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Sample records for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus

  1. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: prevalence and risk factors in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, E; Hosri, C; Abi-Rizk, A

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Lebanon. The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom 952 goats, including the local breeds (Baladi and Damascene) and imported breeds (Alpine and Saneen), were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, 125 samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of 13.1% and in selected herds of 51.7%. The Bekaa region had the highest number of herds with seropositive goats (90% of herds); the level was lower in Mount Lebanon, the North and the South (54%, 34% and 33%, respectively). The prevalence in relation to the livestock production system was 70% in herds in intensive systems, 54% in semi-intensive systems and 45% in extensive systems. The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus. PMID:27044161

  2. Neutralizing antibody response of rabbits and goats to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Klevjer-Anderson, P; McGuire, T C

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with purified caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and examined for neutralizing activity. Analysis of virus-antiserum interaction at 37 degrees C demonstrated little loss of viral infectivity after incubation with heat-inactivated rabbit antiserum for 60 min. However, sensitization of virus (as assessed by the addition of complement) occurred almost immediately and was 95% complete after 10 min. The complement-dependent neutralizing activity was associated with the imm...

  3. Activation of small ruminant aortic endothelial cells after in vitro infection by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C L; Greenland, T; Gounel, F; Balleydier, S; Mornex, J F

    2000-12-01

    Small ruminants infected by the lentiviruses caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), originally isolated from a goat, or maedi-visna virus, originally from sheep, typically develop an organising lymphoid infiltration of affected tissues. This could reflect modulation of the migration pattern of lymphocytes in infected animals. Possible active contribution by vascular endothelial cells was investigated using an in vitro model. Low-passage cultured ovine aortic endothelium proved susceptible to productive infection by CAEV without significant cytotoxicity. Infected endothelial cells maintained expression of endothelial markers, increased MHC class I antigen expression and initiated expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM -1 and, at a late stage, MHC class II antigens. Infected endothelial cells showed a two-fold increase in binding capacity for sheep peripheral blood leucocytes over uninfected controls. Such events could contribute to the tissue distribution of lymphoid cells and local immune responses in lentiviral infections of small ruminants. PMID:11124093

  4. Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Misako; Hayama, Yoko; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2016-04-01

    A serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 in Japan. A total of 857 serum samples were collected from 113 herds in 28 prefectures and were analyzed for the presence of CAEV antibodies using agar gel immunodiffusion test. The seroprevalence of CAEV infection at the herd and animal levels was 15.0% (17/113) and 10.0% (86/857), respectively. Large farms with more than 10 goats and with animals for dairy and breeding purposes had higher seroprevalence (P<0.05). The results of this study provide useful information to consider effective control programs against CAEV infection in Japan. PMID:26498401

  5. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats can generate human immunodeficiency virus-gp120 cross-reactive antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentiviruses display surprisingly disparate clinical manifestations in their specific hosts, share complex genetic structures, and exhibit extensive diversity, particularly in their envelope genes. The envelope protein, gp135, of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) has minimal primary sequence homology to gp120, the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nevertheless, they bear certain similarities in that they both possess five variable regions, both are heavily glycosylated, and both share short sequence motifs. We establish a further relationship and demonstrate that some goats, infected with CAEV, possess gp135-specific antibodies which cross-react with gp120 from several HIV strains, provided the protein is expressed in insect cells. We show that, although the cross-reactivity of these immunoglobulins depends on the level of glycosylation, nevertheless, some antibodies recognize the protein epitopes on gp120, at least some of which are linear in character. Further characterization of this unexpected cross-reaction will define its potential therapeutic utility

  6. Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion serology using caprine and ovine lentiviral antigens for detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, D P; Evermann, J F; Shropshire, C; VanderSchalie, J; Bradway, D; Gezon, H M; Cheevers, W P

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for the detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was investigated with CAEV or ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) as the source of antigen. A total of 218 goat serum specimens were tested for anti-CAEV antibody by AGID and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV. In comparison with that of immunoprecipitation, the sensitivity of the CAEV AGID test was 0.91, and that of the OPPV AGID test ...

  7. Evaluation of a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus/Maedi-Visna Virus Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Serological Diagnosis of Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in U.S. Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serological diagnostic testing of sheep and goats using enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) is the most common method of determining small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect (i) ELISA, which utilizes MVV EV1 capsid a...

  8. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; Marshall, Katherine L.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-01-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of bi...

  9. Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Serum Antibodies to Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Diagnostic Tool for Successful Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; McGuire, Travis C.; Adams, D. Scott; Hutton, Melinda M.; Gavin, William G.; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-01-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Özyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGu...

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies to Conformational Epitopes of the Surface Glycoprotein of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Potential Application to Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Antibodies in Goat Sera

    OpenAIRE

    Özyörük, Fuat; Cheevers, William P.; Hullinger, Gordon A.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda; Knowles, Donald P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79–63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromato...

  11. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium, all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease; the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.

  12. A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

  13. Competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: diagnostic tool for successful eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; McGuire, Travis C; Adams, D Scott; Hutton, Melinda M; Gavin, William G; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-03-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Ozyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGuire, M. Hutton, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:44-51, 2001). Two hundred serum samples from goats in the United States were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA based on the immunoprecipitation (IP) of [(35)S]methionine-labeled viral antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA was defined as >33.2% inhibition of MAb 74A binding based on 2 standard deviations above the mean percent inhibition of 140 IP-negative serum samples. At this cutoff value, there were 0 of 60 false-negative sera (100% sensitivity) and 5 of 140 false-positive sera (96.4% specificity). Additional studies utilized IP-monitored cELISA to establish a CAEV-free herd of 1,640 dairy goats. PMID:12626453

  14. Detection of serum antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus in sheep by using a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; Marshall, Katherine L; McGuire, Travis C; Hutton, Melinda M; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-09-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of binding of the anti-CAEV MAb GPB 74A by goat serum. The present study evaluated the CAEV cELISA for detection of antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in sheep. Three hundred thirty-two sera were randomly selected from 21,373 sheep sera collected throughout the United States to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) based on immunoprecipitation (IP) of [35S]methionine-labeled OPPV antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA test was defined as >20.9 percent inhibition (% I) of MAb 74A binding based on two standard deviations above the mean % I of 191 IP-negative sheep sera. At this cutoff, there were 2 of 141 false-negative sera (98.6% sensitivity) and 6 of 191 false-positive sera (96.9% specificity). Sensitivity and specificity values for IP-monitored AGID were comparable to those for cELISA for 314 of 332 sera with unambiguous AGID results. Concordant results by cELISA and IP resolved 16 of the 18 sera that were indeterminate by AGID. Additional studies evaluated cELISA by using 539 sera from a single OPPV-positive flock. Based on IP of 36 of these sera, there was one false-negative by cELISA among 21 IP-positive sera (95.5% sensitivity) and 0 of 15 false-positives (100% specificity). We conclude that the CAEV cELISA can be applied to detection of OPPV antibodies in sheep with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:12965917

  15. Infecção experimental em cabritos pelo vírus da artrite encefalite Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus experimental infection in new-born kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.M.C. Guedes

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e quatro caprinos de uma semana de idade, soronegativos pela imunodifusão em gel de agar para artrite encefalite caprina (AEC, foram utilizados para estudo de infecção experimental pelo vírus da AEC. Dezesseis animais foram inoculados com lentivirus caprino, amostra Cork, oito pela via intravenosa e oito por instilação nasal. Oito animais serviram como controle, inoculados pelas vias intranasal ou intravenosa com 1ml de meio de cultura de células não infectadas. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 2, 6, 12 e 20 dias pós-inoculação (PI, e colhidas amostras do sistema nervoso central, articulações, tonsilas, linfonodos, pulmões, rins, timo, baço e intestinos delgado e grosso para histopatologia e imunoistoquímica. Um animal inoculado com o vírus da AEC pela via intranasal e sacrificado aos 20 dias PI apresentou imunomarcação positiva em um macrófago alveolar. Concluiu-se que a via aerógena é uma provável rota de infecção pelo vírus da AEC.The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV experimental infection was studied in 24 one-week-old seronegative kids. Sixteen kids were inoculated with CAEV-Cork, with 10(6 TCID50/ml concentration, being eight inoculated intravenously, and eight intranasally. Eight animals were used as controls, being four inoculated intravenously, and four intranasally with non-infected cell culture medium. Since the day of the inoculation, clinical evaluation was performed daily, until the day of the sacrifice. Blood samples were taken for serological tests. The animals were killed in pairs at 2, 6, 12 and 20 days post-inoculation (PI and tissues samples of central nervous system, joints, tonsils, lymphonodes, lungs, kidneys, thymus, spleen, small and large intestine were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. One animal CAEV inoculated intranasally and killed at 20 days PI showed immunohistochemical positive reaction in an alveolar macrophage. It was concluded that

  16. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

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    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs.

  17. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs. PMID:26992736

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of the surface glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: potential application to competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies in goat sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyörük, F; Cheevers, W P; Hullinger, G A; McGuire, T C; Hutton, M; Knowles, D P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79-63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromatography, whereas none reacted with denatured and reduced SU. All MAbs reacted in Western blots with purified CAEV-63 SU or the SU component of whole-virus lysate following denaturation in the absence of reducing agent, indicating that intramolecular disulfide bonding was essential for epitope integrity. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of SU abolished the reactivities of MAbs 74A and F7-299, whereas treatment of SU with N-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase (sialidase A) under nonreducing conditions enhanced the reactivities of all MAbs as well as polyclonal goat sera. MAbs 29A and F7-299 were cross-reactive with the SU of an independent strain of CAEV (CAEV-Co). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactivities of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs 16A and 29A with homologous CAEV-63 SU were MAb 74A. The reactivity of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A was blocked by sera from goats immunized with CAEV-63 SU or infected with CAEV-63. The reactivity of MAb 74A was also blocked by sera from goats infected with a CAEV-Co molecular clone, although MAb 74A did not react with CAEV-Co SU in Western blots. Thus, goats infected with either CAEV-63 or CAEV-Co make antibodies that inhibit binding of MAb 74A to CAEV-63 SU. A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection. PMID:11139194

  19. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain beta-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding. PMID

  20. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain β-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding

  1. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) replicates productively in cultured epididymal cells from goats

    OpenAIRE

    Lamara, Ali; Fieni, Francis; Chatagnon, Gérard; Larrat, Myriam; Dubreil, Laurence; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of CAEV from male goats has not been well studied and the target cells that support viral replication are not well characterized. Epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) are important and play a key role in the fertility and motility of spermatozoa. During their transit, spermatozoa incorporate several EEC-produced proteins into their plasma membranes to stabilize them and prevent premature acrosomal reaction. This intimate interaction between spermatozoa and EECs may increase the...

  2. Seroconversion and seroreactivity patterns of dairy goats naturally exposed to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Brazil Soroconversão e sororeatividade de cabras leiteiras naturalmente expostas ao virus da artrite-encefalite caprina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Soares Castro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A labelled avidin-biotin ELISA (lab-ELISA using repeated serum samples of goats showed a progressive seroconversion with higher seroconversion rate at the period going from the beginning of the breeding up to the last half of lactation (35.0%, compared to that recorded at the beginning of breeding (17.8%(pForam realizados exames sorológicos em cabras leiteiras, utilizando-se ELISA marcado com avidina-biotina (LAB-ELISA. Esses exames mostraram soroconversão progressiva, com uma taxa maior entre os animais a partir do início da reprodução até a última metade da lactação (35% comparada à observada nos animais até o início da reprodução (17,8%(p<0,05. Além disso, o padrão de sororeatividade das amostras colhidas a cada 30-40 dias, durante 12 meses, avaliado pelo LAB-ELISA, foi caracterizado por alta variabilidade individual. Não foi observada sororeversão, e títulos mais altos foram obtidos mais no grupo constituído por animais que entraram em lactação (n=6, média de títulos=913,4 do que no grupo constituído por animais que cruzaram, mas não conceberam (n=4, média de títulos=261,2(p<0,01.

  3. The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One μM MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 μM MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

  4. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

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    Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...

  5. Rapid detection of novel caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) using a TaqMan-based RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jizong; Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Hao, Fei; Yang, Leilei; Zhang, Wenwen; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-10-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens for humans and many animals. A novel caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) was recently identified and isolated from Chinese goat flocks with respiratory disease. In order to develop rapid and sensitive methods for CPIV3 detection in infected goats, a TaqMan RT-qPCR was established in this study based on the primers and probe designed to amplify a 150 nucleotide-long region located within the M gene of the virus. The method was able to detect about 1.0×10(1) DNA copies/μL with an efficiency of 99.6% and a R(2) value of 0.997. There were no cross-reaction observed using this technique against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), border disease virus (BDV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). One hundred and fourteen samples, including nasal swabs, feces swabs, sera, hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, tracheas and hilar lymph nodes (HLNs) from six challenged goats, were evaluated by this technique. Using TaqMan RT-qPCR, CPIV3 was positively detected in 51 of 114 samples (44.74%), which was higher than RT-PCR (27.19%, 31/114) and virus isolation (14.9%, 17/114), respectively. The method also gave higher positive detection rate (35%, 42/120) than RT-PCR (28.33%, 34/120) from clinical samples. These data indicated that this method could be used for faster and more accurate monitoring of viral load, disease progression and vaccination efficacy of CPIV3 in goat flocks. PMID:27448824

  6. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  7. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively influence

  8. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Donald P.; White, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data ...

  9. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages

  10. Critical role of the lipid rafts in caprine herpesvirus type 1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    The fusion machinery for herpesvirus entry in the host cells involves the interactions of viral glycoproteins with cellular receptors, although additional viral and cellular domains are required. Extensive areas of the plasma membrane surface consist of lipid rafts organized into cholesterol-rich microdomains involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane transport and in many processes of viruses infection. Because of the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to the lipid rafts, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) in three important phases of virus infection such as binding, entry and post-entry. MβCD treatment did not prejudice virus binding to cells, while a dose-dependent reduction of the virus yield was observed at the virus entry stage, and 30 mM MβCD reduced infectivity evidently. Treatment of MDBK after virus entry revealed a moderate inhibitory effect suggesting that cholesterol is mainly required during virus entry rather than during the post-entry stage. Alteration of the envelope lipid composition affected virus entry and a noticeable reduction in virus infectivity was detected in the presence of 15 mM MβCD. Considering that the recognition of a host cell receptor is a crucial step in the start-up phase of infection, these data are essential for the study of CpHV.1 pathogenesis. To date virus receptors for CpHV.1 have not yet been identified and further investigations are required to state that MβCD treatment affects the expression of the viral receptors.

  11. A transfectant RK13 cell line permissive to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A

    2016-03-01

    To assess scrapie infectivity associated with caprine-origin tissues, bioassay can be performed using kids, lambs or transgenic mice expressing caprine or ovine prion (PRNP) alleles, but the incubation periods are fairly long. Although several classical ovine scrapie prion permissive cell lines with the ability to detect brain-derived scrapie prion have been available, no classical caprine scrapie permissive cell line is currently available. Therefore, the aims of this study were to generate a rabbit kidney epithelial cell line (RK13) stably expressing caprine wild-type PRNP (cpRK13) and then to assess permissiveness of cpRK13 cells to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation. The cpRK13 and plasmid control RK13 (pcRK13) cells were incubated with brain-derived classical caprine scrapie inocula prepared from goats or ovinized transgenic mice (Tg338, express ovine VRQ allele) infected with caprine scrapie. Significant PrP(Sc) accumulation, which is indicative of scrapie prion propagation, was detected by TSE ELISA and immunohistochemistry in cpRK13 cells inoculated with classical caprine scrapie inocula. Western blot analysis revealed the typical proteinase K-resistant 3 PrP(res) isoforms in the caprine scrapie prion inoculated cpRK13 cell lysate. Importantly, PrP(Sc) accumulation was not detected in similarly inoculated pcRK13 cells, whether by TSE ELISA, immunohistochemistry, or western blot. These findings suggest that caprine scrapie prions can be propagated in cpRK13 cells, thus this cell line may be a useful tool for the assessment of classical caprine prions in the brain tissues of goats. PMID:27216989

  12. Development of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Inactivated Vaccine( M1601 Strain)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Ping; He; Ying; Chu; Yuefeng; Gao; Pengcheng; Zhang; Xuan; Lu; Zhongxin

    2014-01-01

    Three batches of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia inactivated vaccine( M1601 strain) developed by the laboratory were studied from the aspects of safety,minimum immune dose,immunity duration and storage life. The results showed that the vaccine was safe to goats under different physiological conditions.Regardless of lambs or adult goats,the minimum immune dose was 3 m L,and the immunity duration and the storage life were 6 and 12 months,respectively.

  13. Identification and biological activity of ovine and caprine calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptides 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher J; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Yandle, Timothy G; Minamino, Naoto

    2008-08-01

    We have recently reported the isolation of three new members of the calcitonin (CT) gene-related peptide family of peptides, the CT receptor (CT-R)-stimulating peptides (CRSPs). We now report the sequencing and characterization of ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2. Mature ovine and caprine CRSP-1 are identical and have strong structural homology to CRSP-1s identified to date from other species. As with other CRSP-1s, ovine/caprine CRSP-1 binds to and activates the CT-R but not the CT-like receptor (CL-R) in combination with the receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 does not activate any of these receptor-RAMP complexes. Intravenous infusions of ovine CRSP-1 to normal conscious sheep induced dose-dependent reduction in plasma total Ca levels (P=0.02) and corrected Ca levels (P=0.017) associated with increases in plasma cAMP (P=0.002). CRSP-1 reduced both plasma amino-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.006) and plasma renin activity (P=0.028). There were no significant effects observed on hemodynamic or renal indices measured. In conclusion, we have sequenced ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2 precursors. This newly identified CRSP-1 has been shown to share the structural and biological features of CRSP-1s known to date. In vivo studies confirm that ovine CRSP-1 reduces plasma Ca levels in sheep, presumably via a cAMP-mediated mechanism. By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 did not stimulate any combination of CT-R, CL-R, and RAMPs. Accession numbers of cDNA determined in this study are caprine CRSP-1, AB364646; caprine CRSP-2, AB364647; and ovine CRSP-1, AB364648.

  14. AcEST: BP917760 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|P33458|GAG_CAEVC Gag polyprotein OS=Caprine arthritis encepha... 34 0.52 sp|Q...C Sbjct: 403 IICHHCGKRGHMQKDC 418 >sp|P33458|GAG_CAEVC Gag polyprotein OS=Caprine arthritis encephalitis vir

  15. Chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Tadanao; Spector, Myron

    2010-06-01

    Reparative strategies for the treatment of injuries to tendons, including those of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, need to address the formation of the cartilage which serves as the attachment apparatus to bone and which forms at regions undergoing compressive loading. Moreover, recent work indicates that cells employed for rotator cuff repair may need to synthesize a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, which has recently been found to play a role in tendon tribology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells in monolayer and three-dimensional culture, and to compare the behavior with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results demonstrated that while tendon cells in various media, including chondrogenic medium, expressed lubricin, virtually none of the MSCs synthesized this important lubricating molecule. Also of interest was that the cartilage formation capacity of the tendon cells grown in pellet culture in chondrogenic medium was comparable with MSCs. These data inform the use of tendon cells for rotator cuff repair, including for fibrocartilaginous zones.

  16. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  17. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and dimethy

  18. Prevalence of Subclinical Caprine Mastitis in Bangladesh Based on Parallel Interpretation of Three Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis based on parallel interpretation of results of three screening test. A total of 462 milk samples from 231 lactating Black Bengal goats comprises of three organized goat farms in Bangladesh were collected and were screened for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT simultaneously. Integrated test results yield the prevalence of caprine subclinical mastitis as 44.59% (95% Confidence Interval of 40.12-49.15% based on “the OR rule” and 40.48% (95% Confidence Interval of 36.10-45.01% based on “the AND rule” of parallel interpretation. Animal level and udder half level prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis were 39.83, 38.96, 38.10% and 35.05, 34.85, 31.60% by CMT, WST and SFMT, respectively noticed when tests were interpreted individually. CMT in combination with one or two other indirect low cost indirect tests can be recommended for screening of caprine mastitis in field condition with “the OR rule” of parallel interpretation.

  19. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  20. Screening of fluoroquinolone residues in caprine milk using a 5-kg luminescence photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) method was developed to screen presence of residues of four fluoroquinolones (FQ) registered in caprine milk in the European Union: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, and danofloxacin. After extraction in McIlvaine buffer and SPE cleanup, TSL was measure...

  1. Effect of caprine testicular extract on acrosome formation of spermatids of lead-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan TIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of caprine testicular extract on the acrosomal formation of spermatids of lead-treated mice, and find a theoretical and experimental basis for further research on the effects of caprine testicular extract on the reproductive system. Methods The study was carried out on thirty male adult ICR mice, which were randomly assigned into control group, model group and treatment group (10 each. The testis-injury model was reproduced by intragastric administration of lead acetate (30mg/kg, 0.1ml/10g. Animals in treatment group received intragastric administration of lead acetate and intraabdominal injection of 0.5ml caprine testicular extract at the same time for 21days, and the mice in control group received the same amount of distilled water by intragastric administration and 0.5ml distilled water by intraabdominal injection. By the end of the experimental period, the mice were sacrificed. The testes were fixed by cardiac perfusion and processed for light microscopic examination. The acrosomal formation in round spermatids was observed by PAS staining. Results  Compared with the control group, the acrosomal formation in model group was blocked. Acrosomal vesicle was incomplete, the membrane was shrunken, rough and fuzzy. The acrosomal formation in treatment group was similar to that of the control group. The structure of the acrosomal vesicle was complete and the membrane was smooth. Conclusion  Administration of caprine testicular extract may protect the acrosomal formation of spermatids from lead poisoning, and the normal structure and function of the acrosome are preserved. Thus, indepth study of the effects of caprine testicular extract may contribute to the treatment of male infertility caused by heavy metal-induced testicular damage, and offer an effective protective measure for the lead-exposed males.

  2. Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools

    OpenAIRE

    Deresa, Benti; Conraths, Franz J.; Ameni, Gobena

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted o...

  3. Cryopreservation of caprine ovarian tissue: recovery of gonadal function after auto-translantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues dos Santos, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique to rescue animal species and breeds from extinction and to restore fertility of women after cancer treatment. Establishment of cryopreservation protocols starts by choosing the most efficient cryoprotective agents, the dimension of ovarian fragments, the volume of the cryoprotectant solution, the addition of extra-cellular cryoprotectant, and efficient methods to evaluate follicular quality. Based on these parameters, caprine ovarian...

  4. A modified enrichment protocol for adult caprine skeletal muscle stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Ajai K.; Ramani, Umed V.; Ahir, Viral B.; Rank, Dharamshi N.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2010-01-01

    To establish an adequate model to study the proliferation and differentiation of adult caprine skeletal muscle in response to bioactive compounds, a pool of satellite cells (SC) was derived from the rectus abdominis muscle of adult goat. Skeletal muscle contains a population of adult stem cells, named as satellite cells that reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fiber and other populations of cells. These SC are multipotent stem cells, since cells cultured in the presence of spec...

  5. Prevalence of Subclinical Caprine Mastitis in Bangladesh Based on Parallel Interpretation of Three Screening Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aminul Islam; Abdus Samad; AKM Anisur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis based on parallel interpretation of results of three screening test. A total of 462 milk samples from 231 lactating Black Bengal goats comprises of three organized goat farms in Bangladesh were collected and were screened for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST) and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) simultaneously. Integrated test results yield the preval...

  6. Alginate hydrogel matrix stiffness influences the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, I R; Silva, C M G; Duarte, A B G; Lima, I M T; Rodrigues, G Q; Rossetto, R; Sales, A D; Lobo, C H; Bernuci, M P; Rosa-E-Silva, A C J S; Campello, C C; Xu, M; Figueiredo, J R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined caprine follicular development in different concentrations of alginate matrix to determine the optimal conditions for culture. Caprine preantral follicles were cultured in a two-dimensional system (control) or a three-dimensional encapsulated system in 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% alginate (ALG 0.25, ALG 0.5, and ALG 1, respectively). A higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles developed in ALG 0.5 and ALG 1 than in ALG 0.25 or the control (P < 0.05). The rate of antrum formation, however, was higher in ALG 0.25 than in ALG 0.5 and ALG 1 conditions (P < 0.05), but similar to the control. Follicles cultured in ALG 0.25 had higher growth rates and meiotic resumption than those cultured in ALG 0.5, ALG 1, or the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, follicles cultured in ALG 0.25 had higher levels of estradiol and progesterone than those cultured in ALG 0.5, ALG 1, or the control, as well as higher levels of CYP19A1 and HSD3B mRNA. In conclusion, a three-dimensional system that uses ALG 0.25 fosters the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles and increases the rate of meiotic resumption.

  7. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Jarczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection.

  8. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  9. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  10. Effect of Ca Ionophore On Blastocyst Production Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Caprine Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharche, S D; Pathak, J; Agarwal, S; Kushwah, B; Sikarwar, Aks

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of calcium ionophore activation on blastocyst production following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes. A total of 470 in vitro-matured oocytes were selected and randomly divided in to three groups. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered by slicing the Caprine ovaries were matured in TCM199 supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) + 10% follicular fluid + FSH (5 μg/ml) + LH (10 μg/ml) + estradiol (1 μg/ml) + EGF (10 ng/ml) + BSA (3 mg/ml) for 27 h in humidified atmosphere at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in CO2 incubator. After 27 h of culture, selected COCs (n = 470) were separated from cumulus cells by treating with 0.1% hyaluronidase enzyme and passing repeatedly through a fine pipette and randomly divided into three groups. In group 1, (n = 168) matured oocytes were injected with injection micropipette without sperm as control. In group 2, (n = 152) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro-matured oocytes through injection micropipette. In group 3, (n = 150) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro-matured oocytes through injection micropipette and then activated with 5 μm Ca ionophore for 5 min. The oocytes of all groups were then culture in RVCL media for embryo development. The cleavage rate was observed after 48-72 h of injection. The cleavage rate and blastocyst production in group 1, 2 and 3 were 0.00 and 0.00, 18.42 and 3.57 and 61.33% and 16.30%, respectively. The result indicated that mechanical activation failed to induce cleavage in in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes, whereas chemical activation of intracytoplasmic sperm-injected in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes showed significantly higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production as compare to non-activated oocytes. PMID:27170442

  11. Comparison of three suture techniques in closure of caprine skin incision: cosmetic and cost considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Abdul Abubakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cosmetic and economic evaluations of three suture techniques were evaluated in closure of caprine skin incision. Fifteen apparently healthy male and female intact goats, free of any dermatological lesions were used for the investigation. They were randomly grouped into three; A (Subcuticular; B (Ford interlocking and C (Simple interrupted. Cosmetic appearance of the surgical site was assessed on day 7, 14 and 21 post surgery using standard procedure as described by Sakka et al, 1995. There was statistical significant difference (P0.05 at day 21 post surgery; in the entire scoring interval, subcuticular group had the best score. There was also statistical significant difference (P

  12. Nucleotide sequencing, cloning, and expression of Capra hircus Heme Oxygenase-1 in caprine islets to promote insulin secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Lila, Mohd Azmi B Mohd; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Ajdari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans that have been isolated from whole pancreas is an attractive alternative for the reversal of Type 1 diabetes. However, in vitro culture of isolated pancreatic islets has been reported to cause a decrease in glucose response over time. Hence, the improvement in islet culture conditions is an important goal in islet transplantation. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress protein that has been described as an inducible protein with the capacity of preventing apoptosis and cytoprotection via radical scavenging. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the influence of endogenous HO-1 gene transfer on insulin secretion of caprine islets. The full-length cDNA sequence of Capra hircus HO-1 was determined using specific designed primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends of pancreatic tissue. The HO-1 cDNA was then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vectors and transfected into caprine islets using lipid carriers. Efficiency of lipid carriers to transfect caprine islets was determined by flow cytometry. Insulin secretion assay was carried out by ovine insulin ELISA. The finding demonstrated that endogenous HO-1 gene transfer could improve caprine islet function in in vitro culture. Consequently, strategies using HO-1 gene transfer to islets might lead to better outcome in islet transplantation.

  13. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  14. Experimental caprine coccidiosis: the pattern of changes in antioxidant micronutrients and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rakhshandehroo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the status of non-enzymatic antioxidant agents during experimental caprine coccidiosis. A total of 20 newborn kids were selected and allocated into 2 (diseased and healthy groups. Ten of the kids were infected with sporulated oocysts of the most pathogenic species of Eimeria and ten served as controls. Blood samples were taken at 0 (before inoculation, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days post infection (dpi and the concentrations of antioxidant trace elements, antioxidant vitamins and ceruloplasmin were measured. Our data showed remarkable reductions in serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (zinc, manganese and selenium and vitamins (vitamin C in the diseased kids, however, significant increases were observed in the serum level of ceruloplasmin in infected animals. These alterations became more prominent at 14 to 21 dpi. These observations suggest that Eimeria parasites can significantly interfere with the levels of some antioxidant trace elements and vitamins during caprine coccidiosis. These changes indicate the overproduction of oxidative radicals during the pathogenesis of Eimeria species that may account for extensive oxidative damage in infected animals.

  15. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological Changes in Different Types of Caprine Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarikre, A T; Emikpe, O B; Ohore, G O; Akinremi, A T; Akpavie, O S

    2016-01-01

    Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools. Data is summarized as Mean ± SEM and compared using non-parametric statistics at 5% significance. There was leukocytosis in the pneumonic animals. The overall lavage recovery rate was 55.5%. The differences in Haemoglobin concentration, and Lymphocyte-Neutrophil ratio were significant (peosinophil counts were significantly different (peosinophils observed in BAL were reliable and also correlated positively to the pathological findings. BAL should be considered a component of the diagnostic approach to caprine pneumonia complex, as it may accurately aid diagnosis and identification of the causal organisms. PMID:27574761

  16. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (Irel). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  17. Molecular characterization of exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichar, Jai Prakash; Gahlot, Gyan Chand; Agrawal, Vijay Kumar; Kiran; Dewna, Ajay Singh; Prakash; Ashraf, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate genetic variability in exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 blood samples from unrelated Marwari goats were randomly collected from different villages of Bikaner (Rajasthan), India. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using blood DNA isolation kit (Himedia Ltd.) as per manufacturer’s protocol. The quality of extracted genomic DNA was checked on 0.8% agarose gel. Specifically designed a primer set for caprine myostatin (MSTN) gene (Genebank accession no. DQ167575) was used to amplify the exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat. The genetic variability in exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat was assessed on 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) pattern. Results: The exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat showed two types of conformation patterns on 8% polyacrylamide gel. One of the patterns showed only two bands and was considered as genotype AA, whereas another pattern having an extra band was designated as genotype AB. The frequencies of AA and AB genotype for exon 3 region of MSTN gene were calculated as 0.90 and 0.10, respectively. Conclusion: Low level of polymorphism was observed at exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat through SSCP analysis. This information could be utilized in future breeding plan to exploit the unique characteristics of Marwari goat of Rajasthan. PMID:27397994

  18. Seasonal changes in protein composition of whey from commercial manufacture of caprine and ovine specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J L; Wendorff, W L; Thomas, D L

    1998-12-01

    Pooled whey from the production of one variety of ovine cheese and two varieties of caprine cheeses was studied for gross composition and individual whey protein composition over one production season. Individual proteins were quantified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and digital imaging technology. The mean proportion of alpha-lactalbumin (LA) from caprine wheys from the manufacture of Chevre and Cheddar-type cheeses was higher than values previously reported for bovine whey from Cheddar cheese; proportions of serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and beta-lactoglobulin (LG) were lower. Ovine whey from Manchego-type cheese showed a higher proportion of beta-LG, about the same proportion of alpha-LA, and lower proportions of serum albumin and IgG than did the bovine whey. Relative amounts of alpha-LA decreased throughout the season, but beta-LG rose in midlactation and then gradually decreased toward the end of lactation. Relative proportions of serum albumin remained fairly stable throughout the year, and IgG decreased. PMID:9891259

  19. A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Marinaro

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats.

  20. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  1. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

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    Alcover Josep Antoni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs, plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree.

  2. Purification and characterization of a sperm motility inhibiting factor from caprine epididymal plasma.

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    Sujoy Das

    Full Text Available Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 microg/ml (12.5 nM level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility.

  3. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dettwiler Martina; Stahel Anina; Krüger Sonka; Gerspach Christian; Braun Ueli; Engels Monika; Hilbe Monika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with ...

  4. Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture.

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    Cornelis P L Paul

    Full Text Available Low-back pain (LBP is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175 were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL, or with simulated-physiological load (SPL. IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration

  5. Serological diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and ovine mastitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourry, A; Cochard, T; POUTREL, B.

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Listeria monocytogenes antibodies in bovine (n = 35), caprine (n = 27), and ovine (n = 30) milk samples was evaluated by comparison with bacteriological examination. Microtiter plates were coated with proteins obtained from culture supernatant, and antibodies were revealed with a monoclonal antibody able to react with the immunoglobulins belonging to the three animal species. The arithmetic mean optical density (OD) of milk samples infected w...

  6. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraud, Armelle; Poumarat, Francois; Tardy, Florence; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Hamroev, Karomatullo; Tilloev, Tillo; Amirbekov, Mullojon; Tounkara, Karim; Bodjo, Charles; Wesonga, Hezron; Nkando, Isabel Gacheri; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Cardinale, Eric; Meenowa, Deodass

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the "mycoides cluster" frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prev...

  7. Prevalence Study of Coxiella burnetii in Aborted Ovine and Caprine Fetuses by Evaluation of Nested and Real-Time PCR Assays

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    Farhad S. Dehkordi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Q fever is a ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism that caused abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. Approach: The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Iran is essentially unknown. Its traditional diagnosis is based on culture, serology and conventional PCR. In this present study, for more sensitive and accurate detection and prevalence's determination of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses, the nested and real-time PCR methods are recommended. Results: About 98 (12.53% and 122 (16.39% out of 782 and 744 Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, were positive for presence of Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR, respectively. After LSI Taqvet Coxiella burnetii real-time PCR, it was recognized that 121 (15.47% and 152 (20.43% samples were positive for Coxiella burnetii in Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, respectively. Results indicated that the real-time PCR was 7 times more sensitive than the nested PCR. Statistical analysis showed significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by both nested and real-time PCR assays and PCoxiella burnetii. The Ct values which obtained from real-time PCR had significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii between aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses. Our results indicated that Caprine is more sensitive than Ovine to Coxiella burnetii’s abortion Khozestan and Gilan have the highest and Khorasan and Sistan va Baluchistan provinces have the lowest prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, respectively. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first prevalence report of direct identification of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by evaluation of nested and real-time PCR assays in Iran. This study showed that the nested PCR for detecting Coxiella burnetii are technically time-consuming and labor-intensive.

  8. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesser than reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed. PMID:26243956

  9. Designing, optimization and validation of tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol for genotyping mutations in caprine Fec genes

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    Sonika Ahlawat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New, quick, and inexpensive methods for genotyping novel caprine Fec gene polymorphisms through tetra-primer ARMS PCR were developed in the present investigation. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping needs to be attempted to establish association between the identified mutations and traits of economic importance. In the current study, we have successfully genotyped three new SNPs identified in caprine fecundity genes viz. T(-242C (BMPR1B, G1189A (GDF9 and G735A (BMP15. Tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol was optimized and validated for these SNPs with short turn-around time and costs. The optimized techniques were tested on 158 random samples of Black Bengal goat breed. Samples with known genotypes for the described genes, previously tested in duplicate using the sequencing methods, were employed for validation of the assay. Upon validation, complete concordance was observed between the tetra-primer ARMS PCR assays and the sequencing results. These results highlight the ability of tetra-primer ARMS PCR in genotyping of mutations in Fec genes. Any associated SNP could be used to accelerate the improvement of goat reproductive traits by identifying high prolific animals at an early stage of life. Our results provide direct evidence that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for SNP genotyping of mutations in caprine Fec genes.

  10. In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails

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    Nhiem Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated or non-coated intramedullary nails (control for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation.

  11. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. PMID:27387734

  12. Paleogenomics in a temperate environment: shotgun sequencing from an extinct Mediterranean caprine.

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    Oscar Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: A DNA extraction of a approximately 6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. CONCLUSIONS: A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions.

  13. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. PMID:26026835

  14. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

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    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  15. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L; Urban, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  16. Transgenic expression of green fluorescent protein in caprine embryos produced through electroporation-aided sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Pramod, R; Kumar, Rakesh; Mitra, Abhijit

    2016-01-15

    Current methods of transgenic animal production are afflicted by low efficiency and high cost. Recently, the electroporation aided sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) emerges as a promising alternative with variable success rate. Among the domestic animal species, the electroporation-aided SMGT is less investigated in goats, except a few reports in which attempts have been made using the auto-uptake method of SMGT. In this study, we report an optimized electroporation condition for SMGT of caprine sperm cells. Results of this study demonstrated that electroporation of caprine sperm cells at 300 V for 200 mS in TALP medium allowed the maximum uptake of foreign DNA with minimum adverse effects on the vital semen parameters viz., progressive motility, viability, and membrane and acrosome integrity. Further, DNA binding assay revealed DNA uptake by 81.3% sperm cells when 1.0 μg of DNA was used under optimum electroporation conditions as compared to 16.5% on simple incubation. The qPCR analysis showed four-fold more (Pelectroporation than incubation. A similar cleavage rate was observed after IVF using either electroporated (23.20 ± 1.20) or non-electroporated (25.20 ± 2.41) sperm cells suggesting the absence of adverse effect of electroporation on the fertilizing ability. Out of the 116 embryos produced by electroporated sperm, five (4.31%) embryos showed the expression of the foreign gene. In conclusion, our results confirm that using optimized electroporation conditions, the caprine sperm cells can uptake foreign DNA effectively with minimum negative effect on the semen parameters and could produce transgenic embryos.

  17. Innovations et performances environnementales en production caprine et ovine : Expertise Elevage-Environnement à l’INRA

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquier, Francois; Benoit, Marc; Laignel, Gabriel; Dedieu, Benoit; Cournut, Sylvie; Fiorelli, Cecile; Jouven, Magali; Moulin, Charles-Henri; Aubron, Claire; Lurette, Amandine; Lapeyronie, Paul; Hassoun, Philippe; Michel MEURET; Agreil, Cyril; Napoleone, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Les systèmes d’élevage ovins et les caprins, comme les autres productions animales, sont confrontés aux multiples défis environnementaux : limiter les nuisances et contribuer positivement à l’entretien ou à l’amélioration du milieu. Les travaux de l’INRA, et de ses partenaires, se sont largement impliqués dans ces questions en considérant ces élevages de petits ruminants comme faisant partie d‘agroécosystèmes complexes. Cette synthèse collective rassemble, en privilégiant les niveaux d’approc...

  18. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis in Caprine Liver Induced by Molybdenum and Cadmium in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Caiying; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-exposure to molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) on oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in caprine livers, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups with nine goats in each group. Three groups were randomly assigned with one of three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mg Cd kg(-1)·BW) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW, 30 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW, 45 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW), while the control group received deionized water. Liver tissues on days 0, 25, and 50 were subjected to determine antioxidant activity indexes and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), and cytochrome-C (Cyt-C) genes. The results showed that significant reductions were observed in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities (P < 0.05), while activities or contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were increased (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of CP, caspase-3, Smac, and Cyt-C genes were upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, histopathological lesions showed different degrees of vacuolar degeneration and edematous and mitochondrial swelling. The results suggest that co-exposure to Mo and Cd could induce oxidative stress and cell apoptosis possibly associated with mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in goat liver and show possible synergistic effects between the two elements. PMID:26883837

  20. Short communication: genetic variability in the predicted microRNA target sites of caprine casein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, A; Amills, M; Tomás, A; Vidal, O; Ramírez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression.

  1. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

    1994-08-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution.

  2. Development and characterization of a caprine aerosol infection model of melioidosis.

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    Carl Soffler

    Full Text Available Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 10(4 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI. Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease.

  3. Varying Dietary Levels of Molybdenum Inducing Cell Apoptosis of Spleen Under Cadmium Stress in Caprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Zhang, Caiying; Gu, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yu; Luo, Junrong; Liu, Ping; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-07-01

    The present experiment aims at evaluating chronic toxic effects of the combination of cadmium (Cd) and molybdenum (Mo) according to residual element contents, apoptosis gene expression, and ultrastructure and histopathology changes of caprine spleen. In total, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups with the equal number in each group. The control group was orally administered with deionized water while the experimental groups I, II, and III were administered with the equal quantity of CdCl2 (1 mg kg(-1) BW) and (NH4)6·Mo7O24·4H2O including 15, 30, and 45 mg·Mo kg(-1) BW, respectively. Three individuals from each group were treated with euthanasia on days 0, 25, and 50. The data showed that the content of splenic residual Mo and Cd increased (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups on days 25 and 50, while no significant difference was observed in the content of Cu. The apoptosis-related gene expression levels including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Smac, and ceruloplasmin (CP) were also determined. Results showed that significant reductions were observed in Bcl-2 and CP expressions (P < 0.01), while Caspase-3 gene was up-regulated (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in Smac and Bax expressions. Furthermore, on day 50, spleen tissues were presented to observe ultrastructural changes in lesions by means of transmission electron microscopy, with fragmentized nucleus, vesiculation of cytoplasm, mitochondria hyperplasia, and increasing lysosomes included. In addition, histopathology results corroborated the toxicity by showing cell hemorrhage, thickening central arteries, and enhanced capsule thickness. To sum up, our study revealed that the combination of Cd and Mo could induce remarkable damage to the spleen of goats by promoting cell apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway and affecting the deposition of Mo and Cd. PMID:26585322

  4. Diagnosis of contagious caprine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (SC), respectively. These species belong to the group of six mycoplasmas referred to as the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The members of the M. mycoides cluster are closely related, and some of them are very difficult to grow. Diagnosis based on identification of the causative agents by cultivation, biochemical reactions, or serology is therefore difficult, and improved diagnostic methods are sorely needed. Identification methods for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC, based on detection of the 16S rRNA genes from all members of the M. mycoides cluster by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiation of species by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI and AluI, respectively, have been developed in the Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute Laboratory, Sweden. The methods are based on the fact that members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons and that there are sequence differences (polymorphisms) between the two 16S rRNA genes from the two operons. The majority of these polymorphisms are characteristic for each species, and some of them can be utilized for differentiation between the species. Techniques for extraction of DNA from lung tissue and from clinical material dried onto filter paper for preservation are described. Pleural fluid was found to be an ideal sample for direct analysis by PCR, but this material can also be dried onto filter paper for preservation and sent to another laboratory for the PCR analysis. These identification systems designed for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC have been used for diagnosis of CCPP and CBPP, respectively, by analysis of clinical samples brought to the laboratory as frozen lung tissue or preserved by drying onto a filter

  5. Microbiology and biochemistry of cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée and manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine and caprine milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, C; Malcata, F X

    2000-03-01

    To support legal protection with objective technical data and to promote enforcement of high quality standards a few European countries have created Appélation d'Origine Protegées. This paper reviews and updates fundamental and applied aspects encompassing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine, caprine, or both milks. Ovine and caprine cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée from Portugal and Spain can be divided into four distinct groups based on milk source and rennet type: 1) Azeitão, Castelo Branco, Evora, Nisa, Serpa, Serra da Estrela, and La Serena cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via plant rennet; 2) Terrincho, Idiazábal, Manchego, Roncal, and Zamorano cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; 3) Cabra Transmontano and Majorero are manufactured with raw caprine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; and 4) Amarelo da Beira Baixa, Picante da Beira Baixa, and Rabaçal are manufactured with mixtures of raw ovine and caprine milks and coagulated via animal rennet. PMID:10750117

  6. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dettwiler Martina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons; Biodigestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estacoes do ano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Ana C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Programa de Producao Animal]. E-mail: amorim@fcav.unesp.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural]. E-mail: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br; Resende, Kleber T. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Zootecnia

    2004-04-01

    The dejections produced by caprine were used in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year. This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS) reduction, the potential production (m{sup 3}) of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS) or (VS), the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38: 34: 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m{sup 3} in summer, 0.88 m{sup 3} in autumn, 0,88 m{sup 3} in winter and 0.99 m{sup 3} in spring and the mean potential production were of 0.02 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of substrate and 0.2 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of manure for all seasons. The batch digesters reduced total and fecal coliforms densities in 99.99% and the CH{sub 4} contents in biogas were 88.3; 84.6; 80.6 and 79.2% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring respectively. (author)

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  9. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU KOMBINASI SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI, EKSTRAK JAGUNG, ATAU SANTAN KELAPA [Characterization of Fermented Products Made From Caprine Milk in Combination with Soy Extract, Corn Extract or Coconut Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best combination of caprine milk with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract in the production of flavored fermented milk products. Products were analyzed for the lactic acid content, crude protein, viscosity and also organoleptic properties (color, texsture, flavour, overall acceptance. This study was performed by a Completely Randomized Design with four kind of treatments, i.e.caprine, caprine milk in combination with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract with five replications. The result indicated that the caprine milk in combination with soy extract resulted an acceptable flavored fermented milk product containing 0.78% lactic acid, 6.62% crude protein, and had a viscosity of 2120 centipoise. The texture of the most liked flavoured fermented milk product was viscous to most viscous, and the flavour was slightly sour to sour.

  10. Enterotoxemia em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson M. Colodel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos surtos de enterotoxemia em caprinos em cinco propriedades no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais afetados eram, normalmente, encontrados mortos ou apresentavam evolução aguda de 2 a 3 horas com acentuada depressão, cólicas abdominais e diarréia profusa com fibrina. Em duas propriedades relataram-se casos com a evolução de até 12 horas. Em treze animais necropsiados observaram-se aumento de líquidos nas cavidades abdominal, torácica e pericárdica, congestão e hiperemia da serosa e mucosa do intestino, conteúdo do cólon líquido com fibrina além de hemorragias de serosa e fibrina. Em um animal constatou-se microangiopatia cerebral caracterizada por acúmulo de material homogêneo e eosinofílico no espaço perivascular. No conteúdo intestinal, colônias com bastonetes morfológica e bioquimicamente sugestivos de Clostridium perfringens foram caracterizadas no estudo bacteriológico. A soroneutralização em camundongos com conteúdo intestinal dos animais afetados, revelou a presença da toxina épsilon. Estes achados evidenciam a enterotoxemia como doença de importância para criação de caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul.Five outbreaks of caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied. The animals were found dead or had a clinical course that usually lasted 2-3 hours. From two farms a clinical manifestation period of 12 hours was reported. Clinical signs were characterized by depression, marked abdominal discomfort, profuse watery diarrhea with fibrin clots, and death. Thirteen necropsies were performed and hydropericardium, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum were commonly found. The mucosa and serosa of the colon were congested, and its contents was watery with multiple fibrin clots. Serosal hemorrhages and fibrin clots in the gallbladder were also seen. Fibrinous colitis and thyphilitis were the most frequent histological changes. Cerebral microangiopathy was observed in one case, which was

  11. Meeting Report: 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkommen, Hannelore; Blümel, Johannes; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Dayue; Chen, Qi; Gröner, Albrecht; Kreil, Thomas R; Ruffing, Michel; Ruiz, Sol; Scott, Dorothy; Silvester, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the presentations at the Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 organized by the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) and held in Cascais, Portugal, from 9 to 11 June, 2015. As with previous conferences of this series, the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 provided an excellent forum for the exchange of information and opinions between the industry, research organizations, and regulatory bodies. Regulatory updates on virus and TSE safety aspects illustrating current topics of discussion at regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States were provided; the conference covered emerging viruses and new virus detection systems that may be used for the investigation of human pathogenic viruses as well as the virus safety of cell substrates and of raw material of ovine/caprine or human origin. Progress of development and use of next-generation sequencing methods was shown by several examples. Virus clearance data illustrating the effectiveness of inactivation or removal methods were presented and data provided giving insight into the mechanism of action of these technologies. In the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) part of the conference, the epidemiology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reviewed and an overview about diagnostic tests provided; current thinking about the spread and propagation of prions was presented and the inactivation of prions by disinfection (equipment) and in production of bovine-derived reagents (heparin) shown. The current report provides an overview about the outcomes of the 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum, a unique event in this field. PMID:27020643

  12. Development and validation of a competitive ELISA kit for the serological diagnosis of ovine, caprine and bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanti, O; Tittarelli, M; Di Febo, T; Luciani, M; Mercante, M T; Conte, A; Lelli, R

    2006-12-01

    A competitive ELISA (Brucella-Ab c-ELISA) was standardized and validated for the detection of Brucella antibodies in cattle, sheep and goat sera using a monoclonal antibody (MAb 4B5A) produced against Brucella melitensis biotype 2. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were 100% to a 67.5% cut-off point (B/Bo%). When compared with an indirect ELISA, the Brucella-Ab c-ELISA did not demonstrate cross-reactions when testing positive sera for antibodies to some Enterobacteriaceae. A comparison was made between the Brucella-Ab c-ELISA and the complement fixation and Rose Bengal tests. Results demonstrated that the Brucella-Ab c-ELISA is a valuable tool for the serological diagnosis of bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis. PMID:17123429

  13. Identification of a functional SNP in the 3'-UTR of caprine MTHFR gene that is associated with milk protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Wang, Shan; Gao, Kexin; Cao, Binyun

    2016-08-01

    Xinong Saanen (n = 305) and Guanzhong (n = 317) dairy goats were used to detect SNPs in the caprine MTHFR 3'-UTR by DNA sequencing. One novel SNP (c.*2494G>A) was identified in the said region. Individuals with the AA genotype had greater milk protein levels than did those with the GG genotype at the c.*2494 G>A locus in both dairy goat breeds (P A substitution could increase the binding activity of bta-miR-370 with the MTHFR 3'-UTR. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the MTHFR protein level of AA carriers relative to that of GG carriers. These altered levels of MTHFR protein may account for the association of the SNP with milk protein level.

  14. Two Mutations in the Caprine MTHFR 3'UTR Regulated by MicroRNAs Are Associated with Milk Production Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Hou

    Full Text Available 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a central role in folate metabolism by irreversibly converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a predominant circulating form of folate. Folate is reportedly important for milk protein synthesis, and MTHFR may be a key regulatory point of folate metabolism for milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. Prior to this study, polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were not associated with milk production traits from a breeding perspective. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at microRNA (miRNA binding sites (miR-SNPs can affect gene expression. This study aimed to identify the effects of miR-SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR on the milk production traits of dairy goats.Guanzhong dairy (GD, n = 325 goats were used to detect SNPs in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR by DNA sequencing. Two novel SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G were identified in the said region. The homozygous haplotype A-G of the SNPs g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G was significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein levels in GD goats (P G and g.2264A>G polymorphisms were associated with milk production traits in GD goats. Further investigations should explore the underlying miRNA-mediated mechanisms that are modified by the g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G SNPs. The current study evaluated these SNPs as potential genetic markers in goats, with potential applications in breeding programs.

  15. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

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    Juliano Cezar Minardi da Cruz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections

  16. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.;

    2000-01-01

    by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...... from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small...

  17. Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added 125I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of 35S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein interacts with the RNA-binding protein Caprin1 in neuronal RiboNucleoProtein complexes [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El Fatimy

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP, an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKIIα and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions.

  19. Review: A review on classical and atypical scrapie in caprine: Prion protein gene polymorphisms and their role in the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, L; Sebastiani, C; Di Lorenzo, P; Lasagna, E; Biagetti, M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep and goat. It has been known for ~250 years and is characterised by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of a host-encoded prion protein that leads to progressive neurodegeneration and death. Scrapie is recognised in two forms, classical and atypical scrapie. The susceptibility to both types of scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Sheep susceptibility or resistance to classical scrapie is strongly regulated by the polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the PRNP. The genetic role in atypical scrapie in sheep has been defined by polymorphisms at codons 141, 154 and 171, which are associated with different degrees of risk in the occurrence of the ovine disease. Progress has been achieved in the prevention of scrapie in sheep due to efficient genetic breeding programmes based on eradication and control of the disease. In Europe, the success of these programmes has been verified by applying eradication and genetic selection plans. In general terms, the ovine selection plans aim to eliminate and reduce the susceptible allele and to enrich the resistant allele ARR. During outbreaks all susceptible animals are slaughtered, only ARR/ARR resistant rams and sheep and semi-resistant females are preserved. In the occurrence of scrapie positive goats a complete cull of the flock (stamping out) is performed with great economic loss and severe risk of extinction for the endangered breeds. The ability to select scrapie-resistant animals allows to define new breeding strategies aimed to boost genetic progress while reducing costs during scrapie outbreaks. Allelic variants of PRNP can be protective for caprine scrapie, and the knowledge of their distribution in goats has become very important. Over the past few years, the integration of genetic information on goat populations could be used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genetic selection

  20. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  1. Identification of c.483C>T polymorphism in the caprine tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Amills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1 has been shown to play a fundamental role in pigmentation both in human and mouse. In this work, we aimed to characterize the variability of the caprine TYRP1 gene and investigate its segregation in a wide array of goat breeds. By partially sequencing the coding region of the TYRP1 gene in 18 individuals from eight different breeds, we were able to identify a synonymous nucleotide substitution at exon 3 (c.483C>T. An extensive survey of Iberian and Balearic (N=175, Italian (N=99, Swiss (N=54, Asian (N=14, Canarian (N=92 and North African (N=117 goats with different coat colours was carried out. We found that the C-allele has a different distribution in European vs African breeds, being almost fixed in the latter. Moreover, the C-allele showed an increased frequency in white coated breeds (Girgentana, Grigia Molisana, Blanca de Rasquera and Saanen when compared with those displaying a dark pigmentation (Cilentana Nera, Azpi Gorri and Murciano- Granadina. This could be due to genetic drift, migration and other factors associated with the demographic history of breeds under analysis or to a genetic hitchhiking event (c.483C>T frequencies would be shaped by a neighbouring causal mutation differentially selected in white and black goats. More refined studies will be needed to distinguish between these two alternative explanations.

  2. In situ cultured preantral follicles is a useful model to evaluate the effect of anticancer drugs on caprine folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Denise Damasceno; Lima, Laritza Ferreira de; Rodrigues, Giovanna Quintino; Carvalho, Adeline de Andrade; Castro, Simone Vieira; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Pessoa, Cláudia do Ó; Gadelha, Carla Renata Figueiredo; Figueiredo, José Ricardo de; Bordignon, Vilceu; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in the incidence of cancer, the number of women who survive cancer treatment is growing. However, one of the principal results of chemotherapy is premature ovarian failure (POF). The aim of this study was to use the in situ culture preantral follicles as an in vitro model to evaluate the toxicity of two anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DXR) and paclitaxel (PTX), on the integrity and development of ovarian follicles. Fragments of the ovarian cortex of goats were cultured in vitro for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with different concentrations of DXR (0.003, 0.03, or 0.3 µg/mL) and PTX (0.001, 0.01, or 0.1 µg/mL). Analyses were performed before and after culture to evaluate tissue integrity by classical histology, apoptosis by TUNEL assay, DNA laddering kit and the detection of activated caspase 3, and DNA damage by the immune detection of phosphorylated histone H2A.x (H2AXph139). Both DXR and PTX reduced the number of morphologically normal primordial and developing follicles. Positive staining for TUNEL and active caspase 3 was detected in all the samples (P < 0.05). Therefore, we propose the in situ culture of caprine preantral follicles as a useful experimental model for assessing the toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents on ovarian folliculogenesis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:773-781, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311936

  3. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results. PMID:26670078

  4. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9%, Kajiado Central was 48.6%, while Pokot East was 29.2% which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  5. Heartland Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  6. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldmann Wilfred

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9% in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.

  7. Elucidation of the involvement of p14, a sperm protein during maturation, capacitation and acrosome reaction of caprine spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Nandi

    Full Text Available Mammalian sperm capacitation is an essential prerequisite to fertilization. Although progress is being made in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of capacitation, little has been yet explored about the potential role(s of individual sperm cell protein during this process. Therefore elucidation of the role of different sperm proteins in the process of capacitation might be of great importance to understand the process of fertilization. The present work describes the partial characterization of a 14-kDa protein (p14 detected in goat spermatozoa using an antibody directed against the purified protein. Confocal microscopic analysis reveals that the protein is present in both the intracellular and extracellular regions of the acrosomal and postacrosomal portion of caudal sperm head. Though subcellular localization shows that p14 is mainly cytosolic, however it is also seen to be present in peripheral plasma membrane and soluble part of acrosome. Immuno-localization experiment shows change in the distribution pattern of this protein upon induction of capacitation in sperm cells. Increased immunolabeling in the anterior head region of live spermatozoa is also observed when these cells are incubated under capacitating conditions, whereas most sperm cells challenged with the calcium ionophore A23187 to acrosome react, lose their labeling almost completely. Intracellular distribution of p14 also changes significantly during acrosome reaction. Interestingly, on the other hand the antibody raised against this 14-kDa sperm protein enhances the forward motility of caprine sperm cells. Rose-Bengal staining method shows that this anti-p14 antibody also decreases the number of acrosome reacted cells if incubated with capacitated sperm cells before induction of acrosome reaction. All these results taken together clearly indicate that p14 is intimately involved and plays a critical role in the acrosomal membrane fusion event.

  8. A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Virginie; Verdier, Axel; Thiaucourt, François; Manso-Silván, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures. PMID:26149260

  9. Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 (B.suis.S2) infection and replication in the immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell line hTERT-EECs and the induced cellular and molecular response modulation in vitro. We found that B.suis S2 was able to infect and replicate to high titers and inhibit the proliferation of EECs and induce non-apoptotic pathways, as determined by B.suis.S2 detection using MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and flow cytometry. We explored the evidence of non-apoptotic pathways using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot analysis. Finally, we discovered the over-expression of GRP78, ATF4, ATF6, PERK, eIF2α, CHOP, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) but not IRE1, xbp-1, and caspase-3 in B.suis.S2 (HK)-attacked and B.suis.S2-infected cells, suggesting that the molecular mechanism of ER stress sensor activation by B.suis.S2 is basically concomitant with that by B.suis.S2 (HK) and that ER stress, especially the PERK pathway, plays an important role in the process of B.suis.S2 infecting EEC, which may, in part, explain the role of the uterus in the pathogenesis of B.suis.S2. PMID:25633898

  10. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Barnett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  11. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.

  12. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiluka, L J; Semuguruka, W D; Kazwala, R R; Ojeniy, B; Friis, N F

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the Coast and Morogoro regions of eastern Tanzania is reported. The major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia characterized by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type were concurrently isolated.

  13. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed. 1. The LALBA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Paschino, Pietro; Pira, Maria Giovanna; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The 5' flanking region and 3' UTR of the caprine LALBA gene were analysed by SSCP and sequencing. A total of nine SNPs were detected: three in the promoter region, two were synonymous coding SNPs at exon-1, and four SNPs were in exon-4, within the 3'UTR. The nucleotide changes located in the promoter region (c.-358T>C, c.-163G>A, c.-121T>G) were genotyped by SSCP in 263 Sarda goats to evaluate their possible effect on milk yield, composition and renneting properties. We observed an effect of the three SNPs on milk yield and lactose content. Genotypes TT and CT at c.-358T>C (P A (P C and c.-121T>G were part of transcription factors binding sites, potentially involved in modulating the LALBA gene expression. The LALBA genotype affected renneting properties (P < 0.001), as heterozygotes c.-358CT and c.-163GA were characterised by delayed rennet coagulation time and curd firming time and the lowest value of curd firmness. The present investigation increases the panel of SNPs and adds new information about the effects of the caprine LALBA gene polymorphism. PMID:26304038

  14. Influence of variable water-soluble soy extract and inulin contents on the rheological, technological and sensory properties of grapeflavored yogurt-like beverages made from caprine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evangelista Santos Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of the partial substitution of caprine milk for water-soluble soy extract (WSSE and the addition of inulin on the rheological, technological and sensory properties of grapeflavored yogurt-like beverages. For this purpose, a Central Composite Design (CCD in conjunction with Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed. WSSE and inulin influenced the overall acceptability of the product, whereas syneresis, water holding capacity and rheological properties (the consistency index and the flow behavior index were influenced only by the WSSE content. RSM was shown to be an adequate statistical tool that can be used for the development of formulations with specified properties in the range of the ingredient concentrations studied.

  15. Employing in vitro analysis to test the potency of methylglyoxal in inducing the formation of amyloid-like aggregates of caprine brain cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Waseem Feeroze; Bhat, Sheraz Ahmad; Khaki, Peerzada Shariq Shaheen; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    Thiol protease inhibitors (cystatins) are implicated in various disease states from cancer to neurodegenerative conditions and immune responses. Cystatins have high amyloidogenic propensity and they are prone to form fibrillar aggregates leading to amyloidosis. Particularly challenging examples of such disorders occur in type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of the present study is to find an interaction between the compound methylglyoxal (MG) which is particularly elevated in type 2 diabetes with caprine brain cystatin (CBC). Results have shown that elevated concentration of MG forms amyloid aggregates of CBC. This was achieved by allowing slow growth in a solution containing moderate to high concentrations of MG. When analysed with microscopy, the protein aggregate present in the sample after incubation consisted of extended filaments with ordered structures. This fibrillar material possesses extensive β-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the fibrils exhibit increased Thioflavin T fluorescence.

  16. Emissions annuelles de méthane d'origine digestive par les ovins, les caprins et les équins en France

    OpenAIRE

    VERMOREL, M.

    1997-01-01

    Les résultats des mesures de production journalière de méthane des principaux types d’herbivores à l’aide de chambres respiratoires ont permis de modéliser les émissions de méthane selon l’espèce, le stade physiologique, la composition du régime et le niveau d’alimentation. Après l’évaluation des quantités annuelles de méthane émises par les bovins en France, présentée dans un article précédent, celles émises par les ovins, les caprins et les équins ont été calculées pour chaque type d’animal...

  17. The influence of dexamethasone treatment and successive road transport stress on the occurrence of caprine pneumonia in a hot humid tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yussof Sabri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The information on the effect of multiple stress and caprine pneumonia especially in a hot humid environment is limited in literature. Material and Methods: Sixteen goats were divided into 4 groups. Group A were subjected to 8 hours and 3 hours transportation, group B to 8 hours transport stress once and dexamethasone injection, group C to 8 hours transport only while group D was the control. All goats were observed for respiratory signs while temperature was monitored daily. Dead ones were necropsied while the survivors and the goats in group D were sacrificed on day 21. The clinical, gross, histopathological, immunohistochemical scores were according to standard methods. Results: The mean total clinical score was higher in group B than group A, C and D. Two goats of the groups A, B and C goats died 21, 14 and 7 days post treatment. The dead goats in groups A, B, C had lung lesions typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. An average of the lung consolidation of dead animals in group A was 15%, in group B, 8.5% and group C, 6.5% mostly involving the anterior and ventral parts of the lungs of the lung. The immunostaining results was also similar with all the lung samples positive for both P. multocida and M. haemolytica especially in the groups A, B, C with enhanced severity in A > B > C. Conclusions: This further buttress the need to reduce stress in farm animals and the emergence of P. multocida over M. haemolytica in the epidemiology of bacterial caprine pneumonia in stressed goats in Malaysia. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 497-501

  18. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Bölske G; Thiaucourt F; Wesonga HO; Wanjohi C; Lindberg R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats w...

  19. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  20. Vírus da artrite encefalite caprina: isolamento e caracterização de parte do gene gag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue de 12 animais soropositivos pelo teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose e que não apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de infecção pelo vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina (CAEV foram coletadas para isolamento viral. Mácrofagos derivados de monócitos foram co-cultivados com células de membrana sinovial caprina (MSC, resultando em cinco amostras que apresentaram efeito citopático característico do tipo persistente, semelhante ao observado para o CAEV. Uma técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR foi padronizada para amplificar parte do gene gag do genoma pró-viral, codificante para a proteína do capsídeo viral (p25. As cinco amostras foram amplificadas pela PCR e três delas, BR-UFMG/PL1, BR-UFMG/PL2 e BR-UFMG/PL3, foram seqüenciadas diretamente dos seus produtos de PCR. O alinhamento múltiplo das seqüências obtidas com outras de lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (LVPR, obtidas no GenBank, e o dendrograma revelaram que as novas amostras de CAEV são únicas e distintas das demais amostras de LVPR, possuindo maior identidade de nucleotídeos e aminoácidos entre si e com as amostras de CAEV do que com a do vírus maedi-visna.Blood samples from 12 seropositive animals by agar gel immunodifusion test (AGID showing no evident clinical signs of disease were taken to attempt caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV isolation. Monocyte-derived macrophages were co-cultured with goat synovial membrane cells (GSM resulting in five virus isolations, which presented cytophatic effects of the persistent type, resembling those observed for CAEV. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was designed to amplify a portion of the gag proviral gene coding for the major core protein (p25. All of the five isolates were amplified by this PCR and three of them named BR-UFMG/PL1, BR-UFMG/PL2 and BR-UFMG/PL3, were sequenced directly from their PCR products. Multiple sequence analysis and a dendrogram including other

  1. A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somal, Anjali; Bhat, Irfan A.; B., Indu; Pandey, Sriti; Panda, Bibhudatta S. K.; Thakur, Nipuna; Sarkar, Mihir; Chandra, Vikash; Saikumar, G.; Sharma, G. Taru

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine. PMID:27257959

  2. HUMAN FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (hFSH AND THYROXINE (T4 IN SURVIVAL MAINTENANCE AND IN VITRO GROWTH PROMOTION OF CAPRINE PREANTRAL FOLLICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanely Lourenço da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of human FSH (10ng/ml with T4 (20ng/mL on survival, activation and growth of preantral follicles cultured in vitro for 28 days. Fragments of non-cultured and cultured ovarian tissue were processed for classic histology and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a reduction in the survival rate in all the media tested (one to 28 days when compared to the fresh control. However the treatment with T4/hFSH for seven days of culture maintained the rate similar to the control. The media tested by one and 28 days reduced the percentage of primordial follicles in all periods of culture. However, T4/hFSH on day one of culture remained similar to the fresh control. None of the media were able to keep the percentage of the developing follicles. It was observed that the follicular diameter in the medium with T4/hFSH remained similar to the fresh control. The ultrastructural analysis confirmed the integrity of follicles cultured for seven days in a medium supplemented with T4/hFSH. In conclusion, the medium with T4/hFSH is able to maintain the survival, promote the activation, and the ultrastructural integrity of caprine preantral follicles for until seven days.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-10-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n = 16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes.

  4. The RNA-binding proteins FMR1, rasputin and caprin act together with the UBA protein lingerer to restrict tissue growth in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Appropriate expression of growth-regulatory genes is essential to ensure normal animal development and to prevent diseases like cancer. Gene regulation at the levels of transcription and translational initiation mediated by the Hippo and Insulin signaling pathways and by the TORC1 complex, respectively, has been well documented. Whether translational control mediated by RNA-binding proteins contributes to the regulation of cellular growth is less clear. Here, we identify Lingerer (Lig, an UBA domain-containing protein, as growth suppressor that associates with the RNA-binding proteins Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMR1 and Caprin (Capr and directly interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding protein Rasputin (Rin in Drosophila melanogaster. lig mutant organs overgrow due to increased proliferation, and a reporter for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is upregulated in a lig mutant situation. rin, Capr or FMR1 in combination as double mutants, but not the respective single mutants, display lig like phenotypes, implicating a redundant function of Rin, Capr and FMR1 in growth control in epithelial tissues. Thus, Lig regulates cell proliferation during development in concert with Rin, Capr and FMR1.

  5. The RNA-binding proteins FMR1, rasputin and caprin act together with the UBA protein lingerer to restrict tissue growth in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Roland; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate expression of growth-regulatory genes is essential to ensure normal animal development and to prevent diseases like cancer. Gene regulation at the levels of transcription and translational initiation mediated by the Hippo and Insulin signaling pathways and by the TORC1 complex, respectively, has been well documented. Whether translational control mediated by RNA-binding proteins contributes to the regulation of cellular growth is less clear. Here, we identify Lingerer (Lig), an UBA domain-containing protein, as growth suppressor that associates with the RNA-binding proteins Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMR1) and Caprin (Capr) and directly interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding protein Rasputin (Rin) in Drosophila melanogaster. lig mutant organs overgrow due to increased proliferation, and a reporter for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is upregulated in a lig mutant situation. rin, Capr or FMR1 in combination as double mutants, but not the respective single mutants, display lig like phenotypes, implicating a redundant function of Rin, Capr and FMR1 in growth control in epithelial tissues. Thus, Lig regulates cell proliferation during development in concert with Rin, Capr and FMR1.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n = 16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes. PMID:25315988

  7. Cell-free multi-layered collagen-based scaffolds demonstrate layer specific regeneration of functional osteochondral tissue in caprine joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levingstone, Tanya J; Ramesh, Ashwanth; Brady, Robert T; Brama, Pieter A J; Kearney, Clodagh; Gleeson, John P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2016-05-01

    Developing repair strategies for osteochondral tissue presents complex challenges due to its interfacial nature and complex zonal structure, consisting of subchondral bone, intermediate calcified cartilage and the superficial cartilage regions. In this study, the long term ability of a multi-layered biomimetic collagen-based scaffold to repair osteochondral defects is investigated in a large animal model: namely critical sized lateral trochlear ridge (TR) and medial femoral condyle (MC) defects in the caprine stifle joint. The study thus presents the first data in a clinically applicable large animal model. Scaffold fixation and early integration was demonstrated at 2 weeks post implantation. Macroscopic analysis demonstrated improved healing in the multi-layered scaffold group compared to empty defects and a market approved synthetic polymer osteochondral scaffold groups at 6 and 12 months post implantation. Radiological analysis demonstrated superior subchondral bone formation in both defect sites in the multi-layered scaffold group as early as 3 months, with complete regeneration of subchondral bone by 12 months. Histological analysis confirmed the formation of well-structured subchondral trabecular bone and hyaline-like cartilage tissue in the multi-layered scaffold group by 12 months with restoration of the anatomical tidemark. Demonstration of improved healing following treatment with this natural polymer scaffold, through the recruitment of host cells with no requirement for pre-culture, shows the potential of this device for the treatment of patients presenting with osteochondal lesions.

  8. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölske G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact. Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response.

  9. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  10. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  11. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  12. Impacts de croisement d’absorption sur l'élevage caprin dans le sud tunisien : cas de la délégation de Mareth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Gaddour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’importance particulière de la chèvre locale, en tant que ressource génétique indispensable pour la valorisation des parcours des régions arides, incite à déployer des efforts pour sa caractérisation et la mise au point de méthodologies de son amélioration génétique. La présente étude vise l'établissement des caractéristiques phénotypiques et génétiques de la population caprine locale ainsi que sa diversité biologique et ses aptitudes adaptatives. On se propose d’évaluer le comportement génétique et productif de la chèvre locale dans un schéma d’amélioration génétique. Au niveau des élevages, le croisement a été appliqué sans restrictions techniques de manière à générer un amalgame génétique dans les différents modes de production. C'est pourquoi nous avons exécuté une enquête aux prés de 85 éleveurs caprins de la délégation de Mareth, où le croisement est adopté dans les différents systèmes d'élevage. Les résultats montrent que la conduite n'est pas suffisamment maîtrisée, même en intensif, pour profiter des avantages de croisement. A cet égard la conduite des reproducteurs et le renouvellement ne considèrent pas les spécificités des génotypes, comme le saisonnement sexuel et les risques de la consanguinité. Certaines exigences génétiques, tel que l'abattage des mâles F1, ne sont que peu connues et respectées par les éleveurs ce qui entrave l'optimisation des ressources génétiques disponibles. La tendance générale est l'usage des races à viande comme races amélioratrices ce qui s'illustre par le choix accru de la race Damasquine. Mots clés : chèvre locale ; amélioration génétique ; impact de croisement ; races amélioratrices ; enquête ; oasis ; Tunisie.

  13. Compostagem e vermicompostagem de dejetos de caprinos: efeito das estações do ano Composting and vermicomposting caprine dejections: effect of season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Amorim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A caprinocultura brasileira cresceu consideravelmente nos últimos anos, elevando a produção de resíduos, fato que justifica o estudo de práticas de reciclagem, tais como a compostagem e a vermicompostagem, pois, além da agregação de valor com a produção do composto, representa um meio de saneamento na área rural. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, foram utilizados dejetos coletados de caprinos em diferentes faixas etárias, mantidos em sistema de semiconfinamento e com regime alimentar único. O objetivo principal foi avaliar os efeitos das estações do ano sobre os processos de compostagem e vermicompostagem. As reduções na quantidade de matéria seca (MS foram de 53,7; 53,4; 51,4 e 47,8% para a compostagem e 57,4; 51,0; 41,4 e 53,6% para a vermicompostagem nas estações de verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Observaram-se maiores reduções na relação C/N durante o verão e outono, em relação à primavera e ao inverno, para ambos os processos. As equações de redução de volume, na compostagem, foram: y = -0,0512x + 1,0233; y = -0,0552x + 1,1766; y = -0,0521x + 1,1656 e y = -0,0558x + 1,3227, para as estações primavera, outono, inverno e verão, respectivamente, (x = número de semanas e y = volume, em m³.Brazilian caprine raising has grown considerably in the last years and has elevated the waste production, what justifies the study of recycling practices of composting and vemicomposting because their aggregation values with the fertilizers production, and also represent a sanitation way in the rural zone. In this study, caprines of different ages, maintained in semi confinement system and with the same diet feeding were used. The main objective was evaluating the effect of the season on the composting and vermicomposting process. The dry matter reduction was of 53.7; 53.4; 51.4 and 47.8% for composting process and 57.4; 51.0; 41.4 and 53.6% for vermicomposting in Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring

  14. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan.

  15. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  16. 羊睾丸提取液对铅损伤小鼠精子顶体形成的影响%Effect of caprine testicular extract on acrosome formation of spermatids of lead-injured mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪艳; 李质馨; 王弘珺; 朱辛为; 潘晓燕; 刘忠平; 林冬静

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察羊睾丸提取液对铅损伤小鼠精子顶体形成的影响.方法 成年健康清洁级ICR雄性小鼠30只,随机分为对照组、模型组和给药组,每组l0只.模型组采用醋酸铅(30mg/kg)灌胃建立睾丸损伤模型,给药组在醋酸铅灌胃的同时腹腔注射羊睾丸提取液0.5ml,对照组采用等体积蒸馏水灌胃及腹腔注射,每天1次,共21d.经心脏行甲醛灌流固定,制备睾丸标本,PAS染色,光镜下观察圆形精子细胞期顶体的形态学变化.结果 与对照组相比,模型组精子顶体形成障碍,顶体囊泡不完整,膜皱缩,较粗糙,结构模糊;给药组精子顶体形成接近对照组,顶体囊泡形状较规则,膜平滑.结论 羊睾丸提取液可保护小鼠精子顶体在形成过程中免受铅的损害,从而维持其正常的结构及功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of caprine testicular extract on the acrosomal formation of spermatids of lead-treated mice, and find a theoretical and experimental basis for further research on the effects of caprine testicular extract on the reproductive system. Methods The study was carried out on thirty male adult ICR mice, which were randomly assigned into control group, model group and treatment group (10 each). The testis-injury model was reproduced by intragastric administration of lead acetate (30mg/kg, 0.1ml/10g). Animals in treatment group received intragastric administration of lead acetate and intraabdominal injection of 0.5ml caprine testicular extract at the same time for 21days, and the mice in control group received the same amount of distilled water by intragastric administration and 0.5ml distilled water by intraabdominal injection. By the end of the experimental period, the mice were sacrificed. The testes were fixed by cardiac perfusion and processed for light microscopic examination. The acrosomal formation in round spermatids was observed by PAS staining. Results Compared with the control group, the acrosomal

  17. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  18. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  19. Epidemiological Investigation of Caprine Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Sichuan Province%山羊支原体性肺炎流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 杨发龙; 王永; 汤承

    2011-01-01

    山羊支原体性肺炎是威胁山羊养殖的重要传染病,为了解其流行情况,对四川省主要山羊养殖地区的山羊支原体性肺炎进行了流行病学调查.从四川省7个地区山羊养殖场采集肺脏和鼻腔棉拭子样本共135份,经过分离鉴定得到42株支原体,其中绵羊肺炎支原体36株,丝状支原体6株;其中6个羊场仅分离到绵羊肺炎支原体,1个羊场同时分离到绵羊肺炎支原体和丝状支原体.本试验结果表明,绵羊肺炎支原体是引起四川省山羊支原体性肺炎的主要病原,个别地方存在绵羊肺炎支原体和丝状支原体混合感染.%Caprine Mycoplasma pneumoniae (CMP) is one of the most serious threat to goat breeding in Sichuan province.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CMP. 135 clinical samples (lungs and nasal swabs) were collected from goat farms of 7 districts in Sichuan province and 42 clinical strains were isolated from these samples. The isolates were identified as M. ovipneumoniae (36/42) and the members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (6/42) by PCR. M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from all of 7 farms, and the members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster was only isolated from one farm. The positive rate varied from 7.7% to 44.4% in 7 farms. The results suggested that M. ovipneumoniae was the major causative agent of CMP, and only a few cases was caused by both of M. ovipneumoniae and the members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in Sichuan province.

  20. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  1. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  2. Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman; Vikas Goya; Hosmar Ganesh Shenoy

    2015-01-01

    The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus). The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...

  3. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Développement de la production et des marchés de viande caprine et systèmes d’innovation : Présentation de quelques exemples dans plusieurs régions du monde et enseignements sur les facteurs de réussite de ces initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Dubeuf, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Le marché de la viande caprine a été longtemps limité à l’autoconsommation ou aux marchés locaux. Dans de nombreuses régions du monde et face à la demande croissante de viande, ce marché connait actuellement de profondes mutations et la viande caprine connait un véritable engouement. Ces changements ont commencé à modifier les représentations que les institutions et la société avaient de ces activités, longtemps perçues comme marginales. Ils nécessitent par ailleurs des réorganisations au niv...

  6. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  7. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2005-01-01

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  8. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  9. Prevalência para tuberculose caprina no semi-árido paraibano Prevalence for caprine tuberculosis in semi-arid of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkyria Antunes Pignata

    2009-07-01

    and ages from 84 herds in the microregion of Monteiro, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil, were tuberculinized by the Comparative Cervical Test (CCT. Interpretation of the CCT was checked by calculation of the difference obtained between skin measures correspondent to respective tuberculins, before and 72 hours after inoculation: negative, when bovine PPD is smaller than avian PPD or larger in up to 1.8mm; suspicious or inconclusive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than avian PPD between 1.9 and 2.4mm; positive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than or equal to avian PPD in 2.5mm. From goats submitted to CCT, 0.47% (9/1866 reacted positively (95% CI = 0.23%-0.94%. The prevalence of positive herds to caprine tuberculosis was 10.71% (95% CI = 5.02-19.37%. When submitted to necropsy and histopathologic examination, a positive goat at tuberculin test presented tuberculosis-like lesions. The presence of Acid-Alcohol Resistant Bacilli (BAAR was also detected by direct bacterioscopy; in relation to herd size, herds with larger number of animals ( >25 with high incidence of the disease, and presence of the infection was evidenced in properties that raised cattle in association with goats and did not carry out tuberculin tests in cattle.

  10. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  11. Utilization of solar electric fence for containment of caprine in familiar production of the Pernambuco semi-arid region; Utilizacao de cerca eletrica solar para confinamento de caprinos na producao familiar do semi-arido pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Costa Neto, Guilherme [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: naper@ufpe.br; Araujo, Kassia; Silva, Gerson Flavio da; Raquel, Karine [ONG NAPER SOLAR, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Projetos], Email: nsolar@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Studies and Projects - Naper Solar is an NGO, which works for the dissemination of use of alternative energies resources in the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast in collaboration with the Federal University of Pernambuco. It has implemented caprine raising systems in the back lands of Pajeu in the State of Pernambuco making use of electrified fences energized by solar energy.This project was executed in a joint effort with the City Halls of Afogados da Ingazeira e Sao Jose do Egito and the NGOs Diaconia and the Northeast Woman House and has benefited 20 families of farmers from 9 rural communities. It is funded by a Technical Cooperation Program established between the National Fund for the Environment - Ministry for the Environment and the Netherlands Government. The implemented system, in opposition to the traditional extensive production system, allow for a more animal sanitary control - minimizing the risks of contamination; a more controlled and balanced feeding system - taking into account the weight gaining factor together with pasture management, leading the a guarantee of food supply for the animals. Other advantages of this system include the reduction of fence cost and less deforesting. Electrical fences used in the contention of caprine are built with only 4 straight wires, fixed with isolators on wood posts spaced 10 m from each other, while the conventional fences use 9 barbed-wire lines fixed with clamps on posts spaced 1 m from each other. Therefore, the use of electrical fences instead of the conventional one represent a cost reduction, which can go as high as 40 % of the total cost. Besides that the electrical fences have low maintenance cost, easier and faster installation and relocation. The fenced areas vary from 0.5 ha to 4 ha for the raising of 5 to 50 animals. In the electrification of a fence one needs one photovoltaic module, one electrifier, a battery, isolators (passage and corner), electric ground rods and a thunderbolt

  12. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  14. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  15. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  16. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  17. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    OpenAIRE

    Stahel, Anina B J; Rhea Baggenstos; Monika Engels; Martina Friess; Mathias Ackermann

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine her...

  18. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. 甘肃河西四地市羊泰勒虫病的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey of ovine and caprine Theileria parasite infection in Hexi Region of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟林明; 罗建勋; 殷宏; 余四九; 李有全; 何海宁; 李志; 刘志杰; 陈泽; 杨吉飞; 关贵全; 牛庆丽

    2012-01-01

    A total of 453 blood samples of sheep and goats were collected from Hexi Region of Gansu Province from 2011 to 2012 and detected using microexamination approach. Genomic DNAs were prepared from the samples and amplified using primers specific to Theileria spp. The 18 S rRNA sequences from the positive samples were obtained and used for BLAST analysis. Based on the PCR results, the positive rate of T. luwenshuni of goats and sheep were found as 64% (32/50) and 56 % (28/50),respectively, and the posi- tive rate of T. uilenbergi were 58% and 56%, respectively,which were only found in Tianzhu County of Wuwei City. None Theileria infection found in Sunan County of Zhangye City, Yongchang County of Jinchang City,and Jiayuguan City. The microexamination results showed that the positive rate of Theileria spp. of goats and sheep were 38% (19/50) and 34% (17/50) in Tianzhu County, respectively,while no Theileria spp. found in other three counties. The study demonstrated that the prevalence and infection situation of ovine and caprine theileriosis varied markedly in Hexi Region, and the result will be useful for guiding comprehensive prevention and control of ovine and caprine theileriosis in the region.%利用血液涂片染色镜检,对2011年至2012年采集的453份羊血液样品进行了检测,同时,提取该血液样品的基因组,用泰勒虫特异引物进行PCR扩增,确定上述地区羊群的羊泰勒虫感染率,并对优势虫种进行18SrRNA基因的特异扩增和测序分析。PCR检测结果表明,在武威市天祝藏族自治县,山羊和绵羊中吕氏泰勒虫的阳性率分别为64%和56%,尤氏泰勒虫的阳性率分别为58%和56%;而在张掖市肃南裕固族自治县、金昌市永昌县和嘉峪关市样品中没有检测到羊泰勒虫。血液涂片染色镜检显示,天祝藏族自治县山羊和绵羊的羊泰勒虫感染率分别为38%和34%,在其余3县市,没有检测到羊泰勒虫。调查证实在河西地区4地市,羊泰勒虫病

  20. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estações do ano Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Amorim

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dejetos produzidos por caprinos, em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e submetidos ao mesmo regime alimentar, nas quatro estações do ano. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito das estações do ano sobre a digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de caprinos em biodigestores modelo batelada com volume útil de 60 L de substrato em fermentação e mantidos sob temperatura ambiente. Foram avaliadas as produções de biogás, as reduções de sólidos voláteis (SV, os potenciais de produção (m³ de biogás/kg de substrato, de estrume, de sólidos totais (ST ou sólidos voláteis, os números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, e a composição do biogás. As reduções de SV foram de 38; 34; 33 e 39% para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Os totais de biogás produzidos foram de 1,06 m³ no verão, 0,88 m³ no outono, 0,88 m³ no inverno e 0,99 m³ na primavera, e os potenciais de produção médios foram de 0,02 m³ de biogás/kg de substrato e 0,2 m³ de biogás/kg de estrume para todas as estações. As reduções médias de coliformes totais e fecais foram de 99,99% em todas as estações, e os teores máximos de CH4 no biogás foram 88,3; 84,6; 80,6 e 79,2%, para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente.The dejections produced by caprines were used, in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year.This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS reduction, the potential production (m³ of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS or VS, the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38; 34; 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m³ in Summer

  1. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  2. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  3. Respostas fisiológicas de caprinos de diferentes grupos genéticos no semi-árido paraibano Fisiological responses of the caprines from different genetic groups in the semi-arid of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio Benicio de Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento na Estação Experimental de Pendência pertencente à EMEPA-PB, localizada no Município de Soledade-PB, com o objetivo de avaliar os parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos de caprinos de diferentes grupos genéticos sob as condições do semi-árido. Foram utilizados 30 caprinos machos inteiros, com peso médio de 25,17 kg, sendo seis animais de cada grupo genético: ½ Boer + ½ SRD (BO, ½ Anglo-Nubiana + ½ SRD (AN, ½ Savana + ½ SRD (SA, ½ Kalarari + ½ SRD (KA e ½ Moxotó + ½ SRD (MO. Verificou-se efeito significativo (PThis experiment was realized in Pendencia's experimental station of EMEPA-PB in Soledade- PB city. It aimed to avaliate the fisiological and hematological parameters of caprines from diferent genetic groups in the semi-arid conditions. Thirty males weithing about 25,17 kg were used, being six animals from each genetic group: ½ Boer + ½ SRD (BO, ½ Anglo-Nubiana + ½ SRD (AN, ½ Savana + ½ SRD (SA, ½ Kalarari + ½ SRD (KA e ½ Moxotó + ½ SRD (MO. It was verified significative effect (P<0,05 among the genetic groups for breathing frequency and hematocrit. The BO presented breathing frequency more elevated (P<0,05 than the AN and MO; and its hematocrit was less elevated (P<0,05 than the MO. The period affects sifgnificatively (P<0,05 the rectal temperature and breathing frequency, being the superior averages in the afternoon period. For the other parameters there were not significative differences among the genetic groups studied. Besides this, it can be concluded that the studied animals are adaptaded to the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  4. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  5. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  6. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  7. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  9. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  11. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  12. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  14. Taming influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems allow the artificial generation of viruses with cloned cDNA-derived genomes. Since the establishment of such systems for influenza virus, numerous attempts have been made to tame this pathogenic agent. In particular, several types of viruses expressing foreign genes have been generated and used to further our knowledge of influenza virus replication and pathogenicity and to develop novel influenza vaccines. Here, we review these achievements and discuss ...

  15. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  16. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  17. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  19. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  20. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  1. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  2. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  3. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  4. Online identification of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaskar, A S; Naik, P S

    2000-06-01

    A computerized animal virus information system is developed in the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) format. This database is available on the Word Wide Web (WWW) at the site http://bioinfo.ernet.in/www/avis/avis++ +.html. The database has been used to generate large number of identification matrices for each family. The software is developed in C. Unix shell scripts and Hypertext Marked-up Language (HTML) to assign the family to an unknown virus deterministically and to identify the virus probabilistically. It has been shown that such web based virus identification approach provides results with high confidence in those cases where identification matrix uses large number of independent characters. Protein sequence data for animal viruses have been analyzed and oligopeptides specific to each virus family and also specific to each virus species are identified for several viruses. These peptides thus could be used to identify the virus and to assign the virus family with high confidence showing the usefulness of sequence data in virus identification. PMID:10917875

  5. Alterações oftálmicas associadas à intoxicação experimental por closantel em caprinos Ophthalmic changes associated with the experimental poisoning by closantel in caprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ecco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterações oftálmicas foram experimentalmente induzidas em caprinos após superdosagem com o anti-helmíntico closantel. Foram usados cinco caprinos com sete a oito meses de idade, produtos do cruzamento da raça Saanen com a Pardo Alpino. Os animais mostraram sinais de intoxicação entre quatro e cinco dias após a administração do closantel. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se principalmente por distúrbios neurológicos centrais e cegueira. Ao exame clínico, observaram-se midríase bilateral, perda do reflexo pupilar à luz e cegueira bilateral. À oftalmoscopia indireta, foram observadas degeneração aguda de retina e papiledema. As alterações crônicas mostravam disco óptico acinzentado, atrofia de vasos e da retina. Nos fundos tapetal e não-tapetal notavam-se áreas de despigmentação e lesões irregulares castanho-amareladas. As alterações histológicas consistiam em perda dos neurônios da camada ganglionar e das células da camada nuclear interna e externa da retina. As alterações agudas no nervo óptico e na substância branca do encéfalo foram de degeneração espongiforme. As alterações crônicas do nervo óptico caracterizavam-se por extensa necrose e infiltração de células Gitter.Ophthalmic alterations were experimentally induced after overdose with the anthelmintic closantel. Five seven to eight- months-old, Saanen x Alpine caprine were used. The animals showed clinical signs of toxicosis four to five days after the administration of closantel. Clinical signs were primarily characterized by central nervous disturbances and blindness. Clinically, bilateral mydriasis, loss of pupillary light reflex, and blindness were observed. At indirect ophthalmoscopic examination, there was acute retinal degeneration and papilledema. Chronic ocular changes consisted of paleness of the optic disc, vascular atrophy, and retinal atrophy. Areas of pigment loss and irregular yellowish-brown foci were present in the tapetal

  6. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  7. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  8. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  9. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  10. The Influenza Virus Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Rachelle; Webster, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza continue to challenge both scientists and clinicians. Drug-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses have dominated the 2009 flu season, and the H5N1 avian influenza virus continues to kill both people and poultry in Eurasia. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and transmissibility of influenza viruses and we emphasize the need to find better predictors of both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza.

  11. Endocytosis of influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lakadamyali, Melike; Rust, Michael J.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is known to play an important role in the entry of many viruses into host cells. However, the exact internalization mechanism has, until recently, remained poorly understood for many medically important viruses, including influenza. Developments in real-time imaging of single viruses as well as the use of dominant negative mutants to selectively block specific endocytic pathways, have improved our understanding of the influenza infection process.

  12. Filamentous influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Dadonaite, Bernadeta; Vijyakrishnan, Swetha; Fodor, Ervin; Bhella, David; Hutchinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of influenza virus produce pleomorphic virus particles, including extremely long filamentous virions. In contrast, strains of influenza that have adapted to laboratory growth typically produce only spherical virions. As a result, the filamentous phenotype has been overlooked in most influenza virus research. Recent advances in imaging and improved animal models have highlighted the distinct structure and functional relevance of filamentous virions. In this review we summaris...

  13. The virus of management

    OpenAIRE

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way of describing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledge production. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basic distinctions that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable engines of organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized by stability i...

  14. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  15. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  16. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  17. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  18. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27287356

  20. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  1. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  2. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  3. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Vincent J. Munster

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated

  4. Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

  5. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  6. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  7. [Diagnosis of caprine contagious pleuropneumonia: recent improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaucourt, F; Guérin, C; Mady, V; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-09-01

    Due to the difficulty in isolating Mycoplasma sp. type F38, two techniques for rapid detection are proposed in order to identify the presence of mycoplasmas of the mycoides group in samples of pleural fluid. A modification in the composition of isolation media promotes the growth of type F38 mycoplasmas and inhibits the growth of M. ovipneumoniae strains.

  8. Permanent Urethrostomy for Treatment of Caprine Hypospadias

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Azari; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Ladan Emadi

    2010-01-01

    Hypospadias, a more extreme form of congenital urethral defect, is seen in young phenotypically male goats. In hypospadias, the urethra remains open on the ventral surface of the penis and is visible externally on the preputial midline. Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical treatment outcome in hypopadiac kids. Approach: Thirty six male goat kids with sings of hypospadias were referred to the Animal Hospital of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Kerman, Iran. T...

  9. Permanent Urethrostomy for Treatment of Caprine Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias, a more extreme form of congenital urethral defect, is seen in young phenotypically male goats. In hypospadias, the urethra remains open on the ventral surface of the penis and is visible externally on the preputial midline. Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical treatment outcome in hypopadiac kids. Approach: Thirty six male goat kids with sings of hypospadias were referred to the Animal Hospital of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Kerman, Iran. The age of patients ranged from one week to 3 months old. The kids were showed symptoms of dysuria and stranguria, during urination. Urine leaked into the subcutaneous tissue of ventral abdominal wall and prepuce. Surgical reconstruction is the only possible therapeutic option for hypospadias. In the current study, permanent urethrostomy operation was carried out for treatment of all kids. Results: Two weeks after surgery the goat kids were in good condition. After 2 months, no significant postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion: Permanent urethrostomy is a reliable technique to treatment of hypospadiac kids.

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Tweet Share Compartir CDC's Ongoing Work to Contain Ebola in West Africa The Road to Zero: CDC’s ...

  11. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available. Prevention Mosquito bites Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. This can be done by wearing ...

  12. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  13. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  14. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  15. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1) infection in MDBK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Melina; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Otth, Carola; Olavarría, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and cattle industry; however, little is known about the protective and pathological responses of hosts to infection. The present study determined the principal molecular markers implicated in viral infection through meta-transcriptomic analysis using MDBK cells infected for two hours with a field isolate of BVDV-1. While several immune regulator genes were induced, genes involved in cell signaling, metabolic processes, development, and integrity were down-regulated, suggesting an isolation of infected cells from cell-to-cell interactions and responses to external signals. Analysis through RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of more than one hundred markers. Interestingly, there was a significant up-regulation of two negative NF-κB regulators, IER3 and TNFAIP3, indicating a possible blocking of this signaling pathway mediated by BVDV-1 infection. Additionally, several genes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species were down-regulated, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Notably, a number of genes involved in cellular growth and development were also regulated during infection, including MTHFD1L, TGIF1, and Brachyury. Moreover, there was an increased expression of the genes β-catenin, caprin-2, GSK3β, and MMP-7, all of which are crucial to the Wnt signaling pathway that is implicated in the embryonic development of a variety of organisms. This meta-transcriptomic analysis provides the first data towards understanding the infection mechanisms of cytopathic BVDV-1 and the putative molecular relationship between viral and host components. PMID:26919728

  17. Ebola Virus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    PV Bhargavan; PV Shiji; Jare Jagannath Udhavrao; Nagaraj Desai

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is named after the river in the former Zaire where a haemorrhagic fever initially identified in 1976 involved human to human transmission, as well as spread by contaminated injection equipments. Ebola virus causes an acute febrile illness associated with a high mortality rate. The illness is characterized by multi-system involvement that begins with abrupt onset of headache, myalgia, fever and proceeds to prostration, rash, shock and bleeding manifestation.

  18. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  19. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  1. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  2. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  3. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  4. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  5. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  6. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 on in vitro survival of caprine preantral follicles Efeito da proteína morfogenética óssea 7 (BMP-7 para a sobrevivência in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdevane R. Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to verify the effect of different concentrations of BMP-7 in the in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles. Fragments of caprine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ supplemented with different concentrations of BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 or 100ng/ml. Non-cultured fragments or those cultured for 1 or 7 days were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Parameters such as follicular survival, activation and growth were evaluated. The results showed that, after 1 or 7 days of culture, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly reduced in all treatments when compared with fresh control, except at 1ng/ml of BMP-7 for 1 day. In addition, the concentration of 10ng/ml of BMP-7 significantly increases follicular diameter from day 1 to 7 of culture. There was no influence of the other concentrations of BMP-7 regarding to the follicular and oocyte diameter. Ultrastructure studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in 1ng/ml BMP-7. In conclusion, small concentrations of BMP-7 can improve the survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles during in vitro culture.O presente trabalho foi conduzido de modo a se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da BMP-7 no desenvolvimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos. Fragmentos de tecido cortical ovariano caprino foram cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias em Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 ou 100ng/ml. Os fragmentos não cultivados ou aqueles cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM, sendo avaliados parâmetros morfológicos indicativos de viabilidade, ativação e crescimento. Os resultados mostraram que o percentual de folículos morfologicamente normais diminuiu significativamente em

  7. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    HiroyukiTsukagoshi; TaiseiIshioka

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus (HEV) infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it ...

  8. Progress on ovine lentivirus and its resistant genes%羊慢病毒及其抗性基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管峰; 石国庆; 赵进; 王一民

    2014-01-01

    羊慢病毒也称小反刍动物慢病毒,主要包括绵羊梅迪–维斯纳病毒和山羊关节炎–脑炎病毒,二者主要感染绵羊和山羊,目前该病在世界范围内流行并给养羊业带来很大的经济损失。研究表明,不同绵羊品种对慢病毒易感性存在差异,这种差异表明易感性不同的绵羊可能存在遗传多样性的差异。全基因组关联分析发现绵羊跨膜蛋白TMEM154(Transmembrane protein 154)基因中的一个点突变E35K与抗病力高度相关,可以作为绵羊抗病选育的分子标记。文章详述了绵羊TMEM154基因E35K突变对抗病力的影响和当前慢病毒抗病基因研究概况,包括锌指家族、趋化因子受体CCR5、三重基序蛋白TRIM5α、载脂蛋白B mRNA剪辑酶催化多肽样蛋白3、多能发育相关基因2和4,并简要介绍了羊慢病毒特征和我国羊慢病毒病的流行状况,以期为我国绵羊养殖业和抗病选育提供参考。%Ovine lentivirus, also termed as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), includesmaedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), which can infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are wide spread throughout the world causing serious economic implications for animal industry. Breed differences in susceptibility to MVV had suggested a strong genetic diversity in sheep. Genome wide association study (GWAS) indicated that a SNP (E35K) in ovine transmemebrane protein 154 (TMEM154) gene was significantly associated with sheep resistance to MVV and can be used as a molecular marker in sheep resistant selection breeding. Here, we review the progress of E35K mutation in sheep TMEM154 gene and its effects on resistance to MVV, and other lentivirusresistant genes including zinc finger cluster, chemokine reveptor 5 (CCR5), tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α), apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypetide like 3 (APOBEC3), developmental pluripotencyassociated 2 (DPPA2) and DPPA4

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  11. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  12. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  13. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  15. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  16. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  17. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. PMID:27154393

  18. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  19. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  20. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  1. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  2. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

      The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses. Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life. Archaeal viruses are characterized by a particularly

  3. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  4. Elucidating virus uptake and fusion by single virus tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Dorothee Carolin

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are known to cause many diseases, from the common cold and cold sores to more serious diseases such as the Ebola virus disease and AIDS. Viruses have evolved different strategies to enter and infect cells. In order to infect a cell, viruses have to overcome the cell membrane barrier to deliver their genome to the site of replication. Enveloped viruses can either fuse directly at the plasma membrane or with an endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. In this work, I studied the early...

  5. Relationship of lychnis ringspot virus to barley stripe mosaic virus and poa semilatent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, B G; Smith, J; Fattouh, F; Jackson, A O

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), poa semilatent virus (PSLV), and lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV) have previously been assigned to the hordeivirus group because of similarities in their particle morphology, physicochemical properties and serological analyses. However, the serological relationships of the three viruses have not been determined by direct comparison. The present study evaluated the relatedness of these viruses by Western and dot immunoblotting and by nucleic acid hybridizations. Serological analyses of the coat proteins separated by gel electrophoresis and of intact virus particles bound to nitrocellulose membranes revealed that BSMV and PSLV are distantly related, but that they are more closely related to each other than to LRSV. The genomic RNAs of the viruses failed to cross-hybridize in northern hybridization tests conducted at different temperatures. These comparisons showed that BSMV, PSLV and LRSV are distinct viruses with little nucleotide sequence relatedness. Thus our data provide additional support for their inclusion as separate members of the hordeivirus group. PMID:2722469

  6. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  7. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo E.; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miquel; López López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  8. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  9. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV, a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN and chikungunya (CHIK, in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  10. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Pratip Shil; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global sce...

  11. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  12. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  13. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  14. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  15. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...... pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways....

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  17. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...... of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...

  18. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...... of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...

  19. Research on computer virus database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  20. Viruses, Artificial Viruses and Virus-Based Structures for Biomedical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick; Schirhagl, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Nanobiomaterials such as virus particles and artificial virus particles offer tremendous opportunities to develop new biomedical applications such as drug- or gene-delivery, imaging and sensing but also improve understanding of biological mechanisms. Recent advances within the field of virus-based s

  1. Viruses and febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    We conclude that viral infections are the main cause of febrile seizures, with an important role for influenza A, HHV-6 and HHV-7. We showed that several viral infections not only contribute to initial febrile seizures, but also to recurrences. Viruses could not be detected in the CSF of children wi

  2. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  3. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  4. Virus spread in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  5. The Virus Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Panda, a computer infection that wreaked havoc on computers across China, brought attention to the country’s underground computer virus business, but it was just the tip of a growing iceberg The cute and cuddly panda, a nation- al treasure of China

  6. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  7. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  8. Proposal for designation of F38-type caprine mycoplasmas as Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. and consequent obligatory relegation of strains currently classified as M. capricolum (Tully, Barile, Edward, Theodore, and Ernø 1974) to an additional new subspecies, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R H; Ernø, H; MacOwan, K J

    1993-07-01

    A subspecies relationship with the existing species Mycoplasma capricolum is appropriate for the F38 group of mycoplasmas, the causative agent of classical contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We believe that this classification is justified on the basis of the close DNA-DNA relationship recently reported for isolates belonging to the two groups and the other known serological and biological similarities and differences of these organisms. Strain F38T (T = type strain) and taxonomically indistinguishable strains are therefore proposed as members of a new subspecies of M. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Strain F38 (= NCTC 10192) is the type strain of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. As a consequence of this subdivision of the species M. capricolum, strains previously classified as M. capricolum are now necessarily relegated to subspecies status, as M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov. Strain California kid (= ATCC 27343 = NCTC 10154) is the type strain of M. capricolum, as well as of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. A taxonomic description of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and a brief amended description of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum are presented. PMID:8347517

  9. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eTsukagoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory illness (ARI due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, and human enterovirus (HEV infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.

  10. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  11. Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis. PMID:27387029

  12. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Drosten, Christian; Göttig, Stephan; Schilling, Stefan; Asper, Marcel; Panning, Marcus; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcripti...

  13. Vade retro virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bardini, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Avec l’aide de récents résultats de la virologie, le présent article se concentre sur les virus en tant que participants d’une possible redéfinition de la frontière inférieure de la vie, en tant que vie minimale. À l’heure du triomphe de la viralité dans la cyberculture contemporaine, l’auteur avance que l’on devrait considérer les virus comme les premières formes d’entités convergentes, c’est-à-dire existant par-delà la division du monde en deux phases distinctes et incompatibles, numérique ...

  14. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26774254

  15. Ebola, the killer virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazanfar, Haider; Orooj, Fizza; Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has mostly affected economically deprived countries as limited resources adversely affect a country’s infrastructure and administration. Probing into the factors that led to the widespread outbreak, setting forth plans to counter EVD cases in developing countries, and devising definitive measures to limit the spread of the disease are essential steps that must be immediately taken. In this review we summarize the pathogenesis of EVD and the factors that led to its sp...

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  17. Viruses and drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R Y

    1997-01-01

    There is no evidence to indicate that there is a risk of acquiring a virus infection through the consumption of properly treated drinking water, provided the integrity of the distribution system is maintained and there is no post-treatment contamination. The consumption of inadequately treated, untreated or post-treatment contaminated water is, however, associated with a risk of hepatitis A, hepatitis E and viral gastroenteritis. The use of the standard bacterial indicators for water monitori...

  18. Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z

    1987-01-01

    A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117

  19. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  20. Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well ...

  1. Photoreactivation of a Cytoplasmic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boyle, Mary K.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. A cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. Since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embryo cells. PMID:5062749

  2. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  3. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus Updated! How do people catch Zika virus? ...

  4. Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika virus, a new study says. Early stage laboratory findings ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dengue ...

  5. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  6. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  7. Zika virus : epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, S.; Pompon, J.; Diop, F.; Talignani, L.; Thomas, F; Desprès, P; Yssel, H; Missé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

  8. Reverse genetics with animal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reverse genetics of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSV), which allows generation of recombinant viruses entirely from cloned cDNA, has progressed rapidly in the past decade. NSV are a large and diverse group of enveloped viruses of both medical and veterinary importance. They differ widely in morphology, genome structure and host interactions. The first NSV that was completely amenable to genetic manipulation is the neurotropathogenic rabies virus of the rhabdovirus family. In subsequent years, vesicular stomatitis virus and a number of viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, including viruses causing important animal diseases such as rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), succumbed to genetic engineering. The ability to genetically manipulate NSV opens a wide range of possibilities to study the virus biology and develop improved vaccines. Identification and analysis of attenuating mutations using the recombinant system could lead to generation of safe vaccine strains. Introduction of one of the previously studied mutation into an infectious rabies virus (RV) clone by replacing the arginine at position 333 of RV glycoprotein (G-protein) by an aspartic acid resulted in a dramatic attenuation. Combination of this mutation with a deletion that eliminates the interaction between RV P-protein and the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (LC8), which is presumably involved in retrograde transport of RV, further attenuates the rabies virus by 30-fold after intramuscular inoculation. Since extreme attenuation may adversely affect immunogenicity, reverse genetics was used to introduce an additional Gprotein to the step-wise attenuated RV to increase its effectiveness. The resultant recombinant virus may be helpful in developing a highly safe and effective live RV vaccine for oral immunizations of animals. Reverse genetics of NSV has also helped in providing

  9. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldufsky, Joe; Sivendran, Shanthi; Harcharik, Sara; Pan, Michael; Bernardo, Sebastian; Stern, Richard H; Friedlander, Philip; Ruby, Carl E; Saenger, Yvonne; Kaufman, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers.

  10. Ebola Virus-Related Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greslan, Thierry; Billhot, Magali; Rousseau, Claire; Mac Nab, Christine; Karkowski, Ludovic; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Bordes, Julien; Gagnon, Nicolas; Dubrous, Philippe; Duron, Sandrine; Moroge, Sophie; Quentin, Benoit; Koulibaly, Fassou; Bompaire, Flavie; Renard, Jean-Luc; Cellarier, Gilles

    2016-10-15

    Ebola patients frequently exhibit behavioral modifications with ideation slowing and aggressiveness, sometimes contrasting with mild severity of Ebola disease. We performed lumbar punctures in 3 patients with this presentation and found Ebola virus in all cerebrospinal fluid samples. This discovery helps to discuss the concept of a specific Ebola virus encephalitis. PMID:27418576

  11. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  12. El virus del zika

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es hacer una revisión sobre los datos conocidos actualmente relacionados con la infección por el virus Zika y sus consecuencias a nivel neurológico en el desarrollo fetal. La prevención se vuelve esencial contra esta enfermedad: Al no existir vacuna disponible, la actuación debe centrarse en evitar la picadura del mosquito, especialmente aquellas mujeres embarazadas. Las cifras actuales de infectados, y las de bebés nacidos con microcefalia resultan...

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  14. [Classification of viruses by computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, O N; Andzhaparidze, O G; Kibardin, V M; Nazarova, G M; Pleteneva, E A

    1982-01-01

    The study used the information mass containing information on 83 viruses characterized by 41 markers. The suitability of one of the variants of cluster analysis for virus classification was demonstrated. It was established that certain stages of automatic allotment of viruses into groups by the degree of similarity of their properties end the formation of groups which consist of viruses sufficiently close to each other by their properties and are sufficiently isolated. Comparison of these groups with the classification proposed by the ICVT established their correspondence to individual families. Analysis of the obtained classification system permits sufficiently grounded conclusions to be drawn with regard to the classification position of certain viruses, the classification of which has not yet been completed by the ICVT.

  15. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  16. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  17. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.

  18. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidis, George; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Meraner, Paul; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-14

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses. PMID:27268505

  19. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  20. Defective interfering particles of Sindbis virus do not interfere with the homologous virus obtained from persistently infected BHK cells but do interfere with Semliki Forest virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, B; Schlesinger, S

    1981-01-01

    Defective interfering particles derived from wild-type Sindbis virus no longer interfere with the infectious virus cloned from BHK cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus for 16 months. These particles do interfere with the replication of Semliki Forest virus.

  1. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldufsky J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Joe Goldufsky,1 Shanthi Sivendran,3 Sara Harcharik,4 Michael Pan,4 Sebastian Bernardo,4 Richard H Stern,5 Philip Friedlander,4 Carl E Ruby,1,2 Yvonne Saenger,4 Howard L Kaufman1,2 Departments of 1Immunology & Microbiology and 2Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago IL, USA 3Hematology/Oncology Medical Specialists, Lancaster General Health, Lancaster, PA, USA, and Departments of 4Medical Oncology and 5Radiology, Tisch Cancer Institute, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers. Keywords: cancer, gene therapy, oncolytic therapy, virus, treatment

  2. A new looming of Zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation fr...

  3. Towards the Epidemiological Modeling of Computer Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofan Yang; Lu-Xing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic dynamics of computer viruses is an emerging discipline aiming to understand the way that computer viruses spread on networks. This paper is intended to establish a series of rational epidemic models of computer viruses. First, a close inspection of some common characteristics shared by all typical computer viruses clearly reveals the flaws of previous models. Then, a generic epidemic model of viruses, which is named as the SLBS model, is proposed. Finally, diverse generalizations of ...

  4. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980’s...

  5. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz; Angela eVazquez-Calvo; Ana Belen Blazquez; Teresa eMerino-Ramos; Estela eEscribano-Romero; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s...

  6. New insights of Sacbrood virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxiao; Ma

    2014-01-01

    <正>Over the last several years,major efforts have been expended to study viral infection of honeybees mainly due to colony losses around the world(Allen M,et al.,1996).It seems that honeybees are infected with numerous viruses mounting to 18so far.Infection may be asymptomatic but could still have adverse effects on the bee and may even cause death resulting in colony collapse.Sacbrood virus(SBV)is the most widely distributed of all honey bee viruses.

  7. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  8. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  10. Cryptovirology: Virus Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivale Saurabh Anandrao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, "Cryptography" is a benediction to information processing and communications, it helps people to store information securely and the private communications over long distances. Cryptovirology is the study of applications of cryptography to build the malicious software. It is an investigation, how modern cryptographic tools and paradigms can be used to strengthen, develop and improve new malicious software attacks. Cryptovirology attacks have been categorized as : give malware enhanced privacy andbe more robust against reverse-engineering, secondly give the attacker enhanced anonymity while communicating with deployed malware. This paper presents the idea of ``Cryptovirology'' which introduce a twist on how cryptography can also be used offensively. Being offensive means, it can be used to mount extortion based attacks that cause loss of access to information, loss of confidentiality, and information leakage, tasks which cryptography usually prevents. Also analyze threats and attacks that misuse of cryptography can cause when combined with fraudulent software (viruses, Trojans. Public-keycryptography is very essential for the attacks that based on cryptovirology. This paper also suggest some of the countermeasures, mechanisms to cope with and prevent such attacks. Even if the attackers actions on the host machine are being monitored, it still cannot be proven beyond reasonable doubt that he or she is the attacker; and it is an “originator-concealing attack”. Evidence should be collected from the “author’s own system which was used for the attack”. These attacks have implications on how the use ofcryptographic tools and techniques should be audited and managed in general purpose computing environments, and imply that access to the cryptographic tools should be in well control of the system(such as API routines. The experimental virus would demonstrate how cryptographic packages can be packed into a small space, which may

  11. Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, J S; Trimmer, R; Arnstein, P; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation...

  12. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  13. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine DNA differs from the parental virus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, J R; Hyman, R W

    1981-01-01

    The DNAs of a varicella-zoster virus vaccine and its parental virus were compared by CsCl buoyant density centrifugation and restriction enzyme cleavage analysis. The varicella-zoster virus vaccine DNA showed a heterogeneous buoyant profile and altered restriction enzyme cleavage patterns. These changed properties are probably the result of the accumulation of virus containing defective varicella-zoster virus DNA during extensive cell culture passage of the vaccine virus.

  14. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  15. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  16. Crenarchaeal Viruses: Morphotypes and Genomes,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, P.; Basta, P.; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2008-01-01

    not been observed among viruses from the other two domains of life, the Bacteria and the Eukarya. Also the sequences of circular and linear genomes of crenarchaeal viruses are remarkable because the vast majority of predicted genes have no homologs in the public sequence databases. Viruses...... of the Crenarchaeota generally do not cause the lysis of the host cells during release of viral progeny and they persist in infected cells in stable carrier state. In accordance with this rather unsophisticated virus-host relationship, the studies of transcription of genes in rudiviruses and fusellovirus SSV1...... demonstrated a simple transcriptional pattern with minimal temporal control. The replication of viral genomes has not been studied experimentally. Nevertheless, some plausible predictions about possible replication strategies could be made based on specific features of several viral genomes. The comparative...

  17. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environm......Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2...... in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...

  18. Validation of Plant Virus Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadewijk, van A.R.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.

    2011-01-01

    Validation of test methods is required for laboratories seeking ISO 17025 accreditation. Recently developed manuals help choosing relevant performance characteristics to be studied for qualitative tests common in plant virus detection. For routine testing in certification schemes additional informat

  19. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  20. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  1. Hendra Virus Re-visited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hume Field

    2009-01-01

    Hendra virus, a novel member of the family Paramyxovirus that has emerged from bats in Australia, causes fatal disease in livestock and humans. Eleven spillover events have been identified since the first description of the virus in 1994, resulting in a total of 37 equine cases and six human cases. All human cases have been attributed to exposure to infected horses; there is no evidence of bat-to-human or human-to-human transmission. Low infectivity and a high case fatality rate are features of Hendra virus infection in both horses and humans. The temporal pattern of spillover events suggests seasonal factors (plausibly be environmental, biological or ecological) as the proximate triggers for spillover. Minimisation of the future occurrence and impact of Hendra virus infections requires an understanding of the ecology of flying foxes, of virus infection dynamics in flying foxes, and of the factors that promote spillover. Management strategies seek to minimize the opportunity for effective contact between bats and horses, and limit potential horse-to-horse and horse-to-human transmission. Incomplete knowledge of the ecology of the virus, of the proximate factors associated with spillover, and the inherent difficulties of effectively managing wild populations, preclude a management approach targeted at bats.

  2. Kinetics of virus production from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2012-03-01

    The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease.

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  4. Zika Virus Infection and Zika Fever: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently asked questions Updated: 25 March 2016 ABOUT ZIKA What is Zika virus infection? Zika virus infection is caused by ... possible to characterize the disease better. How is Zika virus transmitted? Zika virus is transmitted to people ...

  5. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M.; Cartagena-Rivera, A. X.; Lošdorfer Božič, A.; Carrillo, P. J. P.; San Martín, C.; Mateu, M. G.; Raman, A.; Podgornik, R.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of

  6. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  7. The Mode of Net-Virus Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanXiuming; LiYing; JiaoJian; LiuYang; RenYong; QiuBen; CaoYiqun

    2004-01-01

    The computer network is not only of benefit to people, but also helpful for the spreading of viruses. The net-viruses spread more widely and rapidly than the traditional viruses, and network has become the major path of the virus spreading. The author analyzes the mode of the net-virus spreading, including E-mail spreading, positive scanning spreading and through-server spreading. Then some defense strategies in the anti-virus field are introduced, and some countermeasures of the net computer users are discussed.

  8. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    George Savidis; Jill M. Perreira; Jocelyn M. Portmann; Paul Meraner; Zhiru Guo; Sharone Green; Abraham L. Brass

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs mig...

  9. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  10. Towards the Epidemiological Modeling of Computer Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic dynamics of computer viruses is an emerging discipline aiming to understand the way that computer viruses spread on networks. This paper is intended to establish a series of rational epidemic models of computer viruses. First, a close inspection of some common characteristics shared by all typical computer viruses clearly reveals the flaws of previous models. Then, a generic epidemic model of viruses, which is named as the SLBS model, is proposed. Finally, diverse generalizations of the SLBS model are suggested. We believe this work opens a door to the full understanding of how computer viruses prevail on the Internet.

  11. Método eletroforético rápido para detecção da adulteração do leite caprino com leite bovino Fast electrophoretic detection method of adulteration of caprine milk by bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Egito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os métodos de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE em presença de uréia (uréia-PAGE e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE para identificar a adulteração do leite de cabra pela adição do leite de vaca. Um método foi otimizado para preparação do caseinato de sódio em poucos minutos para análise eletroforética. Uréia-PAGE foi o método mais apropriado para identificação desse tipo de fraude, em decorrência da presença da caseína alfas1 com migração mais rápida no leite bovino. A presença da alfas1-caseína bovina foi detectada a partir da adição de 2,5% de leite de vaca utilizando uréia-PAGE. O limite de detecção, a repetibilidade, o tempo para execução indicaram que esse método pode ser aplicado como rotina no controle de qualidade do leite de cabra recebido pelas indústrias de processamento.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of urea (urea-PAGE or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE was evaluated to detect the presence of cow milk added to goat milk. A method was optimized to prepare sodium caseinate from milk in few minutes. After that, the sodium caseinate was analyzed by PAGE. The urea-PAGE was the most appropriated method to identify adulteration as caprine and bovine alphas1-caseins displayed different migration rates. When cow milk was added to goat milk at different proportions, the presence of bovine alphas1-casein was detected in the mixture by urea-PAGE for a minimal proportion of 2.5% of cow milk added to goat milk. The good sensitivity, the repeatability and the short time for execution indicate that the described method will be able to be routinely applied for the quality control of goat milk in dairy industry.

  12. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindović; Nataša Dukić; Aleksandra Bulajić; Jelena Latinović; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2007-01-01

    Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV), Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV) and Potato Virus X(PVX). This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test w...

  13. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  14. Oncolytic virus therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy currently represents one of the most promising approaches to cancer treatment for their dual anticancer mechanisms: direct lysis of cancer cells (oncolytic feature) and activation of the immunosystem (cancer vaccine aspect). The latter demonstrates the advantage of a multi-target approach against multiple tumor-associated antigens. Since the 2005 SFDA (the Chinese FDA) approval for the clinical use of Oncorine™, the first human OV-based cancer treatment, more than 200 patents have been filed worldwide and several Phase I/II studies have been conducted. This patent review analyzes patents and clinical studies of the most promising OV products to highlight the pros and cons of this innovative anticancer approach, which is currently being tested in several cancers (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma and glioblastoma) by systemic as well as intratumoral injection. Clinical results, although effective only for a limited period of time, are encouraging. Combined treatments with radio or chemotherapeutic protocols are also in progress. PMID:24236929

  15. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  16. Hepatitis C virus proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a single polyprotein,which is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides. The HCV genome also contains an overlapping +1 reading frame that may lead to the synthesis of an additional protein. Until recently,studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of a productive cell culture system. Since the identification of HCV genome approximately 17 years ago, structural,biochemical and biological information on HCV proteins has mainly been obtained with proteins produced by heterologous expression systems. In addition, some functional studies have also been confirmed with replicon systems or with retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins. The data that have accumulated on HCV proteins begin to provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the major steps of HCV life cycle. Moreover,the knowledge accumulated on HCV proteins is also leading to the development of antiviral drugs among which some are showing promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions and biochemical features of HCV proteins.

  17. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  18. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  19. Immune based computer virus detection approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.

  20. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  2. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  3. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  4. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  5. Generation of virus like particles for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzan, Mario; Maan, Sushila; Mazzei, Maurizio; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Bonuccelli, Lucia; Calamari, Monica; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cappello, Valentina; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Mertens, Peter P C; Tolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus genome comprises ten segments of linear, double stranded (ds) RNA, which are packaged within each virus particle. The EHDV virion has a three layered capsid-structure, generated by four major viral proteins: VP2 and VP5 (outer capsid layer); VP7 (intermediate, core-surface layer) and VP3 (innermost, sub-core layer). Although EHDV infects cattle sporadically, several outbreaks have recently occurred in this species in five Mediterranean countries, indicating a potential threat to the European cattle industry. EHDV is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, which can travel long distances through wind-born movements (particularly over water), increasing the potential for viral spread in new areas/countries. Expression systems to generate self-assembled virus like particles (VLPs) by simultaneous expression of the major capsid-proteins, have been established for several viruses (including bluetongue virus). This study has developed expression systems for production of EHDV VLPs, for use as non-infectious antigens in both vaccinology and serology studies, avoiding the risk of genetic reassortment between vaccine and field strains and facilitating large scale antigen production. Genes encoding the four major-capsid proteins of a field strain of EHDV-6, were isolated and cloned into transfer vectors, to generate two recombinant baculoviruses. The expression of these viral genes was assessed in insect cells by monitoring the presence of specific viral mRNAs and by western blotting. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the formation and purification of assembled VLPs. PMID:27473984

  6. Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

  7. Dot immunobinding assay for simultaneous detection of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Condorelli; Ziegler, T.

    1993-01-01

    A dot immunobinding assay was used to detect antibodies to measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus antigens. Filter paper soaked with serum or whole blood was directly applied to the antigen-coated nitrocellulose sheets. The test was easy to perform, and its results agreed very well with those obtained by standard enzyme immunoassay.

  8. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  9. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  10. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  11. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  12. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  14. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  15. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental...

  16. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  17. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  18. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  19. Viruses and Sialic Acids: Rules of Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, Ursula; Bauer, Johannes; Stehle, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are initiated by specific attachment of a virus particle to receptors at the surface of the host cell. For many viruses, these receptors are glycans that are linked to either a protein or a lipid. Glycans terminating in sialic acid and its derivatives serve as receptors for a large number of viruses, including several human pathogens. In combination with glycan array analyses, structural analyses of complexes of viruses with sialylated oligosaccharides have provided insights ...

  20. RNA virus genomics: a world of possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C Holmes

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome sequences of RNA viruses has the potential to shed new light on fundamental aspects of their biology. Here, I use case studies of 3 RNA viruses to explore the impact of genomic sequence data, with particular emphasis on influenza A virus. Notably, the studies of RNA virus genomics undertaken to date largely focused on issues of evolution and epidemiology, and they have given these disciplines new impetus. However, genomic data have so far made fe...

  1. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular compone...

  2. Novel hemagglutinin-based influenza virus inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xintian; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Shuwen

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus has caused seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics, which caused tremendous loss of human lives and socioeconomics. Nowadays, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, M2 ion channel inhibitors and neuraminidase inhibitors respectively, are used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection. Unfortunately, influenza virus strains resistant to one or all of those drugs emerge frequently. Hemagglutinin (HA), the glycoprotein in influenza virus envelope, plays a c...

  3. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mam...

  4. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  5. [Zika virus, an emerging threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Sara; Foulongne, Vincent; Loustalot, Fabien; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Briant, Laurence; Nagot, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Simonin, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus, discovered in 1947, is particularly publicized because of its involvement in a major epidemic that began in 2015 and which epicenter is located in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. In the majority of cases (70-80 %) the infection is asymptomatic, however in some patients, moderate fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis and myalgia may occur. More alarming, neurological complications are reported, in particular cases of microcephaly probably resulting from the infection of women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, Guillain-Barré syndromes have also been identified in patients whose infection was confirmed. The extent of the current outbreak reveals the very primitive state of knowledge about the pathophysiology of this virus. Thus, a global effort is being undertaken in order to quickly characterize the molecular interaction of the virus with human cells, but also to develop specific diagnostic assays and vaccinal approaches. PMID:27137695

  6. [Zika virus, an emerging threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Sara; Foulongne, Vincent; Loustalot, Fabien; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Briant, Laurence; Nagot, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Simonin, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus, discovered in 1947, is particularly publicized because of its involvement in a major epidemic that began in 2015 and which epicenter is located in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. In the majority of cases (70-80 %) the infection is asymptomatic, however in some patients, moderate fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis and myalgia may occur. More alarming, neurological complications are reported, in particular cases of microcephaly probably resulting from the infection of women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, Guillain-Barré syndromes have also been identified in patients whose infection was confirmed. The extent of the current outbreak reveals the very primitive state of knowledge about the pathophysiology of this virus. Thus, a global effort is being undertaken in order to quickly characterize the molecular interaction of the virus with human cells, but also to develop specific diagnostic assays and vaccinal approaches.

  7. Virus Dynamics on Starlike Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Thealexa; Kontorovich, Leonid Aryeh; Miller, Steven J; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Shen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The field of epidemiology has presented fascinating and relevant questions for mathematicians, primarily concerning the spread of viruses in a community. The importance of this research has greatly increased over time as its applications have expanded to also include studies of electronic and social networks and the spread of information and ideas. We study virus propagation on a non-linear hub and spoke graph (which models well many airline networks). We determine the long-term behavior as a function of the cure and infection rates, as well as the number of spokes n. For each n we prove the existence of a critical threshold relating the two rates. Below this threshold, the virus always dies out; above this threshold, all non-trivial initial conditions iterate to a unique non-trivial steady state. We end with some generalizations to other networks.

  8. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  9. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Robert J.; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J.

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  10. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  11. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  12. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  13. Computer Viruses and Safe Educational Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmsa, Reza

    1991-01-01

    This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and…

  14. Virus-Like Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Vectors for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy D Reynolds; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, Nina F.; Rose, John K.; Robek, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    More than 500,000 people die each year from the liver diseases that result from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therapeutic vaccines, which aim to elicit an immune response capable of controlling the virus, offer a potential new treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B. Recently, an evolved, high-titer vaccine platform consisting of Semliki Forest virus RNA replicons that express the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) has been described. This platform generates virus...

  15. Antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Norrby, E; Sheshberadaran, H; Rafner, B

    1986-01-01

    Intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. Of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. Immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and RS virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen invol...

  16. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  17. Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Viruses as Novel Nanoplatforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch

    ; attachment, alignment, and fusion. Upon infection, the intracellular replication cycle lasts 8 h at which point the virus particles are released as spindle-shaped tailless particles. Chapter II builds on the replication and purification methods in Chapter I to study the interaction between the two...... nanoplatforms than mammalian viruses because they cannot proliferate in humans and hence are less likely to trigger adverse effects. Another group of viruses that fits this criterion is archaeal viruses yet their potential remains untapped. As a group, archaeal viruses offer distinct advantages such as unique...

  18. A new looming of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease were conjunctivitis (red eyes, back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples.

  19. Radiation Inactivation of Viruses in Infected Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effects of gamma radiation on foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in situ have been studied. The data so far obtained show that a dose of 2 Mrad is required to inactivate virus in infected animal carcasses. But the dose may adversely affect the organoleptic quality of the meat. Experiments in vitro and in situ are necessary to study the effects of ionizing radiation on other viruses, such as rinderpest, swine fever and African swine fever-viruses, associated with animal products. Radiation may offer a possible means of eliminating the virus titre in many animal products and solve consequent quarantine problems. (author)

  20. Identification of Potato Virus Y Strains in Tobacco Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindović; Janoš Berenji; Milena Pauković; Ivana Đekić; Aleksandra Bulajić; Branka Krstić

    2007-01-01

    Five viruses: Potato Virus Y (PVY), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, of which PVY was predominant, were detected by serological testing of tobacco samples collected from many localities in Vojvodina in 2006. Viruses are the most important pathogens in tobacco and PVY causes considerable economic damages all over the world. A PVY population comprises several different strain groups, strain subgroups and recombinant strains. Among ...

  1. Presence and distribution of economically important potato viruses in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindović

    2011-01-01

    The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA) i Potato viru...

  2. Method for detecting viruses in aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, C; Melnick, J L; Rao, V C; Sox, T E

    1985-11-01

    A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. PMID:3004329

  3. Sensitiveness of viruses to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitiveness of viruses to gamma rays was compared using eight viruses suspended with low concentration in drinking water, and four viruses present in high concentrations in tissue culture medium. The results show that the following factors are responsible for the resistance of viruses to gamma rays: 1. type of virus: the specific radiation resistance varied considerably; in general, there was a closer correlation with the general resistance of the virus to chemico-physical influences than with the type of nucleic acid of the virus examined; 2. medium of suspension and state of aggregation: high protein content and lyophilisation increased the resistance to gamma rays widely; 3. virus concentration: the virus reduction by a factor of 10 in suspensions with high virus concentration needed a higher radiation dose compared with suspensions of low virus content. All the results demonstrate the kinetics of inactivation to be a 1st order reaction. The increase of temperature to 410C did not show any significant influence. (orig.)

  4. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  5. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  6. Oncolytic viruses as anticancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman eWoller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  7. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS (

  8. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  9. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  10. A Case of Ebola Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses Ebola virus.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  11. Transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, M.T.W

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. The research described in this thesis focuses on vector-independent BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-independent tr

  12. Enumerating viruses in coral mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Leruste, Amandine; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of viruses inhabiting the coral mucus remains undetermined, as there is no suitable standardized procedure for their separation from this organic matrix, principally owing to its viscosity and autofluorescence. Seven protocols were tested, and the most efficient separations were obtained from a chemical treatment requiring potassium citrate.

  13. Enumerating viruses in coral mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, Amandine; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of viruses inhabiting the coral mucus remains undetermined, as there is no suitable standardized procedure for their separation from this organic matrix, principally owing to its viscosity and autofluorescence. Seven protocols were tested, and the most efficient separations were obtained from a chemical treatment requiring potassium citrate. PMID:22729548

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Nel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Duvenhage virus (DUVV constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

  15. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  16. Microcephaly and the Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Cases of microcephaly brought about by the Zika virus have brought professional and personal challenges for nurses in Brazil. Paediatric nurses, such as Roberta Seabra (pictured), take over as part of the multidisciplinary team once the baby is born. In this article health writer Jacqui Thornton presents some personal stories. PMID:27615590

  17. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient.

  18. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Khanna; P Kumar; K Choudhary; B Kumar; V K Vijayan

    2008-11-01

    Since 1918, influenza virus has been one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children. Though the commonly circulating strain of the virus is not virulent enough to cause mortality, the ability of the virus genome to mutate at a very high rate may lead to the emergence of a highly virulent strain that may become the cause of the next pandemic. Apart from the influenza virus strain circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2), the avian influenza H5N1 H7 and H9 virus strains have also been reported to have caused human infections, H5N1 H7 and H9 have shown their ability to cross the species barrier from birds to humans and further replicate in humans. This review addresses the biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza virus and efforts to have a control on the virus globally.

  19. Carrier cultures of simian foamy virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J K; Samuels, J; Dermott, E; Gay, F W

    1970-05-01

    The production of cultures of HEp-2 and BHK-21 cells persistently infected with a type 1 simian foamy virus is described. After infection, HEp-2 cells showed no structural changes, whereas BHK-21 cells lost their normal spindle shape and showed mitochondrial damage, and some cells contained many lysosomes. Thin sections also showed that a few BHK-21 cells contained virus particles in low concentration, and infectious virus could be isolated from both the cells and the supernatant fluid. No virus was seen in thin sections of HEp-2 cells, although infectious virus in low titer could be recovered intermittently from lysed cells. Both carrier cultures were immune to challenge with homologous virus and antigen could be detected in over 90% of the cells even after growth for 9 weeks in the presence of virus-neutralizing serum. The distribution of antigen in carrier cultures of both cell types is described and compared with that seen in cytocidal infections. PMID:4986851

  20. A Literature Review of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus’s vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  1. Expanding networks of RNA virus evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91

  2. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  3. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  4. Status of tobacco viruses in Serbia and molecular characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, I; Bulajić, A; Vučurović, A; Ristić, D; Milojević, K; Berenji, J; Krstić, B

    2011-01-01

    In a four-year survey to determine the presence and distribution of viruses in tobacco crops at 17 localities of the Vojvodina Province and Central Serbia, 380 samples were collected and analyzed by DAS-ELISA. Out of the seven viruses tested, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), potato virus Y (PVY), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) were detected in 37.9, 33.4, 28.7, 23.9, and 15.5% of the total tested samples, respectively. TSWV was the most frequently found virus at the localities of Central Serbia, while PVY and CMV were the most frequent viruses in the Vojvodina Province. Single infections were prevalent in years 2005-2007 and the most frequent were those of PVY. A triple combination of those viruses was most frequent mixed infection type in 2008. The presence of all five detected viruses was confirmed in selected ELISA-positive samples by RT-PCR and sequencing. The comparisons of obtained virus isolate sequences with those available in NCBI, confirmed the authenticity of serologically detected viruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial nucleocapsid gene sequences revealed a joint clustering of Serbian, Bulgarian and Montenegrin TSWV isolates into one geographic subpopulation, which was distinct from the other subpopulation of TSWV isolates from the rest of the European countries. The high incidence of viruses in Serbian tobacco crops highlights the importance of enhancing farmers knowledge towards better implementation of control strategies for preventing serious losses. PMID:22149499

  5. Increased detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses with real-time PCR in samples from patients with respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C.; van Loon, Anton M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Nijhuis, Monique; Breteler, Els Klein; Schuurman, Rob; Rossen, John W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory samples (n = 267) from hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms were tested by real-time PCR, viral culture, and direct immunofluorescence for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses. Compared with conventional diagnostic tests, real-t

  6. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  7. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  8. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530

  9. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  10. Chloroplast in Plant-Virus Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Zhang, Xian; Hong, Yiguo; Liu, Yule

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the chloroplast is the organelle that conducts photosynthesis. It has been known that chloroplast is involved in virus infection of plants for approximate 70 years. Recently, the subject of chloroplast-virus interplay is getting more and more attention. In this article we discuss the different aspects of chloroplast-virus interaction into three sections: the effect of virus infection on the structure and function of chloroplast, the role of chloroplast in virus infection cycle, and the function of chloroplast in host defense against viruses. In particular, we focus on the characterization of chloroplast protein-viral protein interactions that underlie the interplay between chloroplast and virus. It can be summarized that chloroplast is a common target of plant viruses for viral pathogenesis or propagation; and conversely, chloroplast and its components also can play active roles in plant defense against viruses. Chloroplast photosynthesis-related genes/proteins (CPRGs/CPRPs) are suggested to play a central role during the complex chloroplast-virus interaction. PMID:27757106

  11. Overview of vectors of cereal viruses in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huusela-Veistola, Erja

    2007-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) are the most serious virus diseases of cereals in Finland. BYDV is transmitted by aphids, mainly by bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. OSDV and WDV are leafhopper transmitted viruses.

  12. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  13. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  14. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endoth...

  16. Sequence and Structure Analysis of Distantly-Related Viruses Reveals Extensive Gene Transfer between Viruses and Hosts and among Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Caprari; Saskia Metzler; Thomas Lengauer; Olga V Kalinina

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of viruses is a subject of ongoing debate. In this study, we provide a full account of the evolutionary relationships between proteins of significant sequence and structural similarity found in viruses that belong to different classes according to the Baltimore classification. We show that such proteins can be found in viruses from all Baltimore classes. For protein families that include these proteins, we observe two patterns of the taxonomic spread. In the first pat...

  17. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  18. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  19. Identification of novel viruses using VirusHunter--an automated data analysis pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhao

    Full Text Available Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA. VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens.

  20. Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Moreira, Janaina Matos; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries. The mechanisms underlying these neurological complications are still unknown. Emerging evidence, mainly from in vitro studies, suggests that ZIKV may have direct effects on neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to critically review the literature available regarding the neurobiology of ZIKV and its potential neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:27478378

  1. Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptomatic and consists of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. Recently several molecules with various viral or host targets have been identified as CHIKV inhibitors. In this chapter, we summarize the current status of the development of antiviral strategies against CHIKV infections. PMID:27233277

  2. Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Moreira, Janaina Matos; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries. The mechanisms underlying these neurological complications are still unknown. Emerging evidence, mainly from in vitro studies, suggests that ZIKV may have direct effects on neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to critically review the literature available regarding the neurobiology of ZIKV and its potential neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:27478378

  3. Configuring Symantec AntiVirus

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This is the only book that will teach system administrators how to configure, deploy, and troubleshoot Symantec Enterprise Edition in an enterprise network. The book will reflect Symantec''s philosophy of "Centralized Antivirus Management." For the same reasons that Symantec bundled together these previously separate products, the book will provide system administrators with a holistic approach to defending their networks from malicious viruses. This book will also serve as a Study Guide for those pursuing Symantec Product Specialist Certifications.Configuring Symantec AntiVirus Enterprise Edition contains step-by-step instructions on how to Design, implement and leverage the Symantec Suite of products in the enterprise.ØFirst book published on market leading product and fast-growing certification. Despite the popularity of Symantec''s products and Symantec Product Specialist certifications, there are no other books published or announced.ØLess expensive substitute for costly on-sight training. Symantec off...

  4. Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Moreira, Janaina Matos; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries. The mechanisms underlying these neurological complications are still unknown. Emerging evidence, mainly from in vitro studies, suggests that ZIKV may have direct effects on neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to critically review the literature available regarding the neurobiology of ZIKV and its potential neuropsychiatric manifestations.

  5. Zika virus and Zika fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Peigang; An, Jing

    2016-04-01

    An emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus named Zika virus (ZIKV), of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, is becoming a global health threat. ZIKV infection was long neglected due to its sporadic nature and mild symptoms. However, recently, with its rapid spread from Asia to the Americas, affecting more than 30 countries, accumulating evidences have demonstrated a close association between infant microcephaly and Zika infection in pregnant women. Here, we reviewed the virological, epidemiological, and clinical essentials of ZIKV infection.

  6. Desperately seeking hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Moreno-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Spanish investigators described recently the so-called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, emphasizing the detection of genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the persistence of viral replication in occult HCV infection should be considered as a putative source of infection among family members and patients undergoing invasive procedures, transfusion or transplantation. Additionally, the most worrisome finding is that an occult HCV infection may persist in patients with sustained virological response.

  7. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  8. Viruses as nanomedicine for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, So Young; Narayanasamy,Badrinath; Heo,Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Narayanasamy Badrinath,1 Jeong Heo,2 So Young Yoo1,3 1BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute, 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan, 3Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy, a type of nanomedicine in which oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to selectively infect and lyse cancer cells,...

  9. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  10. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  11. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent. PMID:26958928

  12. Immune Response to Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Alonso Remedios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae and causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever. Affected patients show an impaired immune response as a result of the evasion mechanisms employed by the virus. Cathepsin is an enzyme present in the granules of phagocytes which cleaves viral surface glycoproteins, allowing virus entry into the host cell. In addition, this virus is resistant to the antiviral effects of type I interferon, promotes the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis of monocytes and lymphocytes. It also induces an incomplete activation of dendritic cells, thus avoiding the presentation of viral antigens. Although specific antibodies are produced after the first week, their neutralizing capacity is doubtful. The virus evades the immune response and replicates uncontrollably in the host. This paper aims to summarize the main characteristics of the immune response to Ebola virus infection.

  13. Virus wars: using one virus to block the spread of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Matthew L; Nuismer, Scott L; Ellington, Andrew; Molineux, Ian J; Bull, James J

    2016-01-01

    The failure of traditional interventions to block and cure HIV infections has led to novel proposals that involve treating infections with therapeutic viruses-infectious viruses that specifically inhibit HIV propagation in the host. Early efforts in evaluating these proposals have been limited chiefly to mathematical models of dynamics, for lack of suitable empirical systems. Here we propose, develop and analyze an empirical system of a therapeutic virus that protects a host cell population against a lethal virus. The empirical system uses E. coli bacteria as the host cell population, an RNA phage as the lethal virus and a filamentous phage as the therapeutic virus. Basic dynamic properties are established for each virus alone and then together. Observed dynamics broadly agree with those predicted by a computer simulation model, although some differences are noted. Two cases of dynamics are contrasted, differing in whether the therapeutic virus is introduced before the lethal virus or after the lethal virus. The therapeutic virus increases in both cases but by different mechanisms. With the therapeutic virus introduced first, it spreads infectiously without any appreciable change in host dynamics. With the therapeutic virus introduced second, host abundance is depressed at the time therapy is applied; following an initial period of therapeutic virus spread by infection, the subsequent rise of protection is through reproduction by hosts already protected. This latter outcome is due to inheritance of the therapeutic virus state when the protected cell divides. Overall, the work establishes the feasibility and robustness to details of a viral interference using a therapeutic virus. PMID:27413636

  14. A virus in Beechey ground squirrels that is related to hepatitis B virus of humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, P L; Oshiro, L S; Regnery, D C; Scullard, G H; Robinson, W S

    1980-01-01

    A virus given the name ground squirrel hepatitis virus (or GSHV), with many of the unique characteristics of human hepatitis B virus (HBV), has been found in Beechey ground squirrels in northern California. Common features include virus morphology, viral DNA size and structure, a virion DNA polymerase that repairs a single-stranded region in the viral DNA, crossreacting viral antigens, and persistent infection with viral antigen continuously in the blood. Although similar, GSHV and HBV Are no...

  15. Exploring virus relationships based on virus-host protein-protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Feng; Zhao Chen; Li Yuhua; Li Jiang; Deng Youping; Shi Tieliu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, several systems have been proposed to classify viruses and indicate the relationships between different ones, though each system has its limitations because of the complexity of viral origins and their rapid evolution rate. We hereby propose a new method to explore the relationships between different viruses. Method A new method, which is based on the virus-host protein-protein interaction network, is proposed in this paper to categorize viruses. The distances b...

  16. Macroautophagy Proteins Assist Epstein Barr Virus Production and Get Incorporated Into the Virus Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Nowag; Bruno Guhl; Kerstin Thriene; Susana Romao; Urs Ziegler; Joern Dengjel; Christian Münz

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) persists as a latent herpes virus infection in the majority of the adult human population. The virus can reactivate from this latent infection into lytic replication for virus particle production. Here, we report that autophagic membranes, which engulf cytoplasmic constituents during macroautophagy and transport them to lysosomal degradation, are stabilized by lytic EBV replication in infected epithelial and B cells. Inhibition of autophagic membrane formation comprom...

  17. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus is a virion-associated regulatory protein that has been shown using vpr mutant viruses to increase virus replication, particularly in monocytes/macrophages. We have previously shown that vpr can directly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation, events linked to the control of HIV replication, and also that the replication of a vpr mutant but not that of wild-type HIV type 1 (HIV-1) ...

  18. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies again...

  19. Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A.; Nguyen, Nang L.; Wu, Guang; Huang, Henry V.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

    2009-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used a random shotgun sequencing strategy to define the genomes of ...

  20. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health. PMID:27148186

  1. A REVIEW ON CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Birendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. It is a virus with a single stranded, positive sense RNA, as its genome. It is maintained in a sylvatic and urban cycle involving humans and the mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It has a major health impact on humans as it causes fever, rashes, arthralgia and myalgia. Polyarthralgia is the most important feature of CHIKV infection which primarily affects the small joints of the wrists and fingers along with the large joints like shoulders and knees. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatment regimens available for CHIKV infection. The molecular mechanism underlying the chronic polyarthralgia observed in patients is not well understood. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. In this review we have summarized the CHIKV organization, replication, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathogenesis with emphasis on the arthralgia.

  2. Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões e Silva AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ana Cristina Simões e Silva,1,2 Janaina Matos Moreira,1,2 Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli,2 Antonio Lucio Teixeira1,3 1Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Neuropsychiatry Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries. The mechanisms underlying these neurological complications are still unknown. Emerging evidence, mainly from in vitro studies, suggests that ZIKV may have direct effects on neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to critically review the literature available regarding the neurobiology of ZIKV and its potential neuropsychiatric manifestations. Keywords: Zika virus, microcephaly, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neurodevelopmental disorders

  3. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  4. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  5. Monitoring Intact Viruses Using Aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Penmetcha K R

    2016-01-01

    Viral diagnosis and surveillance are necessary steps in containing the spread of viral diseases, and they help in the deployment of appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the past, the commonly employed viral detection methods were either cell-culture or molecule-level assays. Most of these assays are laborious and expensive, require special facilities, and provide a slow diagnosis. To circumvent these limitations, biosensor-based approaches are becoming attractive, especially after the successful commercialization of glucose and other biosensors. In the present article, I have reviewed the current progress using the biosensor approach for detecting intact viruses. At the time of writing this review, three types of bioreceptor surfaces (antibody-, glycan-, and aptamer-based) have been explored on different sensing platforms for detecting intact viruses. Among these bioreceptors, aptamer-based sensors have been increasingly explored for detecting intact viruses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other platforms. Special emphasis is placed on the aptamer-based SPR platform in the present review. PMID:27527230

  6. Monitoring Intact Viruses Using Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penmetcha K. R. Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral diagnosis and surveillance are necessary steps in containing the spread of viral diseases, and they help in the deployment of appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the past, the commonly employed viral detection methods were either cell-culture or molecule-level assays. Most of these assays are laborious and expensive, require special facilities, and provide a slow diagnosis. To circumvent these limitations, biosensor-based approaches are becoming attractive, especially after the successful commercialization of glucose and other biosensors. In the present article, I have reviewed the current progress using the biosensor approach for detecting intact viruses. At the time of writing this review, three types of bioreceptor surfaces (antibody-, glycan-, and aptamer-based have been explored on different sensing platforms for detecting intact viruses. Among these bioreceptors, aptamer-based sensors have been increasingly explored for detecting intact viruses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR and other platforms. Special emphasis is placed on the aptamer-based SPR platform in the present review.

  7. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in foetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis and public health.

  8. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  9. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  10. Monitoring Intact Viruses Using Aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Penmetcha K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Viral diagnosis and surveillance are necessary steps in containing the spread of viral diseases, and they help in the deployment of appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the past, the commonly employed viral detection methods were either cell-culture or molecule-level assays. Most of these assays are laborious and expensive, require special facilities, and provide a slow diagnosis. To circumvent these limitations, biosensor-based approaches are becoming attractive, especially after the successful commercialization of glucose and other biosensors. In the present article, I have reviewed the current progress using the biosensor approach for detecting intact viruses. At the time of writing this review, three types of bioreceptor surfaces (antibody-, glycan-, and aptamer-based) have been explored on different sensing platforms for detecting intact viruses. Among these bioreceptors, aptamer-based sensors have been increasingly explored for detecting intact viruses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other platforms. Special emphasis is placed on the aptamer-based SPR platform in the present review. PMID:27527230

  11. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980’s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health. PMID:27148186

  12. Role of macrophages during Theiler's virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, C P; Delcroix, M; Huitinga, I.; McAllister, A; Van Rooijen, N.; E. Claassen; Brahic, M

    1997-01-01

    Theiler's virus, a murine picornavirus, causes a persistent infection of the central nervous system with chronic inflammation and primary demyelination. We examined the nature of infected cells at different times postinoculation (p.i.) with a combined immunocytochemistry-in situ hybridization assay. The virus was found in the gray matter of the brain, mostly in neurons, during the first week p.i. During the following weeks, the virus was present in the spinal cord, first in the gray and white...

  13. Zika virus: An emergent neuropathological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martyn K; Wollebo, Hassen S; David Beckham, J; Tyler, Kenneth L; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda's Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013-2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. Ann Neurol 2016;80:479-489. PMID:27464346

  14. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, JP; Kraemer, MU; Brady, OJ; Pigott, DM; Shearer, FM; Weiss, DJ; Golding, N.; Ruktanonchai, CW; Gething, PW; Cohn, E.; Brownstein, JS; Khan, K; Tatem, AJ; Jaenisch, T; Murray, CJ

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak ...

  15. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Münk; Jörg Zielonka

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating...

  16. Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Clinical laboratories historically diagnose seven or eight respiratory virus infections using a combination of techniques including enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescent antibody staining, cell culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests. With the discovery of six new respiratory viruses since 2000, laboratories are faced with the challenge of detecting up to 19 different viruses that cause acute respiratory disease of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The application o...

  17. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Robert W.; Jane Homan; Michael V. Callahan; Jill Glasspool-Malone; Lambodhar Damodaran; Adriano de Bernardi Schneider; Rebecca Zimler; James Talton; Cobb, Ronald R; Ivan Ruzic; Julie Smith-Gagen; Daniel Janies; James Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) pred...

  18. Cellular Proteins in Influenza Virus Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Megan L.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Peter Palese

    2008-01-01

    Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensi...

  19. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  20. The Autonomous Glycosylation of Large DNA Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Piacente; Matteo Gaglianone; Maria Elena Laugieri; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of surface molecules is a key feature of several eukaryotic viruses, which use the host endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to add carbohydrates to their nascent glycoproteins. In recent years, a newly discovered group of eukaryotic viruses, belonging to the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) group, was shown to have several features that are typical of cellular organisms, including the presence of components of the glycosylation machinery. Starting from initial observ...

  1. Control of virus diseases in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Zambrano, José L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by viruses are found throughout the maize-growing regions of the world and can cause significant losses for producers. In this review, virus diseases of maize and the pathogens that cause them are discussed. Factors leading to the spread of disease and measures for disease control are reviewed, as is our current knowledge of the genetics of virus resistance in this important crop. PMID:25410107

  2. Zika virus: An emergent neuropathological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martyn K; Wollebo, Hassen S; David Beckham, J; Tyler, Kenneth L; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda's Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013-2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. Ann Neurol 2016;80:479-489.

  3. Judging a virus by its cover

    OpenAIRE

    Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva; Welsh, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    The production of protective neutralizing antibodies occurs quickly in some viral infections but very slowly in others. In a new study, surface glycoproteins (the targets of neutralization) of 2 different viruses were genetically switched. Analysis of the neutralizing antibody response to each of the 2 parent and recombinant viruses in infected mice revealed that the speed of neutralizing antibody induction was intrinsically dependent on the surface glycoprotein and not the rest of the virus.

  4. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Robert W.; Jane Homan; Michael V Callahan; Jill Glasspool-Malone; Lambodhar Damodaran; Adriano de Bernardi Schneider; Rebecca Zimler; James Talton; Cobb, Ronald R; Ivan Ruzic; Julie Smith-Gagen; Daniel Janies; James Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika...

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  6. Worries Over Computer "Viruses" Lead Campuses to Issue Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1987-01-01

    Computer viruses are programs that propagate themselves from disk to disk and destroy programs or information files. Several universities have recently reported virus outbreaks. Some suggestions for avoiding the viruses are provided. (MLW)

  7. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G.; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  8. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-10-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts.

  9. Monitoring virus entry into living cells using DiD-labeled dengue virus particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala Nunez, Vanesa; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of approaches can be applied to investigate the multiple steps and interactions that occur during virus entry into the host cell. Single-virus tracking is a powerful real-time imaging technique that offers the possibility to monitor virus-cell binding, internalization, intracellular traffi

  10. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  11. Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B.; Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Digard, Paul; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • “Influenza D” virus was not detected in Scottish respiratory samples (n = 3000). • Influenza C virus infection was present in 0.2% of respiratory samples. • Six influenza C virus complete genomes were sequenced. • Influenza C isolates comprised multiple, reassortant lineages.

  12. Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, Anelise F; Lucinda, Natalia; Dusi, André N; Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV) is the only potyvirus reported to infect arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. Here, the complete genome sequence of an isolate of AMoV was determined to be 9,630 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly-A tail, and encoding a polyprotein of 3,135 amino acids and a putative P3N-PIPO protein. Its genomic organization is typical of a member of the genus Potyvirus, containing all conserved motifs. Its full genome sequence shared 56.2 % nucleotide identity with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and verbena virus Y, the most closely related viruses.

  13. Comparative Amino Acid Sequences of Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Haishi, Shozo; TANAKA Mariko; Igarashi, Akira

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) sequences of 4 serotype of dengue viruses deduced from their nucleotide (nt) sequences of genomic RNA were analyzed for each genome segment and each stretch of 10 AA residues. Precursor of membrane protein (pM), and 4 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS3, NS4B, NS5) were highly conserved, while another nonstructural protein (NS2A) was least conserved among 5 strains of dengue viruses. When homology was compared among heterotypic viruses, type 1 and type 3 dengue viruses showed clo...

  14. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2010-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome contains at least 70 genes, and all but 6 have homologs in herpes simplex virus. Cosmids and BACs corresponding to the VZV parental Oka and vaccine Oka viruses have been used to “knock-out” 34 VZV genes. Seven VZV genes (ORF4, 5, 9, 21, 29, 62, and 68) have been shown to be required for growth in vitro. Recombinant viruses expressing several markers (e.g. beta-galactosidase, green fluorescence protein, luciferase) and several foreign viral genes (from h...

  15. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  16. Flexible filamentous virus structure from fiber diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, Gerald; Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah; McCullough, Ian; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Ghabrial, Said (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky)

    2008-10-24

    Fiber diffraction data have been obtained from Narcissus mosaic virus, a potexvirus from the family Flexiviridae, and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a potyvirus from the family Potyviridae. Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 {angstrom} resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 {angstrom} resolution. These data include the first well-ordered data ever obtained for the potyviruses and the best-ordered data from the potexviruses, and offer the promise of eventual high resolution structure determinations.

  17. Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Kaveh

    2016-05-01

    Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

  18. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  20. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  1. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Schountz

    2014-01-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonot...

  2. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhongda; NAKAYA, Naoshi; KOUI, Yuuji

    2009-01-01

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and k...

  3. Structure and Cell Biology of Archaeal Virus STIV

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Chi-yu; Johnson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations of archaeal viruses have revealed novel features of their structures and life cycles when compared to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, yet there are structure-based unifying themes suggesting common ancestral relationships among dsDNA viruses in the three kingdoms of life. Sulfolobus solfataricus and the infecting virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) is one of the well-established model systems to study archaeal virus replication and viral-host interaction...

  4. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  5. Sequence analysis of four caprine mitochondria DNA lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hui Ma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA (16640bp in length was sequenced from four Chinese goat lineages representing the four major mtDNA haplogroups in goats. A total of 124 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found in encoding regions, and the overall ratio of transitions:transversions was 40:1 revealing a heavy transition/transversion rate in domestic goats. Eighteen non-synonymous sites were found for the total number of SNPs; the sites did not affect the predicted functions of protein for these four goat mtDNA lineages. In the region for coding tRNA and rRNA, SNPs occurred in loops, unstructured single strand and stems that were conformed with the principle of G-U pairing. We came to the conclusion that these substitutions could not change secondary structure of RNAs, and there was no positive selection on goat mitochondrial coding region according to the result of dN/dS (0.0399-0.1529 by comparing the goat with other reported mitochondrial genomes.

  6. Identification of novel SNP in caprine β -lactoglobulin gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LEILA GHAREDAGHI; HOSEIN MORADI SHAHRBABAK; MOSTAFA SADEGHI

    2016-09-01

    β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene is suggested as a functional candidate gene for milk yield and milk composition. β-LG polymorphism has been reported to be associated with milk yield in cows, sheep and Indian goats. This study was performed to identify SNPs in exon 7 of β-LG gene and their association with milk traits in Iranian local Mahabadi goats using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and PCR-sequencing. Three SSCP patterns were observed with frequencies 0.678, 0.096 and 0.226, respectively. Subsequently, after sequencing each unique pattern nine novel mutations were identified. These mutations include: T InDel at nucleotide position 93 and substitutions T/C, T/G, T/C, G/T, T/G, T/C, G/A and A/T at nucleotide positions 99, 124, 126, 134, 147, 156, 176 and 177, respectively. Of these, seven mutationswere same among the genotypic patterns while differences were related to T deletion and insertion (-/T) at nucleotide position 93 with frequencies 0.22 and 0.78 in the presence and absence of T allele, respectively; and substitution (A/T) at nucleotide position 177 with frequencies 0.16 and 0.84 for A and T alleles, respectively. Milk traits including milk production (gr), milk fat and protein (%) were also measured. These findings demonstrated that β -LG gene had a significant effect on milk protein percentage (P< 0.05), but had no significant effect on milk production and milk fat percentage.

  7. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses.

  8. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi-Xin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xin-Lei; Qiao, Wen-Tao; Chen, Qi-Min; Zeng, Yi; Geng, Yun-Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions, and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.

  9. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, potato virus Y (PVY, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, tobacco each virus (TEV and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV.The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were investigated for 4 years (2002-2005. During this period many different tobacco growing localities in Vojvodina and central Serbia were monitored and samples showing virus symptoms were collected. The collected samples were tested by DAS ELISA using polyclonal antisera, specific for the detection of PVY, TSWV, TMV, CMV, AMV and TRSV.The results obtained for the tobacco virus distribution during these four years of investigation proved the presence of four economically important viruses in our country, whose frequencies varied from year to year. In 2002, 2003 and 2004, the most frequent was TSWV(86.84%; 79% and 49.56%, respectively, while in 2005 PVY was prevalent (56.16%. All viruses detected in the samples tested were present in single or mixed infections. A corellation was established between the field symptoms on tobacco and the virus causal agents.The results obtained showed that TSWV and PVY were the most important tobacco viruses in our country, so that further research of tobacco virus diseases should be directed towards their more detailed characterization.

  10. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and kelp fly virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the stru...

  11. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    correlation between the host's ability to mount a virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and its capacity to combat virus. Moreover, pretreatment with silica and carrageenan prolonged viraemia without impairment of the peak Tc-cell response. These findings indicate that Tc cells have...

  12. Genomic characterisation of Almpiwar virus, Harrison Dam virus and Walkabout Creek virus; three novel rhabdoviruses from northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAllister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviridae represent a diverse group of viruses with the potential to cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Currently there are nine genera in the family; however a large number of rhabdoviruses remain unassigned. Here we characterise three novel rhabdoviruses genomes. Almpiwar virus (ALMV, isolated from skinks in northern Queensland, is the first completely sequenced rhabdovirus from squamates, with serological studies indicating multiple animal host species. Harrison Dam virus (HARDV and Walkabout Creek virus (WACV were isolated from mosquitoes in the Northern Territory and biting midges in southern Queensland respectively and their vertebrate hosts remain unknown. Serological cross-neutralisation tests with other Australian rhabdoviruses indicate that ALMV, WACV and HARDV are distinct viruses with little antigenic cross-reactivity. Next-generation sequencing revealed that all viruses encode the core proteins common to rhabdoviruses (N, P, M, G and L, plus additional ORFs between the M and G genes. HARDV also contains a small ORF between the G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L proteins suggests that HARDV and WACV share a common lineage with the tupaviruses and Sandjimba group, whereas ALMV is a distinct and divergent virus showing no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except the recently characterised Niahka virus (NIAV.

  13. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  14. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  15. Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses).The genetic variability of HBV is very high. There are eight genotypes of HBV and three clades of HBV isolates from apes that appear to be additional genotypes of HBV. Most genotypes are now divided into subgenotypes with distinct virological and epidemiological properties. In addition, recombination among HBV genotypes increases the variability of HBV. This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiology of genetic variability in hepadnaviruses and, due to rapid progress in the field,updates several recent reviews on HBV genotypes and subgenotypes.

  16. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  17. Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus growth kinetics and virus infection mechanism studies. Additionally, the described IFA method can be modified for applications in arbovirus diagnosis, including CHIKV.

  18. Cellular proteins in influenza virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Shaw

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified influenza virus particles. In addition to the aforementioned nine virus-encoded proteins, we detected the presence of 36 host-encoded proteins. These include both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins that can be grouped into several functional categories, such as cytoskeletal proteins, annexins, glycolytic enzymes, and tetraspanins. Interestingly, a significant number of these have also been reported to be present in virions of other virus families. Protease treatment of virions combined with immunoblot analysis was used to verify the presence of the cellular protein and also to determine whether it is located in the core of the influenza virus particle. Immunogold labeling confirmed the presence of membrane-bound host proteins on the influenza virus envelope. The identification of cellular constituents of influenza virions has important implications for understanding the interactions of influenza virus with its host and brings us a step closer to defining the cellular requirements for influenza virus replication. While not all of the host proteins are necessarily incorporated specifically, those that are and are found to have an essential role represent novel targets for antiviral drugs and for attenuation of viruses for vaccine purposes.

  19. Metagenomics and future perspectives in virus discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokili, John L; Rohwer, Forest; Dutilh, Bas E

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring the emergence and re-emergence of viral diseases with the goal of containing the spread of viral agents requires both adequate preparedness and quick response. Identifying the causative agent of a new epidemic is one of the most important steps for effective response to disease outbreaks. Traditionally, virus discovery required propagation of the virus in cell culture, a proven technique responsible for the identification of the vast majority of viruses known to date. However, many viruses cannot be easily propagated in cell culture, thus limiting our knowledge of viruses. Viral metagenomic analyses of environmental samples suggest that the field of virology has explored less than 1% of the extant viral diversity. In the last decade, the culture-independent and sequence-independent metagenomic approach has permitted the discovery of many viruses in a wide range of samples. Phylogenetically, some of these viruses are distantly related to previously discovered viruses. In addition, 60-99% of the sequences generated in different viral metagenomic studies are not homologous to known viruses. In this review, we discuss the advances in the area of viral metagenomics during the last decade and their relevance to virus discovery, clinical microbiology and public health. We discuss the potential of metagenomics for characterization of the normal viral population in a healthy community and identification of viruses that could pose a threat to humans through zoonosis. In addition, we propose a new model of the Koch's postulates named the 'Metagenomic Koch's Postulates'. Unlike the original Koch's postulates and the Molecular Koch's postulates as formulated by Falkow, the metagenomic Koch's postulates focus on the identification of metagenomic traits in disease cases. The metagenomic traits that can be traced after healthy individuals have been exposed to the source of the suspected pathogen.

  20. Virus detection using Viro-Adembeads, a rapid capture system for viruses, and plaque assay in intentionally virus-contaminated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ben; Kojima, Asato; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    Intentional contamination of beverages with microbes is one type of bioterrorist threat. While bacteria and fungus can be easily collected by a centrifuge, viruses are difficult to collect from virus-contaminated beverages. In this study, we demonstrated that Viro-Adembeads, a rapid-capture system for viruses using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads, collected viruses from beverages contaminated intentionally with vaccinia virus and human herpesvirus 8. Real-time PCR showed that the recovery rates of the contaminated viruses in green tea and orange juice were lower than those in milk and water. Plaque assay showed that green tea and orange juice cut the efficiency of vaccinia virus infection in CV-1 cells. These results suggest that the efficiency of virus detection depends on the kind of beverage being tested. Viro-Adembeads would be a useful tool for detecting viruses rapidly in virus-contaminated beverages used in a bioterrorist attack.