation of carcass characteristics of crossbred Anglo-Nubian, Boer and undefined breed goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Nunes de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características da carcaça de cabritos de três grupos genéticos: ¾ Anglo Nubiana (n=21, ¾ Boer (n=22 e Sem Padrão Racial Definido (n=21. Os animais foram abatidos em três diferentes pesos: 20, 25 e 30 kg de peso vivo. Avaliaram-se as características de rendimento e conformação da carcaça, bem como as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados mostraram que não houve interação entre o genótipo e o peso de abate em todas as variáveis estudadas. O genótipo teve efeito significativo (P0,05 entre os grupos genéticos e entre os diferentes pesos de abate. Em conclusão, cabritos mestiços ¾ Boer e ¾ Anglo Nubiano apresentaram características similares de rendimento e conformação de carcaça, sendo ambos superiores aos SRD, e, portanto, mais indicados para produção de carne.The aim of this work was to study the carcass characteristics of three genetic groups: ¾ Anglo-Nubian (n=21, ¾ Boer (n=22 and undefined breed (n=21. The animals were slaughtered at three different weights: 20, 25 and 30kg of live weight. It was evaluated the yield and the conformation carcass characteristics as well as the losses by cooling. The results showed no interaction genetic group and slaughter weight in all studied variables. The genotype had significant effect (P0.05 between genetic groups and weight at slaughter. In conclusion, ¾ Boer and ¾ Anglo-Nubian crossbreed kids had presented similar characteristics of yield and conformation carcass, both superior to the SRD, being therefore more indicated for meat production.

  19. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Verônica Schmidt; Andrea Troller Pinto; Roger Neto Schneider; Fabiana F.P. da Silva; Fernanda Assaife de Mello

    2009-01-01

    O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT) identificou 54 (22,7%) metad...

  20. Características de carcaça e da carne de caprinos Boer x Saanen confinados recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Characteristics of carcass and meat of feedlot Boer x Saanen kids fed diets with ground corn replaced by soybean hulls

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Karina Toledo da Silva; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Alexandre Agostinho Mexia; Graziela Aparecida Santello; Elias Nunes Martins; Makoto Matsushita

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as características de carcaça, os rendimentos dos cortes, a proporção dos tecidos, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus dorsi de cabritos confinados alimentados com rações contendo casca do grão de soja em substituição ao grão de milho moído. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos machos inteiros Boer x Saanen distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (cinco animais por tratamento) e abatidos com 33,82 ± 4,40 kg de peso corporal. As rações for...

  1. Método eletroforético rápido para detecção da adulteração do leite caprino com leite bovino Fast electrophoretic detection method of adulteration of caprine milk by bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Egito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os métodos de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE em presença de uréia (uréia-PAGE e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE para identificar a adulteração do leite de cabra pela adição do leite de vaca. Um método foi otimizado para preparação do caseinato de sódio em poucos minutos para análise eletroforética. Uréia-PAGE foi o método mais apropriado para identificação desse tipo de fraude, em decorrência da presença da caseína alfas1 com migração mais rápida no leite bovino. A presença da alfas1-caseína bovina foi detectada a partir da adição de 2,5% de leite de vaca utilizando uréia-PAGE. O limite de detecção, a repetibilidade, o tempo para execução indicaram que esse método pode ser aplicado como rotina no controle de qualidade do leite de cabra recebido pelas indústrias de processamento.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of urea (urea-PAGE or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE was evaluated to detect the presence of cow milk added to goat milk. A method was optimized to prepare sodium caseinate from milk in few minutes. After that, the sodium caseinate was analyzed by PAGE. The urea-PAGE was the most appropriated method to identify adulteration as caprine and bovine alphas1-caseins displayed different migration rates. When cow milk was added to goat milk at different proportions, the presence of bovine alphas1-casein was detected in the mixture by urea-PAGE for a minimal proportion of 2.5% of cow milk added to goat milk. The good sensitivity, the repeatability and the short time for execution indicate that the described method will be able to be routinely applied for the quality control of goat milk in dairy industry.

  2. Crescimento inicial de angico em substratos com co-produtos de mineração e matéria orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Dayane Silva do Ó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência nutricional do esterco caprino e bovino associado ao co-produto de vermiculta em mudas de angico. O experimento constou da utilização de dois tipos de esterco (bovino e caprino homogeneizados com co-produto de vermiculita em seis doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado 6 x 2 mais quatro repetições controle contendo esterco bovino e solo na proporção 2:1. Para as análises estatísticas, foi aplicado teste de regressão polinomial grau dois para todas as variáveis e teste de Tukey a 5% para comparação entre os tratamentos aplicados e o tratamento controle. Sementes de angico foram semeadas em vasos plásticos, aos 40 dias após a germinação, foram coletados semanalmente o diâmetro basal e altura das mudas até 130 dias após a germinação, quando se deu o término do experimento, logo após, procedeu-se às coletas de massa seca da parte aérea, raiz e de tubérculo. O esterco bovino e caprino e o convencional surtiram efeitos positivos no crescimento das mudas de angico, assim sendo, recomendado seu uso para o cultivo da espécie angico. A dose de matéria orgânica que resultou o melhor efeito foi a de 25% de esterco caprino, comparado com os demais tratamentos estudados. É recomendado o uso de esterco caprino para a produção de muda de angico.

  3. Subsídio ao melhor conhecimento do tifo exantemático neotrópico no Brasil: presença do virus no leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1948-03-01

    Full Text Available In articles, already published, we have proved that the strain V. B. of Brazilian virus, goes through the placenta (Macacus rhesus (1 and the apparently normal gastro-intestinal tube (1934-1937 (Canis familiaris (2. Today we present the idea that the Brazilian virus can reach the milk of an animal even when the latter has only the unapparent disease. In former articles (**, we have shown that the goat (Capra hircus can be an excellent reservoir of Brazilian virus, having the strain V. B. in its blood and presenting a Weil Felix reaction high and in “group”, with the disease unapparent. When the goats are bred in the laboratory, and even in some foci of the disease, they give a negative Weil Felix, being zero for all the nine strains of Proteus. In the interior of Brazil, in many localities, goats substitute cows, in supplying milk for children and adults, and in some districts goat’s milk is considered superior to cow’s milk, possessing marvellous qualities for men, women an children. Having proved, now, that goat’s milk can contain the virus even when the animal presents nothing clinically, and having also shown that this virus goes through the digestive tube apparently sound, it is easy to understand how infants-in-arms, that is, only a few months old, living in strictly domestic surroundings, can contract the disease; we have many such cases on record. Protocol of the experiments: Goat nº 2, white, January 1948. This animal had been inoculated with the V. B. strain of the Brazilian virus in June 1947, via intra-peritoneal, presenting nothing then, not even a feverish reaction. On that occasion it was not possible to isolate the virus of the blood, although the Weil Felix reaction was positive, high and in “group”. Now January 17, 1948, seven months later, the same animal was reinoculated with a semple of virus V. B. in the same manner (intra-peritoneal two days after bringing forth two sturdy kids. The virus V. B. was obtained

  4. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) encompasses 1,308 km2 on Hawai‘i Island. The park harbors endemic plants and animals which are threatened by a variety of invasive species. Introduced ungulates have caused sharp declines of numerous endemic species and have converted ecosystems to novel grazing systems in many cases. Local ranchers and the Territorial Government of Hawai‘i had long conducted regional ungulate control even prior to the establishment of HAVO in 1916. In 1995 the park’s hunting team began a new hunt database that allowed managers to review hunt effort and effectiveness in each management unit. Target species included feral pigs (Sus scrofa), European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), feral goats (Capra hircus) and wild cattle (Bos taurus). Hunters removed 1,204 feral pigs from HAVO over a 19-year period (1996‒2014). A variety of methods were employed, but trapping, snaring and ground hunts with dogs accounted for the most kills. Trapping yielded the most animals per unit effort. Hunters and volunteers removed 6,657 mouflon from HAVO; 6,601 of those were from the 468 km2 Kahuku Unit. Aerial hunts yielded the most animals followed by ground hunt methods. Hunters completed eradications of goats in several management units over an 18- year period (1997‒2014) when they removed the last 239 known individuals in HAVO primarily with aerial hunts. There have also been seven cattle and five feral dogs (Canis familiaris) removed from HAVO. Establishing benchmarks and monitoring the success of on-the-ground ungulate removal efforts can improve the efficiency of protecting and restoring native forest for high-priority watersheds and native wildlife. We tested a variety of methods to detect small populations of ungulates within HAVO and the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the high-priority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve on Hawai‘i Island. We conducted ground surveys, aerial surveys and continuous camera trap monitoring in both fence

  5. African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288

  6. Utilização silvopastoril das florestas autóctones em Trás-os-Montes

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Marina; Castro, José; Esteves, Amândio; Teixeira, A

    2006-01-01

    o conhecimento e experiência adquirida com a realização do Projecto PAMAF I&D - "Utilização Silvopastoril das Florestas Autóctones de Trás-os-Montes: seu estudo integrado" permitem detectar diferença importantes nos sistemas de produção de ovinos e caprinos, sobretudo no que respeita à utilização dos espaços de carácter florestal.

  7. Degradabilidade in situ do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para pequenos ruminantes de raças naturalizadas do Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.F. Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da indústria sucroalcooleira, buscam-se alternativas de uso dos resíduos gerados por ela. Os pequenos ruminantes de raças naturalizadas do Nordeste brasileiro mostram-se como grupos potenciais para que seja utilizado o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BCA nas dietas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se determinar a degradabilidade ruminal in situ da matéria seca (MS e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do BCA e os parâmetros ruminais em caprinos Moxotó e ovinos Morada Nova, fistulados no rúmen. Contidos em sacos de náilon, 3g de BCA foram incubados no rúmen nos tempos seis, 24 e 96 horas, determinando-se o conteúdo de MS e FDN nos resíduos obtidos. Nos tempos zero, seis e 12 horas após a primeira refeição, mediram-se no líquido ruminal pH e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 ruminal. O CMS não diferiu entre caprinos e ovinos. O potencial de máxima degradação da MS foi semelhante entre espécies, e da FDN foi superior em caprinos. Ovinos apresentaram maiores tempo de colonização, taxa de degradação e degradabilidade efetiva da MS e FDN. O pH não diferiu entre as espécies. Observou-se maior concentração de N-NH3 ruminal em caprinos, no tempo zero. Diante da maior velocidade de degradação da MS do BCA pelos ovinos, essa espécie se mostra detentora de uma microbiota ruminal com crescimento mais eficiente sobre o BCA.

  8. Matters of Gravity, The Newsletter of the Topical Group in Gravitation of the American Physical Society, Volume 31, Winter 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkle, David; Comer, Greg

    2008-01-01

    GGR News: GGR program at the APS meeting in St. Louis we hear that... by David Garfinkle 100 years ago, by David Garfinkle Research Briefs: The Torsion Pendulum's Contribution to Dark Energy, by Bill Hamilton Conference Reports: 10th Capra Meeting on Radiation Reaction, by Carlos Sopuerta Quantum Gravity in the Southern Cone IV, by Rafael A. Porto

  9. Neue taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus). III. Fortsetzung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1980-01-01

    Six new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described respectively characterized. The geographical variation of some species is illustrated. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) iberica spimila from Morocco, T. (L.) capra from Italy, T. (L.) profdrassi and T. (L.) monstrabili

  10. The web of life a new synthesis of mind and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Fritjof

    1996-01-01

    Capra argues that at the end of the 20th century we are shifting away from the mechanistic world of Descartes and Newton to a holistic, ecological view. He establishes patterns between ideas from such diverse fields as Buddhism and quantum physics.

  11. Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccine Efficacy Studies: Neonatal Calves and White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedi, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti)(#1). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from ...

  13. "Forget about it" : "parallel processing" in the Srebrenica report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, E

    2004-01-01

    Dominick LaCapra has remarked that "when you study something, you always have a tendency to repeat the problems you are studying." In psychoanalytic supervision this phenomenon is called "parallel processing." Parallel processes are subconscious re-enactments of past events: when you are caught up i

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  15. for video describing a prestigious Government of Canada prize which the Canadian team in ALPHA will be awarded on February 3rd

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Footage for video describing a prestigious Government of Canada prize which the Canadian team in ALPHA will be awarded on February 3rd 2014. On the video: -Mic-Michael Hayden (Simon Fraser Univ.) -Walter Hardy (Univ. of British Columbia) -Andrea Capra (York Univ.)hael Hayden (Simon Fraser Univ.)

  16. Chlamydophila abortus em animais de produção Chlamydophila abortus in production animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Gibson da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A Chlamydophila abortus (anteriormente classificada como Chlamydia psittaci sorotipo 1 tem sido descrita em muitos países, associada principalmente com distúrbios reprodutivos em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos. O aborto enzoótico dos ovinos e caprinos e o aborto epizoótico dos bovinos são as doenças mais importantes causadas por esta bactéria. No Brasil, as pesquisas com C. abortus são praticamente inexistentes. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar informações sobre modificações taxonômicas, ciclo de vida, epidemiologia, patogenia, sinais clínicos e diagnóstico da infecção por C. abortus principalmente em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos.Chlamydophila abortus (previously known as Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 has been reported in many countries, associated with reproductive disorders in sheep, cattle, and goats. The enzootic abortion of sheep and goats and the epizootic bovine abortion are the most important diseases produced by this bacterium. In Brazil, there is scarce information about C. abortus. The objective of this review is to show information about taxonomic changes, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and diagnosis of C. abortus in sheep, cattle and goats.

  17. Serological survey of Neospora caninum in small ruminants from Pernambuco State, Brazil Inquérito sorológico de Neospora caninum em pequenos ruminantes do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amélia Santos Mucalane Tembue

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. A serological survey for antibodies against N. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of Ibimirim, PE, Northeastern Brazil. The imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319 of the goats and 64.2% (52/81 of the sheep were positive. Serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p 0.05, with increasing rates in older animals. These results indicate exposure to N. caninum among small ruminants in the study area.A infecção por Neospora caninum é uma importante causa de abortos em bovinos, assim como mortalidade neonatal em caprinos e ovinos. Uma pesquisa sorológica de anticorpos anti-N. caninum foi realizada no município de Ibimirim (PE, Brasil. Os resultados ao teste de imunofluorescência revelaram que 26,6% (85/319 dos caprinos e 64,2% (52/81 dos ovinos foram positivos. A reatividade à sorologia foi associada com a idade nos caprinos (p 0,05, com maior ocorrência nos animais mais velhos. Estes resultados indicam exposição a N. caninum entre pequenos ruminantes na área estudada.

  18. Efeito da idade de abate no valor nutritivo e sensorial da carne caprina de animais mestiços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADRUGA M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da idade de abate na composição centesimal e mineral, no pH, na atividade de água e nas qualidades sensoriais da carne caprina foi estudado, utilizando-se para tanto animais machos abatidos ao completarem 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias de nascimento. Após o abate e a desossa, a carne caprina foi submetida às análises físico-químicas de pH, Aw, Ca, Fe e P; às determinações de composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas e gorduras e à análise sensorial, onde foram observados os atributos de: aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, sabor, suculência, maciez, textura e a qualidade da carne. A análise de Variância (ANOVA dos dados mostrou que as concentrações de umidade, proteínas, cálcio, ferro e pH foram significativamente influenciadas pelo fator idade de abate. Os teores de gordura, proteína e ferro aumentaram com a idade de abate, enquanto que a umidade diminuiu. Através dos teste da análise sensorial, ficou evidente que a idade dos caprinos apresentou um efeito significativo nos atributos sensoriais analisados, tendo-se detectado diferenças significativas entre os caprinos de diferentes idades de abate nos atributos de aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, suculência e maciez. A partir dos resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensoriais pôde-se observar, que o abate de animais mais velhos, isto é, com 310 dias, resultou em ganho nos parâmetros químicos (composição centesimal e mineral investigados, embora a carne de caprinos abatidos com menor idade (175 dias tivesse a preferência dos provadores.

  19. Estudo retrospectivo das neoplasias em ruminantes e equídeos no semiárido do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio K. de L. Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, dados relacionados com a ocorrência de neoplasias em ruminantes e equinos são escassos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a frequência de neoplasias diagnosticadas em bovinos, caprinos, ovinos e equídeos no Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, durante o período de 1983 a 2010 e analisar os fatores de risco, mediante o teste de qui-quadrado, considerando como variáveis, espécie, raça, sexo e idade. Durante o período foram registrados 177 (5,6% tumores de um total de 3.153 diagnósticos provenientes de biópsias e necropsias. Houve diferenças significantes (p<0,001 na frequência de tumores entre as diferentes espécies sendo mais acometidos os equinos (10,6%, seguidos pelos bovinos (6,8%, caprinos (3,3% e ovinos (2,1%. Os tumores mais frequentes foram o carcinoma células escamosas (CCE nos bovinos (58,3%, ovinos (80% e caprinos (46,1% e o sarcoide em equinos (45,3%. Quanto à localização anatômica, as neoplasias foram mais frequentes na pele em equídeos (62,5% e ovinos (60%, olho e tecido periocular em bovinos (36,1% e sistema reprodutor feminino (períneo e vulva em caprinos (34,6%. Em relação ao sexo dos animais, apenas os bovinos apresentaram prevalência significativa (p<0,001. Em relação à idade apenas os caprinos apresentaram prevalência significativa (p=0,015. Não houve prevalência significativa em nenhuma espécie em relação à raça. Conclui-se que os carcinomas de células escamosas em ruminantes e o sarcoide em equídeos são os tumores mais frequentes em animais de produção no semiárido do Nordeste Brasileiro e que a espécie equina foi a mais acometida dentre as espécies estudadas.

  20. “You’ll find out here pretty soon I have PTSD” Examining how a Vietnam Veteran Copes With Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Stockett, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is rooted in understanding trauma. Through a series of interviews with Zach Stockett, my grandfather and medical helicopter pilot in the Vietnam War, I identify his unique coping strategies. Zach uses humor, religious beliefs, and his ability to contribute meaningfully to the war effort to cope with the traumas he experienced. I drew from trauma theorists such as Maurice Halbwachs, Dori Laub, Cathy Caruth, Ruth Leys, Dominik LaCapra, and Marianne Hirsch to build a framework for un...

  1. The Tao of physics an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Fritjof

    1983-01-01

    Since its first publication, The Tao of Physics has become a cult book and international bestseller. Fritjof Capra was the first to explore in detail and with authority the connections between Eastern mysticism and modern physics. His book has contributed to the new awareness of a profound harmony between the world views of science and of mystical tradition. And recent developments in subatomic physics - the subject of a new chapter for this edition - have reinforced his thesis.

  2. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Pukáčová; Lucia Poľaková; Eva Dudriková

    2010-01-01

    Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %), sec (48 %) a sed (48 %). Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%), Staphylococcus caprae (21.28%) were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %), Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%), Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %), a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 %) wer...

  3. Winter habitat partitioning between Asiatic ibex and Blue sheep in Ladakh, Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Namgail, T.

    2006-01-01

    Asiatic ibex Capra ibex sibrica and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur are the most abundant wild ungulates in the Ladakh Region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya. Both species use rugged terrain to escape predation, and the competitive exclusion principle suggests that the distribution of one species may be affected by the presence of the other. I evaluated habitat use by these mountain ungulates in the Shun Gorge, at the eastern boundary of ibex distribution in the Zangskar Mountains, Ladakh, India. I h...

  4. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Salviati M; Bonanno C; Pannese R; Capra E; Bersani FS; Minichino A; Delle Chiaie R; Biondi M

    2012-01-01

    Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controvers...

  5. The Emergent Studio: a paradigm of transcultural architectural design and research

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, Roger; Crowson, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The postgraduate Emergent Studio nomenclature was adopted from the writings of Fritjof Capra who identified two models of human organisation; the designed structures that provide governance and order, and the emergent structures that provide creativity, dynamism and represent communities of commonality and shared interests. The Studio is driven by a phenomenological agenda that seeks to explore poetic and tectonic approaches to architecture responsive to the particular context of particular p...

  6. Identificación de conglomerados para impulsar las cadenas productivas de carne en México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un análisis de correlación espacial regional de la producción de carne en canal por especie en México. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante el periodo 2000 -2012. A través del análisis exploratorio de datos, de la estimación del índice de Moran y de la prueba de LISA, se buscó evidencias de dependencia espacial e identificar conglomerados que impulsen la integración de las cadenas productivas. El análisis exploratorio aporta evidencia de que los estados del norte pueden formar conglomerados que impulsen la producción carne de bovino, porcino y pollo; y el incremento en la producción de carne de ovino y caprino, podría darse entre estados de la región centro y del norte, respectivamente. Los índices positivos obtenidos para la carne de bovino, ovino y caprino, mostraron que la vecindad de estados productores no afectaría la conformación de conglomerados para incrementar la producción; mientras que, la autocorrelación negativa para la carne de porcino y pollo, hace suponer que la situación de vecindad de un estado productor se vería afectada por los agrupamientos regionales de sus vecinos. Con la prueba de LISA, se identificaron grupos estadísticamente significativos que soportan la evidencia de que la concentración espacial de la producción favorece la conformación de clúster y la integración de cadenas productivas únicamente para la carne de bovino, ovino y caprino

  7. Soroepidemiologia da toxoplasmose caprina na mesorregião metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná-Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada por Toxoplasma gondii, protozoário que tem vasta distribuição geográfica e pouca especificidade parasitária. Afeta muitas espécies de animais silvestres e omésticos, incluindo o homem. Nos animais de produção, especialmente pequenos ruminantes como os caprinos, provoca abortos e nascimento de filhotes fracos, acarretando prejuízos econômicos para os criadores desses animais, além de servir como possível fonte de transmissão para o ser humano. O ob...

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo; Julio Viégas; Deise Flores Santurio; Luana Rossatto; Isaura Helena Soares; Sydney Hartz Alves; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Lippia graveolens (lípia), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão), bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bacteri...

  9. Genotipificação de isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis provenientes de casos de mastite caprina Genotyping Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from mastitis in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Moraes Peixoto; Rodolfo de Moraes Peixoto; Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Para verificar a dinâmica da resistência aos antimicrobianos em uma propriedade rural no município de Santa Maria da Boa Vista, PE, foram avaliados 14 isolados de Staphylococcus epidermidis de caprinos com mastite subclínica. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo teste de difusão em disco. A genotipificação foi realizada empregando o marcador REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic) - PCR, utilizando o primer RW3A, enquanto os graus de similaridade e o fenograma de a...

  10. Prevelência da infecção pelo vírus da artrite encefalite caprina no estado do Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Raymundo Rizaldo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A elevação do risco de contaminação pelo vírus da artriteencefalite caprina (CAEV em rebanhos caprinos nativos e sem raça definida (SRD tem sido verificada paralelamente à introdução de caprinos de raças exóticas no Brasil, o que motivou a realização deste levantamento epidemiológico no Estado do Ceará. Para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo CAEV, utilizou-se a microtécnica de imunodifusão em gel de ágar. Foram pesquisadas 4019 amostras de soro caprino em 30 municípios do Ceará. A prevalência da infecção pelo CAEV verificada foi de 1% (40/4019 animais, sendo a maior prevalência (11,1% na região metropolitana de Fortaleza. Analisando a distribuição de animais soropositivos nos municípios pesquisados, constatou-se que um terço dos municípios (10/30 apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Verificou-se maior prevalência (p<5% nos caprinos mais velhos quando comparados com os jovens. A análise por sexo e composição do rebanho mostrou que os machos estavam estatisticamente mais afetados (p<5%. Considerando-se o grau de sangue, 5,02% de raças puras e 0,12% de animais mestiços apresentavam anticorpos contra CAEV. Dentre os soropositivos, a raça Parda Alpina foi estatisticamente mais afetada (p<5%. Com base nos resultados, pode-se verificar que o lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes já se encontra disseminado nas várias regiões do Ceará e que, provavelmente, os reprodutores sejam a principal fonte de transmissão viral entre os rebanhos nativos/SRD.

  11. Plantas taniníferas e o controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de pequenos ruminantes Tanniferous plants and control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Selene Maia de Morais; Ana Lourdes Fernandes Camurça-Vasconcelos; Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo

    2011-01-01

    Os nematóides gastrintestinais são responsáveis por acentuada redução na produtividade de ovinos e caprinos. Na tentativa de controlar esses parasitos, são utilizados diversos anti-helmínticos sintéticos, mas o desenvolvimento da resistência tem tornado esse controle pouco eficaz. Na busca por alternativas de controle dos nematóides gastrintestinais, a utilização de plantas taniníferas tem despertado interesse de pesquisadores em várias regiões do mundo. Essa revisão visa a abordar os diverso...

  12. Alimento balanceado-forraje verde idropónico en la alimentación de conejos criollos (oryctolagus cuniculus) (Food green balance-forage hydroponic in the feeding of creole rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus))

    OpenAIRE

    José Rubén Nava Noriega; Juan Nava Zavaleta; Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2005-01-01

    La producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH) se lleva a cabo en espacios reducidos con diferentes especies vegetales y condiciones hostiles, para alimentar diferentes especies de animales domésticos, equinos, bovinos, caprinos y conejos. El objetivo este trabajo fue valorar 9 proporciones de FVH-Alimento balanceado (AB) y ambos por separado como dietas para alimentación de conejos machos criollos Oryctolagus cuniculus. El FVH se produjo con semillas de trigo Triticum aestivum, desinfectad...

  13. Composición físico-química y calidad microbiológica de leche de cabra en rebaño bajo sistema extensivo en Santiago del Estero (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Frau, Silvia Florencia; Font, Graciela; Paz, Raúl; Pece, Nora

    2012-01-01

    La calidad de leche puede definirse como el potencial que ésta posee para ser sometida a un tratamiento tecnológico. Existen requisitos que definen su calidad: composición fisicoquímica, cualidades organolépticas y número de microorganismos presentes. Se determinó la composición y contenido microbiológico promedio en leche de cabra producida en un establecimiento caprino de la provincia de Santiago del Estero, la cual posteriormente es utilizada para la elaboración de quesos. Las muestras ...

  14. Novo produto transformado - caraterização físico-química de pernas curadas de carne ovina e caprina

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Aristides de Jesus António

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo de estudo, a avaliação da qualidade física e química de um novo produto transformado de origem ovina e caprina. Neste estudo foram utilizadas pernas inteiras de ovinos da raça Churra Galega Bragançana e de caprinos da raça Serrana, da região de Bragança, procedentes de animais com idade e pesos fora das marcas de qualidade DOP ou IGP. Os animais estudados apresentam baixo valor comercial e, por isso, como forma da valorização destes, pensou-se e...

  15. Valoración potencial y perspectiva de la cría caprina en el trópico contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Garcia, Eliel; Caceres, Orestes

    1996-01-01

    Existen varias razones que argumentan las necesidades y posibilidades de mantener e incrementar las explotaciones del rebaño caprino; el hecho de que esta especie sea reconocida por su alta eficiencia en la utilización de una amplia gama de alimentos fibrosos, que su morfofisiología sobresalga en los aspectos de docilidad, facilidad para el manejo, rusticidad, así como sus características de animal multipropósito con diversidad de producciones, son algunos de los factores que evidencian las v...

  16. Péptidos con Actividad Antimicrobiana obtenidos de Proteínas Lácteas con Extractos de Salpichroa origanifolia Antimicrobial Peptides obtained from Milk Proteins with Extracts from Salpichroa origanifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela F Rocha; Francisco Kise; Rosso, Adriana M; Mónica G Parisi

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió la actividad hidrolítica del extracto de frutos maduros de Salpichroa origanifolia sobre caseínas de origen bovino, ovino y caprino. La reacción enzimática se realizó a pH 6.2 y 37°C de temperatura durante veinte horas. Los péptidos provenientes de la hidrólisis se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría y se analizaron por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con Tricina en condiciones desnaturalizantes (tricine-SDS-PAGE) y densitometría. Los hidrolizados fueron separados por ultr...

  17. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  18. Plantas taniníferas e o controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de pequenos ruminantes Tanniferous plants and control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides gastrintestinais são responsáveis por acentuada redução na produtividade de ovinos e caprinos. Na tentativa de controlar esses parasitos, são utilizados diversos anti-helmínticos sintéticos, mas o desenvolvimento da resistência tem tornado esse controle pouco eficaz. Na busca por alternativas de controle dos nematóides gastrintestinais, a utilização de plantas taniníferas tem despertado interesse de pesquisadores em várias regiões do mundo. Essa revisão visa a abordar os diversos aspectos relacionados ao fornecimento dessas plantas a ovinos e caprinos, bem como os principais resultados obtidos em pesquisas utilizando taninos para o controle de nematóides de pequenos ruminantes.The gastrointestinal nematodes are responsible for a marked reduction in the productivity of sheep and goats. In an attempt to control these parasites, different synthetic anthelmintics are used, but development of resistance has become this control little effective. In the search for alternatives to control these nematodes, the use of tanniferous plants has attracted attention from researchers in different regions of the world. This review aims to address the various aspects related to the administration of these plants to sheep and goats, and the main results obtained from studies using tannins to control nematodes in small ruminants.

  19. Filamentous fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of melon plants (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivated in soil with organic amendments Fungos filamentosos isolados da rizosfera de meloeiros (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivados em solo com compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere soil samples were collected in a semiarid area, in the region of the São Francisco River valley, Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, to study the diversity of filamentous fungi in a soil cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine and receiving different organic amendments: Treatment 1 (control, without organic compost; T2 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; T3 (10% Ricinus communis leaves and stems, 50% Pennisetum purpureum leaves and 40% goat manure; T4 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% termophosphate; T5 (47% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 50% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; and T6 (57% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 40% goat manure and 3% termophosphate. Fungal isolation was carried out by the serial dilution technique to 1:1000. The Sorensen index of similarity, frequency and distribution of the fungi were evaluated. Seventy-eight species of filamentous fungi were isolated and identified, plus several Basidiomycota (04 and Mycelia sterilia (02. The predominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with 15 and 13 species, respectively. A greater number of species was found in the sowing period (49, and in relation to the organic fertilization, treatment 6 provided the greatest species diversity (43 species. Most of the species are saprobes and only a few are considered to be potential pathogens on melon plants, such as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Myrothecium roridum.Foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico em uma área semiárida, na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer a diversidade dos fungos filamentosos presentes em solo cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo cv. Gold Mine e adubado com diferentes compostos orgânicos: Tratamento 1 (controle, sem adição de compostos orgânicos; T2 (77% de bagaço de côco, 20% de esterco de caprino e 3% de K2SO4; T3 (10% de torta de mamona, 50% de capim elefante e 40% de esterco de caprino; T4 (77% de

  20. Matters of Gravity, the newsletter of the APS Topical Group on Gravitation, Fall 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Pullin, J

    2005-01-01

    GGR News: The WYP speakers program, by Richard Price We hear that..., by Jorge Pullin 100 Years ago, by Jorge Pullin Research Briefs: What's new in LIGO, by David Shoemaker Recent developments in the information loss paradox, by Eanna Flanagan Gravity Probe B mission ends, by Bob Kahn Conference reports: 6th Edoardo Amaldi Meeting, by Matthew Benacquista Workshop on Numerical Relativity, BIRS, by Carsten Gundlach 8th Capra Meeting on Radiation Reaction, by Leor Barack Theory and experiment in quantum gravity, by Elizabeth Winstanley

  1. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  2. Use of a staphylococcal vaccine to reduce prevalence of mastitis and lower somatic cell counts in a registered Saanen dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, F M; Nickerson, S C; Ely, L O

    2014-08-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of a bacterin in reducing the prevalence of staphylococcal mastitis and somatic cell counts (SCC) in a dairy goat herd. Does were vaccinated or left as controls, and the levels of mastitis and SCC monitored over 18 months. Staphylococcus caprae (42.5%), S. xylosus (15.1%), and S. simulans (10.0%) were the predominant causes of intramammary infections (IMI). The infection rate was 1.64 IMI/doe among vaccinates, which tended to be lower (P mastitis vaccines for use in managing staphylococcal mastitis and SCC in dairy goats.

  3. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  4. Nuclear energy - a spiritual perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the search for energy (historical); from uranium to the bomb (radioactivity); the principle of fission (atomic structure; isotopes); fear of nuclear reactors (types of reactor; antinuclear groups; economic argument; socio-political argument; psychological argument); Capra and the dance of life; elements and ethers (life ethers and subtle elements); origins of matter (etheric forces; the primal matrix); the balance of gold and silver (etheric forces, which can only be directly perceived in the spirit); Lucifer, Ahriman and nuclear accident; Christ's resurrection and the essence of matter; the opening of the abyss; the divine mother. (U.K.)

  5. Diagnóstico molecular da tuberculose bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Pedro Miguel Nisa

    2009-01-01

    A tuberculose bovina é uma importante doença animal com elevado impacto económico. O agente etiológico desta doença é a bactéria Mycobacterium bovis que, para além de afectar bovinos, causa também tuberculose noutras espécies de mamíferos, incluindo o Homem. Esta micobactéria pertence ao complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTC) que inclui espécies filogeneticamente muito próximas, nomeadamente M. tuberculosis - principal agente da tuberculose humana, e M. caprae - associado a tuberculo...

  6. The Fate of Mitochondria in Ibex-hirus Reconstructed Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIANG; Shu-Zhen LIU; Yan-Ling ZHANG; Man-Xi JIANG; Qing-Yuan SUN; Da-Yuan CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Inter-species nuclear transfer could be used to preserve North Goat (Capra ibex), an endan-gered species. We established the culture conditions for ibex-hirus reconstructed embryos and optimized themethod for DNA extractions of a single cell and early cloned embryo. By using mitochondria-specific probesof ibex and hirus respectively we found that mitochondria of donor cells can co-exist with recipients in 1-celland 2-cell stages of the reconstructed embryos but not in the following developmental stages.

  7. Disease: H00262 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00262 Spina bifida Spina bifida is a group of congenital defects of closure of one...20526 Kondo A, Kamihira O, Ozawa H Neural tube defects: prevalence, etiology and prevention. Int J Urol 16:4...cts: balancing genome synthesis and gene expression. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Tod...ay 81:183-203 (2007) PMID:17470131 Kibar Z, Capra V, Gros P Toward understanding the genetic basis of neural tube defects. Clin Genet 71:295-310 (2007) ... ...9-57 (2009) PMID:17963270 Beaudin AE, Stover PJ Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism and neural tube defe

  8. Poisoning by carnauba (Copernicia prunifera, Palmae leaves in ruminants Intoxicação pelas folhas de carnaúba, Copernicia prunifera (Palmae em ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Soto-Blanco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of leaves of Prunifera Copernicia (Arecaceae as exclusive food of bovines was associated by the death of 40 of the 146 animals during a period of 2 months of consumption. The leaves of this plant had been supplied experimentally for two goats that died with 31 and 56 days the beginning of the ingestion. Clinical manifestations consisted in increased feces consistence, weakness, recumbence and death. The main pathological findings had been epithelial tubular degeneration and necrosis in the kidneys and hepatic centrolobular coagulative necrosis associated with congestion and hemorrhage. This work relates the mortality of bovines to the leaf consumption of Copernicia prunifera and characterizes it the experimental poisoning for this plant in goat.

     

    KEY WORDS: Cattle, Copernicia prunifera, goats, poisonous plants.

    Apontou-se a utilização das folhas de Copernicia prunifera (Arecaceae como alimento exclusivo para bovinos como responsável pela morte de 40 dos 146 animais durante um período de dois meses de consumo. Administraram-se as folhas dessa planta experimentalmente para dois caprinos que morreram com 31 e 56 dias após o início da ingestão. Clinicamente a doença foi caracterizada por aumento de consistência das fezes, fraqueza, decúbito e morte. As principais alterações patológicas foram degeneração e necrose do epitélio tubular renal e necrose hepatocelular centrolobular associada com congestão e hemorragia. Este trabalho relaciona a mortalidade de bovinos ao consumo de folhas de Copernicia prunifera e caracteriza a intoxicação experimental por esta planta em caprinos.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovinos, Copernicia prunifera, carnaúba, caprinos, plantas tóxicas

  9. Influência da Idade de Abate e da Castração nas Qualidades Físico-Químicas, Sensoriais e Aromáticas da Carne Caprina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suely Madruga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Grupos de caprinos mestiços castrados e inteiros foram abatidos com idades de 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias. Os efeitos da castração e idade de abate nas qualidades físico-químicas, sensoriais e aromáticos da carne caprina foi pesquisado. O efeito castração foi observado apenas para o conteúdo de cálcio, no entanto a idade de abate apresentou um efeito significativo nos teores de umidade, proteína, cálcio, ferro e pH. Os fatores idade de abate e castração não apresentaram efeito significativo nos percentuais de fosfolipídeos porém, a idade de abate afetou os percentuais de colesterol. Caprinos castrados apresentaram maior percentual de ácidos graxos insaturados e, conseqüentemente, maior relação PUFA/SFA. Os ácidos graxos foram afetados significativamente pela castração. Não foram observadas variações nos percentuais dos ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados da carne caprina de animais abatidos com diferentes idades. O fator idade de abate apresentou maior efeito nos atributos sensoriais analisados do que o fator castração. Nos extratos da carne caprina foram identificados um total de cento e oito voláteis, sendo estes: 41 hidrocarbonetos alifáticos, 12 hidrocarbonetos alicíclicos, 19 aldeídos, 9 compostos benzênicos, 9 álcoois, 7 cetonas, 4 compostos sulfurados, 2 terpenoídes, 2 ésteres e 3 outros compostos. Os extratos da carne de caprinos castrados continham maior número de compostos voláteis do que os extratos de animais inteiros. O fator idade de abate foi o parâmetro que mais afetou as características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne caprina. O fator castração afetou diretamente a produção de voláteis.

  10. Sistemas de producción caprina y ovina en la subregión Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Timaure-Jiménez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar los sistemas de producción caprina y ovina de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo, se aplicó una metodología de investigación de acción participativa en las comunidades agrícolas del Municipio Simón Bolívar. Se consultaron líderes de la zona, al Equipo Zuliano de Criadores de Cabras y Ovejas, se aplicó un instrumento a 60 productores. La subregión COLM es zona petrolera, sin embargo, persiste la actividad agropecuaria arraigada en forma tradicional. En el Municipio Miranda existe una población de 16.137 caprinos y 7.526 ovejas, en Quisiro se analizaron 30 productores con 2.250 hectáreas, además de 1.300 caprinos y 675 ovinos. En Los Cilantrillos y La Esperanza se estudiaron 30 productores con 320 hectáreas, 375 caprinos y 430 ovejas, ocupando el 1 % del total regional, lo cual es importante por la persistencia e interés de los productores a pesar de las dificultades derivadas de la explotación petrolera. El grupo familiar se muestra participativo en el manejo de rebaños, el 88,3 % de los productores utiliza el pastoreo extensivo, hay tradición familiar, conocimiento de manejo de rebaños que pasa por cada generación, el 56,7 % están inscritos en la Misión Agro-Venezuela, las razas de cabra son principalmente nubian, alpina, criolla, en cuanto a ovejas, persa, mestiza o criolla, los productores trabajan más de 10 horas diarias los 7 días de la semana, el 56,7 % producen queso de cabra a puerta de finca para los mercados locales. Se recomienda continuar con los estudios y análisis participativos para el mejoramiento integral de este sistema productivo.

  11. Seroprevalencia de la Brucelosis en Pequeños Rumiantes. Municipio Torres. Año 2008 (Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants. Municipality Torres. Year 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javitt J., Milva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa finalidad del presente estudio epidemiológico fue estimar laprevalencia de Brucelosis en pequeños rumiantes criados bajo unsistema extensivo, en las parroquias del Municipio Torres. EstadoLara durante el año 2008. Se trabajó con 7628 muestras en total, las6.846 muestras caprinas y las 782 muestras ovinas que fueronremitidas por los médicos veterinarios de ejercicio libre al Laboratorio Regional de Diagnóstico Zoosanitario del Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA Lara ubicado en Carora, durante el año 2008, sin ninguna historia de vacunación. Todas las muestras fueron examinadas para la detección de anticuerpos a Brucella usando un antígeno de B. abortus cepa 1119-3, en pruebas de aglutinación (placa, tubo, 2-Mercaptoetanol. Del total de muestras procesadas resultaron con títulos positivos 182 caprinos (2,69% y 17 ovinos (2,17%; y 796 caprinos (11,63% y 84 ovinos (10,74%presentaron reacciones dudosas; dando una prevalencia en estegrupo de animales, de 0,027 para caprinos y de 0,022 para ovinos.SummaryThe aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalenceof brucellosis in small ruminants reared under an extensive system inthe parishes of the municipality of Torres, Lara State, during 2008. In total, 7628 sera samples were analyzed, 6846 and 782 samples fromgoats and sheep, respectively were taken for free exerciseveterinarians and transported to Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory at Regional Autonomous Agricultural Health Service (SASA, Laralocated in Carora, during 2008. The sampled animals have no historyof vaccination. All samples were examined to detect Brucellaantibodies using an antigen of B. abortus strain 1119-3, inagglutination tests (plate, tube, 2 - mercaptoethanol. Out of 6846processed goat samples, 182 showed positive titles (2.69% and796goats (11.63% were suspected. Out of 782, 17 sera sheep shownpositive titles (2.17% and 84 sheep (10.74% had doubtfulreactions. The prevalence obtained

  12. Carcinoma de células escamosas perineal em cabras no Pará Perineal squamous cell carcinoma in goats in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE bem diferenciado em caprinos de duas propriedades no Estado do Pará. Foram observadas a prevalência, a correlação com a pigmentação da região perineal e as características macro e microscópica das lesões. As lesões consistiram em tumores no períneo, com grau de desenvolvimento, diâmetro e forma variados. Em uma propriedade no município de Viseu, dos 347 caprinos, 20 apresentaram CCE (5,8%. A neoplasia só foi observada em animais com a região perineal despigmentada. Em outra propriedade, no município de Garrafão do Norte, descreve-se a ocorrência de três casos em um rebanho de 400 caprinos (0,75%. A elevada ocorrência deste tumor deve-se, provavelmente, à despigmentação do períneo e à cauda curta e elevada das cabras, que expõe a região perineal à alta incidência de radiação ultravioleta naquela região.Squamous cell carcinoma in goats of two farms in the State of Pará is described. Prevalence, correlation with the pigmentation of the perineal area and macro and microscopic characteristics of the lesions were studied. The tumors on the perineum were of varied development degrees, diameters and forms. On one farm, in the county of Viseu, from a total of 347 goats, 20 presented the neoplasia (5.8%. On the second farm, in the county of Garrafão do Norte, three cases of squamous cell carcinoma in a herd of 400 goats (0.75% were observed. The tumor was only observed in animals in which the perineal area was despigmented. The high incidence of this tumor appears to be due to lack of pigmentation at the períneo and the high and short tail of the goats, that exposes the area to intense ultraviolet radiation in the tropics.

  13. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  14. Análisis Faunístico del Poblado Eneolítico «Teso del Moral», Cuelgamures (Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro LÓPEZ PLAZA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Junto a unas consideraciones de índole geológica y arqueológica, se da a conocer estadísticamente la fauna del poblado eneolítico del «Teso del Moral» (Cuelgamures, Zamora, destacando la gran abundancia de caprinos. Estos, dado el alejamiento de sus habitats naturales, parecen indicar su domesticación, documentándose así por primera vez en un poblado eneolítico de la Meseta Septentrional.ABSTRACT: Together with a few considerations of geological and archeological nature, this work deals with the statistical study of the fauna of the neolithic inhabited place of «Teso del Moral» (Cuelgamures, Zamora and shows a great abundance of caprines. The fact that these animals are away from their natural habitats, tends to indicate their domestication, appearing then for the first time in an inhabited place of the septentrional Meseta.

  15. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados bacterianos da mastite em pequenos ruminantes e concordância de técnicas empregadas no diagnóstico Etiology and profile of antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from small ruminant mastitis and relationship of diagnostic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo de M. Peixoto; Chirles A. de França; Aldo Ferreira de Souza Júnior; Josir Laine A. Veschi; Mateus M. da Costa

    2010-01-01

    A mastite é a inflamação da glândula mamária que acomete raças de aptidão leiteira como também aquelas voltadas para produção de carne. Esta enfermidade ocasiona sérias alterações na produção de leite e na sua qualidade, redução no ganho de peso e mortalidade de cordeiros. O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer os principais agentes causadores de mastite em ovinos e caprinos, bem como a sua susceptibilidade aos agentes antimicrobianos, além de avaliar o grau de concordância entre testes...

  16. Brasil e a Febre Aftosa – Detalhes do descaso

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    Canal, Ivo Hellmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available É uma doença infecto-contagiosa produzida por um vírus pertencente ao grupo dos Picornavirus, que ataca principalmente bovinos, suínos, ovinos e caprinos, podendo acometer em menor proporção outros mamíferos. (O agente etiológico está agrupado em sete tipos diferentes, classificados como A, O, C, SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3 e Ásia-1; sendo que os três primeiros apresentam ampla disseminação e 61 subtipos. Mostram principalmente lesões vesiculares na região oral e interdigital, tem baixa letalidade, mas causa prejuízos de elevada monta, é uma doença altamente transmissível.

  17. CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS, FÍSICAS Y SENSORIALES DE UN QUESO DE CABRA ADAPTADO DEL TIPO "CROTTIN DE CHAVIGNOL"

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    Alejandro Chac\\u00F3n-Villalobos

    2009-01-01

    grasos (sng, sólidos grasos (g, peso específico(pe y ácido láctico (al. Treinta muestras aleatorias fueron evaluadas fisicoquímicamente para contenido de humedad (H, materia seca (MS, acidez (A, sal (S, proteína (P, grasa (G y color en las escalas CIELab y CIELch. Cincuenta muestras aleatorias se evaluaron con un análisis de perfil de textura abarcando dureza (D, elasticidad (E, cohesividad (C, masticabilidad (M y adhesividad (AD. La calidad sensorial se comparó con la de un queso crema vacuno empleando una prueba sensorial afectiva seguida de un análisis de conglomerados de Ward. El queso obtenido presentó en promedio un rendimiento de 17,5 %. El 55 % de los consumidores mostró igual aceptación por ambos quesos, mientras que a un 45 % le desagrado el caprino.

  18. Sincronización de la ovulación y el ciclo inducido por el efecto "macho" mediante la administración de progesterona por vía intravaginal en cabras en período de anestro estacional

    OpenAIRE

    Mogedas Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    Algunos de los métodos alternativos a los tratamientos hormonales clásicos utilizando progestágenos y eCG, para la inducción y sincronización del celo y la ovulación, unido a la inseminación artificial (IA) a tiempo fijo en ganado caprino, están basados como el IMA.PRO2® en el estímulo por la presencia de los machos (efecto macho) y la sincronización de la ovulación inducida mediante prostaglandina F2α o sus análogos. En estos métodos, la administración de una dosis baja de progesterona o pro...

  19. PREVALÊNCIA DE LEUCOSE ENZOÓTICA BOVINA, DIARRÉIA VIRAL BOVINA RINOTRAQUEÍTE INFECCIOSA BOVINA E NEOSPOROSE BOVINA EM 26 PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS AND BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN 26 DAIRY CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL , BRAZIL

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    Cleber Fiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a freqüência de aglutininas anti-Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos do Sertão do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram processadas 700 amostras de soros sangüíneos, das quais 340 eram da espécie caprina (115 machos e 225 fêmeas e 360 (136 machos e 224 fêmeas ovina. Empregou-se a técnica do antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT corado com rosa bengala (RB. Das 340 amostras de caprinos avaliadas, duas (0,6% foram reagentes ao AAT. Não se observaram associações significativas para as variáveis faixa etária (p= 0,430, raça (p= 0,936 e sexo (p= 0,562. Das 360 amostras de ovinos, nove (2,5% foram reagentes. Também não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis analisadas e a soropositividade para brucelose: faixa etária (p= 0,522; raça (p= 0,576 e sexo (p= 0,461. Verificou-se associação significativa (p= 0,042 entre as espécies estudadas e soropositividade para brucelose nos animais investigados. A soropositividade para Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos foi descrita pela primeira vez no Sertão de Pernambuco, fato que pode dificultar o sucesso do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose, tendo em vista que nessa região é comum a criação consorciada de pequenos ruminantes com bovinos, além de representar riscos à Saúde Pública.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brucelose, ovinos, caprinos, pequenos ruminantes, sorodiagnóstico. The objective was to investigate the frequency of anti-Brucella abortus agglutinins in goats and sheep of the backlands of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. 700 samples of sanguine serums were processed, of which 340 were of the goat (115 males and 225 females and 360 (136 males and 224 females sheep. The technique of the Tamponed Acidified Antigen (AAT dyed with Bengalese Rose (BR was used. Of the 340 samples of goat evaluated two (0.6% were reactive to AAT. Significant associations were not observed for the variable age group (p = 0.430; race (p = 0

  20. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados bacterianos da mastite em pequenos ruminantes e concordância de técnicas empregadas no diagnóstico Etiology and profile of antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from small ruminant mastitis and relationship of diagnostic techniques

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    Rodolfo de M. Peixoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A mastite é a inflamação da glândula mamária que acomete raças de aptidão leiteira como também aquelas voltadas para produção de carne. Esta enfermidade ocasiona sérias alterações na produção de leite e na sua qualidade, redução no ganho de peso e mortalidade de cordeiros. O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer os principais agentes causadores de mastite em ovinos e caprinos, bem como a sua susceptibilidade aos agentes antimicrobianos, além de avaliar o grau de concordância entre testes diagnósticos. Foram visitadas 25 propriedades durante a realização do experimento, sendo criatórios de caprinos, ovinos e rebanhos mistos, nos estados de Pernambuco e Bahia. Coletou-se leite de 439 caprinos e 76 ovinos. Foi realizada lactocultura, o California Mastitis Test (CMT e o teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Além disso, determinou-se o grau de concordância entre os testes diagnósticos empregados. Foi constatada uma maior freqüência de Staphylococcus spp. nos casos de mastite em caprinos e ovinos, sendo observado ainda, isolados de Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. e bacilos gram negativos (BGN. Os isolados apresentaram alta sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, sendo o menor percentual de sensibilidade observado para o ácido nalidíxico. Em relação ao diagnóstico da mastite caprina, a análise comparativa entre o exame microbiológico e o CMT demonstrou um grau de concordância igual a K=0,17, enquanto que para a espécie ovina, este valor foi de K=0,22. A utilização do CMT para o diagnóstico da mastite subclínica em cabras e ovelhas deverá ser associado à técnica da lactocultura.Mastitis is an inflammation of mammary gland, that are important in milking breed as well in meat ones. It is associated with serious reduction in milk production and quality, lambs weight gain reduction and mortality The goal of this work was determine the major etiologic agents of goat and sheep mastitis, as

  1. Eficacia del Fipronil en el control del ciclo peridomiciliario de Triatoma infestans en un área con resistencia a la Deltametrina

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    Gentile Alberto G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la eficacia del Fipronil líquido al 1,0% contra T. infestans, administrado pour on en aves y mam